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:

Theory and Algorithms

Lecture 8

Vladimir Stojanović

**6.973 Communication System Design – Spring 2006
**

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Cite as: Vladimir Stojanovic, course materials for 6.973 Communication System Design, Spring 2006. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

Discrete Fourier Transform – A review

Definition

{Xk} is periodic

Since {Xk} is sampled, {xn} must also be periodic

**From a physical point of view, both are repeated with period N Requires O(N2) operations
**

6.973 Communication System Design

Cite as: Vladimir Stojanovic, course materials for 6.973 Communication System Design, Spring 2006. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

2

Spring 2006. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw. 1976 Rader – prime length FFT 1976 Winograd’s Fourier Transform (WFTA) 1977 Kolba and Parks (Prime Factor Algorithm – PFA) 6.D.Fast Fourier Transform History Twiddle factor FFTs (non-coprime sub-lengths) 1805 Gauss Predates even Fourier’s work on transforms! 1903 Runge 1965 Cooley-Tukey 1984 Duhamel-Vetterli (split-radix FFT) 1960 Good’s mapping FFTs w/o twiddle factors (coprime sub-lengths) application of Chinese Remainder Theorem ~100 A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.edu/). course materials for 6. 3 . Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].mit.973 Communication System Design Cite as: Vladimir Stojanovic.973 Communication System Design.

total number of multiplications 6. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.973 Communication System Design. 4 . Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].mit. course materials for 6. Spring 2006. N=N1*N2.973 Communication System Design Cite as: Vladimir Stojanovic.edu/).Divide and conquer Divide and conquer always has less computations Suppose all Il sets have same number of elements N1 so. r=N2 Each inner-most sum takes N12 multiplications The outer sum will need N2 multiplications per output point N2*N for the whole sum (for all output points) Hence. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

course materials for 6.973 Communication System Design. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY]. m and r are coprime If not.973 Communication System Design Cite as: Vladimir Stojanovic.e. 5 .r)=1 – i.Generalizations The inner-most sum has to represent a DFT Only possible if the subset (possibly permuted) Has the same periodicity as the initial sequence All main classes of FFTs can be cast in the above form No permutations (i. N/4 and N/4 elements Split-radix algorithm 6. subsets with N/2.edu/). then inner sum is one stap of radix-r FFT If r=3. Spring 2006. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.e. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. twiddle factors) All the subsets have same number of elements m=N/r Both sums have same periodicity (Good’s mapping) (m.

in prime-factor algorithm Subproblems are DFTs with coprime lengths (costly) Mapping trivial (no arithmetic operations) 6.mit. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].973 Communication System Design Cite as: Vladimir Stojanovic.973 Communication System Design.The cost of mapping The goal for divide and conquer Different types balance mapping with subproblem cost E. in radix-2 subproblems are trivial (only sum and differences) Mapping requires twiddle factors (large number of multiplies) E.g. 6 . course materials for 6. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.edu/). Spring 2006.g.

course materials for 6.973 Communication System Design.edu/). MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.973 Communication System Design Cite as: Vladimir Stojanovic. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].FFTs with twiddle factors Reintroduced by Cooley-Tukey ‘65 Start from general divide and conquer Keep periodicity compatible with periodicity of the input sequence Use decimation almost N1 DFTs of size N2 6. 7 . Spring 2006.

Cooley-Tukey FFT contd. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].973 Communication System Design Cite as: Vladimir Stojanovic. can be taken mod N2 Yn1 . MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw. 8 .k2 1. N2 DFTs of length N1 6. Spring 2006. N multplications with twiddle factors 3. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.k = Yn1 .973 Communication System Design. N1 DFTs of length N2 2.mit. course materials for 6.edu/).

Massachusetts Institute of Technology.n2 (N1xN2) Compute N1 DFTs of length N2 on each row Point-to-point multiply with twiddle factors Compute N2 DFTs of length N1 on the columns 6. course materials for 6. 9 .973 Communication System Design. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY]. Spring 2006. Step 1: Evaluate N1 DFTs of length N2 Step 2: N multiplications with twiddle factors Step 3: Evaluate N2 DFTs of length N1 Vector xi mapped to matrix xn1.edu/).973 Communication System Design Cite as: Vladimir Stojanovic.mit. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.

