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RESTinPractice PartI

CentrodeInformtica UniversidadeFederaldePernambuco

Vanilson Burgio
[www:vanilson.com] [email:vaab@cin.ufpe.br] A August t2011

Part of this presentation was based on the high quality material gently provided by Dr. Jim Webber, author of the book REST in Practice: Hypermedia and Systems Architecture, for educational purposes.

Agenda
Motivation WebArchitecture IntroductiontoREST PracticalExample WebTunneling CRUDweb bservices i

Motivation
Thewebhasradicallytransformedthewayweproduceand shareinformation
Internationalecosystem ofapplicationandsevices
Wecansearch,combine,aggregate,transform,replicate,cacheandarchive informationthatunderpinstodaysdigitalsociety!

Today sWebisinlargeparttheHUMANWEB Todays Humanusersarethedirectconsumersofservicesofferedbythe majorityofwebapplications

How wemightapplytheWebsunderlyingarchitectural principles i i l to t building b ildi distributed di t ib t d systems t (enterprise ( t i applications)?


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WebArchitecture
Acaotic place:mixof business, research government, research, government social, social and individualinterests Anarchicarchitecture:thousands ofsimple,smallscaleinteractions betweenagents andresources thatusethefounding technologies h l i of fHTTPand dthe h URI

WebArchitecture
Principles and technologies
URI andresources playingaleading role Caches forscalability Services boundaries support
Isolation so at o and a dIndependent depe de tevolution e o ut o o of functionality encouraging loose coupling

WebAsan ApplicationPlatform
The most pervasive middleware!!
D Despite it the th amount t of fresearch hand ddevelopment d l tthat th thas h gone intoseveralplatforms,noneofthemhasmanagedtobecomeas pervasive astheWebistoday

WebsMiddleware:setofwidelydeployedand commoditizedelements:webserversthathostresources, proxies,caches,contentdeliverynetworks,etc Together,theseelementssupportthedeploymentofa planetary l t scale l network t kof fsystems t without ith tresorting ti to t intricateobjectmodelsorcomplexmiddlewaresolutions.
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WebAsnaApplicationPlatform Platform... ...Why Why? ?


TheWebasaplatformistheresultofitsarchitectural simplicity, p y,theuseofawidely yimplemented p andagreed g upon p protocol(HTTP),andthepervasivenessofcommon representationformats Technology Support
Itissupported by several development technologies and platforms

Scalability and Performance


globaldeployment of networked applications

Loose Coupling
Services change without notification There isnoexplicity mechanisms tosupport information integrity HTTPusesstatuscode...Broken links.
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WebAsnaApplicationPlatform Platform... ...Why Why? ?


BusinessProcesses
St States t of f aprocess modeled d l d asresources None of the worktocapturebusinessprocesses(BPEL,*WS Choreography..)really embraced the Webs achitectural principals

Consistency and Uniformity


Principle of uniformity:HTML,XMLand other formats areall just resources representation

H How t building to b ildi computer t systems t in i awebcentric way (embracing the webs architectural principals)? principals)?

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REST!!
But, But ,what doesitmean mean? ?

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REST REpresentational State Transfer


RESTisan

Architectural Style

RESTisasetofprinciplesthatdefinehowWebstandards,suchas HTTPandURIs,aresupposedtobeused

RESTisnt JustprettyURIs JustXMLorJSON URIt templates l t AJAXapplications

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Key RESTPrinciples
IfyouadheretoRESTprincipleswhiledesigningyour application youwillendupwithasystemthatexploitsthe application, Websarchitecturetoyourbenefit

KeyPrinciples
Identification d f of f resources (URI) ( ) ManipulationofresourcesthroughREPRESENTATIONS Hypermediaastheengineofapplicationstate Uniform Interfaceconstraint

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Thinking inResources Resources... ...


Resourcesarethefundamentalbuildingblocksof web bbased b dsystems
Aresource isanything weexposetotheWeb,fromadocument or videoclip toabusinessprocessor device

Al Almost tanything thi canbe b modeled d l dasaresourceand d thenmadeavailableformanipulationoverthe network t k

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Resources and identifiers


Tousearesourceweneedbothtobeabletoidentify itonthenetworkandtohavesome meansofmanipulatingit The webprovides the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)
TherelationshipbetweenURIsandresourcesismanytoone TheresnolimitonthenumberofURIsthatcanrefertoaresource,anditisinfactquitecommon foraresourcetobeidentifiedbynumerousURIs

AURItakestheform<scheme>:<schemespecificstructure>
Thescheme defineshowtherestoftheidentifieristobeinterpreted

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Resources and identifiers

TermsusedontheWebtorefertoidentifiers
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Resource Representations
Eachidentifierisassociatedwithoneormorerepresentations ARepresentation isatransformationoraviewofaresource resources sstateataninstant intime Resource representation formats
The resources view isencodedinoneormoretransferableformats,suchasXHTML,Atom,XML, JSON,plaintext,commaseparatedvalues,MP3,or JPEG.

