JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 
Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 
7.1 CHARGE AND ELECTRIC CURRENT
Van de Graaf
1. What is a Van de Graaff generator? Fill in each of the boxes the name of the part shown. A device that produces and store electric charges at high voltage on its dome

1 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 
Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 
2. How are electrical charges produced by a Van de Graaff generator? And what type of charges is usually produced on the dome of the generator?
When the motor of the Van de Graaff generator is switched on, it drives the rubber belt. This causes the rubber belt to against the roller and hence becomes charged.

The charge is then carried by the moving belt up to the metal dome where it is 

collected. A large amount of charge is built up on the dome 

Positive charges are usually produced on the dome of the generator. 
3. What will happen if the charged dome of the Van de Graaff is connected to the earth via a micrometer? Explain.
There is a deflection of the pointer of the meter.
This indicates an electric current flow.
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JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 

Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 


+
+
+
+
+
+
+


When the discharging metal sphere is 

brought near 
the 
charged 
dome, 


sparkling occurs. An electric current flow. 

what will 
happen if hair 
of 
a 


student is brought near to the charged dome. Give reasons for your answer. 


The metal dome attracts the hair and 


the hair stand upright. This is because of each strand of hair receives positive charges and repels each other. 
6. The flow of electrical charges produces electric current.
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JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 
Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 
Electric Current
1. Electric current consists of a flow of electrons
2. The more charges that flow through a cross section within a given time, the larger is the current.
3. Electric current is defined as the rate of flow of electric charge
4. In symbols, it is given as:
where 
I= electric current t 
Q = charge = time 
Each second, 15 coulombs of charge cross the plane. The current is I = 15 amperes. One ampere is one coulomb per second.
(i) 
The SI unit of charge is (Ampere / 

Coulomb / Volt) 

(ii) 
The SI unit of time is (minute / 

second / hour) 

(iii) 
The SI unit of current is (Ampere / 

Coulomb / Volt) is equivalent to (Cs // C ^{}^{1} s // Cs ^{}^{1} ) 

(iv) 
By rearranging the above formula, Q 

I 
t 

= ( It / _{t} 
^{/} 
I 
) 
4. If one coulomb of charge flows past in one second, then the current is one ampere.
5. 15 amperes means in each second, 15 coulomb of charge through a cross section of a conductor.
6. In a metal wire, the charges are carried by electrons.
7. Each electron carries a charge of 1.6 x 10 ^{}^{1}^{9} C.
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JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 
Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 
8. 1 C of charge is 6.25 x 10 ^{1}^{8} electrons.
Electric Field
a) 
An electric field is a region in which an electric charge experiences a force. 

b) 
An electric field can be represented by a number of lines indicate both the magnitude and direction of the field 

c) 
The principles involved in drawing electric field lines are : 

(i) 
electric field lines always extend from a positivelycharged object to 

(ii) 
a negativelycharged object to infinity, or from infinity to a negativelycharged object, electric field lines never cross each other, 

(iii) 
electric field lines are closer in a stronger electric field. 

Demo 1 : To study the electric field and the effects of an electric field. 

Apparatus & materials Extra high tension (E.H.T) power supply (0 – 5 kV), petri dish, electrodes with different shapes (pointed electrode and plane electrode), two metal plates, talcum powder, cooking oil, polystyrene ball coated with conducting paint, thread and candle. Method 

DEMO 

A) 
 5 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 
Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 
1. Set up the apparatus as shown in the above figure
2. Switch on the E.H.T. power supply and adjust the voltage to 4 kV
3. Observed the pattern formed by the talcum powder for different types of electrodes.
4. Draw the pattern of the electric field lines.
ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND A POSITIVE CHARGE 



ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND A NEGATIVE CHARGE 



ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND A POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CHARGE 
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JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 
Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 


ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND TWO NEGATIVE CHARGES 



ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND TWO POSITIVE CHARGES 



ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND A NEGATIVE CHARGE AND A POSITIVELY CHARGED PLATE 



 7 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 
Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 
ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND A POSITIVE CHARGE AND A NEGATIVELY CHARGED PLATE 



ELECTRIC FIELD BETWEEN TWO CHARGED PARALLEL PLATES 



EFFECT OF AN ELECTRIC FIELD ON A POLYSTYRENE BALL
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JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 
Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 
Observation: 


The polystyrene ball oscillated between the two plates, touching one plate after another. 
Explanation: 



When the polystyrene ball touches the negatively charged plate, the ball 


receives negative charges from the plate and experiences a repulsive force. 


polystyrene ball slightly so that it 
The ball will then move to the positively 
touches one of the metal plates 
charged plate. 


