# PROBLEM 1.

46
KNOWN: Long bus bar of prescribed diameter and ambient air and surroundings temperatures. Relations for the electrical resistivity and free convection coefficient as a function of temperature. FIND: (a) Current carrying capacity of the bus bar if its surface temperature is not to exceed 65°C; compare relative importance of convection and radiation exchange heat rates, and (b) Show graphically the operating temperature of the bus bar as a function of current for the range 100 ≤ I ≤ 5000 A for bus-bar diameters of 10, 20 and 40 mm. Plot the ratio of the heat transfer by convection to the total heat transfer for these conditions. SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Bus bar and conduit are very long, (3) Uniform bus-bar temperature, (4) Radiation exchange between the outer surface of the bus bar and the conduit is between a small surface and a large enclosure. PROPERTIES: Bus-bar material, ρe = ρe,o [1 + α ( T − To )] , ρ e,o = 0.0171µΩ ⋅ m, To = 25°C,

α = 0.00396 K −1.
ANALYSIS: An energy balance on the bus-bar for a unit length as shown in the schematic above has the form ′ −E ′ + E ′ = 0 E in out gen
2 −q ′ rad − q ′ conv + I R ′ e =0

4 −επ Dσ T 4 − Tsur − hπ D ( T − T∞ ) + I2 ρe / A c = 0

(

)

where R ′e = ρ e / A c and A c = π D 2 / 4. Using the relations for ρ e ( T ) and h ( T, D ) , and substituting numerical values with T = 65°C, find
−8 2 4 q′ rad = 0.85 π ( 0.020m ) × 5.67 × 10 W / m ⋅ K

([65 + 273]
−0.25 2

4

− [30 + 273]

4

)K

4

= 223 W / m

2 q′ conv = 7.83W / m ⋅ K π ( 0.020m )( 65 − 30 ) K = 17.2 W / m

< <

where

h = 1.21W ⋅ m −1.75 ⋅ K −1.25 ( 0.020m )

2 2 −6 −5 2 I2 R ′ e = I 198.2 × 10 Ω ⋅ m / π ( 0.020 ) m / 4 = 6.31 × 10 I W / m

(

)

( 65 − 30 )0.25 = 7.83W / m 2 ⋅ K

where

ρe = 0.0171 × 10−6 Ω ⋅ m ⎡ 1 + 0.00396 K −1 ( 65 − 25 ) K ⎤ = 198.2 µΩ ⋅ m ⎣ ⎦

The maximum allowable current capacity and the ratio of the convection to total heat transfer rate are I = 1950 A q′ cv / ( q ′ cv + q ′ rad ) = q ′ cv / q ′ tot = 0.072 For this operating condition, convection heat transfer is only 7.2% of the total heat transfer.

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(b) Using these equations in the Workspace of IHT, the bus-bar operating temperature is calculated and plotted as a function of the current for the range 100 ≤ I ≤ 5000 A for diameters of 10, 20 and 40 mm. Also shown below is the corresponding graph of the ratio (expressed in percentage units) of the eat transfer by convection to the total heat transfer, q ′ cv / q ′ tot . Continued …..
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