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George Whitefield
M.A.,

Field-Preacher

By

JAMES

PATERSON GLEDSTONE

'

Every one hath
In this I

his proper gift.
is

Field- Preaching

my plan;
'

am

carried as on eagles' wings

God makes way for me everywhere

SECOXD EDITION

NEW YORK

:

AMERICAN
150
1901

TRACT SOCIETY x*x

NASSAU STREET

PREFACE

THE
now long

favourable reception which was given to
'

my

'

Life

and Travels of George Whitefield published
out of print, 1 and the need that was
life

in 1S71,

felt

in certain

quarters for a briefer

of the great field-preacher, which

nevertheless should be

full,

though without excess of

detail,

have led
in

me

to prepare this book.
viz.
:

The main

idea

is

the

same

both books,

'To

reveal a great heart, stirred with the

purest emotion, ever desiring absolute perfection in goodness

and unintermittingly seeking

it,

resolved

to

leave

nothing
itself

undone by which others might become partakers with
the great salvation,

of

and impatient of

all

impediments, whether

ecclesiastical or social, that threatened the
its

consummation of

hopes.'
I.

The

greatness of Whitefield's labours
life

is

not easily realised,
outline
it.

and not even a three-volume

could
this

One

month's labours are recorded in

brief

sentence

— 'he
/

preached to ten thousand persons every day
days.'

for twenty-eight

That

fact will

bear a great deal of analysing.

The

far-reaching influence of his preaching can only be imagined

by

remembering

that

his

vast

congregations

were
e.g.

often

gathered together in thinly populated districts
'

Haworth

See extracts from some reviews at the end of

this

volume.

vi

PREFACE
village, the

on the Yorkshire moors, Cambuslang the Scotch

backwoods of the American

settlements

—persons
am

coming
hear

long distances, at great cost of time and trouble, to
him.

He

said of

his

forest-preaching —

' I

hunting after

poor sinners in these ungospelized wilds.
to hear,

People are willing
his horse,

and

I

am
a

willing to preach.'

He mounted

and rode
contact.
II.

to

point where

he and they could come into

It will

be noticed

that,

although Calvinism

is

generally
its

supposed to have a deadening influence upon the hearts of
disciples, Whitefield

was always aggressive and

in

advance of

his brethren in the
i

adoption of new methods of doing good.
in

He

led

the

way

field-preaching,

in

the

employment of

'

laymen

as preachers, in organising the

new Welsh converts
and he seems also
for his congre-

into a General Association of Methodists,
to

have been the

first

to prepare a

hymn-book

gation at the Tabernacle.
courage,
III.

He

was a pathfinder.

His

zeal,

and

faith

kept him foremost.

Some
of

suggestion
evangelistic

may be found
to

in this life as to the

relation

pastoral

work.

Whitefield
;

was

frequently invited to labour in

given
It

districts
is

and, in the

main, with very satisfactory results.

true that his

work

was

fiercely assailed,
it is

and

that

he passed through a storm of

obloquy, but
close of his
together.

also true that the storm abated towards the

life,

and

that his

opponents and he came nearer
by his contagious
zeal,

They had been

stirred

and

both he and they had mellowed in charity.
instances he went uninvited,

In multitudes of

and

his

work, done on the raceleft
its

course, in the field, or in the market-place, just

results

PREFACE
for the settled pastor to gather
;

vii

which was perhaps the easiest

method.
IV.
his
life

The
;

ethical value of his social

work was

individualistic during

the
for

and
;

political

appeared afterwards.

He
must

worked
work

the

units

the units in their aggregation
It

for

the body politic.
for

were as idle and unjust to

blame him

not personally inaugurating large reforms as to
for not

blame the Apostle Paul

procuring the franchise for

Roman

Christians.

He

was

in the line of progress,

and

his at

labours continue in

new forms of

usefulness.

He

aimed

making new men, the new men must make the new

State. /

And no doubt
success of

the

social

and

political

and

international

Christianity

would come sooner and be greater
for personal conver;

were Christians to labour more zealously
sions.

To
heart

get a
is

man

a

new home
'

is

a good thing

to get

him

a

new

better.

This ought ye to do, and not to leave

the other undone.'

V.

No

careful student of his

life will

conclude that he had

no formative influence because he was neither a constructive
theologian nor the founder of a
better than either of these.
sect.

He

was more and

He
;

was the means of calling

multitudes from death unto
selves into societies

life

and then they formed themas they

and churches
it

saw

best.

In the

coming days of Church union
heart of the evangelical

may appear
far

that the greatest

movement was

before his time,
said

when, as a young
persuaded
there
is

man

of twenty-seven, he

:—

'

I

am

no such form of

Church government
all

prescribed in the book of
other forms whatsoever.'

God
'

as excludes a toleration of

O

that the

power of

religion

may

viii

PREFACE
!

revive

Nothing but that can break down the partition

wall

of bigotry.'

Or, in other words, nothing but that can unite
Is not that the ideal of Christian fellowall

Christians as such.

ship toward which

the churches are

moving

?

As regards
as

sectarianism

YVhitefield

was a centrifugal

force,

regards
for

true Christian union
larger idea as
it

he was centripetal.

He

lived

the

is

to

be realised and embodied by love.
marvellous
influence
interest.

VI.

The

secret

of Whitefield's

has
It

been and always

will

be a problem of absorbing

cannot be given on the page of a book, but might perhaps be
discovered

by one who should reverently, prayerfully, and
travel

sympathetically

with

him

day by day through

his

mighty labours
in his

for the salvation of souls,

and watch with him

hours and days of prayer.

A
it.

rapid reading of this or

of any other book will not discover
fellowship,

Imagination, sympathy,

and imitation must be
'life

employed.
Christ
in

He

was

a

"

mystic.
itself

His was a
loving

hid with

God,' pouring
perfectly

out in

service

through

an organism

adapted to the work of preaching.

As

his oratorical genius

was
he

in

full

bloom

as soon as he

began to preach, so also was

wholly consecrated to the will of

God and

filled

with the

Spirit

from the time of

his

new

birth.

The outward demonhence there never
'

stration never

exceeded the inward

reality,

was a

halt,

never a break, never a decline.

He

went from
in Zion.'

strength to strength, until he appeared before

God

As we read
i «

the fierce and scornful language in which he was

assailed from so

many

quarters,

and

notice,

on the other

side,

the multitudes of

all classes,

including crowds of the aristocracy,

for the pains they took to obtain the beautiful photograph (p. Casstine.PREFACE some of them to hear him. it for me an etching of the Bell Inn. Suttle. G.. P. as certainly did. Bellows. Gloucester. the prevalent indifference to-day to the preaching of the gospel the measure of the is feebleness that neglected ? One thing is certain : the whole Church of Spirit . if it be soon given. VV. as was in ^Vhiteiield's time. G. by Francis Kyte procuring and to Mrs. J. of the Homes for Little Boys. God needs a fresh baptism of the Holy and thankful shall we be. who came the suggests the inquiry whether. to Mr. of Gloucester. of Grosvenor Street. rich all means used. A. If the intensity of the opposition directed against him he of accurately indicated it enormous is influence which wielded. but especially the are as deeply and as widely influenced by the gospel now as they were a hundred and hatred and the fifty years ago. J. Thomson. and poor. for the excellent reproduction of a very rare full-length portrait years of age. . me in the preparation of to Mr. 300) of a medallion of Whitefield in my possession. Robson and Mr. the Minister of Tottenham Court Chapel. the English titled. by people. Let me add a word of sincere thanks to my friend the Rev. Swanley. fur this many book valuable services given to . it ix Christians of the warmest devotion. painted of Whitefield when he was twenty-nine .

.

THE . . . ROUGH EXPERIENCES IN GEORGIA — SECOND V. March. HIS ORDINATION AS DEACON — ESSAYS IN PREACHING . APPOINTED 1738. . . 1739.. 1737— March. . PARENTAGE ANT) CHILDHOOD—AT OXFORD -AMONG METHODISTS— HIS CONVERSION .. 25 CHAPTER III. II. LANE MEETINGS — ORDAINED CHCRCHES OPEN-AIK PREACHING PRIEST— EXPELLED .CONTENTS CHAPTER I714-I735HIS I. — 6S . CHAPLAIN TO POPULARITY — FIRST THE VOYAGE GEORGIAN . COLONY . VOYAGE . — EARLY . 40 CHAPTER 1738. 1738 FETTER April. 59 CHAPTER December. IV.. PAGE THE I CHAPTER 1736.

1739 VII. . LOSS OF POPULARITY — FIRST THE DISSENTERS . chapel-building — attacks by enemies —infirmities death— the results of his work . APPOINTED CHAPLAIN A SLAVE-OWNER TO THE COUNTESS OF HUNTINGDON . — March..xii CONTENTS PAGE CHATTER May IN VI. . . . 1744.. . — STONED BEFORE A BISHOP . VISIT TO SCOTLAND. . 1739. . — his 287 Index .112 CHAPTER VIII. . to August. . March.. VOYAGE . . 1741— August. 1753-1770. 245 CHAPTER XI. 1741. . MOORFIELDS—ON COMMONS— AT FAIRS AND RACES 89 CHAPTER August. 225 CHAPTER July.... .CONDUCT OF l66 CHAPTER IX. 1744—July. 1748-1752. FIFTH IN VOYAGE— ADVENTURES AND CONTROVERSIES— WANDERINGS AMERICA — INVALIDED IN BERMUDAS — SIXTH VOYAGE X. -35' . AMERICA . 1748. THIRD VOYAGE ITINERATING BREACH WITH WESLEY — IN — FOURTH ... August.

O. living ' — two of whom were married to clergymen after his father. who first held a living in Wiltshire.S. of that city afterwards they Gloucester to keep the Bell Inn. now the Bell Hotel. and two to one of whom. a great desire for the welfare of her children. was born in the Bell Inn on December little 16th. was Thomas. Andrew. described as children. The mother had to a tender. their youngest.S. 7 16.' had a family of fourteen eldest the whom . and his fair-haired boy was left without one remembrance of him. the father died. Thomas was removed to established as a wine-merchant in Bristol. 1714. named at succeeded the Rockhampton. Samuel Whitefield daughters sons. commendable prudence. Some time about Christmas. Samuel Whitefield.CHAPTER 1714-1735 HIS I PARENTAGE AND CHILDHOOD METHODISTS — AT OXFORD AMONG THE — HIS CONVERSION THE had five Rev.). They had seven children — one daughter and N. a private gentleman. George. where he married Elizabeth Edwards. and in afterwards one at great-grandfather Rockhampton. of George Gloucestershire. (December 1 27th. of The other son. six sons . a clergyman of the Church of England. and much willingness 2 deny herself l . faithful heart. was the Whitefield.

and and As Augustine deceived committed thefts and parents with falsehoods. which. He also says that he entertain- spent much money age. nor diminished the charm of his glance. shows and also from his parents' cellar lying.' ' ' in plays. when he was As might be expected. and in the common ments of the were his sin. With the fondness of a mother tell for her last-born. masters. he replied.' Sabbath-breaking was a common and he generally behaved present. roguish tricks. however. mother this by taking money out of her pocket before she was up ' he thought. he was fond of playing wild. one day. Playing at cards and reading romances heart's delight.2 GEORGE WHITEFIELD George always held her in reverent affection. irreverently at public worship. so that he might get plays. which he perpetrated on his . evil- table. He fell into some occasionally he transgressed in a his tutor. off to more marked way.' Circumstances were not very favourable to the formation of a noble character in the boy. such as running into the Dissenting meeting-house. she always expected children. When he was one of his about four years of age he had the measles. and petty thefts. and shouting the devoted minister — name ! of the learned and old Cole ! ' Old Cole ! old Cole ' Being asked. He says that he 'soon gave pregnant proofs of an impudent temper. and left through the ignorance or neglect of his nurse the disease eyes — dark is blue they were. 'A minister. for their sakes.' of the worst of juvenile sins . but I would take . Squintum. she used to him that. of what business he meant to be. more comfort from him than from any other of her Only one event of Whitefield's early childhood is on record. was no theft at all. even when he was an infant. so Whitefield stained his childhood with speaking. at the time. and lively —with a squint. \ That defective eye obtained scoffers for him ' in later years i among and railers the nickname of Dr. by one of Cole's congregation. said not to have marred the extreme sweetness of his countenance.

by which he was allowed to take any part in the business. with no restraint upon him. neither would he be thoroughly good. and property outside the Bell Inn afterwards restored fourfold but then he stole books ! —and they were books of devotion to him. . He would not be He compromised feared God. he immediately . The but Bible was not it unknown any more than a romance was as much the book of his curses as of his prayers. ' in later years. exceptnot ing a wise regulation of his mother. bad. — he was hasty tempered to the 11 8th — sought itself in the imprecatory Psalms. last His quick temper expression for vulgar cursing. probably the in But there were spirit. A grotesque caricature of a saint sprung out of the contention. him ' that he was always detected. fiery Good thoughts struggled with sinful ones ' conscience failed not to f rebuke him for his faults. quantities over the counter and wrongfully which often keep the money overflowing with animal spirits. blend light and darkness. he and loved Some poor of the money stolen from tarts mother was devoted to higher ! ends than buying thefts till. and fruits — it was given to the His were not confined but extended to to raids upon his mother's pocket . other forces his impetuous.EARLY FAULTS AND good care never to tell SINS 3 stories in the pulpit like the old Cole.' he to recount the sins and offences have not clear. fun. led him into mischief. of my younger ' days. really have been worse than simple or his in/ may have working become morbidly sensitive latter. merry lad he was. when he had been Psalm was familiar to teased by some persons who 'took a constant pleasure in exasperating him. in the execution of which his power of concealment so signally ' failed says. as well as in him . and even of play.' But why he should. and smite him with heavy blows. . It would be endless.' A wild. although he did sometimes sell odd . is classed his roguish tricks with graver faults They may conscience tolerant. his he tried to sin. The burden of the and once.

man and the boy. from school studying them. prayed the whole Psalm over. ' 'the last grammar last school.' Church might be a place for irreverence. the deacon of twenty-one preached his first sermon his to a crowded audience. when they are placed side by Mary de Crypt. the man can be traced in the boy — delight in the emotional and exciting. when he was there very probable that he did and it is —he spent whole days away His . and. well resemblance. as for temporals. Longden. It set my brethren upon thinking more than otherwise they would have done. and made an uncommon impression upon my own heart in particular. and the service a thing to be mocked All at . 'I ever from which we may suppose that he had tried not a few schools before. kneeling down. if fascinated him . he was ten years old mother married a second was 'an unhappy match it her husband being Mr. and preparing to act them. he did not read them in school. enthusiasm master. yet he was always fond of being a clergyman. When time. for acting spread to his schoolfellows and the scholars' either because he sympathised with his . fondness for using his elocution. Mary de Crypt. I will destroy them. and. went to . 1 and twelfth verses But in the name of the Lord. an ironmonger of Whitefield says that it Gloucester. but God overruled for good. and frequently imitated the minister's reading prayers.' he says. The school changed him not a Plays still whit in his earliest characteristics. finding relief to his feelings in the terrible refrain of the tenth. eleventh. Gloucester. is And a strange contrast. as and aptness of as imitation.4 retired to his GEORGE WHITEFIELD room. In the church where the infant was baptized and the boy often mocked. there between the side in St. with many tears.' At the age of twelve he was placed at the school of St. a ready power of appropriating and applying to himself and to his enemies the words of Scripture.

' some time after he bought 'was of great use to his Before he was fifteen he longed to be free even from the mild discipline of his his last grammar school and as . and to stuff the memory with was things as contrary to the gospel of Jesus Christ as light to darkness. heaven to hell. and which. but had a theatrical entertainment for the corporation on their annual visitation. Whitefield has given an opinion says : upon his education. its oration before these visitors was also ' commonly entrusted to the boy from elocution the Bell . on one occasion. the boys learning them. with much concern of mind. dressed in girls' clothes to act before them.' The .AT SCHOOL tastes. though the I first thing I had to repent of my education in general. and by pressing she could not spoil mother with the sage argument to the University. he got his own way on day for points but one writing lesson. or 5 thought it useless to resist them.<• future saint and preacher was still indicated amid all this mirth. my particular thanks are due to my master for the great pains he took with me and his other scholars in teaching us to write I speak correctly. A Mary de Crypt have been while benches this vivacious scholar on —the master writing plays. The annual and must sat fine St. since send him more learning might for him for a tradesman. and his good memory lively school won him much notice. — he must go to school every a . Part of the money ' received for his good acting for and reciting was spent upon Ken's Manual affected Winchester his Scholars. He ' I cannot but observe. However. how this training ill up of youth has a natural tendency to debauch the mind. it would be best him all to halt at his present attainments. and the worthy city aldermen seeing them acted. that. it. to raise passions. soul.' a book which had it him much when brother used to read for in his mother's troubles. yet must always and acknowledge that . not only composed plays for the school. young Whitefield being.