.. 10 ..mit. Because of twiddle multiply Different mapping for N1=5... Spring 2006.973 Communication System Design...... MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw. 6.973 Communication System Design Cite as: Vladimir Stojanovic. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY]. Massachusetts Institute of Technology... x0 x3 x6 x9 x12 x1 x4 x7 x10 x13 x2 x5 x8 x11 x14 x12 x9 x6 x3 x0 x4 x1 x5 x2 x2 x8 x7 x13 x10 x14 x11 x0 x4 x1 x5 DFT-5 DFT-5 x3 x6 x9 x12 DFT-3 DFT-3 DFT-3 x4 x9 x14 x13 x12 x11 x10 x13 x14 jm DFT-5 DFT-3 DFT-3 x0 x5 W Cannot exchange the order of DFTs Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.. course materials for 6. N2=3 x0 x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x10 x6 x11 x7 x12 x8 x13 x9 x14 Not just transpose Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare. N2=5) x0 x1.edu/).2-D view of Cooley-Tukey mapping N=15 (N1=3..

MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw. N/2-pt DFTs weighted with twiddle factors 6.973 Communication System Design. course materials for 6.973 Communication System Design Cite as: Vladimir Stojanovic. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].mit.edu/).Radix 2 and radix 4 algorithms Lengths as powers of 2 or 4 are most popular Assume N=2n N1=2. 11 . Spring 2006. N2=2n-1 (divides input sequence into even and odd samples – decimation in time – DIT) “Butterfly” (sum or difference followed or preceeded by a twiddle factor multiply) Xm and XN/2+m outputs of N/2 2-pt DFTs on outputs of 2. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY]. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.973 Communication System Design. Spring 2006. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.DIT radix-2 implementations Several different ways Reorder the input data X0 DFT X1 X2 X3 X4 DFT X5 X6 X7 N=4 w1 8 w2 8 DFT N=2 N=4 X0 X4 X1 X5 X2 X6 X3 X7 Input samples for inner DFTs in subsequent locations Results in bit-reversed input. Which type is this implementation? 12 6. course materials for 6. in-order output DIT {x2i} DFT N=2 Selectively compute DFTs on evens and odds DFT N=2 {x2i+1} DFT N=2 Perform in-place computation Output in bit-reversed order (X3 in position six (011->110)) w3 8 Division DFT of into even and N / 2 odd numbered sequences Multiplication by twiddle factors DFT of 2 Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.mit.edu/).973 Communication System Design Cite as: Vladimir Stojanovic. .

13 Cite as: Vladimir Stojanovic. n1=0 N=4 {x2k+1} DFT of N/2 DFT of Multiplication 2 by twiddle factors 6.edu/). . course materials for 6. n k n k DFT N=2 DFT N=2 DFT N=2 DFT N=2 w3 8 DFT N=4 X0 X2 X4 X6 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 {x2k} w1 8 DFT w2 8 X2k1+1 = N / 2-1 X1 X3 X5 X7 n1 W N1/ 1 2 WN (xn1-xN / 2+n1).mit. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].973 Communication System Design. N2=2 X0 X1 X2k1 = N / 2-1 n1=0 W N1/ 1 2(xn1+xN / 2+n1).973 Communication System Design Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare. Spring 2006. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.Decimation in frequency (DIF) radix-2 implementation If reverse the role of N1 and N2. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. get DIF N1=N/2.

973 Communication System Design Cite as: Vladimir Stojanovic. course materials for 6.mit.edu/). 14 .Duality DIT<->DIF X0 DFT X1 X2 X3 X4 DFT X5 X6 X7 N=4 w1 8 w2 8 DFT N=2 N=4 X0 X4 X1 X5 X2 X6 X3 X7 X0 X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 DFT N=2 X0 DFT N=4 X2 X4 X6 X1 X3 X5 X7 DFT of N/2 {x2i} DFT N=2 DFT N=2 w1 8 { } x2k DFT w2 8 DFT N=2 DFT N=2 N=4 {x2i+1} DFT N=2 DFT N=2 w3 8 { } x2k+1 w3 8 DFT of Multiplication Division by twiddle into even and N / 2 factors odd numbered sequences DFT of 2 DFT of Multiplication 2 by twiddle factors . Figure by MIT OpenCourseW Which one is DIT (DIF)? How can we get one from another? 6. Spring 2006.973 Communication System Design. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY]. are. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

973 Communication System Design.edu/).973 Communication System Design Cite as: Vladimir Stojanovic. 3 special cases) 6. Spring 2006. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY]. no arithmetic operation required (why?) 4 butterflies (one general. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw. course materials for 6.Complexity of radix-2 FFTs DFT of length N replaced by two length-N/2 At the cost of N complex multiplications (twiddle) And N complex additions (2pt DFTs) Iterate the scheme log2N-1 times Obtain trivial transforms (length 2) of the length-N/2 DFTs Twiddle multiplies (WNi) Complex multiply – 3 real mult + 3 real add If i is multiple of N/4. 15 . Massachusetts Institute of Technology.mit.