The eWeb ebdoesnot otsupport suppo tpo pointers! te s!


Accesstoaresourceisalwaysmediatedbywayofitsrepresentationswebcomponents exchange representations;theyneveraccesstheunderlyingresourcedirectly

Humanfriendly

machinefriendly

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Resource Representations
Content negotiation mechanism
Thereisamisconceptionthatdifferentresourcerepresentations shouldeachhavetheir own URI(notion popularizedbytheRails framework)
resourceterminateURIswith.xmlor.json toindicateapreferredformat http://restbucks.com/order.xml orhttp://example.org/order.json

Consumerscannegotiateforspecificrepresentation formatsusingHTTPAcceptrequestheaderwithalist of fmedia di typestheyre h prepared dtoprocess

MultipleresourcerepresentationsaddressedbyasingleURI

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Hypermediaastheengineofapplication state(HATEOAS) (HATEOAS)


The principle:Uselinks torefertoidentifiableresources whereverpossible
Adistributedapplicationmakesforwardprogressbytransitioning fromonestatetoanother,justlikeastatemachine. Thedifferencefromtraditionalstatemachines:thepossiblestates andthetransitionsbetweenthemarenotknowninadvance. Instead astheapplicationreachesanewstate, Instead, state thenextpossible transitionsarediscovered. LinkThingstoeachother

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Hypermediaastheengineofapplication state(HATEOAS) (HATEOAS)


RESTdescribestheWebasadistributedhypermedia application whoselinkedresourcescommunicateby exchangingrepresentationsofresourcestate
Linksactasembeddedidentifiersofthestatestowhichthe applicationcantransition

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Uniform InterfaceConstraint
ThesetofverbssupportedbyHTTPGET,POST,PUT,DELETE, OPTIONS HEAD, OPTIONS, HEAD TRACE TRACE,CONNECT CONNECT,andPATCHformsasufficiently generalpurposeprotocoltosupportawiderangeofsolutions

UsestandardMethods
GET:retrieveinformation,possiblycached PUT:UpdateorcreatewithknownID POST:Createorappendsubresource DELETE:(logically) (l i ll )remove

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Example: Example :onlineshop

Functionalities listorders
listcustomers getorderdetails Listordersforcustomer Deletecustomer Addorderitem

g getcustomerdetails
Updatecustomer Cancelorder Addcustomer Submitorder Updateorder

Which [web] ]services could be created created? ?


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Example:onlineshop

Onep possibility: y twoServices


Thinking g inREST principles... principles ... How todesigninterms of resources with an uniform interface?
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How todesignwith an uniform interface?


ThesetofverbssupportedbyHTTPformsasufficientlygeneral purposeprotocoltosupportawiderangeofsolutions

GET:retrieveinformation,possiblycached PUT:UpdateorcreatewithknownID POST:Createorappendsubresource DELETE:(logically)remove

Which resources could be considered? How tomap the f functionalities? i li i ?

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Approachdifferences Thefirstapproach
Many

Many

Very few (one by service)

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Approachdifferences Thesecondapproach
Many

Very few (FIXED)

Many

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RichardsonmaturitymodelfortheWeb, notjustREST...
RESTisabrilliant architecturalstyle ButtheWeballowsfor morethanj justRESTful systems Theresaspectrumof maturityofservicestyles
Fromcompletelybonkers tocompletelyRESTful

WellusetheRichardson maturitymodeltoframe thesekindsofdiscussions


Level0toLevel3 WebignoranttoRESTful!