When the ball touches the plate, the ball loses some of its negative charges to the 

plate and becomes positively charged. 
EFFECT OF AN ELECTRIC FIELD ON A CANDLE FLAME
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JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 

Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 

C) 
Observation: 


The candle flame splits into two portions in opposite direction. The portion that is attracted to the negative plate is very much larger than the portion of the flame that is attracted to the positive plate. 

Explanation: 

1) 
Switch of the E.H.T and replace the 


polystyrene ball with a lighted candle. 
The heat of the flame ionizes the air 

2) 
Sketch the flame observed when the E.H.T. is switched on. 
molecules to become positive and negative charges. 



The positive charges are attracted to the 

negative plate while the negative charges are attracted to the positive plate. 



The flame is dispersed in two opposite 

directions but more to the negative plate. 
Conclusion
1. Electric field is a region where an electric charge experiences a force.
2. Like charges repel each other but opposite charges attract each other.
3. Electric field lines are lines of force in an electric field. The direction of the field lines is from positive to negative.
Exercise 7.1
1. 5 C of charge flows through a wire in 10 s. What is the current in the wire?
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JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 

Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 

Q 
= 
It 

I 
= 
Q/t 

= 
5 / 10 

= 
0.5 A 



current in the bulb? 

Q 
= 
It 

I 
= 
Q/t 

= 
300 / 120 

= 
2.5 A 



Q 
= 
It 

= 
0.2 (60 x 60) 

= 
720 C 

Q = 

= 
0.8 (60) 
Convert: 1 minute = 60s 

= 
48 C 
1.6 x 10 ^{}^{1}^{9} C of charge Hence, 48 C of charges is brought by
1 electron. 48 C 1.6 x 10 ^{}^{1}^{9} C
= 3 x 10 ^{2}^{0} electrons
5. An electric current of 200 mA flows through a resistor for 3 seconds, what is the
(a) electric charge
(b) the number of electrons which flow through the resistor?
a) Q 
= 
It 

= 
200 x 10 ^{}^{3} (3) 

= 
0.6 C 

b) 
1.6 x 10 ^{}^{1}^{9} C of charge 
1 electron. 

Hence, 0.6 C of charges is 
0.6 C 
= 3.75 x 10 ^{1}^{8} electrons 

1.6 x 10 ^{}^{1}^{9} C 
Ideas of Potential Difference
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JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 
Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 
(a)
where W is work or energy in Joule (J) Q is charge in Coulomb (C)
=
Electric potential at A is greater than the electric potential at
Electric current flows from A to B, passing the bulb in the circuit and lights up the bulb. This is due to the electric potential difference between the two terminals. As the charges flow from A to B, work is done when electrical energy is transformed to light and heat energy. The potential difference, V between two points in a circuit is defined as the amount of work done, W when one coulomb of charge passes from one point to the other point in an electric field.
The potential difference,V between the two points will be given by:
 12 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 
Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 
Device and symbol
Measuring Current and Potential Difference/Voltage
Measurement of electricity 
Measurement of potential difference/voltage 




(a) Electrical circuit 
(a) Electrical circuit 




(b) Circuit diagram 
(b) Circuit diagram 

1. 
Name the device used to measure 
1. 
Name the device used to measure 
 13 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 
Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 
electrical current. 
potential difference. 
An ammeter 
A voltmeter 


Amperes 
difference? 
Volts 

(b) What is the symbol for the unit of current? 
(b) What is the symbol for the unit of 
A

potential difference? 
V




In series 
electrical circuit? 
In parallel 



is connected to which terminal of the dry cell? 

Positive 
cell? 
Positive 



terminal of the ammeter is connected to the negative terminal of the dry cell? 

The ammeter needle will deflect and show reading below zero. 
Exp 1:
To investigate the relationship between current and potential difference for an ohmic conductor.
 14 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 
Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 
(a)
(b)
Figure (a) and figure (b) show two electrical circuits. Why do the ammeters show different
readings? Why do the bulbs light up with different intensity? Referring to the figure (a) and (b),
(i) Make one suitable inference.
(ii) State one appropriate hypothesis that could be investigated.
(iii) Design an experiment to investigate the hypothesis.
_{I}_{n}_{f}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e} 

The higher the current flows through a wire, the higher the potential difference across Hypothesis it. 