6 GEORGE WHITEFIELD and the lad of fifteen Adverse circumstances soon compelled the discontinuance of the solitary lesson. duty never suffered him to be disliked. speak a word to her. even in a which he Tin. The first lessons of experience were being wrought into the heart of a quick learner. The agreed well enough. and at length. and being advised so by see mother and brother. indeed. thinking absence would his his make all things easy. He was wretched. he went to Bristol to one of This. he . and to shun the greater contempt of being a burden. one of which he dedicated to his elder brother. . whose waywardness was receiving of the inn filial its first stern rebuke. by enduring the lesser shame of wearing a blue apron and washing mops and cleaning rooms. work His religious ten- dencies were strengthened by frequent reading of the Bible at the close of his day's it.' to leave the inn . the business. brothers who had been bred up to. She who had hitherto been so jealous over her son's associations must have been hard pressed with poverty before consenting to such a step. later his mother was obliged ' then a married brother. A year took it. I wish I could. but with commend- able industry —to the dress and work of a common drawer in his mother's inn. and much to blame that his . unaffected by the family misfortune. but his idle. his general answer was. with some little regret. he would sit up to read Sometimes the care of the whole house came upon him still but he found time to compose two or three sermons. school often cut him to the heart frequently and go to a companion. The work sense of calling made him long for school again. brothers. apparently. Not so the brother-in-law and For three weeks together George would not sister-in-law. who came ' entreating him to to Oxford. had to take — on his part. sight of the boys going to .' and to him George became an assistant. Nor was the boy His honour prompted him to be of use.

Yet with all heart knew not . ness. ' 'the peace of God which passeth ' all understanding . Two bably its it short months sufficed to left end the spiritual fever. associations . not from this time that he dates this will not last ' and it is his conversion. his soul became absolutely to penetrated and possessed. telling her he would never return to his fervour his it. He and admits that God was knew in the tumult of devotion. and in which the : it was it finally sacrificed God his Saviour. and no doubt his firmness on this point was mainly due to his antipathy to his sister-in-law and to his love for his mother. a few years later.' sometimes 'carried out beyond him- He after the sacrament . Pro- would have him had he continued at Bristol. 7 was God's way of 'forcing him out of the public busicalling and him from drawing wine for drunkards to draw water out of the His spiritual Israel. Once among old his delight in churchgoing and in prayer ceased the only remnant of good he retained was his resolu- tion not to live in the inn. then refined and gloriously illuminated.' and delighted in tience to hear the church bell calling it. was to him an easy condition of religious feeling He now self.' wells of salvation for the refreshment of At Bristol he experienced the first of those rapturous feel- ings with which. something secretly whispered. him worship his former employment dissatisfied him. with true motherly affection.' had much sensible devotion. but his decline he ascribes to his return home. and he often wrote to his mother. he pondered he was to all the 'Imitation of Christ. impa. welcomed him to the best she could give him — her own fare . but not as he afterwards Him —the God of peace and rest love. and was longed filled with 'unspeakable raptures.TRANSIENT EXPERIENCES thinks. From first was no weakness of thy soul his to feel with half his heart 'with all and mind and and strength' activity. who.

such as had not been kept bright . and a bed upon the revived again . his former school- whom he had done him. when for lying in me.' he says. His old love for play-reading ' his vanity made him more his careful to adorn his body than deck and beautify fellows. and mother and rejoiced to know that interest would be used College. Whitefield eagerly caught at the news. was happily averted by an accidental his visit paid ser- to his vitor at mother by one of former schoolfellows. said " He passed by me He said unto me some foresight of His providing One morning. I was continually doing despite He saw me with pity and compassion. and without any purposes for the future. As have been diligent in business I believe . ' and turning George?' to George she replied. When it was incidentally mentioned in the conversation that the visitor had paid his last quarter's expenses and received a penny. I not of." and even gave me. 'whose and ^ callings are without repentance. . and cried out." which must have resulted The deterioration of character from his being without employment. God intends something for me that we know my blood. many would gladly have to me for I an apprentice think but every way seems provide for be barred up. " Live. He made 'With my heart. would let nothing pluck me to out of His hands. all Will you go Oxford.' Appli- cation was at once for the help of the kind friends who son were soon to secure had aided their visitor. soul'.8 GEORGE WHITEFIELD floor. speaking in harmony with those Calgifts vinistic views which he afterwards adopted. George a servitor's place in Pembroke it His learning. said. was. so that or other that God will me some way we cannot apprehend. now did theirs in misleading ' But God. his share in misleading. Mrs. now a Pembroke College. I. as I was reading a play to my sister. ' This ' will do for my to son . Sister. though the Spirit of grace. Oxford.

hope of gaining an honourable successfully. he was — were and more grave than the feelings behind them. and so the genial schoolmaster had to be applied to again to take back his former pupil. finally. 9 and his idle time under his mother's roof. look rakish. an unaccountable but very . George. particularly Drelincourt's ' The Christian's for Defence against the Fears of Death.' she said. this looks is from God. . His thoughts about religion he reasoned that them. as he was going on an strong his mother. and when he told ' to a 'gentlewoman. their proceedings were stopped. infor- Then a reforming impulse came upon him.' says. animated by the object. meditations upon serious books. A knot of debauched and — their atheism probably founded on their^ immorality which did not like to retain the knowledge of God succeeded in inveigling him. and his — such. He and gladly consented.' dutiful service done his mother. and sport it like theirs God had to must be to gratify He it affected to when he went to public service thrice was only and walk about. Sinai. ' is not surprising to learn that errand for one night.REFORMA TION during his service in the inn. Twice or he got drunk. history at school for the first marked his moral twelve months. and this time the pupil. if grew more and more given him passions. worked diligently At first his morality and religion were not improved equally with atheistical youths his learning. a firm resolution to prepare for taking the sacrament on his seventeenth birthday. to flit Strange fancies now began through his mind. and. The gentlewoman's it words also helped to increase his impressionableness. relapses into sin. Once he dreamed that he was to see afraid to God on Mount and was meet Him — a a call circumstance which impressed him it deeply. Efforts after a better life. He his ' grew more hypocrisy ' serious. his visit to Bristol. and upon mation given by him to his master of the principles and practices of his companions.

as promised. expense of entering diately. — that he feared the new zeal would not not through the temptations of Oxford. though in a much more life. to Oxford 1732. and then.io GEORGE WHI'IEFIELD made upon his heart that impression was quickly. by checking plainly his spiritual pride and by increasing his self-distrust and watchfulness. To be a servitor was no new thing perhaps he felt himself advanced by having his fellow-students of boors to wait upon. did to saint as pain- him much good. at the least. should have turned shortupon him. ten pounds upon a bond. Perhaps his prophecy it. while the master admitted him as a servitor imme- Once within the college walls he was not the lad to play with his chance of success. become an ordinary clergyman that. instead and drunkards. . His brother told family him — the Whitefields were an outspoken last long. who had begun and sinner alternations from saint to sinner regular. thorns for his pride. He resumed. upon hear- It is as little surprising that his ing from him what had come out. when he was nearly Some ot his friends. the reli- gious practices of his Bristol A rebuke administered to to regard his him by one of fully his brothers. his position. as there was nothing ennobling in yet he would not impa- .' he should preach mother. crying hold thy tongue. His humble station had no . Pembroke and young College was far before the Bell Inn. or perhaps of a right reverend There might be present indignity certainly in it. sober way. was there not before the eye of the student the prospect of an honourable and useful station in life ? Might he not. into his mind. used their friend influence with the master of lent Pembroke College another to defray the him .' 'What does the boy mean? Prithee. both for reputation society . might have been fulfilled had he not spoken in Whitefield went eighteen years old. in his Church ? Might he not pass beyond and attain to ? the dignity of a very reverend.

and whom he had always defended. resisting the solicita- many who lay in the same room with him. odd notwithstanding all his merits. should turn Methodist and accordingly he joined the band of devout young men some time between ' hiS nineteenth for and twentieth year.AS SERVITOR tiently u have been rather too and with silly haughtiness throw away future honour by discarding humble work. sermon-writing. or life in the University. adhered to his late religious practices at the grammar school. not many weeks away a door pride . meditation.' . ' Law's ' Serious Call to a ' Devout Life.' who were begin- new he came life. to feel its touch and answer to servitor.' its was inevitable that the ' who had come to be looked upon as a singular. before Whitefield's coming to Pembroke.' 'would have drawn him into excess of and practising daily devotions with the regularity of a monk.' ' which had already overmatched Johnson and made him think in earnest of religion. fellow. after his soul had longed above a twelvemonth to be acquainted with them. what wonder that he was soon thrown amongst the ning their before tual ' Methodists. toiled at his classics. and who riot. knew them ? If there was spirihow could one who had so strangely. He may destitute of that high-spiritedness which made Johnson.' and his treatise on 'Christian Perfection. throw pair of shoes which gentle kindness had placed at his indeed. almsgiving.' were the means of stirring still more profoundly the already excited mind of Whitefield. and thus laid stood as his a good foundation for a manly life. even to Oxford. followed prayer. and public worship. The young servitor lightened the burden of friends who money securities. call ? It fail though ofttimes so inconsistently. aloof from the general tions of Standing body of students. an equal division of their respective qualities of and humbleness between the two students might have been an advantage to both.

devoutness. He often saw the persecution endured by the few. charged . for some unaccountable her. and charitable . of Merton College but the nickname was fastened on the little company while John was in Lincolnshire. and never without wishing to follow their brave example. The sight of this shameful insolence awakened his sympathy. congregated to insult them. which was about the end of 1734 or early in 1735. and it was in this wise Wesley and their associates were marked their men. of Exeter . When he returned to Oxford in 1730 he took his brother Charles's place at the head of the band. The messenger not to tell was. T.12 GEORGE WHITE FIELD The first Methodists were John and Charles Wesley. sent him an invitation to come and breakfast with him the next morning. . of Queen's College Mr. . austerities. and included Mr. Benjamin Ingham. of Lincoln he joined them. A poor woman one of the workhouses made an unsuccessful . asking him to visit her. Mary's every week to receive the sacrament they had to pass through a crowd of ridiculing students. reason. Their College his . sent a message to him by an apple woman of Pembroke. commoner of Christ Church. attempt to commit suicide and Whitefield. James Hervey. Whitefield gladly went. they were fifteen in number. the rector of Epworth. and Mr. Mr. labours their among way the poor. attracted general attention and on to St. aware of Charles Wesley's readiness for every good work. pondering the deep things of God. tunity An oppor- of becoming acquainted with them offered in itself. who had often met Whitefield walking by himself. Kirkham. moved his courage. and was aware of his pious habits. Morgan.' When Whitefield joined the Methodists. Wesley who had sent That charge she broke and Wesley. and became for ever after the chief figure of Methodism. and that morning . ' University wits called him the Father of the Holy Club. and Mr. and prepared him to take up his cross. assisting his father. Broughton.

gained favour with mankind and finding felt satisfaction in the one which he ultimately adopted. When first we by Divine appointment met? the thoughtful student roves. ' and yet is neither at peace with God. I without disguise or saw. who mused art.' and the Parson's Advice to his Parishioners. alone. nor established in a godly He is more satisfied that he is on the right track. A stranger as and clasped him to my heart. honourable friendship. After the period just to be opened in to our view he never becomes entangled doubts concerning the Divine method of saving sinners. up to which there has been an uncertain. war carried on against sin.' departure. Industrious the frequented path to shun. and .FRIENDSHIP OF CHARLES WESLEY the 13 two students formed a life-long. as we have had large experience of the effects upon conscience and heart of the method which theologians he life. through academic groves A modest. An I Israelite. pensive youth. loved. He tried all the three great plans of being a Christian and of serving large sections of God which have . he wards to leave it. ' Country Whitefield then took his The most varying interesting part of the spiritual life of Whitefield begins at this point. and never hesitates between rival plans of practical living. he has after- Already. Forty years afterwards Charles wrote of their meeting with much tenderness and warmth 'Can I the memorable day forget. received an angel-guest. no temptation ever seen.' And unawares Charles Wesley put into the hands of his guest Professor Francke's treatise against the 'Fear of Man. my bosom friend caressed. Where undisturbed In search of truth. coupled with many defeated attempts to attain to a severe form of external piety. call ' salvation by works .

where he nearly perished. memorable ' breakfast. ' and never intended was the him in it was the blind leading the blind. positive teaching of the ' book filled him with unspeakable is When jie. within Henry Scougal. a union of the soul with God.' The doctrine of the new birth. of the main themes of his preaching to the end of Charles Wesley now introduced him 'by degrees to the rest of the Methodists. Charles lent him a book entitled The ' Life of God in the Soul of Man. his never-to-be-forgotten friend. which brought him to the low levels of Quietism.A.' and the introduction led him to adopt the . became one his life. anxious mind. or Christ formed within a ray of Divine light instantaneously darted in that upon his-soul.' while the in chains Wesleys were struggling Shortly after the little he had broken. brought him within sight of the led fulness of the blessing of the gospel of Christ.' and then him down a by-path. but not till then.14 GEORGE WHITEFIELD be outwardly holy have stood a good trial is still his resolutions to but he asking and seeking. M. which created no small wonder that him by teaching some falsely placed religion in going to church.' The joy. ' to become a teacher . ignorant of the salvation which comes by ' Son of God. far. which was that of an honest. being constant in the duties of the closet. a birth which he had now experienced in his own soul. While in this state of mind Charles Wesley both helped and his books. Charles Wesley did to set not conduct him thus that direction pupil. as .' by the Rev. doing hurt to no one.. and from moment. to give and now and then reaching out their hands alms to their poor neighbours.xead that true religion us.' first The safe we shall presently see. hindered him —helped him with and hindered him faith in the ' by his example. The ' great Methodist. as Whitefield affectionately calls him. did he know that he must be a new creature. he knew the liberty of the sons of God.

