You are on page 1of 61
 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity

CHAPTER 7: ELECTRICITY

7.1 CHARGE AND ELECTRIC CURRENT

Van de Graaf

1. What is a Van de Graaff generator? Fill in each of the boxes the name of the part shown. A device that produces and store electric charges at high voltage on its dome

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Metal dome
dome
+
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+
roller
rubber belt
roller
motor

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity
• 2. How are electrical charges produced by a Van de Graaff generator? And what type of charges is usually produced on the dome of the generator?

When the motor of the Van de Graaff generator is switched on, it drives the rubber belt. This causes the rubber belt to against the roller and hence becomes charged.

  The charge is then carried by the moving belt up to the metal dome where it is  collected. A large amount of charge is built up on the dome  Positive charges are usually produced on the dome of the generator.
• 3. What will happen if the charged dome of the Van de Graaff is connected to the earth via a micrometer? Explain.

There is a deflection of the pointer of the meter.

This indicates an electric current flow.

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity 4. Predict what will happen if a discharging metal sphere to the charged dome. + + + + + + +  When the discharging metal sphere is brought near the charged dome,  sparkling occurs. An electric current flow. 5. Predict what will happen if hair of a student is brought near to the charged dome. Give reasons for your answer.  The metal dome attracts the hair and  the hair stand upright. This is because of each strand of hair receives positive charges and repels each other.
• 6. The flow of electrical charges produces electric current.

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity

Electric Current

• 1. Electric current consists of a flow of electrons

• 2. The more charges that flow through a cross section within a given time, the larger is the current.

• 3. Electric current is defined as the rate of flow of electric charge

• 4. In symbols, it is given as:

I = Q
t

where

I

= electric current

t

Q = charge = time

Each second, 15 coulombs of charge cross the plane. The current is I = 15 amperes. One ampere is one coulomb per second.

 (i) The SI unit of charge is (Ampere / Coulomb / Volt) (ii) The SI unit of time is (minute / second / hour) (iii) The SI unit of current is (Ampere / Coulomb / Volt) is equivalent to (Cs // C -1 s // Cs -1 ) (iv) By rearranging the above formula, Q I t = ( It / t / I )
• 4. If one coulomb of charge flows past in one second, then the current is one ampere.

• 5. 15 amperes means in each second, 15 coulomb of charge through a cross section of a conductor.

• 6. In a metal wire, the charges are carried by electrons.

• 7. Each electron carries a charge of 1.6 x 10 -19 C.

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity
• 8. 1 C of charge is 6.25 x 10 18 electrons.

Electric Field

 a) An electric field is a region in which an electric charge experiences a force. b) An electric field can be represented by a number of lines indicate both the magnitude and direction of the field c) The principles involved in drawing electric field lines are : (i) electric field lines always extend from a positively-charged object to (ii) a negatively-charged object to infinity, or from infinity to a negatively-charged object, electric field lines never cross each other, (iii) electric field lines are closer in a stronger electric field. Demo 1 : To study the electric field and the effects of an electric field. Apparatus & materials Extra high tension (E.H.T) power supply (0 – 5 kV), petri dish, electrodes with different shapes (pointed electrode and plane electrode), two metal plates, talcum powder, cooking oil, polystyrene ball coated with conducting paint, thread and candle. Method DEMO A)

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity
• 1. Set up the apparatus as shown in the above figure

• 2. Switch on the E.H.T. power supply and adjust the voltage to 4 kV

• 3. Observed the pattern formed by the talcum powder for different types of electrodes.

• 4. Draw the pattern of the electric field lines.

 ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND A POSITIVE CHARGE ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND A NEGATIVE CHARGE ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND A POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CHARGE

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND TWO NEGATIVE CHARGES
 ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND TWO POSITIVE CHARGES ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND A NEGATIVE CHARGE AND A POSITIVELY CHARGED PLATE

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND A POSITIVE CHARGE AND A NEGATIVELY CHARGED PLATE ELECTRIC FIELD BETWEEN TWO CHARGED PARALLEL PLATES

EFFECT OF AN ELECTRIC FIELD ON A POLYSTYRENE BALL

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity Observation: The polystyrene ball oscillated between the two plates, touching one plate after another. Explanation:  When the polystyrene ball touches the negatively charged plate, the ball 1. Place the polystyrene ball between the two metal plates. receives negative charges from the plate and experiences a repulsive force. 2. Switch on the E.H.T and displace the  polystyrene ball slightly so that it The ball will then move to the positively touches one of the metal plates charged plate.  When the ball touches the plate, the ball loses some of its negative charges to the plate and becomes positively charged.
 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity C) Observation: The candle flame splits into two portions in opposite direction. The portion that is attracted to the negative plate is very much larger than the portion of the flame that is attracted to the positive plate. Explanation: 1) Switch of the E.H.T and replace the  polystyrene ball with a lighted candle. The heat of the flame ionizes the air 2) Sketch the flame observed when the E.H.T. is switched on. molecules to become positive and negative charges.  The positive charges are attracted to the negative plate while the negative charges are attracted to the positive plate.  The flame is dispersed in two opposite directions but more to the negative plate.