Radix-8 can reduce number of operations even more 6.Radix-4 N=4n. course materials for 6. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].edu/). 16 . Massachusetts Institute of Technology. N1=4.973 Communication System Design. N2=N/4 x0 DFT 2 DFT 8 X0 X14 X1 DFT 8 4 DFTs of length N/4 3N/4 twiddle multiplies N/4 DFTs of length 4 No multiplication Only 16 real additions x8 x15 x0 x4 x8 x12 x15 DFT 4 X15 X0 X12 X1 X13 X2 X14 X3 X15 Cost of length-4 DFT DFT 4 DFT 4 DFT 4 DFT 4 Reduces the number of stages to log4N Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.mit. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.973 Communication System Design Cite as: Vladimir Stojanovic. Spring 2006.

Spring 2006.edu/). 17 .973 Communication System Design. course materials for 6. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].Mixed-radix and Split-radix Mixed-radix Diferent radices in different stages Different radices in the same stage x0 DFT 2 DFT 8 X0 X14 X1 DFT 8 R2 Split-radix x8 x15 x0 x4 x8 x12 x15 x0 x4 x8 x12 DFT 2/4 DFT 8 DFT 4 DFT 4 DFT 4 X15 X0 X12 X1 X13 X2 X14 X3 X15 X0 DFT 4 DFT 4 DFT 4 DFT 4 Simultaneously on different parts of the transform R4 Can achieve lowest number of adds and multiplies for length 2n inputs X14 X1 X13 X3 X15 S-R Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.973 Communication System Design Cite as: Vladimir Stojanovic. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 6.

X[(xn +xN / 2+n ) 1 1 -j(xn1+N / 4-xn1+3N / 4)]. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.mit. X4k +3 = 1 N / 4-1 n1=0 W n1k1 3n 1 N / 4WN DFT of Multiplication 2 by twiddle factors Even samples X2k in DIF should be computed separately from other samples Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare. n1 W N1/ 1 4W N nk nk X2k +1 = 1 N / 2-1 n1=0 nk n1 W N1/ 1 2 W N (xn1-xN / 2+n1).Split-radix (DIF SRFFT) Look at DIF radix-2 X0 X1 X2 X2k1 don’t have twiddles X2k1 = N / 2-1 n1=0 nk W N1 / 12(xn +xN / 2+n ). DFT w2 8 X1 X3 X5 X7 N=4 X4k +1 = 1 N / 4-1 n1=0 {x2k+1} DFT of N/2 X[(xn -xN / 2+n ) 1 1 +j(xn1+N / 4-xn1+3N / 4)].edu/). course materials for 6. Spring 2006. Cite as: Vladimir Stojanovic. 1 1 DFT N=2 DFT N=2 DFT N=2 DFT N=2 3 w8 DFT N=4 X0 X2 X4 X6 X2k = 1 N / 2-1 n1=0 {x2k} w1 8 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 W N1/ 1 2(xn1+xN / 2+n1). Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY]. X0 X4 X8 X12 DFT 2/4 DFT 8 DFT 4 DFT 4 X14 X1 X13 X3 X15 X0 With same algorithm (recursively) as the original sequence Radix-4 is more efficient than radix-2 Higher radices are inefficient No general rule for odd samples Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.973 Communication System Design. .

{x4i+1} and {x4i+3} Redundancy in Xk.973 Communication System Design. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.edu/). 19 . Xk+3N/4 computation 6.Split-radix (DIT SRFFT) Dual to DIF SRFFT Considers separately subsets {x2i}. course materials for 6. Spring 2006.mit. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Xk+N/4. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].973 Communication System Design Cite as: Vladimir Stojanovic. Xk+N/2.

MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw. both periodicities being comatible with the initial one 6. 20 . Spring 2006. Massachusetts Institute of Technology... course materials for 6..edu/). N1 − 1} Both subsets have only one common point xi Allows a rearrangement of the input (periodic) vector into a matrix with a periodicity in both dimensions (rows and columns).973 Communication System Design.FFTs without twiddle factors Divide and conquer requirements N-long DFT computed from DFTs with lengths that are factors of N (allows the inner sum to be a DFT) Provided that subsets Il guarantee periodic xi When N factors into co-prime factors N=N1*N2 Starting from any xi form subset with compatible periodicity (the periodicity of the subset divides the periodicity of the set) {xi + N1n2 | n2 = 1.. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY]...973 Communication System Design Cite as: Vladimir Stojanovic. N 2 − 1} or { xi + N2 n1 | n1 = 1...mit.

course materials for 6.mit. N 2 − 1} or {xi + N2 n1 | n1 = 1.973 Communication System Design Cite as: Vladimir Stojanovic. Spring 2006.edu/).... N1 − 1} equivalent to Good's mapping 0 5 3 6 9 12 4 7 8 11 14 2 10 13 1 This mapping is one-to-one if N1 and N2 are coprime All congruences modulo N1 obtained ..973 Communication System Design. 21 .Good’s mapping FFTs without twiddle factors all based on the same mapping Turns original transform into a set of small DFTs with coprime lengths 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 {xi + N1n2 | n2 = 1. are. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY]... Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Figure by MIT OpenCourseW For a given congruence modulo N2 and vice versa 6.. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw..