WebTunnelling

WebTunnelling
WebServicestunnelSOAPoverHTTP
UsingtheWebasatransportonly Ignoringmanyofthefeaturesforrobustnessthe Webhasbuiltin

ManyWebpeopledothesame!
URItunnelling,POXapproachesarethemost popularstylesontodaysWeb WorsethanSOAP! Butthey yclaimto
Lessmetadata!
belightweight andRESTful

RichardsonModelLevel1
LotsofURIs
Butreallyhasamore level0mindset

Doesntunderstand HTTP
Otherthanasa transport

Nohypermedia

URITunnellingPattern
WebserversunderstandURIs URIshavestructure Methodshavesignatures CanmatchURIstructuretomethodsignature
http://restbucks.com/PlaceOrder?coffee=latte&size=large&milk=whole&comsumelocation=togo

service

method

arguments

mapsto

publicOrderConfirmation PlaceOrder(Order order) { ... }

OnTheWire

ServerSideURITunnellingExample
public void ProcessGet(HttpListenerContext context) { // Parse the URI Order order = ParseUriForOrderDetails(context.Request.QueryString); string response = string.Empty; if (order != null) { // Process the order by calling the mapped method var orderConfirmation = RestbucksService.PlaceOrder(order); response = "OrderId=" + orderConfirmation.OrderId.ToString(); } else { response = "Failure: Could not place order."; } // Write to the response stream using (var sw = new StreamWriter(context.Response.OutputStream)) { sw.Write(response); } }

ClientSideURITunnelling
public OrderConfirmation PlaceOrder(Order order) { // Create the URI var sb = new StringBuilder("http://restbucks.com/PlaceOrder?"); StringBuilder("http://restbucks com/PlaceOrder?"); sb.AppendFormat("coffee={0}", order.Coffee.ToString()); sb.AppendFormat("&size={0}", order.Size.ToString()); pp ( { } , order.Milk.ToString()); g()); sb.AppendFormat("&milk={0}", sb.AppendFormat("&consume-location={0}", order.ConsumeLocation.ToString()); // Set up the GET request var request = HttpRequest.Create(sb.ToString()) as HttpWebRequest; request.Method = "GET"; // Get the response var response = request.GetResponse(); // Read the contents of the response OrderConfirmation orderConfirmation = null; using (var sr = new StreamReader(response.GetResponseStream())) { var str = sr.ReadToEnd(); // Create an OrderConfirmation object from the response orderConfirmation = new OrderConfirmation(str); } return orderConfirmation; }

URITunnellingStrengths
Veryeasytounderstand Greatforsimpleprocedurecalls Simpletocode
Doitwiththeservlet API,HttpListener, IHttpHandler,RAILS,whatever!

Interoperable p
ItsjustURIs!

URITunnellingWeaknesses
ItsbrittleRPC! Tightcoupling,nometadata
NotypingorreturnvaluesspecifiedintheURI

Notrobust havetohandlefailurecases manually Nometadatasupport


ConstructtheURIsyourself,mapthemtothefunction manually

YoutypicallyuseG GET T(preferPOST)


OKforfunctions,butagainsttheWebforprocedures withsideaffects

POXPattern
Webserversunderstandhowtoprocess requestswithbodies
Becausetheyunderstandforms

Andhowtorespondwithabody
Becausethats howtheWebworks

POXusesHTTPPOSTtotransferXML documentsbtwsystems

RichardsonModelLevel0
Singlewellknown endpoint
NotreallyURIfriendly

Doesntunderstand HTTP
Otherthanasa transport

Nohypermedia

POXontheWire
POST/Pl /PlaceOrder O d HTTP/1 1 HTTP/1.1 ContentType: application/xml Host: restbucks.com ContentLength: 361

clientapplication domain

<Order xmlns="http://restbucks.com"> <CustomerId>abcd</CustomerId> <ConsumeAt>takeAway</ConsumeAt> <Items> <Item> <Name>latte</Name> <Quantity>1</Quantity> <Milk>whole</Milk> <Size>small</Size> </Item> <Item> <Name>cookie</Name> <Kind>chocolate chip</Kind> <Quantity>2</Quantity> </Item> </Items> </Order>

restbucks application domain

HTTP/1.1 200 OK ContentLength: 93 ContentType: application/xml; charset=utf8 Server: MicrosoftHTTPAPI/2.0 Date: Mon, 04 Aug 2008 18:16:49 GMT <OrderConfirmation xmlns="http://restbucks.com"> <OrderId>1234</OrderId> </OrderConfirmation>