To determine the relationship between current and potential difference for a Aim constantan wire. 

(i) manipul 

ated variable 
: current, I 

(ii) respondi 
: potential difference, V 


ng variable 
: length of the wire // cross sectional area // 
(iii) fixed 
temperature 

variable 

Apparatus / 


materials 
 15 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 
Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 
2. Turn on the switch and adjust the rheostat so that the ammeter reads the current, I= 0.2 A.
4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for I = 0.3 A, 0.4 A, 0.5 A, 0.6 A and 0.7 A.
3. Read and record the potential difference, V across the wire.
1. Set up the apparatus as shown in the figure.
Current,I/A 
Volt, V/V 
0.2 
1.0 
0.3 
1.5 
0.4 
2.0 
0.5 
2.5 
0.6 
3.0 
0.7 
3.5 
Draw a graph of V against I
Potential difference, V /V
Current, I /A
2.0
4.0
3.0
1.0
Discussion 
: 
1. 
From the graph plotted. 

(a) 
What is the shape of the VI graph? 

The graph of V against I is a straight line that passes through origin 
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JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 

Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 



This shows that the potential difference, V is directly proportional to the current, I. 



V 

The gradient ≡ the ratio of 
is a constant as current increases. 

I 



3.5 

= 5 

o .7 



It is to control the current flow in the circuit 

Conclusion 
: 
The potential difference, V across a conductor increases when the current, I passing through it increases as long as the conductor is kept at constant temperature. 
Ohm’s Law
(a)
Ohm’s law states
 17 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 
Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 
that the electric current, I flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across the ends of the conductor,
if temperature and other physical conditions remain constant

V 
I = constant µ 
I 

V 

or 
_{I} 
= constant 
(c) The constant is known as resistance, R of the conductor.
(d) The resistance, R is a term that describes the opposition experienced by the electrons as they flow in a conductor. It is also defined as the ratio of the potential difference across the conductor to the current, I flowing through the conductor. That is
and
V = I R
(e) The unit of resistance is volt per ampere (V A ^{}^{1} ) or ohm ( )
(f) An ohmic conductor is one which obeys Ohm’s law, while a conductor which does not obey Ohm’s law is known as a nonohmic conductor
Factors Affecting Resistance
1. The resistance of a conductor is a measure of the ability of the conductor to (resist / allow) the flow of an electric current through it.
 18 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 
Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 
2.
From the formula V = IR, the current I is (directly / inversely) proportional to the
resistance, R.
3.
4.
5.
When the value of the resistance, R is large, the current, I flowing in the conductor is (small / large)
What are the factors affecting the resistance of a conductor?
a) the length of the conductor
b) the crosssectional area of the conductor
c) type of material of the conductor
d) the temperature of the conductor
Write down the relevant hypothesis for the factors affecting the resistance in the table below.
 19 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 
Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 
crosssectional area
Hence, resistance of a conductor, R
µ
length
crosssectional area
Or
R µ
or
R =
where
=
resistivity of the
substance
Exercise 7.2
1. Tick (√) the correct answers
 20 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 

Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 

True 
False 

(a) 
Unit of potential difference is J C ^{}^{1} 
√ 

(b) 
J C ^{}^{1} ≡ volt, V 
√ 

The potential difference between two points is 1 volt if 1 joule 

(c) 
of work is required to move a charge of 1 coulomb from one 
√ 

point to another. 

(d) 
2 volt is two joules of work done to move 2 coulomb of charge from one to another in an electric field. 
√ 

(e) 
Potential difference ≡ Voltage 
√ 

I t 
t 

Q = ( It / 
^{/} 
I 
) 

ii) Work done, W = (QV / 
_{Q} 
) 
iii) Base on your answer in 2(i) and (ii) derive the work done, W in terms of I, V and t.
W 
= 
QV 
= 
ItV 
3. If a charge of 5.0 C flows through a wire and the amount of electrical energy converted into heat is 2.5 J. Calculate the potential differences across the ends of the wire.
W 
= 
QV 
2.5 
= 
5.0 (V) 
V 
= 
0.5 V 
4. A light bulb is switched on for a period of time. In that period of time, 5 C of charges passed through it and 25 J of electrical energy is converted to light and heat energy. What is the potential difference across the bulb?
W 
= 
QV 
25 
= 
5 (V) 
V 
= 
5 V 
5. The potential difference of 10 V is used to operate an electric motor. How much work is done in moving 3 C of electric charge through the motor?
W 
= 
QV 
= 
3 (10) 
 21 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 

Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 

= 
30 J 

Bulb
3 A
A
20


V 

W 
= 
VIt 

= 
20 (3) (50) 

= 
3000 J 



= 

= 
0.5 (5) 

= 
2.5 V 
8. A potential difference of 3.0 V applied across a resistor of resistance R drives a current of 2.0 A through it. Calculate R.
= 

3.0 
= 
2.0 (R) 
R 
= 
1.5 
9. What is the value of the resistor in the figure, if the
dry cells
supply
2.0
reading is 0.5 A?
V
and
the ammeter
V 
= 
IR 
2.0 
= 
0.5 (R) 
R 
= 
4 
10. If the bulb in the figure has a resistance of 6 what is the reading shown on the ammeter, if the dry cells supply 3 V?
,
V
=
IR
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JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 

Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 

3.0 
= 
I (6) 

= 
11. If a current of 0.5 A flows through the resistor of 3 in the figure, calculate the voltage supplied by the dry cells?
V IR
=
=
0.5 (3)
V 1.5 V
=
12. The graph shows the result of an experiment to determine the resistance of a wire. The resistance of the wire is
From VI graph, resistance 
= gradient 
1.2 

= = 0.24 5 
13. An experiment was conducted to measure the current, I flowing through a constantan wire when the potential difference V across it was varied. The graph shows the results of the experiment. What is the resistance of the resistor?
From VI graph, resistance
=1/ gradient 

=1/ ( 
8 x10 ^{} ^{3} 
) 
4 

=1/( 2.0 x 10 ^{}^{3} ) = 500 
V/V
I/A
14.Referring to the diagram on the right, calculate
(a) The current flowing through the resistor.
V
=
IR
 23 
I 5
12 V
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 

Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 

12 
= 
I (5) 

I 
= 
2.4 A 
(b) The amount of electric through the resistor in 30 s charge that 
passes 

Q 
= 
It 

= 
2.4 (30) 

= 
72 C 

(c) The amount of work done to transform the 
electric energy to the heat energy in 30 s.
W 
= 
QV 
or 
W 
= VIt 
= 
72 (12) 
= 12(2.4)(30) 

= 
864 J 
= 864 J 
15. Figure shows a torchlight that uses two 1.5 V dry cells. The two dry cells are able to provide a current of 0.3 A when the bulb is at its normal brightness. What is the resistance of the filament?
V 
= 
IR 
3.0 
= 
0.3(R) 
R 
= 
10 
16. The diagram shows four metal rods of P, Q, R and S made of the same substance.
a) Which of the rod has the most resistance? P
b) Which of the rod has the least resistance? S
17. The graph shows the relationship between the potential difference, V and current, I flowing through two conductors, X and Y.
 24 
V/V
Y
I/A
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 
Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 
a) Calculate the resistance of conductor X.
From VI graph, resistance = gradient 8 2

= 
= 4 
From VI graph, resistance = gradient 2 2 
= = 1 
c) If the cross sectional area of X is 5.0 x 10 ^{}^{6} m ^{2} , and the length of X is 1.2 m, calculate its resistivity.
18. The graph shows a graph of I against V for three conductors, P, Q and R.
i) Q Compare the resistance of conductor P, Q and R. R _{R} > R _{Q} >R _{p}
ii)
Explain your answer in (a)
From IV graph, resistance
= 1/gradient
The greater the gradient, the lower the resistance Gradient of P > Gradient of Q > Gradient of R Thus, R _{R} > R _{Q} >R _{p}
l 

R 
= 

A 

RA 

ρ 
= 
l 

= 
4( 5.0 x10 
6 
) 