973 22 Cite as: Vladimir Stojanovic.N2)=1 What are t1. t2 for N1=3. Figure by MIT OpenCourseW Reversing N1 and N2 Results in transposed mapping 6. . MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY]. t2 always exist since N1. course materials for 6. N2=5? CRT mapping 0 6 12 3 9 10 1 7 13 4 5 11 2 8 14 . are. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Just another arrangement of CRT Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT) 1 If we know the residue of some number k modulo two coprime numbers N1 and N2 k N k N It is possible to reconstruct k N N Let k N = k1 k N = k2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Then k N N = N1t1k2 + N 2t2 k1 N 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 t1 N1 N2 = 1 and t2 N 2 N1 = 1 Good's mapping 0 5 3 6 9 12 4 7 8 11 14 2 10 13 1 t1 multiplicative inverse of N1 mod N2 t2 multiplicative inverse of N2 mod N1 t1.edu/). Spring 2006.973 Communication System Design. N2 coprime (N1.

1 N2 . Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY]..1 N-1 XN1t1k2 + N2r2k1 = Σ W = WN1 XN1t1k2 + N2t2k1 = Σ N2 N n1 = 0 n2 = 0 Σ xn1N2 + n2N1 W =W (N2t2)N 1 N1 (n1N2 + N1n2)(N1t1k2+N2t2k1) N x3 x0 x6 x9 x12 DFT 5 X9 X4 X14 W N2t2 N1 = WN1 n k n k x5 x10 N1 ..n2 = xn1N2 + n2N1 n k n k X'k1k2 = XN1t1k2 + N2t2k1 X'k1k2 = Σ N1 .1 Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare. k = 0..1 N2 .1. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw. x'n1. course materials for 6.1 DFT 3 X5 X2 X11 X8 n1 = 0 n 2 = 0 Σ xn1N2 + n2N1 WN11 2 WN22 2 . Spring 2006. n1 = 0 n2 = 0 1 1 Σ x'n1n2 WN1 WN22 2 Figure by MIT OCW. N .mit. i=0 N1 . . Massachusetts Institute of Technology.973 Communication System Design. True bidimensional transform! (no extra twiddle factors) 6.edu/).1 N2 .Impact on DFT Formulating the true multi-dimensional transform k N1 N 2 = N1t1k2 + N 2t2 k1 N Xk = Σ xi WNik ..973 Communication System Design 23 Cite as: Vladimir Stojanovic.

course materials for 6.mit. 24 . Spring 2006. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. length 5 DFT Permute last two rows and columns Cyclic correlation (a convolution with a reversed sequence) This is a general result 6.973 Communication System Design Cite as: Vladimir Stojanovic. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.Using convolution to compute DFTs All sub DFTs are prime length Rader showed that prime-length DFTs can be computed as a result of cyclic convolution E.973 Communication System Design.g.edu/). Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

Massachusetts Institute of Technology.973 Communication System Design Cite as: Vladimir Stojanovic. course materials for 6.973 Communication System Design. 25 .Example Results in smallest number of multiplies 6.edu/).mit. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY]. Spring 2006. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.

course materials for 6.973 Communication System Design Cite as: Vladimir Stojanovic.973 Communication System Design. Efficient small DFTs are a key to the feasibility of this algorithm 6. 26 .Prime Factor Algorithm X = F1 x F2T.mit. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.edu/). Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY]. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw. Spring 2006. Good's mapping x12 DFT 5 CRT mapping X9 X4 X14 x9 x3 x0 x5 x10 x6 DFT 3 X2 X5 X11 X8 Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Spring 2006.Winograd’s Fourier Transform Algorithm x10 x0 x3 x6 x9 x12 input additions N=3 x5 X5 X11 X2 X8 X4 X14 X9 input additions point wise output additions output additions multiplication N=5 N=5 N=3 Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.mit. B1xB2’ only involves additions D – diagonal (so point multiply) Winograd transform has many more additions than twiddle FFTs 6.973 Communication System Design Cite as: Vladimir Stojanovic. course materials for 6. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].edu/). MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw. 27 . Massachusetts Institute of Technology.973 Communication System Design.

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