Every hour brought round a weary step of the moral treadmill. and gladness time into his heart. scheme of salvation all by works. made him a Once fully and openly connected with the ' Holy Club.' he . redemption of time became a primary his and he hoarded ate. Jesus. Thus Whitefield and once was led astray from the scriptural truth which had poured into his understanding. which are quoted from his journal.' How he came to write these it words.LIVING whole of their plan of living. would be hard it to When he wrote them he must have known that was the lack of the knowledge of Jesus which had slave. Whether he do all or whatever he did. say. ' No books would now please disordered taste but such as entered into the heart of religion and led him Christ directly into an experimental knowledge of Jesus and Him crucified. and poor people were read to. such a system as he was living under allowed faithful disciple no room for change or diversion. The sacrament was received every Sunday at Christ Church. or moments as if they were years. and had suffered enough from conscience its to feel a his quivering fear of pains. An hour every day was spent his in acts of charity. Sick persons and prisoners were visited.' The drank. his old as if. Fasting was practised on Wednesday and Friday. which must be taken. he endeavoured to to the glory of God. or conscience would be bruised or wounded Whitefield . BY RULE To live 15 by rule was the fundafor mental principle of their theology. His studies were soon affected by for morbid state of its mind. seemed all like Luther. he must know that he could ' do and that he could not do before he could count all things but loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ virtue. as yet they knew nothing of the mighty power of joy and peace which come light through believing upon the name of Jesus. inflexibly more tried. though this more and It more thoroughly.

and brutal ones threw dirt at him. going room. and he confessed the Methodists more and more publicly every day. ' whom must always mention with the walked with deference and respect. ' by the master's authority. and threatened to expel him. I spoke unadvisedly with I my and said. to sacrament publicly on a week-day University that he had Wesley. and the master's threat him if he ever visited ' the poor again.' The displeasure of the master of his to expel it college. Friends became shy. Overawed. Charles I — sure sign the he says. At first he did not accept reproach calmly it shook his feeble strength. ' Polite students ' shot barbed words at him. and lessened His inward sufferings were also of an uncommon his self-love. I church even to the college. Satan seeming to desire to sift him like wheat j and the . the first time.' greatest 'commenced Methodist' — 'Mr. to bear and choosing rather contempt with them than 'to enjoy the applause of almost Christians for a season. oppor- and told my companions I if ever I was called to a stake for Christ's sake. surprised him. would serve viz. to His tutor alone his forbore torment him.1 GEORGE WHITEFIELD to share in its had soon troubles. lips. mean ones withdrew their pay from him. I was ashamed to be seen knock at his door.' he says. and the next day.. of which he was to get a full share. gladly have excused confess to me from the my shame I would to his him . kind.' Cranmer served his hand. first immediately repented. The master of the college rebuked him. one of our to fellows passing by.' walking openly with them. of make that burn His fear man gradually wore off. as well might. and visited the poor the tunity. Daily contempt was poured upon him.' The advantage of his trials was that they inured him to contempt. my ' tongue as Archbishop first. My I conscience soon pricked me for this sinful compliance. would not. Mary's. for When receive to all he the went to St. . if it displeased him.

and have often prayed under the weight of them me. or even thinking. ' him tell his own tale: My memory quite failed me. he prayed night and day to receive it. like Job's. to at night. was to prevent his future All along blessings from proving his ruin. ground. a he had an intense Jesus hungering and thirsting. Whenever I kneeled down great heavings in till my body. at the gentlemen's I rooms by ten I who were stair I in their thought the devil would appear to me every went up. to see knock rooms. hellish thoughts that used But God made Satan drive out to crowd in upon and distract my soul. power of meditating. that. and much as a man locked up in I felt iron armour. and begging freedom from those proud. 'taught the men of Succoth with thorns. and his daily persecutions. Imagining that would be instantaneously infused into his soul.SPIRITUAL CONFLICTS reason for this. his abstinence from \ change in reading. his soul. desire. attended with inward lie darkness. being me much and threatened to punish my duty as servitor.' it me by the exercise of strong temptations came in reality from his mistaken his incessant selfall though eagerly accepted views of religion.' upon his breast .' he says. strong temptations. after the humility of it Christ. for some weeks. his moral police regulations. scarce slept above three hours at a time. so God The spirit — am — taught if I yet in any measure blessed with poverty of true. A He he and dread overwhelmed 'an unusual weight and impression. was given over to the power of the evil All one. the sweat came through At if I this time Satan used to terrify It me discovered his wiles. I And ' he so troubled only knows me when lay down I to rest. Satan. God how many nights have lain upon my bed groaning and bidding Satan depart from me in the name of Whole days and weeks have I spent in lying prostrate on the Jesus. was taken But let from him. under the weight I felt. 17 Whitefield thinks. the combined influence of which brought horrible fearfulness felt him into a terrible condition. inspection. until was convinced that Satan had his and that body. ' But as Gideon. For these thoughts and suggestions created such a self-abhorrence 3 . and the load increased real possession of him. My I could fancy myself to be like nothing so whole soul was barren and dry. in my turn.

and of attaining to a religious life . I wore woollen gloves. I wanted it me with me in to see terrify sin as it was. and therefore looked upon myself as very humble.' was mean. satisfactory All that he relieving wanted was some ready and his method of in conscience of an intolerable burden. its Here Quietism ! offered him aid. and action sincere not to admit that all his and he was too labours must prove fruitless while that remained unbroken. to his and stages of Quietism were not what attracted him new system .i8 GEORGE WHITEFIELD I within me. behind every thought. I thought to get peace I and purity by outward austerities. his soul swoon away spirit ecstasy of a and divided asunder as by the definitions. a patched gown. he coveted no marvellous revelations. nor mediaeval saint. word. was resolved either to and envy buffeted die or conquer. Whitefield a Quietist As easily change a comet into a fixed star. lest the sight of should me ' to death. at the same time. thai never ceased wrestling with God till He blessed a victory over them.' The depths. it week. and dirty shoes. off eating fruits Accordingly. in. To it mortify his will was all that he ? and how else could be done but by mortification . began to leave and such and gave the money I I I usually spent in that way to the poor. better way. unsparing hand and an honest heart. he set himself rudely to the task of mortifying his He began as an Englishman.' sal vation He felt pride creeping . calls ' the legal system. The power was to ' not in him to dream sweet in the dreams of heaven. pride. Having nobody to show me a like. He sighed for no canonisation. in spite of him. had to do. My apparel unbecoming a penitent to have his hair powdered.' will. but feared. by degrees. these were an esoteric doctrine to him. their turns. truly and reading that he that as is one day Castaniza's 'Spiritual Combat. sword of the Spirit of God. self-will. Afterwards always chose the worst sort of food. though fasted twice a my place furnished I me with variety. with a rough.' ' employed in mortifying his will is as well employed though he were converting Indians. thought He was exhausting what he by works. that I Self-love.

' Its inexorable logic next required that he all his friends. silent prayer. forms and even of audible speech and cessation from works of mercy. whose skill he thoroughly The to spell of Quietism was broken spirit . not a ray of comfort in it. anxious friend. expose himself to the cold and at night. he went into Christ Church Walk. he went into the fields for The evening meeting also was neglected. This made Charles call upon him morbid to see what was the matter. instead of meeting with his beloved brethren on one of their weekly fast-days. the aid of With wonderful humility Whitefield sought told John Wesley. burdened with his great sorrow which no could remove.SELF-MORTIFICATION So he shut himself up attending to in his study for five or six 19 weeks (only fought his necessary college business). after supper. for is it if not written that we are we would follow Christ? and accordingly. and corruptions by almost incessant prayer. among wild The narrative of our Lord's temptabeasts made him think that he ought to . Wednesday. it was not potent enough hold such a as Whitefield's long in bondage. trusted. not a drop of the love of God. but not depend on them advice which might have driven him mad. Extravagance was added tion to extravagance. and also abstinence from the use of in prayer. knelt under a tree. and silence was impossible under the interrogations of a loving. and con- tinued in silent prayer until the great bell rang and called him to his college. attended diligently upon his teacher j man and the . who him that he must resume all his external religious exercises. and on Thursday morning he did not make his usual appearance at Charles Wesley's breakfast-table. seek spiritual direction from his brother John. Mortification next required the discontinuance of a diary which he kept. And still the bewil- dered inquirer. and finding that he counselled Whitefield to it was anxiety. should forsake 'to leave all.

is teachable. and coarse bread. for this The externals of the Methodist rule season were duly observed. and its fastings and hardships brought and then Whitefield's spiritual conflicts to their fiercest vigour. and often abstained on Saturday . who immediately took the common-sense plan of calling in a doctor.' as Methodists called acts of devotion and charity. . unconsciously displayed by that luminous sincerity which distinguished equally both these remarkable men. and on other days. the brethren except on the Saturday and the Sunday but the Whitefield surpassed them. gifts The elder. patience. while restless with impetuosity. Only a few he had won. Wesley meant do Whitefield good service. In the cold mornings.20 GEORGE WHITEFIELD As they stand here before our eye. if quick to engage in conflict not first to provoke it. one side of each teacher. James Hervey. lived on sage tea. while abounding some of the divinest which can adorn humanity readiness to forgive. the biting east wind blowing. No meat was eaten by . a kind. a prisoner and tormented and afflicted. for When Passion Week came it he could scarce creep upstairs weakness. he without sugar. and then seemed to be time to send for his tutor. own ^ Lent soon came. soul was days after returning to his duty amongst the poor. Whitefield added to the one convert. comes clearly in and boldly into relief. ' The thought to of rivalry between ' them its is unborn. Sunday alone excepted. as was natural to him. justice — is confident. reverent. con- siderate man. confidently undertook to guide him. and generous yet to rivals. assuming. his wife. character. the Father of the Holy Club is instructing youngest member. while whom his two more. he walked out until part of one of his hands became quite black. and gratified in being above his fellows the younger. and partially succeeded when he urged him to return to ' externals. . impatient. to their joyful cessation.

least of all the divine of the soul. not that he was without experiences ' of spiritual things rapturous. or it was not of God at all and the attempt to cripple produced an inevitable agony. life No life. so absorbing. and hence his career was from the deformities of a forced asceticism spiritualism. Scripture. The life of man are fully recognised in God was undoubtedly in his ' and would have expanded had he not been it rapidly.SPIRITUAL FREEDOM 1 21 Salvation by works ' had nearly killed him . and the vagaries of a wild sometimes almost it Not his that he did not sternly. might bring him out of darkness into God's marvellous light ? ' Might he not the hands of a render his soul into the hands of faithful ' God as into Creator. his there was naturalness in all. never for his own . Quietism had nearly driven him mad.' were always for the salvation of others. 'weariness and painfulness. told that it must grow . the feelings and devotional exercises of most appear tame and it flat . that. Was there not another way. which. What book he had been reading.' Left alone in his sick-room he felt again the blessedness of which he had tasted one memorable draught. his agonies of soul were like those which the felt for his apostle declared that he brethren — ' a travailing in birth until Christ should be formed in their hearts. Spirit was taught that truth in a way never to to be Ever afterwards he was careful go whither the free might lead him. rest deny body and comfort. imparting to him daily joy. His abounding labours. or what devotional exercises he had been . so excited. and urge ' on to work so . compared with saints them. but there was health.' thus getting the repose combined ? with the activity which his nature in a special degree needed Both sides of the spiritual life of ' Holy soul. cruelly. in certain stunted forms.' and still devote himself with diligence to every good word and work. will quietly suffer servitor its laws to be violated. The poor forgotten. combining the excellences of the two plans.

and by giving me the spirit of adoption. and. Pope's Homer. to go and see an acquaintance. I could not avoid singing of Psalms almost aloud ! . even joy that was full of. after impor- tunate prayer. he exclaims in his journal ' hig with. Gloucester with his baser ' However. Spectators. spirit after having undergone innumer- able buffetings of Satan and day under the many months' inexpressible trials by night and of bondage. Go where I would. with what joy. a day to be had in everlasting remembrance. does not appear. as I humbly hope. Oxford was associated with his better life. and was my soul filled when the weight of sin went off. God was pleased at length to remove the me to lay hold on His dear Son by a living faith. to enable Then catching fire at the remembrance of what he had felt. and. and broke in an abiding sense of the pardoning love of faith ! God and a full assurance of Surely it was the day of my upon my disconsolate soul At first my joys espousals.' heavy load.' a person of like mind with himself. blessed be God saving a few casual has abode and increased in my soul ever since. evidently a woman of literary tastes (to whom he had formerly read such-like ' ' plays. and books '). he determined either to make as or find a friend. afterwards it became more settled. He ' simply says About the end of the seventh week. with the intention of winning her for Christ.' and that. glory. But oh. joy unspeakable. She received the word . what he had and tasted of this Oxford had by this time become a 'sweet retirement. till he yielded he should life to the advice of his physician to go to Gloucester be quite restored. Justification by faith had become an experience. overflowed the banks. to seal me. it was with much reluctance on a partial recovery. even to the day of everlasting redemption.' intervals. and he felt henceforth preached truth. were like a spring-tide.22 GEORGE WHITEFIELD in engaged when he felt himself free again. as it were. and soon as he reached home he resolved.

and power came upon him. in the spirit of joyous liberty. made by the man Christ Jesus.' friends were lost and won. Others. Experience confirmed his faith in the doctrine of the living Comforter. experi- and the Methodist Oxonian soon repeated the Oxford ment.FIRST CONVERTS gladly. fresh treasure caused fresh searching. and disappointed him but others. who was seemed to him a with Power of God. application to religion. ' Light. and only one young woman became 'obedient At Gloucester to the faith. became generous first friends. his way was hindered by prejudices against himself. One friend was not enough. all He cast aside other books. duties which had previously been an anxious burden. his independence of the . was He filled the Spirit from the time he was born again.' his record in his journal. and gathered his converts into a society. Some who were still . 23 is and soon became a fool for Christ's sake. . All had the honour of being despised. the Holy Spirit. Another of his characteristics his capacity of deriving unfailing pleasure from one pursuit. was the time of his learning lessons of trust in that Almighty Friend upon whose bountiful and loving care he whole of a poverty-stricken life. many orphan children. by getting his patient to divert ! The good Oxford away from the University. read and prayed over the Holy Scriptures. though he had never spoken to them. ' stimulating all him still to search every search brought treasure . Vain hope him from a too intense The patient simply purand engagements sued. young persons. Bristol. expected to give him pecuniary help —he was It a servitor turned their backs on him. the foundlings of his own He was a philanthropist. were brought under the power of this new teaching. whom he had accounted enemies. life. cast himself throughout the to and whom he committed loving heart. on his bended knees. and. physician had hoped. to Similar success was not attained at for three which he went weeks .

end. expressed in the same words. deliverances are wrought out for him — — fuller. Christ from the beginning.' . we are to keep out of the He the was utterly consecrated to in the unsearch- His change was ableness of one Person. but was inexhaustible. earliest . when marvellous was sweeter. whose leaf never withered. the Grace word that comes . and whatsoever he did prospered. He 'a tree planted by the rivers of water. His latest letters contain the self-same phrases as his as and they are given with much feeling as ' if ' they were quite new.24 GEORGE WHITEFIELD if changes which most of us must have grave and out of the asylum. he never flagged in his ardent attachment to the same truth. looked at from the same standpoint. when sinners are converted. more glorious the it more he contemplated it. The truth was the same. They were newer every day. was like His perpetual. richer.to him when his soul is comforted and strengthened. From first effort he put forth to the last (and he laboured without respite for thirty-four years). and its power over him immeasurable. never withering freshness of soul will often strike us as we follow him to the.

He not waited for a bishop's ordination and licence to preach the gospel to the poor .CHAPTER 1736 HIS ORDINATION AS II DEACON — ESSAYS IN PREACHING was time for the irregular soldier to become a captain of ITthe The homes of the poor and the gaols of Lord's host. . sweet and saw the artless grace of all his movements. in that knowledge he was well instructed nor was he ignorant of his sinfulness. coming leader. Son Jesus Christ. other considerations All learning was lost in his supreme pleasure and in religion. all What progress he had made were in learning does not appear. the solemn words of Paul to Timothy Not a novice. and only at the suggestion of friends did the question of his receiving orders come into his mind. along with the the finest training schools for the halls of Oxford. Oxford and Gloucester had been. when once they had heard his rich. of weakness and What natural fitness he had for speaking none had could voice. own heart. fail to perceive. nothing in comparison of the knowledge of God and its of His . but a licence was ready so soon as he found 'peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ. It immediately recalled ' : to him lest. St. He was well pleased to among the lowest.' lightly White-field did not take on toil him the vows of tin- ministry.