1.2 

= 1.67 x 10 ^{}^{5} 
m 

I/A 
V/V
 25 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 
Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 
19. Figure shows a wire P of length, l with a cross sectional area, A and a resistance, R. Another wire, Q is a conductor of the same material with a length of 3l and twice the crosssectional area of P. What is resistance of Q in terms of R?
21. Figure shows the circuit used to investigate the relationship between potential difference, V and current, I for a piece of constantan wire. The graph of V against I from the experiment is as shown in the figure below.
 26 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 
Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 
(a) What quantities are kept constant in this experiment? Length // crosssectional area // type of material // temperature of the wire
(b) State the changes in the gradient of the graph, if i) the constantan wire is heated
R ≠, gradient
≠ // the resistance increases, hence the gradient increases
ii) a constantan wire of a smaller crosssectional area is used
R ≠, gradient
≠ // the resistance increases, hence the gradient increases
iii)a shorter constantan wire is used
R , gradient
// the resistance decreases, hence the gradient decreases
7.3 SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS
Current Flow and Potential Difference in Series and Parallel Circuit
 27 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 

Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 

SERIES CIRCUIT 
PARALLEL CIRCUIT 

I 


V 





I = I _{1} = I _{2} = I _{3} 
V = V _{1} = V _{2} = V _{3} 

The 


potential difference supplied by the dry cells is 
resistor. The current in the circuit equals to the 

shared by all the bulbs / resistors. 
sum of the currents passing through the bulbs / resistors in its parallel branches. 

V = V _{1} + V _{2} + V _{3} 
where V is the potential difference across the battery 
I = I _{1} + I _{2} + I _{3} 
where I is the total current from the battery 




V 
= V _{1} + V _{2} + V _{3} 
I 
= 
I _{1} 
+ I _{2} + 
I _{3} 

IR = IR _{1} + IR _{2} + IR _{3} 
V 
V 
V 
V 

R 
= 
R 
+ R 
+ 
R 

1 
2 
3 

If each term in the equation is divided by I, we get the effective resistance 
If each term in the equation is divided by V, we get the effective resistance 

R = R _{1} + R _{2} + + R _{3} 
1 R 
= 
1 R 
1 + 1 R 2 
+ 
1 R 3 
Identify series circuit or parallel circuit
 28 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 

Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 





(a) 
(b) 
(c) 
(d) 
Series 
Parallel 
A, B  series 
Q, S  parallel 
 29 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 
Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 
Effective resistance, R

(b) 

(a) 

R = 20 + 10 + 5= 35 

1/R 
= ½ +1/5 + 1/10 = 4/5 

Effective R = 1.25 


(d) 

(c) 

1/R = 1/8 + 1/8= 1/8 R = 4 

1/R 
=1/16 + 1/8 + 1/8 

Effective R = 20 + 10 + 4 = 34 
=5/16 

Effective 
R = 3.2 

(e) 


1/R = 1/4 + 1/2=3/4 R = 1.33 Effective R = 1.33 + 1 = 2.33 
(f) 1/R = 1/4 + 1/12=1/3 R = 3 Effective R = 3 + 2 = 5 




(h) 

(g) Effective R = 2+5+3+10 = 20 
1/R = 1/20 + 1/20=1/10 R = 10 Effective R = 10 + 10 + 5 =2 5 




(i) 1/R = 1/5 + 1/10=3/10 R = 3.33 
(j) 1/R = 1/10 + 1/10=2/10 R = 5 
 30 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 
Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 
Solve problems using V = IR
Exercise 7.3
12 =I(5) = 2.4 A
1. 
The two bulbs in the figure have a resistance of 2 
and 3 
0.5A 

respectively. If the voltage of the dry cell is 2.5 V, calculate 



Effective R = 2 + 3 = 5 
2Ω 
3Ω 


(c) the potential difference across each bulb. 

V 
= IR 
2 
: V 
= IR = (0.5)(2) = 1V 

2.5 
=I(5) 
3 
: V 
= IR = (0.5)(3) = 1.5 V 

= 0.5 A 
 31 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 

Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 

2. 

There are two resistors in the circuit shown. Resistor R _{1} has a resistance of 1 . If a 3V voltage causes a current of 0.5A to flow through the circuit, calculate the resistance of R _{2} . V = IR 3=0.5(1+R _{2} ) R _{2} = 5 

3. 

The electrical current flowing through each branch, I _{1} and I _{2} , is 5 

A. 
Both bulbs have the same resistance, which is 2 . Calculate 

the voltage supplied. 