Conclusion

• 1. Electric field is a region where an electric charge experiences a force.

• 2. Like charges repel each other but opposite charges attract each other.

• 3. Electric field lines are lines of force in an electric field. The direction of the field lines is from positive to negative.

Exercise 7.1

• 1. 5 C of charge flows through a wire in 10 s. What is the current in the wire?

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity Q = It I = Q/t = 5 / 10 = 0.5 A 2. A charge of 300 C flow through a bulb in every 2 minutes. What is the electric current in the bulb? Q = It I = Q/t = 300 / 120 = 2.5 A 3. The current in a lamp is 0.2 A. Calculate the amount of electric charge that passes through the lamp in 1 hour. Q = It = 0.2 (60 x 60) = 720 C 4. If a current of 0.8 A flows in a wire, how many electrons pass through the wire in one minute? (Given: The charge on an electron is 1.6 x 10 -19 C) It Q = = 0.8 (60) Convert: 1 minute = 60s = 48 C

1.6 x 10 -19 C of charge Hence, 48 C of charges is brought by

1 electron. 48 C 1.6 x 10 -19 C

= 3 x 10 20 electrons

• 5. An electric current of 200 mA flows through a resistor for 3 seconds, what is the

• (a) electric charge

• (b) the number of electrons which flow through the resistor?

 a) Q = It = 200 x 10 -3 (3) = 0.6 C b) 1.6 x 10 -19 C of charge 1 electron. Hence, 0.6 C of charges is 0.6 C = 3.75 x 10 18 electrons 1.6 x 10 -19 C

Ideas of Potential Difference

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity
Q
P

(a)

Pressure at point P is greater than the pressure
at point Q
Water will flow from P to Q when the valve is
opened.
This due to the difference in the pressure of
water
(b)
X
Y
Gravitational potential energy at X is greater than
the gravitational potential energy at Y.
The apple will fall from X to Y when the apple is
released.
This due to the difference in the gravitational
potential energy.

where W is work or energy in Joule (J) Q is charge in Coulomb (C)

B
A
Bulb

=

Quantityofch
(c)
Similarly,
Point A is connected to positive terminal
Point B is connected to negative terminal
W
arg
Work
B.
e
V =

Electric potential at A is greater than the electric potential at

Electric current flows from A to B, passing the bulb in the circuit and lights up the bulb. This is due to the electric potential difference between the two terminals. As the charges flow from A to B, work is done when electrical energy is transformed to light and heat energy. The potential difference, V between two points in a circuit is defined as the amount of work done, W when one coulomb of charge passes from one point to the other point in an electric field.

The potential difference,V between the two points will be given by:

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity

Device and symbol

Cells
ammeter
A
voltmeter
Switch
V
connecting wire
Constantan wire //
eureka wire
bulb
resistance
rheostat

Measuring Current and Potential Difference/Voltage

 Measurement of electricity Measurement of potential difference/voltage (a) Electrical circuit (a) Electrical circuit (b) Circuit diagram (b) Circuit diagram 1. Name the device used to measure 1. Name the device used to measure

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity electrical current. potential difference. An ammeter A voltmeter 2. (a) What is the SI unit for current? 2. (a) What is the SI unit for potential Amperes difference? Volts (b) What is the symbol for the unit of current? (b) What is the symbol for the unit of A potential difference? V 3. How is an ammeter connected in an electrical circuit? 3. How is an voltmeter connected in an In series electrical circuit? In parallel 4. The positive terminal of an ammeter is connected to which terminal of the dry cell? 4. The positive terminal of a voltmeter is connected to which terminal of the dry Positive cell? Positive 5. What will happen if the positive terminal of the ammeter is connected to the negative terminal of the dry cell? The ammeter needle will deflect and show reading below zero.

Exp 1:

To investigate the relationship between current and potential difference for an ohmic conductor.

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity

(a)

(b)

Figure (a) and figure (b) show two electrical circuits. Why do the ammeters show different

readings? Why do the bulbs light up with different intensity? Referring to the figure (a) and (b),

• (i) Make one suitable inference.

(ii) State one appropriate hypothesis that could be investigated.

(iii) Design an experiment to investigate the hypothesis.