' filled him with trembling. As he had longed them insulted. that God would confound the him at prayers of his Gloucester friends to have once in orders ' but they. because Bishop Benson had expressed his resolution not to lay hands on any one who was under twenty- three years of age. I am a youth of uncircumcised lips yet. ' With strong crying and he often Lord. him to vary in the least point from that integrity which was inseparable from his whole character. easy to be either convinced or persuaded but he was immovable in the things of God.' Wesley said of him. ' into the condemnation of A question which he must answer on ordinationtrust that Do you to take you are inwardly moved by the Holy this office Ghost upon you and administration ? tears. he was pleasing himself with the persuasion that he could not enter holy orders two more years.' day.' When friends for were urging him to be ordained. . That he strongly desired to do what yet he . send far as to me not into the vineyard He even went so ask the prayers of his Oxford friends. any more than affright.' Lord. the office of a bishop while fearing to enter upon His sensitive nature was quick to feel the presence of to difficulties. but by blindness the to objections commanding influence of 'the things of God. in this case he was easy be entreated. but their daily to be with the Methodists when he saw first was staggered when the to his lot. replied. None could persuade. and regulated all his words and actions. that ' In whatever concerned himself.26 GEORGE WHITEFIELD fall being puffed up with pride. or wherever his conscience was concerned. he was pliant and flexible to . so experience of ' shame came ' he was desiring it. as might have been expected. and hence his course was fashioned. said. he the devil. he continued to pray against becoming a keeper of souls so soon. not and insensibility to criticism. Pray we the Lord of the harvest His harvest' to send thee and many more labourers into still Timidity held its ground . and frank by acknowledge them .

to buy come for holy orders.A would not do. interests disturbed him.' Whitefield determined to offer himself for ordination the next Ember days. and said the bishop desired to speak with me. That determination made. the bishop took displeasure. which seemed to sound again in my hand. coming again into the room. the next question . as I was coming from the cathedral prayers. which. whenever I saw the bishop at church. ran in his dreams . thinking of no such thing." He made me a a book. considering what I had done to deserve his lordship's When I came to the top of the palace stairs.' was undoubtedly the ministry. one of the vergers called after me. She. " I have declared I would not ordain any one under ' At his my character. DREAM judgment and his conscience 27 his were is evident from the way in which his mind for though he calls the it dream spoken of in the next sentence 'a notice from God. was as to his place of labour and here contending useful. put me in mind of my dream . the bishop told me he had heard of my behaviour at church. told me he was glad to see me. me by the hand. yet I shall think then it my duty to ordain you whenever you present of five guineas. liked three-and-twenty. consequence of his says state of mind about the He Long ere I had the least prospect of being called before the bishop. his old friends there made more urgent . I found. a strong persuasion would rise in my mind that I should very shortly go to him. Afterward this dream would often come into my mind . and his But when he went up out a still to Oxford. friends wished to At Gloucester he had been have him with them. forgetful at that time of my dream I immediately turned back. recommended me to the bishop and. I dreamed one night I was talking with him in his palace. a few days after. — — providence over me. I always checked it. and that he gave me some gold. " Notwithstanding. sounding again in my hand. who not long before had made me a present of a piece of gold. and he would return to me again. and inquiring my age. One afternoon it happened that the bishop took a solitary walk as I was afterwards told to Lady Selwyn's. whereupon my heart was filled with a sense of God's love. and for His ' — ." says he. and bid me wait a little till he had put off his habit. near Gloucester. because not fully convinced. and prayed to God to preserve me from ever desiring that honour which cometh of man. This gave me the opportunity of praying to God for His assistance. and.

28

GEORGE WHITEFIELD
them
:

case on behalf of his staying with

John and Charles

Wesley had

sailed to

Savannah

to act as chaplains to a

new

colony there, and to attempt the conversion of the Creek
Indians; the prisoners in the gaol needed some one to supply
their lack of service
;

Whitefield had been as useful at Oxford

as at Gloucester

;

Oxford was one of the schools of the prophets,

and every student converted was a parish gained.
urged, application for

To remove

any objection of a pecuniary nature which might have been

money

aid was

who was a

great friend of Methodists,

made to Sir John Philips, and who at once said that
if

Whitefield should have twenty pounds a year from him, even

he did not stay

at Oxford,

but thirty pounds
its

if

he

did.
for

Oxford
long
;

prevailed over Gloucester, but

triumph was not

all

English-speaking people

came and claimed

their right in

him

and

his large, brave heart

was not slow to respond.
is

Wesley

uttered the fine saying,
the

'The world

my

parish

;

'

Whitefield,
state-

most nearly of any man, made the saying a simple
fact.

ment of
for the

Meanwhile devout and conscientious preparation was made
approaching ordination, which was
to

be on Trinity
Whitefield
in

Sunday.

The preceding day was

spent

by

abstinence and prayer.
I retired to a hill near the town, and prayed two hours, in behalf of myself and those who were to On Sunday morning I rose early, and prayed over be ordained with me. St. Paul's Epistle to Timothy, and more particularly over that precept, "Let no one despise thy youth;" and when the bishop laid his hands upon my head, if my vile heart doth not deceive me, I offered up my and afterwhole spirit, soul, and body to the service of God's sanctuary wards sealed the good confession I had made before many witnesses, by partaking of the holy sacrament of our Lord's most blessed body and blood.'
'

In the evening,' he says,

'

fervently for about

;

Elsewhere he says
'This
for,
is

a day

'

(June 20, 1736)

about noon,

I

much to be remembered, O my soul! was solemnly admitted by good Bishop Benson, before
'

THE GOOD OF SOULS
many
witnesses, into holy orders, and was, blessed be
after

29

God
I

!

kept comto

posed both before and
of the office

imposition

of

hands.

endeavoured

behave with unaffected devotion, but not suitable enough to the greatness
I

was

to undertake.

At

the

every question from the bottom of

my

heart,

same time I trust I answered and heartily prayed that God

might say Amen.
action.

/ hope

the

Let come what

will, life or death,

good of souls will be my only principle of \f depth or height, I shall hencepresence of

forward live like one

who

this day, in the

men and
Church.

angels,

took the holy sacrament, upon the profession of being inwardly moved by
the
I

Holy Ghost
began with
I

to take

upon me that ministration
prayers
to

in the

This

leading

the

prisoners in

the

county gaol.

Whether

myself shall ever have the honour of styling myself a prisoner
;

of the Lord,
witness, that
to

be a

I know not but, indeed, I can call heaven and earth to when the bishop laid his hand upon me, I gave myself up martyr for Him who hung upon the cross for me.'

y

The words we have
to

italicised faithfully describe the ministry

which he was

this

day

set apart

'
:

/ hope

the

good of souls
preach in the

will be

my only principle of action.' Many of Whitefield's friends pressed him
in

to

afternoon after his ordination, but

he could

not.

He

had

been

Gloucester a fortnight, partly with the intention of

composing some sermons.
so
that

He

wanted 'a hundred

at least,'
re-

he might not be altogether without ministerial

sources, compelled always to go from the study to the pulpit

with a newly forged weapon
other

but, alas he found, like many who have attempted the same thing, that sermons cannot easily be made without the helping excite;
!

beginners

ment of expected and appointed work.
enough
in his heart,

He

had matter
mentioned
his

but nothing would flow from his pen.
all
;

He

strove

and prayed, but
a clergyman
of feeling

to

no purpose.
that

He

his case

to

but
his

gentleman showed

refinement

and

sympathy with a young man's
life,

anxiety and fear on the threshold of public

by

telling

Whitcfield that he was an enthusiast.

He

wrote to another,

and

this

time the response was kind, assuring him of the

30
writer's

GEORGE WHITEFIELD
prayers,

and explaining
in this

to

him why God might be
last

dealing with

him

manner.

At

he thought he found
'
:

the cause of his inability

explained

by these words

We
; ;

essayed to go into Bithynia, but the Spirit suffered us not

and by the words spoken

to Ezekiel

— Thou
'

shalt

be

dumb

but when I speak unto thee, then shalt thou speak.'

This

made him

quite easy
little

;

he did

'

not doubt but that

He who

increased a

lad's loaves

and

fishes for the feeding of a

great multitude would,
spiritual
to.'

from time to time, supply him with

food for whatever congregation he should be called
after his ordination, while

The morning

Speak out.' How he used came these words into his mind that permission, and how his one sermon grew until he had
'

he was praying,

preached more than eighteen thousand times, or more than
ten times a
if

week

for four-and-thirty years for illnesses

allowance be made

and long voyages
it

— considerably more, — and fed
be our next duty to
is,

multitudes beyond computation,
trace.

will

On

the Sunday after his ordination, that
first

on June

27,

1736, Whitefield preached his
in the old familiar

sermon.

It

was delivered

church to a large congregation, which had

assembled out of curiosity to hear a

townsman

j

its

subject

was

'

The

Necessity and Benefit of Religious Society.

A

feeling of

awe crept over him as he looked upon the crowd
of which had been familiar to
efforts in

of faces,
infancy.

many

Former

public speaking

him from his when a boy, and

his labours in exhorting the poor,
to

proved of immense service

him, removing

—what

has
first

often

overwhelmed bold and

capable speakers on their
strangeness
to

appearance

— the sense of
'

utter

the work;
;

his soul

was comforted with the
he proceeded, the
he
fire

presence of the Almighty
kindled,
authority.'
fear

and

as

forsook

him,
;

and

spoke with

gospel

A

few mocked

but there could be no doubt

FIRST SERMON
about the power of the new preacher.

31

A

complaint was soon

made
by
his

to the

bishop that fifteen persons had been driven

mad
Nor

sermon.

The bishop only

replied, that

he hoped the

madness might not be forgotten before another Sunday.
is

that

first

sermon without another touch of
first

interest.

It

was

not prepared, in the
for
'

instance, for St.
'

Mary de

Crypt, but
for its

a small Christian society

—a

fact

which accounts

being on such an unusual topic for beginners, and for the
thoroughly Methodistical thoughts found at
as
it

its
it

close.

Just
its

had been preached

to the society

was

sent by

author to a neighbouring .clergyman, to show him
the author was to preach.

how

unfit

He

kept

it

a fortnight, and then
it,

sent

it

back with a guinea
it

for the loan of
it

saying that he

had divided

into two,

and preached

to his people

morning

and evening.

On Tuesday
polite sinners.

he preached again, and repeated his attacks on
Before he returned to Oxford on the Wednes-

day, Bishop

Benson added
of
five

to all

his past

kindnesses
with
a

one

more

—a

present

guineas,

which,

quarter's

allowance

now due from

Sir

John

Philips,

enabled him to pay

his ordination

expenses and take his bachelor's degree.
servitor's
arts.

For another week he wore the

habit,

and then

assumed the gown of a bachelor of

The
to

Methodists,

who had
installed

received

him with

great joy

on

his return to Oxford, his

him

as their

chief,

and committed
poor
life.

charge

the religious oversight of their work, and the charity-money

which they collected and used

for

prisoners.

A
;

sweet

repose rests upon this part of his

Heart and mind
inter-

were

at

peace

;

studies were pursued with satisfaction

course with religious friends was free and congenial; private
Christian duties, prayer, praise,
to his

and meditation, charmed him
for the

room

;

work was
last

to

be done

defence and spread

of truth.

Our

glimpse of him in his 'sweet retirement'

32

GEORGE WHITEEIELD
him poring over Matthew Henry's Commentary, and

sees

then writing to a friend

down

at Gloucester

Herewith I have sent you seven pounds to pay for Mr. Henry's ComDear Squire Thorold lately made me a present of ten guineas, so that now (for ever blessed be the Divine goodness !) I can send you
'

mentary.

more than
I

I

thought

for.

In time

I

hope

to

pay the apothecary's

bill.

If

forget your favours, I shall also forget

receiving this

money

;

and gracious God
the sons of men.'

for

Say nothing of your only give thanks, give hearty thanks to our good His infinite, unmerited mercy to me, the vilest of

my God.

A

trivial

circumstance called him forth from his study

before he was twenty-two years old.

The

curate of the

Tower

Chapel, London,
into
to

who was an

intimate friend, having to go

Hampshire

to officiate there for a short time,

asked him
Whitefield

fill

his place during his

absence from home.
for

complied with the request, and took coach

London on

Wednesday, August
His
ing
first

4,

1736, with

much
in

fear

and trembling.

sermon

in the metropolis

was preached on the followBishopsgate Church.
stairs

Sunday afternoon, August

8th,

His youthful appearance as he went up the pulpit

provoked, as he in his sensitive state of mind thought, a
general
sneer,

which,

however,

was exchanged

for

solemn

seriousness

when he got

into his sermon.
;

He

again conhis

quered himself and his congregation

and the people, on
respect,

coming down from the
blessed

pulpit,

showed him every

and

him

as he passed along.

No

one could answer the

question which was

now on

every one's lips

'

Who

was the

preacher to-day?'
short

Attention had been gained, and the two
visit

months of the London

were quite long enough to

secure a crowded chapel at the

ordinary

such a

Any man might have been sure of perfect quietness in place, and of returning home as unknown as when he
Tower every Sunday.
;

entered the city

and no doubt such would have been White-

BORN A PREACHER
field's

33

case but for his wonderful powers and for that blessing

from above which went whithersoever he went.

The

usual

wearisome time which
in striving with self

ability
it

and worth spend

in self-culture,

till

is

well mastered, in grappling with

prejudices, and, not improbably, with positive injustice,

was a
in

time never known to Whitefield.
youth, his sun rose to
its

He came

to

manhood
For him

zenith at early morn.

to

preach was at once to spread excitement, and draw together

masses of people
hold

;

and when they came he never
His

lost

his

upon
;

them.

manner

always

charmed,

never

offended

whereas the utmost mental power and personal

worth of many preachers can hardly sustain the patience of
their hearers

through a half-hour's sermon.
;

His thought was

always marked by good sense
with inanity.
his heart as

no one could be disgusted
fresh,

His emotion was always
;

streaming from

from a perennial fountain

and, unless the hearer

could not

feel,

could not be touched by tenderness or awe, he

was sure

to find his soul

made more

sensitive.

The

hearts of

most were melted
like silver in

in the intense heat of the preacher's fervour

a refiner's furnace.

During

his stay at the

Tower he preached and catechised
and
in

once a week, and
the
infirmary

visited the soldiers in the barracks
;

daily

every
;

morning and evening he read

prayers at

Wapping Chapel
'

and on Tuesday he preached

at

Ludgate prison.
town,' he says,

Religious friends from divers parts of the

'attended the word, and several young

men

came on Lord's Day morning under serious impressions, to The chapel was hear me discourse about the new birth.
crowded on Lord's Days.'

Here a

letter
all

reached him from his old friends the Wesleys

which told

that they were doing in Georgia,

and made him
be

long to go and join them.

But

difficulties

stood in the way.
to

He had

no

'

outward

call,'

and

his health

was supposed

4

34

GEORGE WHITEFIELD
He
strove to

unequal to a sea-voyage.

throw

off the

new
His
in

thoughts and feelings, prayed that the Lord would not suffer

him

to

be deluded, and asked counsel of

his friends.

friends were not less sensible in advising than he

had been

asking for advice.

They,

too, laid
;

emphasis on the absence of

a definite call from abroad
at

they urged the need of labourers

home, and begged

their friend to avoid rashness

and wait

further for an intimation of the will of

God.

Their counsel
that
it

was received with
was best to do
present,

all

respect,

and Whitefield, agreeing
and

so,

banished Georgia from his mind
heartily with his preaching

for the

and went on

visiting

until the return of his friend

from the country.

Then he went back
weeks more, and
sumed.

to his delightful life at

Oxford

for a

few
re-

for the last

time his quiet duties were
to presage the

His
;

state of

mind seemed

wonders of
its

his ministry

his heart

burned with even more than

former

fervour

;

and other students having received a
life,

similar impulse

to their spiritual

Whitefield's

room was

daily the scene of

such religious services as distinguished the Church immediately after

the

descent of the

Holy Ghost

at Pentecost,

when
Christ.

little

bands of devout disciples met to pray and to

encourage each other in the profession of the name of Jesus

Kindness waited on him during these few weeks, as
during the rest of his
rich
life.

it

did

His power to win the hearts of

and poor, which,

as Dr.
in

Johnson would have

said,

always

kept his friendships

repair,

had constrained the heart of a
the least solicitation, sent

gentleman

in

London who, without
for the poor,

him money

and

also as

much

for himself as

sufficed to discharge a small debt contracted for

books before

he took his degree.