POXArchitecture
client li application li i domain d i savas
1
Localmethodcall

restbucks b k application li i domain d i barista cashier


Localmethodcall

jim

ian
10
Localmethod return

waiter
6
Localmethodcall return

clientside dispatcher
2
XMLdocument intoHTTPclient

XMLdocument fromHTTPclient

XMLdocument intoHTTPresponse

serverside dispatcher

4
XMLdocument fromHTTPclient

200OK+XML payload

HTTP client
HTTPPOST+XML payload

HTTP server

object

dispatchercode

communication

.NetPOXServiceExample

F From the h Web W bserver

private void ProcessRequest(HttpListenerContext context) { g verb = context.Request.HttpMethod.ToLower().Trim(); q p string switch (verb) { case "post": CheckHTTPVerb(we { // Everything's Everything s done with post in this case wantPOST) XmlDocument request = new XmlDocument(); Dispatchitforprocessing request.Load(XmlReader.Create(context.Request.InputStream));

XmlElement result = MyApp.Process(request.DocumentElement); byte[] returnValue = Utils.ConvertUnicodeString(Constants.Xml.XML_DECLARATION TurntheHTTPbodyintoan+ result.OuterXml);

XMLdocumentfor context.Response.OutputStream.Write(returnValue, 0, processing


returnValue.Length); break;

} ...

GetXMLresult,andgetbytes

ReturnXMLbytestoclient

JavaPOXServlet
public class RestbucksService extends HttpServlet { @Override protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException { // Initialization code omitted for brevity try { requestReader = request.getReader(); request getReader(); responseWriter = response.getWriter(); String xmlRequest = extractPayload(requestReader); Order order = createOrder(xmlRequest); OrderConfirmation confirmation = restbucksService.placeOrder(order); embedPayload(requestWriter, confirmation.toString()); } finally { // Cl Cleanup code d omitted itt d f for b brevity it } }

C#POXClientExample
public OrderConfirmation PlaceOrder(string customerId, Item[] items) { // Serialize our objects XmlDocument requestXml = CreateXmlRequest(customerId, items); var client = new WebClient(); var ms = new MemoryStream(); requestXml.Save(ms); client.Headers.Add("Content-Type", "application/xml"); ms = new MemoryStream(client.UploadData("http://restbucks.com/PlaceOrder", null, ms.ToArray())); var responseXml = new XmlDocument(); responseXml.Load(ms); return CreateOrderConfirmation(responseXml); }

JavaApacheCommonsClient
public class OrderingClient { private static final String XML XML_HEADING HEADING = "<?xml <?xml version=\"1.0\"?>\n"; private static final String NO_RESPONSE = "Error: No response."; public String placeOrder(String customerId, customerId String[] itemIds) throws Exception { // XML string creation omitted for brevity // ... String response = sendRequestPost(request, "http://restbucks.com/PlaceOrder"); Document xmlResponse l = DocumentBuilderFactory.newInstance() .newDocumentBuilder().parse( new InputSource(new StringReader(response))); // XML response handling omitted for brevity }

private String sendRequestPost(String request, String uri) th throws IOException, HttpException { PostMethod method = new PostMethod(uri); method setRequestHeader("Contentmethod.setRequestHeader( Content type", "application/xml"); method.setRequestBody(XML_HEADING + request); String g responseBody p y = NO_RESPONSE; try { new HttpClient().executeMethod(method); responseBody = new String(method.getResponseBody(), "UTF8"); } finally { method.releaseConnection(); } return responseBody; } }

POXStrengths
Simplicity justuseHTTPPOSTandXML Reuseexistinginfrastructureandlibraries Interoperable
ItsjustXMLandHTTP

Canusecomplexdatastructures
ByencodingtheminXML

POXWeaknesses
ClientandservermustcolludeonXML payload
Tightlycoupledapproach

Nometadatasupport
Unlessyoure usingaPOXtoolkitthatsupports WSDLwithHTTPbinding(likeWCF)

DoesnotuseWebforrobustness DoesnotuseSOAP+WS*forrobustness either

CRUDWebServices:Embracing HTTPasanApplicationProtocol

UsingtheWeb
URItunnellingandPOXusetheWebasa t transport t
JustlikeSOAPwithoutmetadatasupport

CRUDservicesbegintousetheWebs coordinationsupport HTTP ButtheWebismorethantransport



Headers Transport,plus StatusCodes Metadata,plus Uniform Interface Faultmodel,plus Caches, ,p proxies, , servers,etc Componentmodel,plus Runtimeenvironment,p plus...

