We look to grow and develop as a nation through socialism, a political philosophy that strives for equality and can

key to progress in a democratic society: THE RISE OF THE MODERN STATE: Nationalistic fervors gave rise to the modern state that arose out of the nationalistic. People wanted their government to be based on similar nationality and culture, instead of multinational governments. People desired that governments be unified and fought for it. Examples include Italy and Germany. A national group within borders that would work for common interests became the modern state. DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL PARTIES AND IDEOLOGIES: Political parties arose to represent varying aspects of society which include people who have common interests and goals. New ideals could lead to the rise of a new political party such as the Tories and Whigs of England. The Whigs who supported the middle class and the Tories representing aristocracy. Ideologies brought fourth could create revolutions that would sweep a nation. Such as the industrial revolution in which workers that was treated terribly, created unions and new ideologies on how to run industrial factories and fight politically for their voice to be heard. EXTENSION AND LIMITATION OF RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES: The Enlightenment brought more rights to people, and others opened voting to more of the population. Gladstone’s Reform Act of 1884, where suffrage was given to all males who owned land and paid rent and taxes. Women were also largely oppressed despite enlightenment ideas. The Industrialization was a representation of these ideas; females were restricted in pay work hours. NATIONALISM AND FORMS OF PROTEST AND REVOLUTION: Nationalism rose out of France under the leadership of Napoleon Bonaparte’s and was spread by his conquest. His example led other countries to seek independence after is rule the Congress of Vienna began, nationalism was already an established force and threatened established balance of power. German and Italian people companies sought their independence, and through war were able to obtain it. Boundaries were established and more representative of language and culture, and a few countries contained multinational such as Austria-Hungary. Oppression of workers were the most likely reasons for protest and revolution and socialism promoted strikes a d lead to people such as Bismarck making concessions in fear of workers. COLONIALISM AND IMPERIALISM: Counties looked to expand their power by seeking out raw materials and wealth from other areas around the world. In places like Asia and Africa European countries planted colonies by force and in competition with each other. In Africa it was the British and Dutch were battling for dominance in Africa. The British suffered a great number of casualties. Chinese were significantly weekend by the entrance of these European powers and the Japanese warded off Europeans by becoming military power, and defeating the Russians and Korea became one of their colonies.