Lady Betty Hastings, sister of the Earl of Huntingdon, also assisted both him and some of his Methodist friends, thus beginning an intimacy between him

Thus was that the Methodist ' clergyman of Dummer. and grew deeper towards the end. while he himself went Oxford to attend to the pending promotion. He who ' had felt himself to be the vilest of men could not brook ' having intercourse with the poor. as usual. his friends. College quiet- ness had been broken a first attempt at public work had been successfully made. . sent upon a principle which has been extensively put in practice by a large section of clergymen in the early Methodist preachers. The who were ' the true predecessors.' sent Methodist deacon of Pembroke to to preach for him. Trouble now arose from an unexpected quarter.' as a pattern The unlovely . Georgia had come before his mind for and although banished a while it was soon to return. of the later Evangelical School to set of the Church the of England. the advice of exchanged places. Things were beginning to give promise of the future . which evangelicals have largely copied.' which William has sketched in his of humility Serious Call to a Devout Life. ' gave himself to prayer and to the study of a ' Ourania. in ' a spiritual line. being likely to be for the chosen Dean of Corpus Christi College. illiterate people of the future intellectual all Dean of Corpus Christi ! Amidst the moral and barrenness of his new charge. In November another call to preach came to him. The young and the two deacon asked. and of mourned for lack them like a dove.' To overcome Law his unholy aversion he fictitious character. were the first the example. their of always seeking their pulpits it men of own religious views to fill when they had occasion to be from home. Whitefield would have given ' the world for one of his Oxford friends.AS A COUNTRY PARSON and her family which lasted as long as 35 he lived. Church of England. an the next time with an imperative message. in Hampshire. the dim outline of his career was distinguishable.

couched in stronger and less diffident language than Charles had used. stating that he had come field. and fresh. His day was divided into three parts . the spirit. what was of everybody finds who goes among the poor with a warm heart. He imbibed the all ' spirit all of the apostle. and and visiting the parish. So strange and . and he found. and in the evening after they returned children were also catechised daily. enough to leave him without a doubt that God willed that he should go. because a more and more sphere of labour. seeing taught him as much ' an afternoon as he could learn by a week's private study. eight hours for study eight for reading and retirement. was Georgia.36 rustics GEORGE WHITEFIELD became more pleasant to his eye. no doubt through London labours. eight prayers. things to men. of a greater than whom ' the common set people heard gladly. During in this visit he had an invitation to a profitable curacy his London. to which he was now called in a way earnest enough and plain to arouse all the enthusiasm of his ardent soul. that their conversation. if by any means he might save some Paul. trying. in December. with reference to White' I dare not prevent God's nomination. too. but difficult it was declined. his new the visit friends successfully conIt tended for his heart against old ones. him a good example method in which he wisely followed. honest. catechising. to become . over for labourers. and a letter came from John.' of His friend had also his work. in A predisposition in favour of the new colony was process of formation when. became no they often unpalatable duty to go and in them. and the people visited from house to house. work. Public prayers were read twice a day — in the morning before the people went out to .' A few days elapsed. artless. for sleep and meals. there Next came a letter from his old friend. who was ready St. news came of the return of Charles Wesley. but adding. A more attractive. full instruction and stimulus .

increasing colony. was co-operation. The United States.A CALL TO GEORGIA events in life 37 unexpected are the changes which come over the course of that Wesley. and echoed to the The call was heaven-sent. No place would suffer from Whitefield's departure. who. Mr. if any call has ever been. and that hand which was beckoning him effectually to their shore to was quietly and England. resolution was Neither Oxford friends nor Gloucester relations were this time consulted. and could take Whitefield's place at as the leader of to Methodism cure of Oxford. who was is shortly to leave America and never again could write in this urgent and confident way : ' Only Mr. enjoying much favour home government. the stirrings of a mis- and in a way that The decision was given in favour of Georgia. Mr. personal made which nothing was to be allowed to assail. ' still better calculated to secure his Do you ask me. and Whitefield sionary spirit. made alteration almost out of the question. Hervey was ready be a necessity serve the Dummer. Kinchin obtained the appointment of Dean of Corpus Christi. field read. Relations were informed .' he says. Delamotte with me. there were felt many Indians near the colony. Besides. his heart leaped within him. and generosity . 'what you shall have? to put on. to for and there seemed from the him to help Georgia. a not. were to share largely in Whitefield's labours. Food in to eat and raiment house to lay your head such as your Master had and a crown of glory that fadeth not away. putting their lives in their hands. till God shall stir up the hearts of some of His servants. shall come over and help us. visit it. but a firm. then a line of English colonies on and he as largely in their kindness the Atlantic coast. Whitefield Whitefield's ? ' Another of his letters. where the harvest if is so great and the labourers so few. What thou art the man. which was a young.' As Whitecall. undoing the ties which held him Mr. by presenting to mind nothing but heavenly rewards.

that do not doubt God will bless you. &c. and many were unable him to find The civic authorities paid respect. Stephen's. wished him success. was marked by that constant industry last. ' to grow a little popular. His mother wept Others sore. buttressed his citadel instead of undermining they ' urged at what pretty preferments he might have home. had said goodbye to his friends at Oxford and in his strength had so much increased that he succeeded purpose. of ' denominations. to attend the daily services of the Church. It being his custom. undertaking duty this time in an unexpected way. and said. where he had admission. unless they promised not to dissuade him .' The next day the same thing was repeated at St. and again he preached. weakness so far gained upon him as to send him down to Gloucester on New Year's Day. and the opposition ceased. Baptists.33 . Presbyterians..' But own relations at were not so passive. John's to hear a sermon. he complied.' which was both to base words. and the psalm was being to preach. crowds of people. but this time the ' ' excited by his preaching was so widespread. the minister ' came to him and asked him Having alarm notes about him. on all the following Sunday. go where he might. Quakers. tempted him with which must have it .' flocked to the churches to officiate. I approved of his design.' and to gather large congre- which were moved by the word of God. 1736-37. his However. This farewell visit which distinguished him to the He preached often enough gations. after he . When his prayers were over. that. sung. GEORGE WHITE FIELD . abiding by his Bishop Benson welcomed him as a ' father. his credit hers. lie went to St. for he said that he knew his own weakness. the mayor . of his intentions to bid but told that he would not so much as come them farewell.' if he would stay He showed no wavering. In three weeks he went to Bristol to take leave of his friends there. his ' and that you first will do much good and abroad.

' . that God would always keep me humble.' As always. so now. the lectures on week-days. touching to mark the holy excitement and eagerness ! amid the city's ' he entreated a friend.' jealousy with which. to hear him. dear Mr. and twice on Sundays. fully H . power and with the Holy Ghost and the new doctrines with the prevalent teachings of the faith — new as compared times — of by justification and the new birth. the good which done upon God doth it Himself. and that earth.HOL V JEALOUS V 'For some time following he preached all 39 appointing him to preach before himself and the corporation. besides visiting the religious societies. ' made It is their way like lightning into the hearers' consciences. and all convinced is that I am nothing without Him. Oh pray. he preached with .

and held a charter keep in 1732. 1738 TO THE GEORGIAN COLONY EARLY POPULARITY FIRST VOYAGE EORGIA. dated June 9. political. whose rights were respected and their goodwill conciliated. the last colony founded in America by England. active philanthropist. debtors out of gaols and dwellers in London and convicts from Jamaica.' Jews. Scotch. Its first settlers were poor English. driven from cruelty to a homes in by Roman not Catholic colony where' Catholics were the permitted to come.. 1737 APPOINTED CHAPLAIN III — March.CHAPTER March. Ardent ' were prohibited.' says the Governor. and Moravians also —a company of a higher type there their were Saltzburgers from Germany. The Trustees refused to make a law permitting such a horrid crime as slavery. Then came English.000 Creek Indians. in -T was named C"* honour of George It II. 'slums. the romantic and was the first governor of this spirits semi-philanthropical settlement. . was an outpost. of The government was hands twenty - one Trustees. stituting a The Trustees 40 honestly aimed at con colony morally sound and useful. General Oglethorpe. . and no one might hold slaves. many of whom semi- were Presbyterians. Close to the white men were 25. to check the Spaniards and the French.

abused.GEORGIA To keep settlers. was sent out with the first company . and unsuccess- sought to destroy the whites. he shook off the dust of his feet and left Georgia. refused. resisted. ! Why. with the were hated. when urged embrace Christianity. and same pitiless legalism. George Whitefield. rapidly deteriorated. by name Bosomworth. The moral condition of the colony. to and a native saying ' : chief. ! had smuggled drink ! ' much drunk!' Christian beat men ! Christian lies Devil Christian Me no Christian ! ' To this strange mixture of men and women came John and 5. these are Christians at Savannah ! these are ('Chris- Christians at Frederica tian tell ' Christian in). at With the best of intentions they Savannah. one year and nine months. however. is — John knew the liberty which ' in Christ Jesus. Charles Wesley on February both signally failed Neither of them that 1736. and the experience of the Trustees might have made them decide guides. and. or methodism. through her he armed opposition among the Indians. Charles at Frederica. in when he appeared an appointment desiring their colony of Georgia.' which they applied to themselves. they strove to enforce result that they on the colonists. with kindbefore them early in March. The Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London both approved of Whitefield's design . not over good to begin with. he ought. Charles had been glad to sail again even sooner than John. taking to himself a native raised an fully woman as wife. Esq. young preacher. and the Honourable Trustees' received the ness. Thus the colony was without a chaplain. the former prelate. to meddle no more with spiritual Yet ' James Oglethorpe. John says that after having preached there. : expressing himself in these ungracious words ' I shall take .. and persecuted. 41 the sanctions of religion before the minds of the a chaplain. not as but as he was able. but unfortunately he was a hypocrite. 1737.

my conscience earth. and then. con- tinued three weeks in London. at last. ' I found. refresh heart. often gave the traveller farewell to his friends . a distant land a hundred and A prolonged stay. ' spiritual gladness with him. even when embarkation fairly took place. who went to London on business. but simply to comply with what will. and to from thence he was sure communicate with his friends. to supply the place of a clerical friend. At other times I would be so infinite majesty.' On which Whitefield remarks 'This put me upon inquiry what were my motives in going: and. Oglethorpe. at noonday. waiting for Mr. that I overpowered with a sense of God's would be con- .' sail to glory. they would tell what sweet communion I and some dear souls enjoyed with the ever-blessed God there. quietly betook himself to Stonehouse. I answered Not be to please any man living upon nor out of any believe to sinister view. who was expecting to sail every day . or by the absence of favourable winds. Thus it happened that Whitefield. Thou great Shepherd and Bishop of was not an easy thing to sixty years ago. Thy It O God. after the strictest examination. and my Sometimes.42 GEORGE WH1TEF1ELD go to particular notice of such as Georgia.' uncommon manifestations granted me from above. my soul would make such sallies would go out of the body. enforced by the slow despatch of business. and Stonehouse was to prove a happier Duraraer. was a time of much he says. and to promote Thy souls. did the blessed Jesus visit day Could the trees of a certain wood near Stonehouse speak. after his appointment. more than one opportunity of saying and. as that I thought I it have been walking. all the Early in the morning. meetings in private houses and the public services the church were both attended by overflowing congregaIt tions. long. Of course His in the time spent in the metropolis was devoted to preaching. and midnight. if they do not go out of any sinister view. A calm might land him any port on the British shores. evening. in Gloucestershire. it was no guarantee that he was at finally gone. nay.

than that of a young clergyman. gratefully rememvisit to was glad to receive bering Whitefield's his them in February. Stonehouse was sorry to part with. and improve the occasion. or from that of a prince on a progress through his provinces. One night was a time happened to lighten exceedingly. to to prepare for the second coming of the Son of soul feel ? man . and exulting. to write on never to be forgotten. and the country.' touched a friend : his affectionate heart not a ' little. but oh them up what did my On my return to the parsonage-house. and they were the flock of another pastor .' There had been but a month's short intercourse with them.' The whom he agreed all ' and better. many in coaches met him a mile outside the and as he passed along the . stir ! I thought my duty to accompany them. gentleness and sweetness of spring . I had been it expounding it to many people.MEETINGS AND PARTINGS strained lo throw myself prostrate on the ground. Bristol indeed the people there. also had their attractions for him it was early in May.' on Ascension Day. a poor but pious countryman. and another. were in the field praising. 'almost broke my heart. to see the lightning run upon the ground. with my life. 'the sighs and he says. and he wrote to I believe we shall part weeping. 43 blank in His hands. insisted upon of their enthusiastic coming to see them again. and some being afraid to go home. in our God. It and otier my soul as a what He pleased. and frightened almost to death. but it was Whitefi eld's way if to love life- people and to labour for them as time. the pleasantest thought of leaving better place ever was in through Stonehouse people. Multitudes on foot and city gates . he 'looked to I me like a second paradise. The account like reception of him reads more an extract from the journal of a conquering general. to. never jealous of he had known them a any one.' The guest whom . whilst others were rising from their beds. nor dreaming that any one could his leave be jealous of him . and shine from one part of the heaven to another. and longing for that time when Jesus shall be revealed from heaven in a flame of fire O that my soul may I praying ! be in a like frame when He shall actually come to call me ! The says. and when he took tears. twenty- two years old.

The mixed T mass of hearers into every loft. enjoyed while it they struck into heart and conscience. turning the wicked man alive. from his wickedness. filled the pews.44 streets in the GEOkGE WHITEFlELD midst of his friends. hung upon the of the organto climbed upon the leads of the church. that he might save his soul and awakening the generous emotiuns of all. The general joy was deepened when. shook off his supineness at least to what the stranger had for a place The vicious and depraved strove where they might hear the love of God toward sinners. . almost every one saluted and blessed him. spoken of with a tenderness and to an earnestness condition. the greatness and preciousness of the work of His Son in the hearts of Jesus. more than a pleasant sound. or rather of him and five The rich forsook their comforts and pleasures. rails swarmed nook and corner. The idle worldling. preacher's words And it the were lasted. all and the mighty help of the Holy Ghost live a who would holy life. who seldom made an to say. and healed as with the balm of Gilead. where he had too often failed to find the heart-searching preaching satisfy his wants. to jostle and push among the crowd which Quaker times every week besieged the church where Whitefield was to preach. its visitor. which alone could but where he was now pierced as with arrows. Oglethorpe sent him word that their departure for longer. much and soon forgotten when ceased . left his The uncom- promising Nonconformist chapel for the church. feeling of a befitting themes so dear them in their abject The broken-hearted rejoiced in the sympathetic teacher who knew all their sorrow. to his own was Mr. choked the aisles. As many had turn away disappointed as had gained admission. Bristol America would be delayed two months completely under the spell of the doctrines he preached. his The quiet left the unimpassioned talk of meeting-house to feel the thrill of oratory. regret. effort to be interested go and hear in anything.

but the temporal and spiritual wants of prisoners never failed to Methodists. at work in prisons some thirty years. visitor at and the chief charge of he was a regular charit- In . unless ' be is connected with love not in one another. to and they must not come to be pleased. which suggested prison philanthropy much Joseph | more likely got the suggestion from the Methodists.' love which word. and in truth. London and and of the ' in Gloucester Newgate in Bristol he pursued the same able plan. where his preaching produced as deep an impression as in the sister city. as well thrice the Gospel to and so. he appealed them on behalf of the prisoners in Newgate. . Primrose .PRACTICAL RELIGION Whitefield began with his congregations as 45 he continued benevolent and ended with them. use of is He made felt it a practical. for the move the sympathy of Whitefield and the early The first band of Methodists had a special fund prisoners in Oxford gaol. for he that our profession of love to God to but a mockery. and when Whitefield left the it University he had the disposing of the prisoners. but in deed and He did not preach to please his hearers. Howard had not begun his holy our gaols . he paid a visit to Bath. yet and made work in collections. as their They must come privilege in know . their duty. who had been already Alleine. whose faces Whitefield had not yet seen. sixty pounds poor of his future parting from the simple peasants of Stonehouse was hard. preached to prisoners a hundred years before the charity ' Vicar of Wakefield was written. The author ' Life and Adventures of Oliver was the character but Goldsmith Goldsmith imagines that Dr. them . The same comprehensive During his stay at Bristol was displayed towards the poor of Georgia. and where some and If rich ladies gave for the him more than a hundred flock. an intimate friend of Wesley's grandfather. twice or every week.