 (a) The current flowing through the bulb is influenced by the potential difference across it. Inference The higher the current flows through a wire, the higher the potential difference across (b) Hypothesis it. To determine the relationship between current and potential difference for a (c) Aim constantan wire. (i) manipul ated variable : current, I (ii) respondi : potential difference, V (d) Variables ng variable : length of the wire // cross sectional area // (iii) fixed temperature variable Apparatus / materials

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity
Method
Tabulation of
data
Analysis of data
• 2. Turn on the switch and adjust the rheostat so that the ammeter reads the current, I= 0.2 A.

• 4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for I = 0.3 A, 0.4 A, 0.5 A, 0.6 A and 0.7 A.

• 3. Read and record the potential difference, V across the wire.

• 1. Set up the apparatus as shown in the figure.

 Current,I/A Volt, V/V 0.2 1.0 0.3 1.5 0.4 2.0 0.5 2.5 0.6 3.0 0.7 3.5
-
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
-
-
-

Draw a graph of V against I

Potential difference, V /V

Current, I /A

2.0

4.0

3.0

1.0

 Discussion : 1. From the graph plotted. (a) What is the shape of the V-I graph? The graph of V against I is a straight line that passes through origin

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity (b) What is the relationship between V and I? This shows that the potential difference, V is directly proportional to the current, I. (c) Does the gradient change as the current increases? V The gradient ≡ the ratio of is a constant as current increases. I 2. The resistance, R, of the constantan wire used in the experiment is equal to the gradient of the V-I graph. Determine the value of R. 3.5 = 5 o .7 3. What is the function of the rheostat in the circuit? It is to control the current flow in the circuit Conclusion : The potential difference, V across a conductor increases when the current, I passing through it increases as long as the conductor is kept at constant temperature.

Ohm’s Law

(a)

Ohm’s law states

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity

that the electric current, I flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across the ends of the conductor,

if temperature and other physical conditions remain constant

 (b) By Ohm’s law: V I = constant µ I V or I = constant
• (c) The constant is known as resistance, R of the conductor.

• (d) The resistance, R is a term that describes the opposition experienced by the electrons as they flow in a conductor. It is also defined as the ratio of the potential difference across the conductor to the current, I flowing through the conductor. That is

V
R =
I

and

V = I R

• (e) The unit of resistance is volt per ampere (V A -1 ) or ohm ( )

• (f) An ohmic conductor is one which obeys Ohm’s law, while a conductor which does not obey Ohm’s law is known as a non-ohmic conductor

Factors Affecting Resistance

• 1. The resistance of a conductor is a measure of the ability of the conductor to (resist / allow) the flow of an electric current through it.

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity

2.

From the formula V = IR, the current I is (directly / inversely) proportional to the

resistance, R.

3.

4.

5.

When the value of the resistance, R is large, the current, I flowing in the conductor is (small / large)

What are the factors affecting the resistance of a conductor?

• a) the length of the conductor

• b) the cross-sectional area of the conductor

• c) type of material of the conductor

• d) the temperature of the conductor

Write down the relevant hypothesis for the factors affecting the resistance in the table below.

Factors
Diagram
Hypothesis
Graph
The longer the conductor, the
higher its resistance
Resistance is directly
proportional to the length of a
conductor
The bigger the cross-sectional
area, the lower the its resistance
Resistance is inversely
proportional to the cross-
sectional area of a conductor
Different
conductors
with
the
same
physical
conditions
have
different resistance
The
higher
temperature
of
conductor,
the
higher
the
resistance
6.
From, the following can be stated:
Resistance of a conductor,
Resistance of a conductor,
R
µ
length
R
µ
1
r The temperature of the al of the The type of the tor, The cross-sectional nductor, l Length of the

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity

cross-sectional area

Hence, resistance of a conductor, R

µ

length

cross-sectional area

Or

R µ

l
A

or

R =

l
A

where

=

resistivity of the

substance

Exercise 7.2

• 1. Tick (√) the correct answers

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity True False (a) Unit of potential difference is J C -1 √ (b) J C -1 ≡ volt, V √ The potential difference between two points is 1 volt if 1 joule (c) of work is required to move a charge of 1 coulomb from one √ point to another. (d) 2 volt is two joules of work done to move 2 coulomb of charge from one to another in an electric field. √ (e) Potential difference ≡ Voltage √ I t t 2. i) Electric charge, Q = ( It / / I ) ii) Work done, W = (QV / V / V Q Q )

iii) Base on your answer in 2(i) and (ii) derive the work done, W in terms of I, V and t.

 W = QV = ItV
• 3. If a charge of 5.0 C flows through a wire and the amount of electrical energy converted into heat is 2.5 J. Calculate the potential differences across the ends of the wire.

 W = QV 2.5 = 5.0 (V) V = 0.5 V
• 4. A light bulb is switched on for a period of time. In that period of time, 5 C of charges passed through it and 25 J of electrical energy is converted to light and heat energy. What is the potential difference across the bulb?