CRUDResourceLifecycle
Theresourceiscreated withPOST Itsread withGET Andupdated viaPUT Finallyitsremoved usingDELETE

RichardsonModelLevel2
LotsofURIs UnderstandsHTTP! Nohypermedia

CreatewithPOST
POST /orders <order /> 201 Created Location: /1234 /1234 Ordering Client Ordering Service

400 Bad Request

500 Internal Error

POSTSemantics
POSTcreatesanewresource ButtheserverdecidesonthatresourcesURI CommonhumanWebexample:postingto Weblog
ServerdecidesURIofpostingandanycomments madeonthatpost

ProgrammaticWebexample:creatinganew employeerecord
Andsubsequentlyaddingtoit

POSTRequest
POST /orders HTTP/1.1 Host: restbucks.com Content-Type:application/vnd.restbucks+xml Content-Length: 225 RestbucksspecificXML <order xmlns="http://schemas.restbucks.com/order"> <location>takeAway</location> <items> <item> <name>latte</name> < <quantity>1</quantity> tit >1</ tit > <milk>whole</milk> Content <size>small</size> (againRestbucks XML) </item> </items> </order>
content Verb,path,andHTTP version

POSTResponse
HTTP/1.1 201 Created Location: /orders/1234

POSTImplementationwithaServlet
protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) { t try { Order order = extractOrderFromRequest(request); String internalOrderId = OrderDatabase.getDatabase().saveOrder(order); response.setHeader("Location", response.setHeader( Location , computeLocationHeader(request, internalOrderId)); response.setStatus(HttpServletResponse.SC_CREATED); } catch(Exception ex) { response.setStatus(HttpServletResponse.SC_INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR); } }

ReadwithGET
GET /orders/1234

200 OK <order /> Ordering Client Ordering Service

404 Not Found

500 Internal I t l Error E

GETSemantics
GETretrievestherepresentationofaresource Shouldbeidempotent
SharedunderstandingofGETsemantics Dontviolatethatunderstanding!

GETExemplified

GET /orders/1234 HTTP/1.1 Accept: application/vnd.restbucks+xml Host: restbucks.com

GETResponse
HTTP/1.1 200 OK Content-Length: 232 Content-Type: application/vnd.restbucks+xml Date: Wed, 19 Nov 2008 21:48:10 GMT <order d xmlns="http://schemas.restbucks.com/order"> l "htt // h tb k / d " <location>takeAway</location> <items> <item> <name>latte</name> <quantity>1</quantity> <milk>whole</milk> milk whole /milk <size>small</size> </item> </items> <status>pending</pending> </order>

WhenGETGoeswrong
Simple!
Just404 theresourceisnolongeravailable
HTTP/1.1 /1 1 404 Not Found d Content-Type: application/vnd.restbucks+xml Content-Length: 952 Date: Sat, 20 Dec 2008 19:01:33 GMT

Areyousure?
GETagain!

GETissafeandidempotent
Greatforcrashrecovery yscenarios!

IdempotentBehaviour
Anactionwithnosideaffects
Comesfrommathematics

Inpracticemeanstwothings:
Asafeoperationisonewhichchangesnostateatall
E.g.HTTPGET

Anidempotentoperationisonewhichupdatesstateinan absoluteway
E.g.x=4ratherthanx+=2

Webfriendly ysystems y scalebecauseofsafety y


Caching!

Andarefaulttolerantbecauseofidempotent b h i behaviour
Justretryinfailurecases

GETJAXRSImplementation
@Path("/") public class OrderingService { @GET @Produces("application/xml") @Path("/{orderId}") public String getOrder(@PathParam( getOrder(@PathParam("orderId") orderId ) String orderId) { try { Order order = OrderDatabase.getDatabase().getOrder(orderId); if (order != null) { return xstream.toXML(order); } else { throw new WebApplicationException(404); } } catch (Exception e) { throw new WebApplicationException(500); } } // Remainder of implementation omitted for brevity }

UpdatewithPUT
PUT /orders/1234 <order />

200 OK

Ordering Client

404 Not Found

Ordering Service

409 Conflict

500 Internal Error

PUTSemantics
PUTcreatesanewresourcebuttheclient decidesontheURI
Providingtheserverlogicallowsit

Alsousedtoupdateexistingresourcesby overwriting iti th themi inplace l PUTisidempotent p


Makesabsolutechanges

Butisnotsafe
Itchangesstate!