21st. he says : ' The sum of the matter is this : Christianity includes morality. he would continue cared nothing 'June . all . to minister in its churches. as grace does reason. For the money he he cared everything. Once he makes be well tion.' if a side-hit at metaphorical interpreters ' : It will they do not interpret themselves out of their salva- In another sentence he states a view which he and his contemporary Methodist friends — to their honour be it said always carried into practice. drops fell from their eyes like in the rain. followed me home weeping morning till and the next day I talking was employed from seven spiritual advice to midnight. His doctrine and thus. face tears no more. 'I took my last farewell of Bristol.' he says." as I have gushed out . under the pressure of from friends.' he exclaims.' As he had heard that a great company intended morning to see him out of town he departed early in the for Gloucester. as well as urged in their preaching . then he went to Oxford.' true religion in Elsewhere he defines ' : these strikingly noble words A universal morality founded upon the love of God and faith in the Lord Jesus Christ.' 'The only Methodism. views upon that only two sentences subject. given in very ordinary language would be likely to catch the eye of any one who might read the sermon with a previous understanding of the preacher's views. in and giving awakened souls. This popularity inevitably brought trouble.' contains statement of the ordinary evangelical . which if offered him both ample means and for love affectionate regard. young and old burst into such a flood of to tell .46 it GEORGE WHITE El ELD could not be easy to tear himself away from Bristol. never seen before like water. 'I desire . But when I came them it might be that they would " see my high and low. Thus he had two or three leave-takings was not approved of by at various places. or rather Multitudes. and forward to London. It aspersions from enemies and entreaties ' he was induced to publish his sermon on a Regeneration. after sermon.

than were Whitefield and the Wesleys. but in the union of doctrine and precept. the other with Calvin. The great strength of the new movement not in the advocacy of any peculiar doctrine. yet work.' committed. has been much questioned step. joy. of protesting against every use and of the temple service of the ceremonial law which would degrade religion into a superstition. faith. and of living to God. indeed. The prophets themselves. peace. who never failed to link the plainest and humblest of duties with the loftiest doctrines they taught. nearly every one has that he did himself condemned the Franklin thought an abiding injustice. even after the rupture between them. resting alone or principally upon a particular doc- trine. goodness. . in ancient time. was not hindered much vigour and as Some would have morality without religion. him to publish. . the task of guarding the morality of the Hebrew nation.' Whether forcing friends and enemies did Whitefield a service by . It was a true expression of the apostle's argument to the Church So at far Rome — the from its doctrine of grace united with purity of life.RELIGION AND MORALITY to 47 know is a holy method of dying to ourselves. the 'fruit of the Spirit is love. forsaken. were not more jealous that reli- gion and morality should not be divorced from each other. but these men proclaimed everywhere that religion is the root of morality that every man needs the renewing power of the Spirit of God in his heart and that or destroyed. long-suffering. was among other exalted duties. temperance. the their one holding with Arminius. of privilege and responsibility. and throughout was never moment lay. and the apostles. Whitefield and Wesley were divided upon doctrine. gentleness. but carried forward with as much to the profit of mankind as ever. to whom. The ground whole life of the moderns in his was taken up clearly and boldly by Whitefield his sermon for a just referred to. meekness. because his power lay .

of broken-hearted penitents rejoicing believers and this alone suffices to lend them an air of sanctity. thoughtful minds. their history rememand of They speak .48 GEORGE WHITEFIELD . Then hath God chosen the weak things still of the world to confound the mighty. ' know that men regard them as 'weak irre- things ligion for. The sermons which had aroused Bristol and Bath were next . his letters. spirit It would be a profound satisfaction to the humble of their author to . excepting curious orators. and over ' cultivated. Many weeping England. With him it was no consideration what might be thought of his powers. in America. want to find out the secret of Whitefield's power. but in the tongue better for his reputation and that it would have been his had he allowed only the reports of genius and of his triumphs to be kept as his memorial for succeeding generations. not in the pen. perhaps Franklin was idle right . once eagerly searched for consolation and hope. he would simply say. who The two old is volumes have a touching interest when bered. but Whitefield would have been no more than an of his writings. in the hall of the nobleman. pamphlets. their feebleness becomes their wonder. because he his friends to clear himself of aspersions. Intellectual But they are not without passion and directness. in the cottage peasant. in Scotland. . to recollect whether he had any hunger literary reputation and least of all did he first after posthumous fame. and found them in those pages which few now care to read.' And God uses them unto salvation. in when read of the as when heard. During his life he never gave a moment or not . wanted He published in the instance. because he found that his sermons were often as useful eyes. and wished to have his sermons and in the second instance. in the hut of the emigrant. they are not . As to the sermons. without name had we been without some and some of his journal. remembering how they once prevailed over and vice.

in 49 of London. often have we seen Jesus Christ ! and evi- dently set forth before us On Sunday 5 mornings. and began to plead with him for the benefit of the children.' he very awful. to preserve order. St. 'were. . its money-effect. what be said of the 'torrent of popularity and it. and sought from this willing . and attracted large good reason large — he — congregations. crucified. but his soul had not long tasted the sweetness of this repose The stewards and when invitations to preach poured in members of the religious societies moral. Anne's. perceiving the preaching. and social work) were for a which did religious. contempt. whither Whitefield went about the end in If his life shall Bristol had been busy and excited enough.' as he calls that swept through the metropolis in perfect retirement ? His intention was to remain and devote himself. in their services. O how day. thought that they must have a share of the harvest. (societies his knees . and got collections. which called says. ' him out before daybreak. early. that is to say. For three months the stream of people flowed steadily towards any church in which he . might be ministering and sometimes constables had to be placed both inside and outside the building. These early sacraments. At Cripplegate. Friendly clergymen — only too soon to forget their admiration it wanted help worker. Then the churchwardens and effect of his managers of the charity schools. long before you might see streets filled with people going to church. to his much- loved employment of reading and praying over the word of God upon amain. until the time of his departure for Georgia. The churches could for not hold the people thousands went away want of room.POPULARITY AND CONTEMPT preached August. remarkably fond of hearing him. in his delightful work On Sunday morning to walk it was his habit to rise very and during the day churches at which many miles between the various he was expected. and Foster Lane. Nine times a week did Whitefield engage of preaching.

The paragraph chagrined to the Whitefield very much. and hear about the things of God. that he made use .' all kinds.50 GEORGE WHITEF1ELD them conversing with their lanthorns in their hands. further. instead of ten shillings in halfpence all — three pounds of which was quite true) that he was to preach next Wednesday before the societies at their general quarterly meeting. and he requested the printer not to put him in his paper again ' but his only comfort was the printer's it. being actually urged that these crowds which followed Whitefield interfered with the attendance at church of regular parishioners . The stewards had larger offerings table. his eye caught sight in the paragraph to the effect. saucy answer. and one Monday newspaper of a morning. Swithin's. was not yet inured annoy- ances of public life. and finally. thought that he was as much entitled to turn an honest penny as the stewards . been made for such an excep- A newsagent.' The ordinary congregations. who heard of what was doing in the religious world. He . that he was a spiritual pickpocket . when Whitefield was quietly taking breakfast with a friend at the Tower. which were not composed of such persons as these devout communicants. it The ground which it took was extraordinary. On sacramental occasions fresh elements had sometimes to be consecrated twice or thrice. that he was paid for doing and full that he would not lose two shillings for anybody. that the pews were spoiled . their collec- than they could conveniently carry to the tion boxes or bags not having tional time. but of hearing for eternity.' and a church — Bow Church it was — on the following Wednesday. that . there was a young gentleman going at St. heard the word 'like people Such popularity quite disturbed the usual order of things. too. opposition increased As popularity proportionately. and usefulness increased. volunteer to Georgia that he had preached (which was and collected and eight pounds. next.

of them.' grant since heard you preach a plain scriptural Whitefield then asked his lordship whether he would licence. 'you would not forbid me The bishop gave a satisfactory answer. least listened it and admired. He was denounced for 'a fraternising with Dissenters. his profession.THE CLERGY of a charm to get the people's true. upon the the pickpocket would be hindered complaint of the clergy from plying his thievish arts.' said Whitefield. to which they kindly invited .' pragmatical rascal. The grounds of The piety and to zeal of the preacher drew the pious of other denominations hear him .' ? ' 'Then. ' No . at and that silencing him would be a difficult thing. in part. Some of them he had cenchurches against sured and they had replied by shutting their him. He well had a native pugnacity. had. to ' You need none. him a and the answer was. But Whitefield was not a man to tremble under a threat. at spiteful. . would be silenced by the bishop. and in their houses. and the bishop has replied. He once waited upon the bishop. whole of his is true. broken with . not his humbled and subdued that he could fight as and quickly did he show as enemies preach and pray. for I know a clergyman who sermon. and asked whether any complaint had been lodged against him the bishop answered that there was none. Whitefield. and Whitefield took his leave. 51 money — which was perfectly And the clergy — some . too prone at this time to judge others. He asked his lordship whether any objection could be made to his doctrine. Others attempted to crush him by means of pamphlets. was great. you are going Georgia. and it lasted throughout the to life. grew angry and who had The charmer. or yet grow pale at a rumour. were honourable both parties concerned.' and 'vehemently against him and the whole body of Dissenters it His intimacy with Dissenters. one clergyman called him inveighed together. — was rumoured. .

To the both naval and military. trine of the that if the doc- new birth and justification by faith were powerfully in preached in the Church. 1737. there would be but few Dissenters England. came at Christmas. conduct among the men of the ship from the first day he went on board. and freighted with their benevolent gifts. the former containing the companions of his voyage. The end London labours. and on the 30th His labours now Purfleet. and catechised them. A solemn. he determined once to start. who followed him from point to point.' and thinking that his practice of visiting and associating with them to was agreeable bring to Scripture. of thousands prayers were offered for the people would embrace him in the church . and an opportunity offering by a transport ship. from the first voyage to the thirteenth. he judged that ' the best way them over was not by bigotry and and undissembled holiness of of these railing. On December 28th Whitefield went on board the Whitaker at left London. Anxious to get to his Georgian charge. weeping communion He left the charity schools one thousand pounds richer by his labours. He ever. to sail with a number him of soldiers. which was about at . wistful looks would follow him as celebrated the he went home. he got out to sea. crossed the Atlantic guarded by the prayers of thousands. and allowed not his zeal to carry . he showed marked deference.' but moderation and love. final parting. taught them. His purpose wounded the hearts . which were only part of an interlude. life. and he as kindly went.' Whitefield found their conversation ' savoury. they assured him. officers. He attended them in sickness. were divided between the ship and the shore. and he carried more than three hundred pounds with him for the poor of Georgia. the latter having the presence of friends. till and who were always ready to engage him in Great kindness and prudence marked some his religious duties.52 GEORGE WHITEF1ELD ' him.

John Wesley arrived there from Georgia. that he might be as one of them. the military captain was friendly. bound for Georgia. Whitefield said about the Deal lot The morning I sailed from Deal to Gibraltar you arrived from Geoigia. Wesley learned that his friend was in a vessel in the offing. of the ship gave He soon became a favourite. though the ship Instead of giving me an was not far off the shore.WINNING SOLDIERS AND SAILORS him tion. at the request of the captain. On reaching shore. 53 into any unwise attempts to force religion upon their atten- He was as attentive to teach a few soldiers or a few women the catechism as he had been zealous for the crowds of London. From some cause or other. or go down the steerage where the sailors were congregated. He even resorted to it in the dispute between himself and Whitefield on the subjects of election and freegrace. At night he would walk on the deck that he might officers have an opportunity of speaking quietly to some whom into he wanted to gain over to the service of God. At and. Wesley deemed it necessary to takesome steps to know whether Whitefield ought to continue his voyage. prayers were read daily in the great cabin . but one which Whitefield never followed. in reply to Wesley's sermon on ' free-grace. In a letter addressed to Wesley. and the congregations became so to large that the preaching ' room had ' be propped up. opportunity to converse with you. ' sin that did most easily beset the field Deal people of that day and though White- took care to show them 'the absolute unlawfulness' of still their deeds. he also regularly preached on shore in a house. His method of deciding the difficulty was by sortilege. ' It seems that running ' and buying run goods ' was a . and immediately set forwards to . Whitefield preached to the 'gentlemen.' Until they left Deal on January 30th. a practice which he long continued. length. The same morning that he sailed from Deal. yet they waited on his word. you drew a lot. free use of his The captain him the cabin. and so were the rest of the officers.

in which were written these words London. would have assailed him with irresistible force. and enemies. and what could he have said but lot. On the other hand. I was somewhat surprised. by a Some months lot. purpose by a dozen of them drawn by a far had he been so and so openly committed as was . His answer you have inclosed. in "Though God He suffered me to have I never before gave such a me a wrong lot at that time. " When : ' When I received this. and for the sake of religion. and could not justly go from the soldiers who were committed to my charge. would have been covered with shame and confusion. and that he was not turned from a sober purpose by a ridiculous to chance. " That the prophet was slain me he had cast a London. His return London would have demanded this : : public ' explanation. after I received this effect : a letter from you at Georgia. leader. was powerfully impressed upon my soul. and he could never have become a only the decided and consistent. for the sake of every one. That passage in the First Book of Kings. since men self.' It was well. or have become himself. and that had taken leave of London. lot. We sailed immediately.. where we are told. telling and that God would have me return to lion. chapter xiii. Here was a good man I I knew that my call was to Georgia." should never have published this private transaction to the world did not the glory of God call me to it. to try what was your heart. yet. All his prayers.54 GEORGE WHITEFIELD I You left a letter behind you. that was tempted to go back (contrary to God's express order) upon another prophet's telling him God would have him do so. who were rapidly multiplying." This was a " Let him return to piece of paper. in which were words to this effect saw God." London. that Whitefield was not so superstitious as his friend. tears." I wrote you word that I could not return to London. John Wesley drew a return to on which were these words " " Let all him the London and so I am as here ? ' Then sensible part of his congregation would either have foolish as lost confi- dence in him. wherein you wrote words to perhaps. lots. I betook myself with a friend to prayer. I asked counsel of God. . will follow Wesley him- notwithstanding his blind faith in his would not have been turned from friend. by the wind which was carrying you out brought me in. and ponderings. resolutions.

I have been so delighted these two days with our pleasant sailing and the promontories all blessed be the . The is following account of his feelings as he approached Gibraltar 'Saturday. thought it \\*hitc- was ' the world in epitome . or to the it scenery through which he passed in his travels. Keeper of Israel Read prayers in the great cabin was enlarged in expounding both the lessons to the soldiers and had prayers. I went upon deck with friend H and praised God for His wonderful lovingkindness in singing Psalms. My friend may draw will but not for me .' leave me in hopeless So few are the to the references. around us. and our ship sailed at the rate of nine miles an hour. and the moon and stars appeared in their greatest lustre so that. and is girded about with power. and the contradictory answers embarrassment. " who by His strength mountains. that I could not avoid thanking God for calling me abroad. all given in his first journal : Though the weather was exceedingly grew more and more pleasant in the evening. and then had a long intercession. and asked pardon for the offences. February iSth. . as a proof that his was not a dull soul without delight in nature. . and preached one of the sermons God enabled me to make since I came on board. that is a pleasure to extract any that he made. The night was exceedingly clear. and the weather was finer than I can express. All the gentlemen attended benches were laid for the people . February 19th. ' ' Sunday. ' he might have .DEL TGHT IN NA TURE Whitefield. on open deck in the afternoon. difficulty 5 5 — One ' short answer would have cut through the lots for himself. without responsiveness to the soft sweetness of a southern sky. yet it . and as steady as though we were sitting on shore. — Slept better to-night than ! I have a long while . and gave thanks for the blessings. not having patience to stay below. manners of the people among whom he stayed. at this rate everybody be trying to divine will my duty.'" stirring setteth fast the On field February 20th the Whitaker reached Gibraltar. or to the wildness and majesty of a storm. of the week. It is worth coming from England to see what we have beheld this day. And. in Whitefield's journal or letters. — pleasant the day. so that I know not where I have performed the service more comfortably. indeed. and the ship sailed smoothly. and up all to praise Him.

the sin of the place. all were crowding to hear him. to hear him on the Not knowing him and con- Whitefield next day attended the synagogue. but everything there was contrary to the which the plain Methodist loved. as popular with the soldiers as he had been with the with the townspeople soldiers as he was with the garrison. The Roman Catholic Church was also visited simplicity . the minister of the church and the governor wisely free use of the church. Many for of the inhabitants pressed him to his stay with them. he eagerly embraced the opportunity of reproving them for the sin of drunkenness. he had dreaded being treated with more than sober hospitality. to and solicitous for him to stay but his face was set go to Georgia. and sake treated the friends who journeyed with him with marked kindness. as a came to ducted him to a chief mark of honour for his having preached so according to Jewish ideas. and was astonished when well. the presiding elder seat. Jews came this. They were . and for profane swearing. the Church too Lights' and for Dissenters and Churchmen.' Jews and Roman Catholics. innocent manner that they pleased him very much. and generously gave them the A few days sufficed to make Whitefield sailors. added. . ' New 'Dark Lanthorns. their on applying for leave to build a little sanctuary of own. against the sin of profaning the Divine name. were on the rock. and at the governor's table.' but afterwards. The ' New Lights ' were an interesting company of soldiers. His presence and labours created so much excitement that even the chief of the latter subject. None While of this popularity was won at the expense of fidelity. Officers and crowded the where church when he preached .56 GEORGE WH1TEFIELD . studious to oblige him. ' all the officers behaved with such a decent. who for twelve years first had been their leader. Their meetings were held in 'dens and mountains and caves of the rocks. gathered into a society by a sergeant.

weeping. . on the brink of eternity. for their souls. and I am resigned. and others stood on the ' beach to see him go on board. I would write more. me for something extraordinary . God has been pleased to me it.' I . many bold . as it were. as visit one would think. I was enabled to rejoice and sing in the midst of had many violent conflicts with the powers of darkness. wine. and other necessaries officers. as I had heaven within me I thought of nothing in this world I earnestly desired to be dissolved and go to Christ but God was pleased to order it otherwise.. had dominion over me. White: was struck down To a friend he writes ' How goes time ? I can scarce tell .. but my strength faileth me. it many came in to Whitefield. to ask for his prayers. and from that moment I grew better. and all supernatural assistance seemed to be suspended for awhile. ashamed to own Christ openly have waxen and many that were saints full have had their hearts filled with joy unspeakable and of glory. and wish him good luck name of the Lord.' His labours on the ship soldiers. rebuked the tempter.CONFLICTS The day of AND COMFORTS and on the 57 last stay at Gibraltar lasted thirteen days. Surely God is preparing Divine consolations. that I . Others sent him presents of for his voyage. for He has now sent me . Two in the hundred soldiers. . return. so sweetened by Indeed. who did all they could to disturb and distract me and though I was once reduced to the last extremity. back have repented and turned unto the Lord again that were . with a violent fever. also reformed the swearing captain and many of the In the next portion of the voyage fever broke out on the ship. such extraI ordinary conflicts and comforts as I never before experienced. and to promise him theirs eggs.' The results of his work he fallen thus were quite stark blind have received their sight summed up Many that many that had ' : . and Satan. was. notwithstanding. women. for I have been some time past. field and carried off two of the worst men on board for several days. but came in at length to my aid. which He. yet God suffered not my faith to fail. . to tell him what God had done cake. launching into eternity. figs. though I can scarce be reconciled to come back again into this vale of misery. We hope to be at Savannah on Monday. thought.