 W = QV 25 = 5 (V) V = 5 V
• 5. The potential difference of 10 V is used to operate an electric motor. How much work is done in moving 3 C of electric charge through the motor?

 W = QV = 3 (10)

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity = 30 J 6. When the potential difference across a bulb is 20 V, the current flow is 3 A. How much work done to transform electrical energy to light and heat energy in 50 s? Bulb 3 A A 20 V W = VIt = 20 (3) (50) = 3000 J 7. What is the potential difference across a light bulb of resistance 5 when the current that passes through it is 0.5 A? V IR = = 0.5 (5) = 2.5 V
• 8. A potential difference of 3.0 V applied across a resistor of resistance R drives a current of 2.0 A through it. Calculate R.

 V IR = 3.0 = 2.0 (R) R = 1.5
• 9. What is the value of the resistor in the figure, if the

dry cells

supply

2.0

V

and

the ammeter

 V = IR 2.0 = 0.5 (R) R = 4

10. If the bulb in the figure has a resistance of 6 what is the reading shown on the ammeter, if the dry cells supply 3 V?

,

V

=

IR

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity 3.0 = I (6) I 0.5 A =
• 11. If a current of 0.5 A flows through the resistor of 3 in the figure, calculate the voltage supplied by the dry cells?

• V IR

=

=

0.5 (3)

• V 1.5 V

=

• 12. The graph shows the result of an experiment to determine the resistance of a wire. The resistance of the wire is

 From V-I graph, resistance = gradient 1.2 = = 0.24 5
• 13. An experiment was conducted to measure the current, I flowing through a constantan wire when the potential difference V across it was varied. The graph shows the results of the experiment. What is the resistance of the resistor?

From V-I graph, resistance

 =1/ gradient =1/ ( 8 x10 3 ) 4 =1/( 2.0 x 10 -3 ) = 500

V/V

1.2
0
5

I/A

14.Referring to the diagram on the right, calculate

(a) The current flowing through the resistor.

V

=

IR

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• I 5

12 V

 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity 12 = I (5) I = 2.4 A
 (b) The amount of electric through the resistor in 30 s charge that passes Q = It = 2.4 (30) = 72 C (c) The amount of work done to transform the

electric energy to the heat energy in 30 s.

 W = QV or W = VIt = 72 (12) = 12(2.4)(30) = 864 J = 864 J
• 15. Figure shows a torchlight that uses two 1.5 V dry cells. The two dry cells are able to provide a current of 0.3 A when the bulb is at its normal brightness. What is the resistance of the filament?

 V = IR 3.0 = 0.3(R) R = 10
• 16. The diagram shows four metal rods of P, Q, R and S made of the same substance.

• a) Which of the rod has the most resistance? P

• b) Which of the rod has the least resistance? S

17. The graph shows the relationship between the potential difference, V and current, I flowing through two conductors, X and Y.

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+
1.5 V
-
+
1.5 V
-

V/V

X
8
2
0
0
2

Y

I/A

 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity
• a) Calculate the resistance of conductor X.

 From V-I graph, resistance = gradient 8 2 b) Calculate the resistance of conductor Y. = = 4 From V-I graph, resistance = gradient 2 2 = = 1
• c) If the cross sectional area of X is 5.0 x 10 -6 m 2 , and the length of X is 1.2 m, calculate its resistivity.

18. The graph shows a graph of I against V for three conductors, P, Q and R.

• i) Q Compare the resistance of conductor P, Q and R. R R > R Q >R p

ii)

From I-V graph, resistance

The greater the gradient, the lower the resistance Gradient of P > Gradient of Q > Gradient of R Thus, R R > R Q >R p

 l R = A RA ρ = l = 4( 5.0 x10 6 ) 1.2 = 1.67 x 10 -5 m I/A
P
Q
R

V/V

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity

19. Figure shows a wire P of length, l with a cross- sectional area, A and a resistance, R. Another wire, Q is a conductor of the same material with a length of 3l and twice the cross-sectional area of P. What is resistance of Q in terms of R?

l
Conductor P
R
=
A
l'
Conductor Q
R’
=
(notes: P and R have the same resistivity, ρ)
A'
=
( 3l )
2 A
3
=
R
2
20. PQ,
is
a piece
of uniform wire of length
1
m
with a resistance of 10 . Q is connected to an
ammeter, a 2 resistor and a 3 V battery. What
is the reading on the ammeter when the jockey
is at X?
Resistance in the wire
R is directly proportional to l
100 cm
= 10
20
Hence, 20 cm
=
(10)
100
R
= 2
Total resistance
2
+ 2
= 4
V
Current, I
=
R
3
=
A
4
= 0.75 A

21. Figure shows the circuit used to investigate the relationship between potential difference, V and current, I for a piece of constantan wire. The graph of V against I from the experiment is as shown in the figure below.

