# PROBLEM 1.

38
KNOWN: Initial temperature of water and tank volume. Power dissipation, emissivity, length and diameter of submerged heaters. Expressions for convection coefficient associated with natural convection in water and air. FIND: (a) Time to raise temperature of water to prescribed value, (b) Heater temperature shortly after activation and at conclusion of process, (c) Heater temperature if activated in air. SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Negligible heat loss from tank to surroundings, (2) Water is well-mixed (at a uniform, but time varying temperature) during heating, (3) Negligible changes in thermal energy storage for heaters, (4) Constant properties, (5) Surroundings afforded by tank wall are large relative to heaters. ANALYSIS: (a) Application of conservation of energy to a closed system (the water) at an instant, Equation (1.11c), with  = dU /dt, E  = 3q , E  = 0, and E  = 0, E st t in 1 out g
yields dU t dT = 3q1 and ρ∀c =3q1 dt dt

Hence,

∫0

t

dt = ( ρ∀c/3q1 )

∫Ti

Tf

dT

t=

990 kg/m3 × 10gal 3.79 × 10−3 m3 / gal 4180J/kg ⋅ K 3 × 500 W

(

)

( 335 − 295 ) K = 4180 s

<

(b) From Equation (1.3a), the heat rate by convection from each heater is ′′ = Ah ( Ts − T ) = (π DL ) 370 ( Ts − T ) q1 = Aq1
4/3

q1 ⎛ ⎞ Hence, Ts = T + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 370π DL ⎠

3/ 4

500 W ⎛ ⎞ =T+⎜ ⎟ 2 4/3 ⎝ 370 W/m ⋅ K × π × 0.025 m × 0.250 m ⎠

3/ 4

= ( T + 24 ) K

With water temperatures of Ti ≈ 295 K and Tf = 335 K shortly after the start of heating and at the end of heating, respectively, Ts,i = 319 K and Ts,f = 359 K (c) From Equation (1.10), the heat rate in air is 4/3 4 ⎤ q1 = π DL ⎡ 0.70 ( Ts − T∞ ) + εσ Ts4 − Tsur ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Substituting the prescribed values of q1, D, L, T∞ = Tsur and ε, an iterative solution yields

<

(

)

Ts = 830 K

<

COMMENTS: In part (c) it is presumed that the heater can be operated at Ts = 830 K without experiencing burnout. The much larger value of Ts for air is due to the smaller convection coefficient. However, with qconv and qrad equal to 59 W and 441 W, respectively, a significant portion of the heat dissipation is effected by radiation.
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