.58 GEORGE WHITE FIELD Whitefield's farewell sermon to the soldiers was preached on May 6th. the friend whom Wesley left behind him. Delamotte. in thanksgiving and prayer. and some other and joined him ' pious souls.' who were rejoiced at his arrival. where he was welcomed by Mr. and caused much weeping. On the evening of the following day he reached Savannah.

on his arrival Savannah. by a courtesy which could hardly intercourse. and expounded the second lesson adults to a congregation of seventeen and twenty-five children. but began early and zealously the to preach after and to teach. Wesley's sent word that he and the magistrates would to wait upon Whitefield. to prepare the way for kindly The interview 50 was marked much . wait England ! In the afternoon of the same day. nothing of the circumstances under which his friend The whole to act as story if was related to him. Mr. in which his friends had. and he wisely determined kind had occurred in . though not without provocation.CHAPTER 1738 IV ROUGH EXPERIENCES IN GEORGIA — SECOND at VOYAGE knew WHITEFIELD. At five o'clock on morning his arrival he read public prayers. Full of loving anxiety to do his work well. that and heartily believing the gospel he preached could promote peace and harmony. Causton. Wesley had left it. but Whitefield chose fail upon them. received harsh treatment. in Such was the exchange for crowded churches keen enemy. he never gave a thought to the unhappy past. nothing of an unhappy it he would not even make any record of his journal.

and for self-denial . where a congregation of one or two hundred persons was the largest that could be mustered . he had no Indians. in the present case. for gentleness. for preaching to the For oratory there was little scope in Georgia. who had refused the ground that Christians were that There can be no doubt. and Whitefield. for humility. on the second Sunday. an instrument by which hearts might be drawn to the cross. They had evidently learned the secret of conceding for the pleased.' Oratory was nothing to him as an art . settlement. like a . fitness. by his assiduous cultivation of these graces. to become a Christian. though much zeal. however. when. the Indian king. on such bad wretches. his attempt to officiate broke down before he reached the second service . was supremely valuable as a talent to be used for his Lord. and the principal part his it of the conversation was upon the place of . their caution was The ship-fever had not quite left Whitefield when. His first week in Savannah was spent in con- finement. . but on the following Tuesday he was out at his pastoral work. He went among the villages. and. and made a call on Tomo Chici. The that magistrates were as diplomatic as civil for was resolved the place should be Frederica. he arranged the plan of his work and made a beginning. but there was ample room for industry.6o GEORGE WHITEFIELD civility ' ' shown to the new chaplain .' sake of getting needless. long he Thus they avoided raising a contention with him. that ' showed he cared more for charity than for the gift of speaking with the tongues of men and it of angels. by not arbitrarily sending him away from the principal place. with his usual promptness. but. for where a house and they themselves tabernacle were to be built him — then and would not run the he ' risk of any trouble with him as — but as that should serve at Savannah.

and found there were many who might prove useful members of the colony. which. by hardship. where the children gathered soil round crops. and children. sit who came to cheer them at their work. Nothing but an orphan-house. who entered into their difficulties. He was scrupulously careful prejudices of any. which might easily be erected at. endure the worst hardships of colonial intensely hot. or near. ' were as unable.' With endurance he combined the charming quality of gratitude any kindness either settlers for to himself or his friends. village field The he at in the had but a hard for lot. in their huts. Their children offered the best Whitefield's efforts. The love which won Dummer. matter what their nation or their creed praised their industry invited and success in . love. and the workers talked about the friend. ' life. and as one of them his knee. women. I determined to inure myself to hardiness by lying on the ground.AMONG THE SETTLERS travelling missionary in a 61 heathen country . inevitable conquests. Savannah.' he says. made him resolve to The weather was his sometimes burning him almost through seeing others shoes . that afterwards this use. was loved as a personal As such they looked Bristol. no . and them to trust Him who could save them from their sins. ' inquired into the state of their children. It is not to offend the religious or national and strove to draw all by the cords of easy to believe that a chaplain whose heart was touched with the colonists' every sorrow. ' I also. men. reproved their faults . I found to be so so to lie far from being it became on a bed.' he says. if there was can a proper place provided for their effect this maintenance and education. its and Gibraltar was simply repeating His dauntless and brotherly f spirit. would some of those that are rich in this world's good . and once arranged to begin schools for them. still which retained a touch the asceticism of his Oxford days. made himself the friend of every one in them. upon him. and the London. and do it who.

favoured him. and in giving the praise to Charles Wesley and the humane governor.' The no doubt at the suggestion of Oglethorpe.62 contribute towards it. Before he had thought of going abroad. them. who must inevitably be thrown upon the colony for. in the strength of all to prosecute the orphan-house design with Trustees. in service them and Others were en^a^ed . when their parents died and left A scheme somewhat like the one which was ultimately adopted the was devised. his friends who helped him gave him the credit but he was frank in undeceiving them. quartered here and there with for a such families as had promised. though Wesleys made its practical accomplishment impossible. GEORGE WHITEFIELD May God. stir up the wills of His on faithful people to be ready to distribute. and such a was never made God. and willing to communicate this commendable The following extract shows the need of the flock ' : and the visiting tender-heartedness of the shepherd Began to-day in from house to house. all notwithstanding. but. and found the people appearance desirous of being fed with the sincere milk of the word. He 'resolved. by his friend call Charles Wesley to in remember the orphans vain upon him. and solicitous for my continuance amongst them. Some were rear them. and many of of it . to take money consideration. Whitefield was entreated . yet the idea was not abandoned. occasion. they had the necessity of seen and felt some provision being made them unprovided for the orphans. General Oglethorpe. because I Poor creatures ! My heart ached for saw them and their/ children scattered abroad as sheep having no shepherd. acting his might.' The first of these extracts points to the inference that the idea of an orphan-house for the colony was Whitefield's own. When he reached his charge he found that the condition of the kindness of the Trustees the orphans was deplorable.' in His due time.

because unable to cope with the legislative statesmanlike work which the It mind of Wesley seas. influence of the orphan-house. must be lodged. position was impossible. plan for curing the mischief: a home must be to built. and where (such was his humility and care- lessness about popularity) he could have cheerfully remained. excepting to undertake the charge of the orphans. the establishment The moral of which was as now his fixed purpose. and give it a start. a constant spur and an anchor to his excitable mind. Saving he did nothing in Georgia which he might not have done elsewhere. until fed. and were kept that educating work so long and so hard. gloried in mastering. and done better. and beg money enough to build the home. and taught in Meanwhile. while Whitefield received a charge which supplied a constant motive to him to range through every country where . the The morals of all were corrupted by learning of those who had learned anything There was but one feasible was forgotten. he could return England to take priest's orders. But it is remarkable to observe how the door of America was closed against Wesley. and procure a grant of land from the Trustees. It He was much as he gave. he wisely did what he could to ameliorate the condition of them and of all other children by establishing schools in the villages. was to prove as great and happy over Whitefield as over the to receive as destitute children. was to be a standing appeal to his tenderness and test of his to his effort. whose talents were most serviceable when concentrated on one place. this. and the children it. clothed. there was no reason why he ' should have been sent to his really little foreign cure. them in their present bad example at all .DETERMINES TO BUILD AN ORPHAN-HOUSE when they ought to 63 at have been at school. faith.' in which he happy. which might have spent itself upon trifles. was to become the ballast of a noble ship which had to carry high sail in dangerous So far as good was to himself was concerned.

his return to whom he was devoted. by humility. It was a quiet day with Whitefield and doubtless could Wesley have seen him going people with a contented heart. since I It is pleasantest to see come how he was welcomed visits.' in the villages . of anguish. it in filled his mouth with though he might have been surprised that not until a time so late had his former religious teacher come to experience the same spiritual change that had taken place in himself long before. he acknowledged himself be largely indebted to his predecessors. It was a day of excitement. message and help priest or his He was meant . how at Frederica nearly the . the day of would have and could Whitefield have known what was going on Aldersgate Street. Delamotte was much beloved by the poor. was laying the foundation the to of an enduring affection between whole colony and himself. London. after Surely I must labour most heartily. His name such a is among the people and he has laid foundation among the people that I hope neither men very precious will ever nor devils be able to shake. May 24th. John Wesley is has done in ' America. such worthy predecessors. for more than a parish founder of a denomination he was an evangelist of nations. joyful praise. The good Mr.64 GEORGE WHITEFIELD to hear his he could get a congregation work. his unceasing labours. attached friends. The journal of Whitefield on Wednesday. welcomed and among the honoured. under God. his conversion . . his unfeigned and his judicious conduct. and ' home was an occasion of grief to them. how they of Savannah delighted in his even enduring his rebukes without murmuring .' says Whitefield. and of joy with Wesley. inexpressible. While Whitefield. present a striking contrast as well between the condition of mind as the of these much . and work the journal of Wesley on the same day. he would have been both surprised and gratified with his unexpected success.

and the settlement was to build a preaching-room. number all activity came to hear him preach. he preached his farewell sermon to his people. August 27th. Their orphan-house. crowded the house of a single day's settled.' first opportunity of ' venting his heart by prayers and The voyage was performed. Boltzius and Gronau. at the end visit and how the Salzburgers who were a place weary wanderings over land and sea. founded on the model of Professor Francke's. slit month at sea they all were caught by a gale from the their wits' end. sorrowing to lose him. recorder. was drenched twice 6 . Causton. settled under the pastoral care of a worthy minister named McLeod.A DANGEROUS VOYAGE whole of the inhabitants 65 in — a hundred and twenty serve the place. was a model of the one he was purposing lambs'. The the sea broke over the vessel with such violence that not a dry spot was left anywhere. Their lands were the best cultivated in the crops. On the following day the chief magistrate. and whom they looked up as fathers. colony. after in which he preached to them . On Sunday. leave of him. he called to build . were comforted by his assurance that he would not delay his return to them. to whom they loved devotedly. wrapped in a buffalo's hide. Mr. to pro tempore of a church . of Halle. who slept in most secure part. called to take their and the general . to prove one of the most dangerous that he When they had been a east. received him with brotherly love. The demonstrations of affection for him overwhelmed him and he took the tears. Sails which put the sailors to were and tackling rent. who. and yielded the best any Their differences were referred not to court. and Whitefield. close of his visit the seventeen orphan children — and ' at the little the them — came and shook hands with him. how the sturdy Highlanders of Darien. at which their grateful hearts called Ebenezer. but to the judgment of their two pastors.

there being only a prevalent opinion that they were off the coast of Ireland. ' Blessed be the Lord ! God of Israel. Whitefield been amongst us ! The storm left the vessel sadly disabled. and a cake made of each man. was ' salt beef and water dumplings. it turned out.66 or thrice in GEORGE WHITEFIELD one night.' With a humble. November 12th. all did not agree with the stomachs of amongst us. constant recognition of the working of the Almighty in all things he held on to the close of this distressing voyage. and both places he preached . as the allowance for Cold weather had also they did not set in. ! He exclaims Amen!' flour May we patiently tarry God's leisure On November nth they were reduced to ' : Amen ! an ounce or two of salt beef.' May we now learn And the next day. and so . ' so deep an impression on the crew that they would How should we have been blaming and cursing one another had not Mr. most of those in the cabin had begun to be weak and to look hollow-eyed. and were hospitably received and succoured by Mr. MacMahon. opened with the grateful ascription. who this a distressed people They had entered Carrickaholt Bay. Three days before they sighted land. that ' man liveth not by bread alone. and. a pint of muddy water. says Whitefield. and skimmings of the pot. day hath visited Sunday. His composure and faith in God made say. At Limerick and at Dublin he was kindly received by the at heads of the Episcopal Church. which. to add to their distress. know where they were. That day was closed with the appropriate prayer. besides having destroyed or washed away a large portion of the provisions. There was the prospect of a tedious voyage and much hard ship. in the mouth of the Shannon. Contrary winds prevailed for a long time at the end of October the passengers were allowed Their constant food for a long time a quart of water a day. whose house stood at the head ' of the bay.

Whitefield this had some reasons verse ' winding up his journal with emphatic Give me Thy strength. O God of power Then let winds blow. as soon as the news of Whitefield's ' reached him. he hastened up to London. and. and never failed to act it upon ' : I wish. which he never forgot. Thy faithful witness will I be. or the last time the people may hear. whenever I go up into a pulpit. Dean of St.' at Oxford.' On some was December 8th he reached London. Wesley arrival us. men was as a hunger and a thirst that left him. who had gone to meet him on his way. or thunders roar. to look upon as the last time I shall ever preach. Patrick's.J/0 IV TO PREACH His passion never fell 67 for the souls with great power and marked of effect. 'Tis fixed ! ! I can do all through Thee ! . Delaney. and God gave he says. accompanied by friends. ' once more to take sweet counsel together.' close of such a year of travel for At the and labour. At the table of the primate an expression from the lips of Dr.

same meetings. The all close of 1738 saw the beginning of the united work of the three. and excited great opposition on the part of the clergy. 1739 — ORDAINED PRIEST EXPELLED CHURCHES — OPEN-AIR PREACHING could have been THE NOTHING welfare of more opportune for the Methodism at the in England than the had no time arrival of John Wesley for Georgia. to have fellowship with the Moravians. life. at Deal same time fire that Whitefield sailed to The newly "kindled at burn low. Then he went with Ingham to Hernhuth. and for closely blended together. decision. 1738 FETTER LANE MEETINGS — April. and presided over for the nurture same private societies. envy as possessors of spiritual truth which he understood On his return he experienced that conversion which has been of. Wesley once began his labours with energy. which were formed of the Christian The day after Whitefield's arrival in 68 London he waited on . Thus both his great co-workers preceded him into the kingdom of God. whom he regarded with holy not. already spoken Charles had already undergone it. prayed and spoke in the the some time their lives were They preached in the same rooms. and courage.CHAPTER V December.