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity
• (a) What quantities are kept constant in this experiment? Length // cross-sectional area // type of material // temperature of the wire

• (b) State the changes in the gradient of the graph, if i) the constantan wire is heated

// the resistance increases, hence the gradient increases

ii) a constantan wire of a smaller cross-sectional area is used

// the resistance increases, hence the gradient increases

iii)a shorter constantan wire is used

// the resistance decreases, hence the gradient decreases

7.3 SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS

Current Flow and Potential Difference in Series and Parallel Circuit

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity SERIES CIRCUIT PARALLEL CIRCUIT I V 1 the current flows through each bulb/resistor is the same 1 the potential difference is the same across each bulb/resistor I = I 1 = I 2 = I 3 V = V 1 = V 2 = V 3 2 the potential difference across each bulb / resistor depends directly on its resistance. The 2 the current passing through each bulb / resistor is inversely proportional to the resistance of the potential difference supplied by the dry cells is resistor. The current in the circuit equals to the shared by all the bulbs / resistors. sum of the currents passing through the bulbs / resistors in its parallel branches. V = V 1 + V 2 + V 3 where V is the potential difference across the battery I = I 1 + I 2 + I 3 where I is the total current from the battery 3 If Ohm’s law is applied separately to each bulb / resistor, we get : 3 If Ohm’s law is applied separately to each bulb / resistor, we get : V = V 1 + V 2 + V 3 I = I 1 + I 2 + I 3 IR = IR 1 + IR 2 + IR 3 V V V V R = R + R + R 1 2 3 If each term in the equation is divided by I, we get the effective resistance If each term in the equation is divided by V, we get the effective resistance R = R 1 + R 2 + + R 3 1 R = 1 R 1 + 1 R 2 + 1 R 3

Identify series circuit or parallel circuit

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity (a) (b) (c) (d) Series Parallel A, B - series Q, S - parallel
3
0.5
1
5
2
2
1.5
Voltmeter reading ≡ Potential difference ≡ Voltage
5
6
1
2
2
3

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity

Effective resistance, R

 (b) (a) R = 20 + 10 + 5= 35 1/R = ½ +1/5 + 1/10 = 4/5 Effective R = 1.25 (d) (c) 1/R = 1/8 + 1/8= 1/8 R = 4 1/R =1/16 + 1/8 + 1/8 Effective R = 20 + 10 + 4 = 34 =5/16 Effective R = 3.2 (e) 1/R = 1/4 + 1/2=3/4 R = 1.33 Effective R = 1.33 + 1 = 2.33 (f) 1/R = 1/4 + 1/12=1/3 R = 3 Effective R = 3 + 2 = 5 (h) (g) Effective R = 2+5+3+10 = 20 1/R = 1/20 + 1/20=1/10 R = 10 Effective R = 10 + 10 + 5 =2 5 (i) 1/R = 1/5 + 1/10=3/10 R = 3.33 (j) 1/R = 1/10 + 1/10=2/10 R = 5

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity

Solve problems using V = IR

V = IR
9 =I(18)
= 0.5
V = IR
240 = 6(R)
I
=40 A
1/R = 1/5 + 1/20=1/4
R = 4
Effective R = 1 + 4 = 5
V = IR
= 2(5) = 10 V
1/R = 1/10 + 1/10 =2/10
R = 5
Effective R = 1 + 4 = 5
V = IR

Exercise 7.3

12 =I(5) = 2.4 A

 1. The two bulbs in the figure have a resistance of 2 and 3 0.5A respectively. If the voltage of the dry cell is 2.5 V, calculate (a) the effective resistance, R of the circuit Effective R = 2 + 3 = 5 2Ω 3Ω (b) the main current, I in the circuit (c) the potential difference across each bulb. V = IR 2 : V = IR = (0.5)(2) = 1V 2.5 =I(5) 3 : V = IR = (0.5)(3) = 1.5 V = 0.5 A

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity 2. There are two resistors in the circuit shown. Resistor R 1 has a resistance of 1 . If a 3V voltage causes a current of 0.5A to flow through the circuit, calculate the resistance of R 2 . V = IR 3=0.5(1+R 2 ) R 2 = 5 3. The electrical current flowing through each branch, I 1 and I 2 , is 5 A. Both bulbs have the same resistance, which is 2 . Calculate the voltage supplied. Parallelcircuit;V =V 1 =V 2 = IR 1 or = IR 2 = 5(2) = 10 V 4. The voltage supplied to the parallel is 3 V. R 1 and R 2 have a resistance of 5 and 20 . Calculate (a) the potential difference across each resistor 3 V (parallel circuit) (b) the effective resistance, R of the circuit 1/R = 1/5 + 1/20 =1/4 R = 4 (c) the main current, I in the circuit (d) the current passing through each resistor V = IR 3 =I(4) = 0.75 A 5 : V = IR 3 =I(5) I = 0.6 A 20 : V = IR 3 =I(20) I = 0.15 A 5. In the circuit shown, what is the reading on the ammeter when switch, S (a) is open? (b) is closed? Effective R = 6 V = IR 12 =I(6) I = 2 A Effective R = 4 V = IR 12 =I(4) I = 3 A

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 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity

6.