Parallelcircuit;V =V _{1} =V _{2} = IR _{1} or = IR _{2} = 5(2) = 10 V 

4. 
The voltage supplied to the parallel is 3 V. R _{1} and R _{2} 


have a resistance of 5 
and 20 . Calculate 



3 V (parallel circuit) 



1/R = 1/5 + 1/20 =1/4 R = 4 


(d) the current passing through each resistor 

V = IR 3 =I(4) = 0.75 A 
5 
: 
V = IR 3 =I(5) I = 0.6 A 
20 
: 
V = IR 3 =I(20) I = 0.15 A 

5. 
In the circuit shown, what is the reading on the ammeter when switch, S 



(b) is closed? 

Effective R = 6 V = IR 12 =I(6) I = 2 A 
Effective R = 4 V = IR 12 =I(4) I = 3 A 
 32 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 
Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 
6.
7.
Determine the voltmeter reading.
(b)
R = 12 I = 6/12 = 0.5A 


: 
V= IR 
= (0.5)(9) = 4.5 V 

V reading : 6 – 4.5 = 1.5 V 
Calculate
(a)
The effective resistance, R
R = 12 

(b) 
The main current, I 

I 
= 2 A 

(c) 
The current passing through 8 and 2.5 

resistors. 

I 
= 2 A 
 33 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 

Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 

8. 


The electrical components in our household appliances are connected in a combination of series and parallel circuits. The above figure shows a hair dryer which has components connected in series and parallel. Describe how the circuit works. 

Suggested answer 




The hair dryer has three switches A, B and C 


When 
switch A is switched 
on, 
the 
dryer 
will only blow air at ordinary room 

temperature 


When switches A and B are both switched on, the dryer will blow hot air. 


As a safety feature to prevent overheating, the heating element will not be switched on if the fan is not switched on 


The hair dryer has an energy saving feature. 
Switch C will switch on the dryer only 


when it is held by the hand of user The body of the hair dryer must be safe to hold and does not get hot easily 
 34 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 
Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 
7.4 ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE AND INTERNAL RESISTANCE Electromotive force
1. An electrical circuit is set up as shown in figure (a). A high resistance voltmeter is
connected across a dry cell which labeled 1.5 V.
a) Figure (a) is (an open circuit / a closed circuit)
b) There is (current flowing / no current flowing) in the circuit. The bulb (does not light up / lights up)
c) The voltmeter reading shows the (amount of current flow across the dry cell / potential difference across the dry cell)
d) The voltmeter reading is (0 V / 1.5 V / Less than 1.5 V)
e) The potential difference across the cell in open circuit is (0 V / 1.5 V / Less than 1.5 V). Hence, the electromotive force, e.m.f., E is (0 V / 1.5 V / Less than 1.5 V)
 35 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 
Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 
f) It means, (0 J / less than 1.5 J /
1.5 J / 3.0 J) of electrical energy is required to move 1 C
charge across the cell or around a complete circuit. 2. The switch is then closed as shown in figure (b).
a) Figure (b) is (an open circuit / a closed circuit)
b) There is (current flowing / no current flowing) in the circuit. The bulb (does not light up / lights up)
c) The voltmeter reading is the (potential difference across the dry cell / potential difference across the bulb / electromotive force).
d) The reading of the voltmeter when the switch is closed is (lower than/ the same as / higher than) when the switch is open.
e) If the voltmeter reading in figure (b) is 1.3 V, it means, the electrical energy dissipated by 1C of charge after passing through the bulb is (0.2 J / 1.3 J / 1.5 J)
f) The potential difference drops by (0.2 V/ 1.3 V / 1.5 V). It means, the potential difference lost across the internal resistance, r of the dry cell is (0.2 V/ 1.3 V / 1.5 V).
g) State the relationship between e.m.f , E , potential difference across the bulb, V _{R} and drop in potential difference due to internal resistance, V _{r} .
Electromotive force, e.m.f., E = Potential Difference + Drop in Potential Difference
across resistor, R
due to internal resistance,r
= 
V _{R} + + 
V _{r} 
where V _{R} = IR and V _{r} = Ir 

= 
IR 
Ir 

= 
I (R 
+ 
r) 
 36 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 
Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 
3.
a) Why is the potential difference across the resistor not the same as the e.m.f. of the battery?
The potential drops as much as 0.4 V across the internal resistance
b) Determine the value of the internal resistance.
Since 
E 
= 
V 
+ 
Ir 