PUTRequest
PUT /orders/1234 HTTP/1 HTTP/1.1 1 Host: restbucks.com Content-Type: application/xml Content-Length: 386 <order xmlns="http://schemas.restbucks.com/order"> <location>takeAway</location> <items> <item> <milk>whole</milk> <name>latte</name> <quantity>2</quantity> <size>small</size> </item> Updatedcontent <item> <milk>whole</milk> <name>cappuccino</name> <quantity>1</quantity> <size>large</size> </item> </items> <status>preparing</preparing> </order>

PUTResponse
HTTP/1.1 200 OK Date: Sun, 30 Nov 2008 21:47:34 GMT g 0 Content-Length:
Minimalistresponsecontainsno entitybody

WhenPUTgoeswrong
Ifweget5xxerror,or some4xx 4 errorssimply i l PUTagain!
PUTi isid idempotent t t
HTTP/1.1 409 Conflict Date: Sun, 21 Dec 2008 16:43:07 GMT C t t L Content-Length:382 th 382 <order xmlns="http://schemas.restbucks.com/or der"> <location>takeAway</location> <items> <item> <milk>whole</milk> <name>latte</name> / <quantity>2</quantity> <size>small</size> </item> <item> <milk>whole</milk> <name>cappuccino</name> <quantity>1</quantity> <size>large</size> g / </item> </items> <status>served</status> </order>

Ifwegeterrors indicatingincompatible states(409,417)then dosome forward/backward compensating p gwork


AndmaybePUTagain

RemovewithDELETE
DELETE /orders/1234

200 OK

Ordering Client

404 Not Found

Ordering Service

405 Method Not Allowed

500 Service Unavailable

DELETESemantics
Stoptheresourcefrombeingaccessible
Logicaldelete,notnecessarilyphysical

Request
DELETE /orders/1234 HTTP/1.1 Host: restbucks.com

Response p
HTTP/1.1 200 OK Content Length: 0 Content-Length: Date: Tue, 16 Dec 2008 17:40:11 GMT

WhenDELETEgoeswrong
Simplecase,DELETEagain!
Deleteisidempotent! DELETEonce,DELETE10timeshasthesame effect:onedeletion HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found Content-Length: 0 Date: Tue, 16 Dec 2008 17:42:12 GMT

WhenDELETEgoesReallyWrong
Some4xx responses i di indicate that h d deletion l i isntpossible
Th Thestate t t of fthe th resource isntcompatible Tryforward/backward compensationinstead
HTTP/1.1 409 Conflict Content-Length: 379 D t Date: T Tue, 16 D Dec 2008 17:53:09 17 53 09 GMT <order xmlns="http://schemas.restbucks.com/or der"> <location>takeAway</location> <items> <item> <name>latte</name> <milk>whole</milk> i / i <size>small</size> <quantity>2</quantity> </item> <item> <name>cappuccino</name> <milk>skim</milk> <size>large</size> <quantity>1</quantity> q y /q y </item> </items> <status>served</status> </order>

Cantdeletean orderthats alreadyserved

CRUDdoesnotmeanWorthless

CRUDisGood?
CRUDisgood
Butits it snotgreat

CRUDstyleservicesusesomeHTTPfeatures Buttheapplicationmodelislimited
OnlysuitabletoCRUDScenarios Suitsdatabasestyleapplications Hence frameworkslikeMicrosoftsAstoria

CRUDhaslimitations
CRUDignoreshypermedia CRUDencouragestightcouplingthroughURItemplates CRUDencouragesserverandclienttocollude

TheWebsupportsmoresophisticatedpatternsthan CRUD!

ResearchActivity

Compare: p
RESTVs SOAP RESTVs SOA RESTVs WS*

Sendareporttovaab@cin.ufpe.br Discussiononthenextclass!!

Nextclass:Hypermediaand RESTful RESTf l Services S i

References
RESTinPractice HypermediaandSystemsArchitecture JimWebber,Savas Parastatidis,IanRobinson Published by OReilly,2010 RESTinPractice ATutorialonWebbasedServices JimWebber,Savas Parastatidis,IanRobinson PresentationforUniversities,sharedbyJimWebber Somesslidesadapted from apresentation forUniversities (RESTin Practice ATutorial lonWeb bbased b dServices) ) shared h d by b Jim Ji W Webber bb

[http://jim.webber.name]
ABriefIntroductiontoRESThttp://www.infoq.com/articles/rest introduction