Fr. Terry Donahue, CC – www.companionscross.org – thenewevangelist.com

Resignation of Pope Benedict XVI
- First time a Pope has voluntarily resigned since 1415, when Gregory XII resigned. - He will live “a life dedicated to prayer” at cloister in the Vatican Gardens known as the Mater Ecclesia monastery, giving his successor room to govern. - In a 2010 interview with Peter Seewald, Pope Benedict XVI said when a Pope is unable to fulfill his duties, he should resign: “One can resign at a peaceful moment or when one simply cannot go on. But one must not run away from danger and say that someone else should do it." "If a pope clearly realizes that he is no longer physically, psychologically and spiritually capable of handling the duties of his office, then he has a right and, under some circumstances, also an obligation to resign.” (http://www.catholicnews.com/data/stories/cns/1300569.htm) - In 2009, Pope Benedict XVI visited the tomb of a 13th century Pope named St. Celestine V. After a brief prayer, he left his pallium, the symbol of his own episcopal authority as Bishop of Rome, on top of Celestine's tomb! He later visited his relics in the cathedral of Sulmona in 2010. This was likely a symbolic gesture, because Pope Celestine V made it possible for the Pope to resign. He was almost 80 years old when elected and resigned just 5 months later.

Process of Electing a New Pope (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papal_conclave)
- The whole Church participates in the election process through a union of hearts in prayer with the Cardinal electors, asking “God to grant her a new Pope as a gift of his goodness and providence.”
The Pope asked that “in all cities and other places, at least the more important ones, as soon as news is received of the vacancy of the Apostolic See… humble and persevering prayers are to be offered to the Lord (cf. Mt 21:22; Mk 11:24), that he may enlighten the electors and make them so like-minded in their task that a speedy, harmonious and fruitful election may take place, as the salvation of souls and the good of the whole People of God demand.” (Pope John Paul II, Universi Dominici Gregis, On the Vacancy of the Apostolic See and the Election of the Roman Pontiff, 1996, http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_constitutions/documents/hf_jpii_apc_22021996_universi-dominici-gregis_en.html)

- Papal Conclave (Latin cum clave = "with a key") started in 13th c. when the Cardinal electors were locked in seclusion. During the conclave, the Cardinal electors are not permitted any contact with the outside world (they’re even searched for cell phones & pagers). - Timing: A conclave usually begins 15-20 days after the death of the Pope, after a time of mourning. In this case less time may be needed, so the conclave could start as March 10-20. - Cardinal electors - All cardinals that are able come to the Vatican, but only the 117 Cardinal electors (under 80 when the Holy See becomes vacant) may vote. (~67 created by B. XVI) Age distribution: 46 = 75 and over, 28 = 70-75, and 42 = 69 and under. (5 in their 50s). Diversity - From 50 countries (Can 3, USA 11, Ita 28, Ger 6, Bra 5, In 5) on every continent (Eur 61, NA 20, SA 13, Asia 11, Afr 11, Aus 1), expressing the universality of the Church (UDG, Introduction).
(Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Bosnia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, France, Germany, Ghana, Guinea, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Kenya, Lebanon, Lithuania, Mexico, Netherlands, Nigeria, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Scotland, Senegal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Switzerland, Tanzania, USA, Venezuela, Vietnam)