7.

(a)
R = 12
I = 24/12
= 2A
V= IR
= (2)(8)
= 16 V

(b)

(a)
R =9
I = 4.5/9
= 0.5A
A reading : 0.5/2= 0.25 A
Notes: Divide 2 because
the resistors have similar
resistance
(d)
(i) The potential difference across 8
resistor.
V
= IR
= 2(8) = 16 V
(ii) The potential difference across 2.5
resistor.
V
= IR
= 2(2.5) = 5 V
(e)
The current passing through 6
resistor.
V = V 8 + V 2.5 +V parallel
24 = 16 + 5 + V parallel
V parallel = 3V
V = IR
3 = I(6)
I = 0.5 A
 R = 12 I = 6/12 = 0.5A V at 9 : V= IR = (0.5)(9) = 4.5 V V reading : 6 – 4.5 = 1.5 V

Calculate

(a)

The effective resistance, R

 R = 12 (b) The main current, I I = 2 A (c) The current passing through 8 and 2.5 resistors. I = 2 A

- 33 -

 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity 8. The electrical components in our household appliances are connected in a combination of series and parallel circuits. The above figure shows a hair dryer which has components connected in series and parallel. Describe how the circuit works. Suggested answer  The hair dryer has three switches A, B and C  When switch A is switched on, the dryer will only blow air at ordinary room temperature  When switches A and B are both switched on, the dryer will blow hot air.  As a safety feature to prevent overheating, the heating element will not be switched on if the fan is not switched on  The hair dryer has an energy saving feature. Switch C will switch on the dryer only  when it is held by the hand of user The body of the hair dryer must be safe to hold and does not get hot easily

- 34 -

 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity

7.4 ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE AND INTERNAL RESISTANCE Electromotive force

Figure (a)
Figure (b)
e.m.f.
potential difference, V < e.m.f.,
E
E , r
R
Current flowing
No current flow

1. An electrical circuit is set up as shown in figure (a). A high resistance voltmeter is

connected across a dry cell which labeled 1.5 V.

• a) Figure (a) is (an open circuit / a closed circuit)

• b) There is (current flowing / no current flowing) in the circuit. The bulb (does not light up / lights up)

• c) The voltmeter reading shows the (amount of current flow across the dry cell / potential difference across the dry cell)

• d) The voltmeter reading is (0 V / 1.5 V / Less than 1.5 V)

• e) The potential difference across the cell in open circuit is (0 V / 1.5 V / Less than 1.5 V). Hence, the electromotive force, e.m.f., E is (0 V / 1.5 V / Less than 1.5 V)

- 35 -

 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity
• f) It means, (0 J / less than 1.5 J /

1.5 J / 3.0 J) of electrical energy is required to move 1 C

charge across the cell or around a complete circuit. 2. The switch is then closed as shown in figure (b).

• a) Figure (b) is (an open circuit / a closed circuit)

• b) There is (current flowing / no current flowing) in the circuit. The bulb (does not light up / lights up)

• c) The voltmeter reading is the (potential difference across the dry cell / potential difference across the bulb / electromotive force).

• d) The reading of the voltmeter when the switch is closed is (lower than/ the same as / higher than) when the switch is open.

• e) If the voltmeter reading in figure (b) is 1.3 V, it means, the electrical energy dissipated by 1C of charge after passing through the bulb is (0.2 J / 1.3 J / 1.5 J)

• f) The potential difference drops by (0.2 V/ 1.3 V / 1.5 V). It means, the potential difference lost across the internal resistance, r of the dry cell is (0.2 V/ 1.3 V / 1.5 V).

• g) State the relationship between e.m.f , E , potential difference across the bulb, V R and drop in potential difference due to internal resistance, V r .

Electromotive force, e.m.f., E = Potential Difference + Drop in Potential Difference

across resistor, R

due to internal resistance,r

 = V R + + V r where V R = IR and V r = Ir = IR Ir = I (R + r)

- 36 -

 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity

3.

• a) Why is the potential difference across the resistor not the same as the e.m.f. of the battery?

