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Third Semester B.E. Degree Examination, Dec.09/Jan.10
Discrete Mathematical Structures
Note: A nswer any FI VE full questitms, s electing


Time: 3 hrs.

Max. Marks:lOO

at least TWO questions f rom eaclt p art.

a. Let x be the set of all three digit integers that is x = {x is an integer I I00 5. x 5. 999}. If Ai is the set of numbers in x whose ith digit is i, compute the cardinality of the set A.vAzu A3(05 Marks)


Using the laws of set theory, simplify each of the following:
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ii) (AuB)nCvB i) An(B - A) c. State and prove Demorgan's laws set theory. d. Among the integers l - 200 fmd the numbers of integer's that are: i) Divisible by 2 or 5 or 9 ii) Not divisible by 5 iii) Not divisible by 2 or 5 or 9 iv) Divisible by 5 or not by 2 or 9

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a. Define tautology S.T ((pvq) n (p-H)" ( q __.. r)] - H is a tautology by constructing truth table. (OS Marks) b. Prove the following by using laws oflogic : ii) [- p" (- q M)]v [(q M) v (p M)] <::> r (OS Marks) i) p __.. (q __.. r) <::> (p "q) __.. r c. Verify the principles of duality for the logical equivalence : i) - (p "q) __.._ pv(- p v q) ~- p v q ii) P.T.(p" (p __.. q) 1\T] => (p v q) __.. r (05 Marks) d. Check whether the following is a valid argument: Ifl study, then I will not fail in the examination. If I do not watch T.V. in the evening I will study. I failedinthe examination (OS Marks) :. I must have watch T.V. in the evening. a. Define an open statement. Write down the negation of following statements: i) For all integer 'n' ifn is not divisible by 2 then n is odd. ii) Ifk, m, n are any integers when (k - m) and (m- n) are odd then (k - n) is even.
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b. For the universe of all integers, defme the following open statements: Let p(x) : x > 0, s(x) : xis divisible by 3, q(x) : xis even, r(x) : x is a perfect square, t(x) : x is divisible by 7. Write down the following quantified statements in symbolise form: i) At least one integer is even ii) Some even integers are divisible by 3 iii) For every integer is either even or odd iv) Ifx is even and a perfect square then xis not divisible by 3 v) Ifx is odd or is not divisible by 7 then xis divisible by 3. _ (OS Marks) c. i) PT 3 xq(x) follows logically from the premises \ixp(x) __.. q(x) and 3xp(x) ii) PT the following argument is valid where 'C' is the specification element of universe iix(p(x) __.. q(x)] iix[q(x) __.. r(x)] -r(c)/ : .-p(c) d. Give direct proof of the statement if n is odd integer and n2 is an odd integer.
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a. Prove

mathematical induction _ n(n+l} 1 + 2 + 3 + . .... + n by




(+ )ve






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b. A sequence (a.} is defined successively by a1 = 4, a.. = a,.1 +n, for n ~ 2 find an explicit form. (OS Mark.t) c. The fibonacci numbers are defined recursively by Fo = 0, F 1 - I and F.= Fn-t+Fn-2 for n ~ 2. Evaluate F2 to F 10. (OS Mark.t) d. The Ackermann's number. Am.n arc defined recursively form, n eN as follows: Ao,n = n + I, for n ~ 0 Am.o = Am-1.1 form :2: 0 Am,n = Am-l.p where p = Am.n·l form m, n ~ 0 P.T. A 1 ..,- n + 2 for all n eN (OS Mark.t)

PART-B a. Let A = {I 2 3 4}. Let 'R' be a relation on A defined by xRy iff x/y andy= 2x write down: i) 'R' is a relation of set of ordered pairs ii) Draw di-graph of R iii) Determine in degrees and out-degrees of a diagraph (OS Mark.t) b. Define the following terms and give an example for each: i) Reflexive ii) Irreflexive iii) Anti symmetric iv) Transitive v) Symmetry (OS Mark.t) c. Let R be an equivalence relation on A and (ab)eA then ST the following statement are: i) a e [a] or a e R(a) ii) aRb iff, [a]= [b] or R(a) = R(b) iii) [a] n [b] '#+then [a]= [b) (OS Mark.t) d. Draw the hasse diagram respresented by the positive divisor of 36. (OS Marks)


Let A = B • {I 2 3 4} i) f={l 1}(2 3)(3 4)(42) ii)JctA a {abc}.B = {12 3 4} f = {(a l){b I) (c4)} iii) A= {I 2 3 4}, b ={abc d}, f= {(I a) (2 a) (3d) (4 c)} . Determine ·r is one-one or on to. (OS Mark.t) b. Ifm and n are positive integers with I S n 5 m, P.T. s(m +I, n) = s(m, n- I)~ n s(m, n)

c. d. 7

If f: A~ B is invertible then it has unique inverse. State Pigeon-hole principle. If (n + I) number are chosen from I to 2n at least one pair add to (2n + I). (OS Mark.t)

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a. Define Abelian group. Prove that a group G is abelian if and only if for all a, b e G, (a, b)" 1 = a" 1b'1 (OS Mark.t) b. Define a cyclic group,show that every cyclic group is abelian but the converse is not true.
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e. State and prove Lagrange's theorem. (OS Mark.t) d. Let f: G ~ H be a homomorphism from G into H. If G is abelian, prove that H is also abelian. (OS Marks) 8 a. Prove that every field is an integral domain. b. S is a subring of R if and only if: i) For all a, beS, we have a+ b eS and abeS ii) For all aeS, we have -aeS c. Show that Zs is an integral domain. d. Prove that Zn is a field if and only if n is a prime.
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