to maintain secrecy and to ignore outside influence. the two Cardinals at the top of the last balloting are the only candidates for election (and they may not vote – they have only a vox passiva) but the number required for a valid election will continue to be 2/3 majority.com) . if no one receives enough votes. They may do the same every seven unsuccessful votes. Security experts even do a sweep for listening devices! . a procession to the Sistine Chapel where the Cardinals then take an oath to observe procedures. all [of you]”).. If the Cardinals remain deadlocked after 12 days. Cardinals are lodged in the Domus Sanctae Marthae (Home of Saint Martha). In 2005 the bells of St. 2 . (http://www.If they have not elected someone after 9 ballots. closing off of the conclave area to outsiders. “They were once burned. . Voting takes place in the Sistine Chapel beneath Michelangelo’s fresco of the Last Judgment.Location: Back in 1274 the Cardinals had their food rationed progressively on 4th & 9th days to encourage a decision! Today. they hear two sermons on the current state of the Church. Infirmarii (who take ballots to and from cardinals who may be ill within the conclave) and Revisers (who check the count and make sure the voting was done right). Peter’s Basilica.html) .Overcoming deadlock .Before the election. There is one ballot on the first day.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/motu_proprio/documents/hf_ben-xvi_motu-proprio_20070611_deelectione_lt. famously with wet straw to produce black smoke if there was no election. . Then the Master of Papal Liturgical Celebrations declares “Extra omnes!” (Lt. After the names are read off by the Scrutineers (and checked by Revisers). the ballots are all sewn together with a needle and red thread so that the ballot can't accidentally be counted more than once.Opening Ceremonies .” It involves periods of prayer. .Voting process: The choice of a new Pope is done by a process of group discernment of God’s will.vatican. there is another ballot.Length of conclave – The past 9 Papal conclaves have each lasted only 2-5 days.The new pope is introduced with the phrase “Habemus Papam!” (Lt. Nine electors are chosen by lot to work as Scrutineers (who do the tabulation and watch over the ballots as they are delivered). and certainly before Easter (March 31). Pope Benedict XVI John Paul II John Paul I Pope Paul VI Pope John XXIII Pope Pius XII Age 78 58 65 66-7 74 63 Reign 7½ years 26 years 1 month 15 years 4½ years 19 years Year 2005 1978 1978 1963 1958 1939 Conclave 2 days 3 days 2 days 3 days 4 days 2 days Ballots 4 8 4 6 11 3 . We have a pope!”) and gives his first Apostolic blessing Urbi et Orbi (“To the City [Rome] and to the World”).” (wdtprs. We should have a new Pope before Holy Week begins (March 24). There is a Mass at St.” In practice.Destroying ballots – After being counted. and successive ballots. and qualities necessary for a Pope to possess in that specific time. they may devote up to a day to prayer and discussion before resuming. especially built for that purpose. A candidate must receive a 2/3 majority of the ballots to be elected Pope. and four on subsequent days of the conclave. Peter’s Basilica were rung to signal an election. for “outside. In 1963 chemicals were added to make really dark or light smoke.Acceptance & Proclamation – The Cardinal Dean asks the pope-elect if he assents to the election: “Do you accept your canonical election as Supreme Pontiff?” He is free to say “I accept” or “I don’t accept. called “choice by scrutiny. someone who intends not to accept will say so earlier.

Prefect of Cong of Bishops. of New York. Cannot change their powers. Sp. leadership. Fante. Papabile (pronounced pap-AH-bee-leh) (plural: papabili) – “one who might become Pope” . Ge. Charismatic media personality. President of the USCCB. Time Magazine 100 Most influential people of the world. Card. engaging personality. Timothy Dolan USA 63 A more inclusive list of Papabile (combining other lists from various sources: http://en. Natural charisma. and matters that cannot be postponed (UDG. President of Pontifical Council for Latin America) Speaks En. Angelo Cardinal Sodano. Marc Ouellet Country Canada Age Qualifications 68 Broad experience (professor & rector in seminaries. the College of Cardinals governs the Church. Fr. African. missionary in South America. . communicator. etc.But they have very limited powers: ordinary business. Abp.Governance during the interregnum (sede vacante = “chair is empty” period) .The Dean of the College of Cardinals. John Paul II . Po. (UDG. 2). served extensively in Vatican Diplomatic Corps. notable philosopher and theologian on bioethics. of Milan. where Church is growing like wildfire. Abp. unique qualities (thinker. It.Wise saying about presumption: “He who enters the conclave as Pope. Fr.Papabili who became Pope – Pius XII. very good speaker. John Paul I. as Diocesan bishop. Prefect for the Congregation for the Oriental Churches.wikipedia. and theological anthropology Leading Latin American candidate. It. Óscar Maradiaga Card. accomplishments. marriage.During the interregnum. He is the public face of the Holy See during the sede vacante period. Ge. .” Papal Qualities: Holiness. Benedict XVI . Primate of Canada. Speaks En. 3-4). a skinny Pope. summons the conclave and normally presides over it. outspoken about threat of militant Islam President of Pont Council for Justice & Peace. evangelizer. leaves it as a cardinal. Lacks pastoral exp. defender of the faith in the public sphere) Incomplete list of Papabile Card. energetic pastor at home and an influential voice on social issues in the international arena Born of Italian parents (Euro-Latin American hybrid). Angelo Scola Card. administrator. Leonardo Sandri Card.Non-papabili who became Pope – John XXIII. Peter Turkson Italy Honduras Argentina Ghana 71 70 69 64 Card.” Also: “After a fat Pope. Heb.org/wiki/List_of_papabili_in_the_2013_papal_conclave 3 . Paul VI. preparing for the election.