The potential drops as much as 0.4 V across the internal resistance

• b) Determine the value of the internal resistance.

Since

E

=

V

+

Ir

0.8

Therefore, the value of the internal resistance is 0.8

• c) Determine the value of the external resistor.

Since

V

=

IR

2.2

Therefore, the value of the external resistance is 2.2

- 37 -

 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity

Activity :

To determine the values of the electromotive force (e.m.f.) and the internal resistance, r of the cell

Ammeter

Voltmeter

V
Internal resistance
+
-
Dry cell

Switch

Rheostat

Interference
Hypothesis
Aim
Apparatus /
materials
Method
Tabulation of
data

To investigate the relationshipbetween V and I

To determine the values of the electromotive force (e.m.f.) and

the internal resistance, r of the cell

Dry cells holder, ammeter (0 – 1 A), voltmeter(0 – 5 V), rheostat (0 – 15 ), connecting

wires, switch, and 2 pieces of 1.5 V dry cell.

• d) Adjust the rheostat to produce four more sets of readings, I = 0.3 A, 0.4 A, 0.5 A and 0.6 A.

• b) Turn on the switch, and adjust the rheostat to give a small reading of the ammeter, I, 0.2 A.

• c) Read and record the readings of ammeter and voltmeter respectively

• a) Set up the circuit as shown in the figure.

 Current, I/A Volt, V/V 0.2 2.6 0.3 2.5 0.4 2.4 0.5 2.2 0.6 2.0 0.7 1.9

- 38 -

JPN Pahang
Teacher’s Guide
Physics Module Form 5
Chapter 7: Electricity
Analysis of data
:
Potential difference, V /V
Draw a graph of
V against I
3.0
-
2.0
-
1.0
-
Current, I /A
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
Discussion
:
1. From the graph plotted, state the relationship between the potential difference, V
across the cell and the current flow, I?
The potential difference, V across the cell decreases as the current flow increases.
2. A cell has an internal resistance, r. This is the resistance against the movement of
the charge due to the electrolyte in the cell. With the help of the figure, explain the
result obtained in this experiment.
When the current flowing through the circuit increases, the quantity of charge
flowing per unit time increased. Hence, more energy was lost in moving a larger
amount of charge across the electrolyte. Because of this, there was a bigger drop
in potential difference measured by the voltmeter.
3. By using the equation E = V + Ir
(a)
write down V in terms of E, I and r.
V = -rI
+
E
(b)
explain how can you determine the values of E and r from the graph plotted in
this experiment.
E = the vertical intercept of the V – I graph
R = the gradient of the V – I graph
(c)
determine the values of E and r from the graph.
By extrapolating the graph until it cuts the vertical axis,
E = 2.9 V

- 39 -

 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity r = - gradient = 1.4

Exercise 7.4

• 1 A voltmeter connected directly across a battery gives a reading of 1.5 V. The voltmeter reading drops to 1.35 V when a bulb is connected to the battery and the ammeter reading is 0.3 A. Find the internal resistance of the battery.

E = 1.5 V, V = 1.35 V, I = 0.3 A

 Substitute in : E = V + Ir 1.5 = 1.35 + 0.3(r) r = 0.5
• 2. A circuit contains a cell of e.m.f 3.0 V and internal resistance, r. If the external resistence has a value of

10.0

and the potential difference across it is 2.5 V, find the value of the current, I in the circuit and the

internal resistance, r. E = 3.0 V, R = 10

Calculate current :

, V = 2.5 V V = IR

, I = 0.25 A

Calculate internal resistance : E = I(R + r), 3.0 = 0.25(10+r)

3

r = 2.0

A simple circuit consisting of a 2 V dry cell with an internal resistance of 0.5 . When the switch is

closed, the ammeter reading is 0.4 A. Calculate

• (a) the voltmeter reading in open circuit

The voltmeter reading = e.m.f. = 2 V

• (b) the resistance, R

E

2

R

=

I(R

+

r)

= 0.4(R = 4.5

+

0.5)

(c) the voltmeter reading in closed circuit

V

=

IR

= 0.4 (4.5) = 1.8 V

4

e.m.f.

Find the voltmeter reading and the resistance, R of the resistor.

 E = V + Ir 12 = V = 11.4 V V + 0.5 (1.2)

- 40 -

 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity V = IR 11.4 = 0.5 (R) R = 22.8

5

A cell of e.m.f., E and internal resistor, r is connected

to a rheostat. The ammeter reading, I and the

voltmeter reading, V are recorded for different

resistance, R of the rheostat. The graph of V against I

is as shown.