1.5 
= 
1.1 
+ 
0.5 r 

r 
= 
0.8 

Therefore, the value of the internal resistance is 0.8 



Since 
V 
= 
IR 

1.1 
= 
0.5 R 

R 
= 
2.2 
Therefore, the value of the external resistance is 2.2
 37 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 
Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 
Activity :
To determine the values of the electromotive force (e.m.f.) and the internal resistance, r of the cell
Ammeter
Voltmeter
Switch
Rheostat
To investigate the relationshipbetween V and I
To determine the values of the electromotive force (e.m.f.) and
the internal resistance, r of the cell
Dry cells holder, ammeter (0 – 1 A), voltmeter(0 – 5 V), rheostat (0 – 15 ), connecting
wires, switch, and 2 pieces of 1.5 V dry cell.
d) Adjust the rheostat to produce four more sets of readings, I = 0.3 A, 0.4 A, 0.5 A and 0.6 A.
b) Turn on the switch, and adjust the rheostat to give a small reading of the ammeter, I, 0.2 A.
c) Read and record the readings of ammeter and voltmeter respectively
a) Set up the circuit as shown in the figure.
Current, I/A 
Volt, V/V 
0.2 
2.6 
0.3 
2.5 
0.4 
2.4 
0.5 
2.2 
0.6 
2.0 
0.7 
1.9 
 38 
 39 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 

Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 

r =  gradient 

= 1.4 
Exercise 7.4
_{1} A voltmeter connected directly across a battery gives a reading of 1.5 V. The voltmeter reading drops to 1.35 V when a bulb is connected to the battery and the ammeter reading is 0.3 A. Find the internal resistance of the battery.
E = 1.5 V, V = 1.35 V, I = 0.3 A
Substitute in : 
E 
= 
V 
+ 
Ir 

1.5 = 
1.35 + 0.3(r) 

r 
= 0.5 
2. A circuit contains a cell of e.m.f 3.0 V and internal resistance, r. If the external resistence has a value of
10.0
and the potential difference across it is 2.5 V, find the value of the current, I in the circuit and the
internal resistance, r. E = 3.0 V, R = 10
Calculate current :
, V = 2.5 V V = IR
, I = 0.25 A
Calculate internal resistance : E = I(R + r), 3.0 = 0.25(10+r)
_{3}
r = 2.0
A simple circuit consisting of a 2 V dry cell with an internal resistance of 0.5 . When the switch is
closed, the ammeter reading is 0.4 A. Calculate
(a) the voltmeter reading in open circuit
The voltmeter reading = e.m.f. = 2 V
(b) the resistance, R
E
2
R
=
I(R
+
r)
= 0.4(R = 4.5
+
0.5)
(c) the voltmeter reading in closed circuit
V
=
IR
= 0.4 (4.5) = 1.8 V
_{4}
Find the voltmeter reading and the resistance, R of the resistor.
E 
= V + 
Ir 
12 = V = 11.4 V V + 
0.5 (1.2) 
 40 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 

Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 

V 
= 
IR 

11.4 
= 0.5 (R) 

R 
= 22.8 
5
A cell of e.m.f., E and internal resistor, r is connected
to a rheostat. The ammeter reading, I and the
voltmeter reading, V are recorded for different
resistance, R of the rheostat. The graph of V against I
is as shown.
From the graph, determine
6
a) 
the electromotive force, e.m.f., E 
b) the internal resistor, r of the cell 

E 
= 
V 
+ 
Ir 
r =  gradient 

Rearrange : V 
= 
E 
 
I r 
=  (6 
 
2) 

Equivalent : y 
= mx 
+ c 
2 

Hence, from V – I graph : E = c = intercept of Vaxis 
= 2 

= 6 V 

V / V 

The graph V against I shown was obtained from an experiment. 


