# Chapter 16: Blending and Agitation Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers, 5th Edition by Stephen Hall

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136702 Data Lookup and Calculations Nre Reynolds number gc Conversion factor NQ Pumping number Q Pumping capacity NP Power number .000672 Tank Geometry T Diameter H Filled Height Impeller Lowest impeller Type Diameter Projected blade height Distance to mounting flange Distance to lower bearing Distance off bottom Second impeller Type Diameter Projected blade height Distance to mounting flange Speed m m 3 3.8 320.5 ft ft 9.8 9.42 1.088 1.43 0.041667 ft ft 4 0.25 0.9397 1.48294 D1 W1 L1 L' C m m m m m 2 ft ft ft ft ft 6.56168 0 0 0 0 D2 W2 L2 N Baffles B m m m rps 2 ft ft ft rps 6.3 .42 Number of baffles Baffle width Space between baffle and wall m m 4 0.82021 0.001 lb/ft3 lb/ft-s 62.56168 0 0 1.3 ft3/s 12778151 32.Problem Statement: Calculate the blend time for a mixer with one or two impellers Inputs Fluid Mixing purpose Degree of agitation Fluid density Fluid viscosity SI Units US Units ro mu kg/m3 kg/m-s 1000 0.17 0.84252 11.lower impeller m3/s 12780000 1 0.

74004 3.40 ft3 13945983 Turbulent 9 99% 14.5164 NP P P Power number . Np^(1/3) * Nre Mixing zone Theta95 Mixing time.40 s m3 .2 873. 95% uniformity s 13948001 Turbulent 9 99% 14.01 159.3 87867. 95% uniformity Desired mixing uniformity Adjusted mixing time Volume Turnovers.6863 3.2 24.01 175734 319.6 ft-lbf/s ft-lbf/s hp Mixing zone calculation.7582 1.8 ft-lbf/s hp 87867.3 119112.P Power W 119112.8 238225.upper impeller Power Total power (assume additive) W W 1.

1066 13784.5456 .43 67.48294 m m m m 2.Problem Statement: Calculate power and blend time for a helical ribbon impeller working in the laminar flow range Inputs Fluid ro mu Mixing purpose Fluid density Fluid viscosity kg/m3 kg/m-s SI Units Blend 1000 100 US Units lb/ft3 lb/ft-s 62.65 25.64042 0.075 2.1066 18683.5456 Theta Blend time s 109.285 2 0.48294 1.84252 11.246063 W ft-lb/s hp 807.5 0.85 3.1 1 ft ft ft ft 9.063 109.5 0.17 rps rps Calculations c wall clearance clearance % of tank diameter Kp P Power factor for helical ribbon Power m 0.5 ft ft 9.1 32.935039 2 0.20882 Tank Geometry T Diameter H Filled Height Helical Ribbon Geometry D Diameter h Overall height of impeller p Pitch (height of one turn) w Blade width nb Number of blades N gc Speed Conversion factor m m 3 3.350394 11.81 ft 0.5% 807.

46 1.10 0.954 0. solids A formula coefficient A B formula coefficient B S* dimensionless particle parameter W* dimensionless settling velocity terminal settling velocity correction factor ws settling velocity cm/s 1.Problem Statement: Estimate the settling velocity of solids in liquid Inputs Solids ps dn Liquid p u v Descriptive density nominal diameter solids concentration in slurry density dynamic viscosity kinematic viscosity kg/m3 mm wt % kg/m3 Pa-s cSt SI Units Spheres 1.79 4.83 0.79 4.100 1.72 2.83 0.26 1.0 55% 1.0010 1.80 ft/s2 32.19 ft/min 1.17 Calculations and Results s specific gravity.121 4.30 1.039 55% 62.85 4.61 7.25 Data Coefficients for Equation Crushed Natural Sediment Well-Rounded Spheres Correction for Solids Concentration A 0.75 .000 0.85 8.995 0.606 Factor 0.72 4.0 US Units Spheres 68.61 7.89 0.974 4.0 1.211 5.0 lb/ft3 in wt % lb/ft3 cP cSt Other g gravitational acceleration m/s2 9.794 Solids% 0 B 5.10 0.53 0.

8 0.2 1.3 1.84 0.7 1.2 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0.85 .1 1.42 1.91 1 1.55 1.

Result .