From the graph, determine

/ V
6
2
/A
2

6

 a) the electromotive force, e.m.f., E b) the internal resistor, r of the cell E = V + Ir r = - gradient Rearrange : V = E - I r = - (6 - 2) Equivalent : y = mx + c 2 Hence, from V – I graph : E = c = intercept of V-axis = 2 = 6 V V / V The graph V against I shown was obtained from an experiment. 1.5 a) Sketch a circuit diagram for the experiment 0.2 1/A 5 b) From the graph, determine i) the internal resistance of the battery ii) the e.m.f. of the battery

=

0.26

E = c = intercept of V-axis

= 1.5 V

7

R/

1.3
0.5
- 0.2

1 (A -1 )
I

A graph of R against 1/I shown in figure was obtained

from an experiment to determine the electromotive force,

e.m.f., E and internal resistance, r of a cell. From the

graph, determine

• a) the internal resistance of the cell

E = I(R + r)

- 41 -

JPN Pahang

Teacher’s Guide

Rearrange

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity

: R =

E

I

- r,

Hence, r = -y-intersect = -(-0.2) = 0.2

• b) the e.m.f. of the cell

e.m.f. = gradient = 3 V

7.5 ELECTRICAL ENERGY AND POWER

Electrical Energy

• 1. Energy Conversion

battery
(a)
(chemical energy)
current
current

Light and heat energy

battery
(b)
(chemical energy)
current
current

Energy Conversion:

Chemical energy

Electrical energy

Light energy

+ Heat energy

Energy Conversion:

Chemical energy

Electrical energy

Kinetic energy

• 2. When an electrical appliance is switched on, the current flows and the electrical energy supplied by the source is transformed to other forms of energy.

• 3. Therefore, we can define electrical energy as : The energy carried by electrical charges which can be transformed to other forms of energy by the operation of an electrical appliance.

Electrical Energy and Electrical Power

- 42 -

 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity
 1. 3. Hence, 4. 5. Hence, Hence, Hence, Hence, 1.

Potential difference, V across two points is the energy,E dissipated or transferred by a coulomb of charge, Q that moves across the two points.

2. Therefore,

E = VQ

Power is defined as the rate of energy dissipated or transferred.

Energy dissipated, E time, t

Electrical Energy, E

Electrical Power, P

From the definition of potential

Power is the rate of transfer of electrical energy,

difference, V

t

Electrical energy converted, E

; where Q = It

; where V = IR

; where I = V R

V 2t R

P =

V

R

2

SI unit : Joule (J)

SI unit : Joule per second // J s -1 // Watt(W)

Power Rating and Energy Consumption of Various Electrical Appliances

The amount of electrical energy consumed in a given period of time can be calculated

 by Energy consumed = Power rating x Time E = Pt where energy, E is in Joules - 43 -
 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity

power, P is in watts

time, t

is in seconds

• 2. The unit of measurement used for electrical energy consumption is the

kilowatt-hour, kWh.

 1 kWh = 1000 x 3600 J = 3.6 x 10 6 J = 1 unit
• 3. One kilowatt-hour is the electrical energy dissipated or transferred by a 1 kW device in one hour

• 4. Household electrical appliances that work on the heating effect of current are usually marked with voltage, V and power rating, P.

• 5. The energy consumption of an electrical appliance depends on the power rating and the usage time, E = Pt

• 6. Power dissipated in a resistor, three ways to calculate:

 R= 100 , I=0.5 A, P=? R= 100 , V=50 W, P=? V=50 V, I=0.5 A, P=? P = I 2 R P = (V/R) 2 R = V 2 /R P = (0.5) 2 100 = 25 watts = (50) 2 /100 = 2500/100 = 25 watts = I 2 (V/I) = IV = (0.50)50 = 25 watts

Cost of energy

 Energy Power / W Power / kW Time Consumed Appliance Quantity (kWh)

- 44 -

 JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity Bulb 5 60 0.06 8 hours 2.4 Refrigerator 1 400 0.4 24 hours 9.6 Kettle 1 1500 1.5 3 hours 4.5 Iron 1 1000 1.0 2 hours 2

Electricity cost: RM 0.28 per kWh

Total energy consumed, E

Cost

= (2.4 + 9.6 + 4.5 + 2.0)

= 18.5 kWh

= 18.5 kWh x RM 0.28

= RM 5.18

Comparing Various Electrical Appliances in Terms of Efficient Use of Energy

• 1. A tungsten filament lamp changes electrical energy to useful light energy and unwanted heat energy

• 2. A fluorescent lamp or an ‘energy saving lamp’ produces less heat than a filament lamp for the same amount of light produced.

 3. Efficiency of a filament lamp : a) Efficiency = Output power x 100 Input power = 3 x 100 60 = 5 % b) Efficiency of a fluorescent lamp and an ‘energy saving lamp’ Efficiency = Output power x 100 Input power = 3 x 100 12 = 25 %