1.5 


a) 
Sketch a circuit diagram for the experiment 


0.2 

1/A 

5 

b) 
From the graph, determine 

i) 
the internal resistance of the battery 
ii) the e.m.f. of the battery 
r = gradient
=
0.26
E = c = intercept of Vaxis
= 1.5 V
7
R/
1 (A ^{}^{1} )
I
A graph of R against 1/I shown in figure was obtained
from an experiment to determine the electromotive force,
e.m.f., E and internal resistance, r of a cell. From the
graph, determine
a) the internal resistance of the cell
E = I(R + r)
 41 
JPN Pahang
Teacher’s Guide
Rearrange
Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity
: R =
E
I
 r,
Hence, r = yintersect = (0.2) = 0.2
b) the e.m.f. of the cell
e.m.f. = gradient = 3 V
7.5 ELECTRICAL ENERGY AND POWER
Electrical Energy
1. Energy Conversion
Light and heat energy
Energy Conversion:
Chemical energy
Electrical energy
Light energy
+ Heat energy
Energy Conversion:
Chemical energy
Electrical energy
Kinetic energy
2. When an electrical appliance is switched on, the current flows and the electrical energy supplied by the source is transformed to other forms of energy.
3. Therefore, we can define electrical energy as : The energy carried by electrical charges which can be transformed to other forms of energy by the operation of an electrical appliance.
Electrical Energy and Electrical Power
 42 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 
Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 
1. 

3. 
Hence, 
4. 

5. 
Hence, 
Hence, 

Hence, 

Hence, 

1. 
Potential difference, V across two points is the energy,E dissipated or transferred by a coulomb of charge, Q that moves across the two points.
2. Therefore,
Power is defined as the rate of energy dissipated or transferred.
Electrical Energy, E 
Electrical Power, P 

From the definition of potential 
Power is the rate of transfer of electrical energy, 

difference, V 
E 
E 

V = 
Q 
P = 
t 

Electrical energy converted, E 

P = 
VQ 

E = VQ 
; where Q = It 
t 

E = VI t 
; where V = IR 
P = VI 

E = I ^{2} Rt 
; where I = V R 
P = 
I ^{2} R 

E = 
V ^{2} t R 
P = 
V R 
2 

SI unit : Joule (J) 
SI unit : Joule per second // J s ^{}^{1} // Watt(W) 
Power Rating and Energy Consumption of Various Electrical Appliances
The amount of electrical energy consumed in a given period of time can be calculated
by Energy consumed 
= 
Power rating 
x 
Time 

E 
= 
Pt 
where 
energy, E is in Joules 

 43  
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 
Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 
power, P is in watts
time, t
is in seconds
2. The unit of measurement used for electrical energy consumption is the
kilowatthour, kWh.
1 kWh 
= 
1000 x 3600 J 
= 
3.6 x 10 6 J 

= 
1 unit 
3. One kilowatthour is the electrical energy dissipated or transferred by a 1 kW device in one hour
4. Household electrical appliances that work on the heating effect of current are usually marked with voltage, V and power rating, P.
5. The energy consumption of an electrical appliance depends on the power rating and the usage time, E = Pt
6. Power dissipated in a resistor, three ways to calculate:




R= 100 
, I=0.5 A, P=? 
R= 100 
, V=50 W, P=? 
V=50 V, I=0.5 A, P=? 

P 
= I ^{2} R 
P = (V/R) ^{2} R = V ^{2} /R 
P 

= (0.5) ^{2} 100 = 25 watts 
= (50) ^{2} /100 = 2500/100 = 25 watts 
= I ^{2} (V/I) = IV = (0.50)50 = 25 watts 
Cost of energy
Energy 

Power / W 
Power / kW 
Time 
Consumed 

Appliance 
Quantity 
(kWh) 
 44 
JPN Pahang 
Physics Module Form 5 

Teacher’s Guide 
Chapter 7: Electricity 

Bulb 
5 
60 
0.06 
8 hours 
2.4 
Refrigerator 
1 
400 
0.4 
24 hours 
9.6 
Kettle 
1 
1500 
1.5 
3 hours 
4.5 
Iron 
1 
1000 
1.0 
2 hours 
2 
Electricity cost: RM 0.28 per kWh
Total energy consumed, E
Cost
= (2.4 + 9.6 + 4.5 + 2.0)
= 18.5 kWh
= 18.5 kWh x RM 0.28
= RM 5.18
Comparing Various Electrical Appliances in Terms of Efficient Use of Energy
1. A tungsten filament lamp changes electrical energy to useful light energy and unwanted heat energy
2. A fluorescent lamp or an ‘energy saving lamp’ produces less heat than a filament lamp for the same amount of light produced.
a) 

Efficiency 
= 
Output power x 100 Input power 

= 
3 x 100 

60 

= 
5 % 

b) 
Efficiency of a fluorescent lamp and an ‘energy 

saving lamp’ 

Efficiency 
= 
Output power x 100 Input power 

= 
3 x 100 

12 

= 
25 % 