Problem Statement: Calculate the ungassed and gassed power required in an agitated vessel designed for gas dispersion Inputs Geometry and Parameters T Tank diameter D Impeller diameter Impeller speed NP Power number Liquid H pL uL Gas Gas flow rate.0 Liquid height Density. actual Other g gc SI Units m m rpm 1.86 0.000 0.17 32.14 0.86 0.040 0.00 0.3 0.77 1.7 0.33 5.004 0.30 0. liquid Viscosity.71 42 5.37 62. actual Impeller speed Gas Flow Number Impeller Froude Number Impeller ratio m2 m3 m/s m3/s rps 1.40 ft2 ft3 ft/s ft3/s rps 14.40 Gas Dispersion Regime No discernable action Flooding No discernable action Flooding RPD Nre Gas Flow number at transition RPD at transition Relative Power Demand Reynolds Number 0. liquid m kg/m3 Pa-s 3.03 0.29 176.81 1.010 0.52 42 5.00 ft/s2 ft/s2 32.03 0.0 ft ft rpm US Units 4.70 0.003 0.04 0.0010 ft lb/ft3 lb/ft-s 12.85 0.27 1.85 .00067 am3/h 14 acfm 8 Gravitational acceleration Conversion factor m/s2 m/s2 9.70 0.17 Calculations A Tank cross-section V Volume v Superficial gas velocity QG N NFl NFr D/T Gas flow rate.04 0.040 0.

998 Recirculating 60.237 Recirculating 10.067 Recirculating 4.255 2.421 Recirculating 6.358 Recirculating 21.194 Recirculating 31.792 Recirculating .09 0. gassed W W 65 56 hp hp 0.P pG Power.565 Recirculating 37.388 Recirculating 69. ungassed Power.131 Recirculating 8.628 Recirculating 44.07 Data Results N Regenerate Power 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 P Regime 49 No discernable actionFlooding 152 360 713 1.808 Recirculating 17.025 3.425 Recirculating 51.782 Recirculating 13.472 Recirculating 26.639 Recirculating 79.

No discernable action .

000 10.100. rpm . W 1.000 100 10 10 100 Impeller Speed.000 Ungassed Power.

.

1000 .

10E+07 6. for up to 3 identical impellers on one shaft.97E+11 8.05 45.30 2.impeller-specific Shaft length. Sb Distance between impellers Modulus of elasticity Shaft density Allowable shear stress Allowable tensile stress Mixture ro Density of mixed liquid P Power.0 2.027 4.35 5.0 1.22 0.588 in US Units rps m m m N/m2 kg/m3 N/m2 N/m2 kg/m3 W rpm in in in psi lb/in3 psi psi lb/in3 hp m m m W kg kg NA 2.000 5.794 7.70 in in in hp lb lb Calculations Torque Bending moment (maximum) Shaft diameter Based on shear Based on tensile Selected shaft diameter Weight of hub N-m N-m 434 626 in-lbf in-lbf m mm m mm mm 0. Assume that power is equally distributed among the impellers. per impeller hydrofoil 4-blade PBT SI Units m 0. Inputs Impellers D Diameter Number of impellers Np Power Number fH Hydraulic service factor Shaft Np Speed L Shaft length from bottom bearing Sb Bearing span. bottom impeller Power per impeller Weight of blades.Problem Statement: Calculate shaft diameter.79 50 in mm in mm in . total Intermediate Calculations Geometry and Power . top impeller Shaft length.22 2.90E+07 1.05 46.08 4. middle impeller Shaft length.01 1. torque.21 4. and first critical speed.660 2 5.57 0.

24 1.14 0. not including shaft We hydrofoil 4-blade PBT Natural frequency . lbm Mass of Hub.First Critical Speed hydrofoil 4-blade PBT kg 9.0 lb kg kg 16. kg 200 80 Hydrofoil 150 4-Blade PBT 60 100 40 50 20 0 0 2 4 6 8 0 0 5 .71 16.27 rpm rpm Data Conversion factors for blade weight formula hydrofoil 4-blade PBT 0.Read from chart Total weight for each impeller with hub hydrofoil W 4-blade PBT Equivalent weight.70 lb lb kg kg 18.35 14.81 lb lb rps rps 1.084 350 140 300 120 250 100 Mass of Hub.

50 20 0 0 2 4 6 8 0 0 5 Shaft Diameter. in Sh .

782 5.0 3.0 125.0 166.0 79.llers on one US Units 26.50 NA 87.0 166.77 2.000 0.86E+07 0.000 10.29 6.75 16.0 .0 12.2 12.37 1.79 45.6 3.0 2.036 7.84 46.0 2 5.547 1.0 1.

20.0 36. kg 80 Hydrofoil 60 4-Blade PBT 40 20 0 0 50 100 150 200 .15 78.45 37.25 Results 0.5 0.3 140 120 100 Mass of Hub.24 32.58 41.27 76.

mm .20 0 0 50 100 150 200 Shaft Diameter.