— — its sacra- and three more sermons of a and not an Besides. relieving the sick. he known as the Religious Societies in the City of left for had preached before he Georgia. first four o'clock in the morning. establishing schools for the education of children and putting the children out to trades. city. getting them welcome in collections for their works of charity. Whitefield to had two preached twice on Christmas Eve. closing markets on Sundays. and seeking to form. used extemporaneous A laborious day must that Christmas with its first sermon a ' at its second at Day have been.FIRST USES EXTEMPORANEOUS PRAYER the Archbishop of Canterbury 69 and the Bishop of London. thanksgiving. popularity in the city. and to some of them. and joined them in their love-feast. which had been formed in Fetter Lane. first were the of his them Whitefield owed some one of these Street. suppressing ill-fame. but some of the clergy denied him — five in two days. prayer. and four o'clock in the morning. hunting down thieves. sheltering orphans. they had a wide range of houses of activity. It must have been to societies that he was at preaching in Redcross on Christmas Day. yet they friends of charity. until nearly . felt little oppressed with drowsiness . societies and expounded — one of them the society at Fetter Lane — and then No continued with many other brethren in prayer. foiling machinations. when he four. There were at this time other religious societies besides those which were springing out of the labours of the Methodists. six when the ' preacher mental. He also went to a meeting of the Methodist Society. singing. through the pulpits of the spirit. a healthy public opinion and an earnest public their original still They had declined much from and to warmth of religious zeal and energy of action. Formed Popish 1675. and was favourably received their pulpits . London. proceeding against notorious swearers. unworthy anniversary man's baptism. burying the poor.

' with ' the conviction that God was about to do great The whole Lane of the second night in the after that Whitefield spent at Fetter same devout engagements. and continued in fasting and prayer until three o'clock. Amid these numerous engagements.' whom God His providence brought met at Islington to confer upon several things of importance. and many fell to the ground. and the next day was got through with one hour's sleep. but Whitefield says. devotions which the brethren engaged in there. eight ' ministers in of Jesus Christ. Christmas Eve. exhausting. religious zeal which must.' instant in prayer. despised Methodists. O God. feeling drew the band of men break forth upon and their souls glowed with a passion of later. one would have thought. ' Wesley says. together. the object of his return .70 GEORGE WHITEFIELD felt wonder he society at a ' little oppressed with drowsiness at ! ' That of the of Fetter Lane was its present the fire. when they parted things. the ' ! Five nights afterwards. fervent. heart Methodist movement. we acknowledge Thee to be the Lord " ' About three in the morning. "We praise Thee. as we were continuing power of God came mightily upon us.' he says. or both. refreshing and invigorating. and. ' There was a great deal of Divine influence among us. while the opposition from It without only fanned the flame. 1738. sooner or the land for good or evil. As soon as we were recovered a little from that awe and amazement at the presence of His majesty. First-fruits was a hopeful and a dangerous time. insomuch that many cried out for exceeding joy. we broke out with one voice. in the of ' the coming movement ' abounded meeting — first watchnight meeting (?) — in which the leaders and a company of the departure of the old year sixty brethren celebrated and the coming of the new. Sympathy of thought and close together. central The engagements were only an example of the pro- longed.

he returned to Oxford and on January 14.-continued work he rushed into . What were his impressions about untoward circumstance he nowhere says most for probably he had humble and self-reproachful having run before there thoughts seemed to be need. which was small enough to hear him from the within pulpit. in which prayer will am sure your lordship and my kind. good Lady Huntingdon most heartily join. some of his friends it they thought it was a ' mad notion. He took two sermons with him — one .OPEN-AIR PREACHING SUGGESTED to of. where he preached one Sunday noon. was not lost sight At the end of December he was appointed by the Trustees be minister of Savannah. Lane laid meetings burning in his soul. and that she will not Though mishim (Mr. I find his Grace of Canterbuiy thinks highly of him. 1739. I pray God grant him great success in all his undertakings for the good of mankind. wellmeaning young man. and a revival of true have occasion to find fault with your lordship's old tutor. think religion I and holiness among us in these degenerate days . evidently for benefit of Lady Huntingdon. the The bishop sent Lord Huntingdon. as Such intense and lons. taken on some points. to receive ordination as a priest. who air. Whitefield) a very pious. to With the fire of the Fetter .' A noticeable incident was his visit to Dr. and added— ' I hope this will give some I satisfaction to my lady. would have been carried out the next Sunday Ironmongers' Almshouses had not the preacher been disappointed in his congregation. to It afterit met with no encouragement when he mentioned . Watts.' But the most important fact of the month was the thought of preaching in the open which was suggested to him by a crowd of a thousand people having been unable to gain admission to Bermondsey Church. received him 'most cordially. an account of the ordination. with good abilities and great zeal. for and the other this for without. had the hands of good Bishop Benson on him. now an old man. 71 England.' at However.

that on a sudden I was taken so ill in body. There was in half of the . triumphed over his own difficulty. A short tour in the provinces gave him his first taste of direct hostility. his and the strength which comes from above. as it has been Stephen in gifted with shall his 'Essays in Ecclesiastical Biography. soul. He was often fatigued beyond endurance the delight he had in but the work. quickened to speak him with freedom and power. which have distinguished the children of Methodism down to this late day. sentences. the mob and the Church being of one mind first in openly opposing him. and his entry in his journal on February 6th such as one expects ' Went to St. that we are with a man who by Sir has J. ' Many seemed Aniens to to feel what was spoken. and we keep in memory we and not night allow ourselves to think. I would have given anything for my yet and before I had done God gave me to trust in Him for strength and assistance.' at and said hearty and loud my him The next day another keen attack struck shall see this Windsor. and then over every outside .' these were the two qualities in his preaching which he prized before all others. the last . no infirmities — who. sight of his congregation. It also gave him his truth taste of the sweets of field-preaching. 'Freedom and power.' At this time we hear the sound of those peculiar Aniens. Helen's.' ' 'was an incapacity of fatiguing or being fatigued — we form a juster estimate of the heavenly fervour which frailness.72 GEORGE his return JI V// TEE/ELD fail upon to see home could not to tell is upon him. I was warm in heart and strong enough in body to all continue to offer Jesus Christ freely for a considerable time to that would lay hold on Him by faith. life We to weakness showing if itself all its through his existence. in where all and was so deserted written notes . as follow him day and expressed through his ceaseless toils.

nor was the desire to attempt open-air preaching without weight on the same side. who had no church nearer They were regarded as so first many Indians. than one. and the chan- cellor of the diocese captious. Similar treatment at Bristol. or four miles away. he had time and inducements to carry out those loving wishes towards the colliers. to results. was the untrue half — is in ' Whitefield has set the kindle a flame in the town on country' and now he is gone to — that was the true and at half. that such a service might be held. inhabited men of a rough. Whitefield applied of all to him.KINGS WOOD COLLIERS field started 73 exclamation which a not devout observer uttered when White- from London ' : I believe the devil in hell . To the . . before Whitefield sailed for Georgia. you all ' — that fire. When clergymen were cold. which he at once withdrew. The refusal came not. three. to and when Whitefield ' : went to to Georgia it was said him If you have a mind in convert Indians. and the answer was a civil refusal . they were still there are colliers in their sins enough Kingswood. ungodly type. Kingswood was a it royal chase near Bristol in Whitefield's time had become a colliery district. the church could not be lent without a special order from the chancellor. although the bishop had given the Trustees of Georgia a promise. led to most important Long by ago. which had stirred his heart for a long time its . in the cities of his application to Abbey Church Bath on behalf of the orphan-house was met with a positive refusal.' And and misery when he returned. St. and churches scarce. There was alarm among the Bath and preach Bristol before in the powers of the Church his arrival there. Understanding that the minister of willing to Mary Redcliffe was lend his church for sermons to be preached on first behalf of the orphan-house. from the bishop. however.. Even he might have failed to undertake their evangelisation had he not been almost compelled.

GEORGE WHITEFIELD chancellor Whitefield went. ' Why will you press so hard upon dislike.' Whitefield asked him his reasons. many as came to hear upwards of two . replies. when was it preached without dislike The dean.' The societies still open. that disagree with me in other particulars approve of And ? ' as the gospel. These were visited on a Saturday first afternoon (February 17. any one that should lend Whitefield a church but he would advise him to withdraw to some other place heard till he had or from the bishop.' me ? : The ' has given a general Whitefield replied Not the for design of the orphan-house. and then last there were the colliers. He thing answered. 1. The reply from him was. time. and his heart rejoiced in this great He had broken through the lost sheep. Whitefield. hundred attended. when called upon soon after the interview with the chancellor. we would rather not say yea or nay to you but us we mean nay. neither would he pro. gave the same ambiguous ' with the same plain meaning . He does not say what were his feelings in nor what were the impressions upon his in his journal is. Three . and spoke upon Matt. White- took his stand on 2. 1739) for the after his interviews with the chancellor field v. but there not a cause Pulpits are denied. and the poor colliers ready to perish for lack of know- Now he was the owner of a pulpit that no man could gift. so was Newgate. His only remark is Blessed be God ! that the ice now broke. all conventionality. Bristol and gone straight to But all in was not so dark on Sunday morning as it had been on Friday night and Saturday. and I have is now taken ? the field Some may ledge. 'that he would not give any positive hibit leave. Mr. and were greatly wish that you would understand so. his novel situation.' censure me. take from him. the very day and the dean. Even those that. and not preach on that any other occasion soon. and 3. to as Hannan Mount. ' audience.

also a canon. chancellor. spent a joyful night among at his friends in Baldwin and on Tuesday morning. where he had such a congregation as his eyes had never yet seen. said The I.' for the register here. 75 pulpits were placed at his disposal. chancellor. &c. that he appre- hended of the did. he asked the chancellor this And why. and he preached with ' liberty. of and gave him a noble congregation. collection Perhaps these quick. Monday opened Philip and Jacob.THREATENED WITH EXCOMMUNICATION preached. He .' proceedings. Whitefield Street. commanding With this document his pocket. decisive movements put the chancellor on his mettle . then read over that forbid part of the ordination office. he waited upon the his who ' plainly told I him that he intended to stop sir. and from two of them he Mary Redcliffe. by what authority Whitefield preached in the diocese of Bristol without a licence. pray sir. and a eighteen pounds for his orphan-house. chancellor replied that they Again Whitefield resorted is to the sir.' But the most enjoyable part of the societies. ad hominem method all : 'There forbidding . clergymen to frequent taverns and play at cards ' : why is not that put in execution ? ' Said the chancellor it Why ? ' does not some one complain of them. Whitefield replied that he thought that custom was grown obsolete. and asked what Whitefield had to say to them. to take down your The first question was. said he. one being that of St. did not you ask the question who preached for you last Thursday ' ? He said that was nothing to Whitefield. which was spent with two of the the parish church of St. and those canons any minister's preaching in a private house. ' have sent answer. He answered. and then would The chancellor next . that those canons did not belong to professed ministers Church of England. clergyman And ' : then becoming questioner in turn. ten o'clock. day was its close. for on the Monday a summons came from Whitefield's appearance before the in the apparitor.

hope. 3 for near an hour. On that the following day the journal relates All the church doors being now shut. and. not able to contain half came to hear. at three in the afternoon I went to Kings- wood among us a fine day.' name of the How much truth there is in the was in the it whole statement appeared on the afternoon of the was made. if you preach or expound anywhere licence. I will first suspend. Nicholas' Church. admiration. and the night. whose numbers had grown from two hundred to twenty thousand. hoping to hear him preach but the lecturer sent word that orders were given by the clergy- man that he should not preach in his church. day that The laity of Bristol. you have a and then excommunicate you. if open. and what were the . preached and enlarged on John iii. who were in said to want the silencing of Whitefield.76 GEORGE WHTTEFIELD false doctrine. Register. accused Whitefield of proper answer ' : whereupon he received a I I cannot hut speak the things know . till sir. and preached to a congregation of four or five thousand with great freedom. and immense throng standing around him formed a picture which filled him with holy ' in awful silence.' said he. God highly favoured us in sending and near two thousand people were assembled I I on that occasion. I in this diocese. laity The societies remained open. the same action as the and with more encouraging ' : results. he added : am resolved. crowded their meetings that The second interview with the chancellor was followed by first.' Two days afterwards he stood upon the same spot. the colliers. I Then.' It is important to field know what were his feelings when he met these immense congregations. Mr. and I am ' resolved to proceed as usual. congregated thousands . turning to Whitefield. then. and. the The bright sun overhead. And what do clergy and laity of the city of Bristol.' 'Observe his answer. round St. to the comfort and edification of those that heard me.

though numbers chose to impute it to anything rather than the finger of God. some in coaches. but sinners. at last after having been long uncared to saw a clergy- man willing endure fatigue and shame for the sake of preaching to them. as having nothing all be ashamed of. was due quite as much to his unrestrained Especially manifestation of strong feeling as to his words. He spoke as having nothing to keep to back from them. to which sometimes was added the solemnity of the approaching evening. not. and at times all affected and drenched in tears together. " Out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water. and I had begun to be an extempore preacher. Hundreds and hundreds of them were soon brought under deep convictions. iust As the scene it was quite new. this characteristic have struck the hearts of rough men. tears Seldom did he preach without drenching and the must who. often occasioned many inward conflicts. they were glad to who was a friend to publicans. and quite overcame. sight of thousands and thousands.THE POWER OF TEARS effects of his yy preaching upon his audience. and came not to call the righteous. I had apprehension. for. were the answer to his own passionate feelings. which (as the event proved) happily ended in a sound and thorough conversion. with the The open firmament above me. a word to say. was almost too much for. and instead of assuming . effect his audience in tears. and the which made white gutters on the begrimed faces of the colliers." the prospect of the adjacent fields. to repentance. The change was visible to all. as The first discovery of their being made by their tears. and some in the trees. and was frequently (for to deny it would be my own lying against God) so assisted.' The overpowering emotion of which he speaks. But was never totally deserted. me. affected was. that I knew by happy experience. to see the white gutters fell down their black cheeks. what our Lord meant by saying. in I Sometimes when twenty thousand people were before me. either to God or them. which plentifully they came out of their coal-pits. least of of those tender yearnings of divine compassion which had constrained him to come to them. His own words are : ' hear of a Jesus Having no righteousness of their own to renounce. some on horseback.

both spirit. a placid composure which he did not he let his whole manner express what was ' in him. was a man of ardent preacher in the greatest rector of Llanddowror. preceded the Methodists in the fairs. and the scope he gave to his feelings. I could hardly bear such unreserved use of tears. Carmarthenshire. preachfounded upon the rules which Dr. this abandon. work of preaching at and other riotous gather- . were doctrines number of thirty. and was frequently so overcome that for a few seconds you would suspect he never could recover . below that which marked the ministrations of Whitefield. and I truly believe his were the His voice was often interrupted by his affection . religious societies. but how tears of sincerity. and when he did. for a few days to make first an excursion into Wales but although this was the appearance of a famous. stamped loudly and passionately.78 GEORGE WHITE FIELD feel. nature required some little time to compose herself. fields . but it was the abandon of quenchless visit to Bristol was interrupted . less. for the societies in ing to large congregations in churches. in mode and and in Clergymen had gone beyond parish boundaries. and may never more have an opportunity to have Christ offered to you?" His freedom in the use of his passions often put my pride to the trial. the great and holy commandments of the gospel were taught and there to the with power which fell little. you are hearing your last sermon. a sermon without weeping more or ' I hardly ever knew him go through Cornelius Winter. when you will not weep for yourselves. : can I help it. Griffith Jones. He wakes. and. Methodism was already amongst them. piety and noble courage. for aught you know. and I have heard him say in the pulpit " You blame me for weeping. for sometimes he exceedingly wept. work were Griffith The two prime movers in the Jones and Howel Harris. souls are Much The of his power lay in love. though your immortal upon the verge of destruction.' said his friend. in churchyards. if at all. avowed Methodist among the Welsh. and the Principality in his day. laid Woodward had scattered here down London.

and the mob. ' By the establishment his greatest work. and would. and then to preach The effects were marvellous. of Welsh Circulating Schools to he did His plan was for send a schoolmaster into a locality that wished instruction. Oxford having proved a disappointment to him. Jones had twenty years of ' litigation. When the news of Whitefield's labours in felt London reached ' him he his heart united to the evangelist in such a . schoolmaster would pass to another. was not gifts. to 79 In some cases he would be invited by come his and preach bably to them . love him to the end. practical. he returned to Wales. the magistrates.' For the same reason Methodism obtained a strong footing. and zealous preaching. and compel both people and their favourite preacher to take their stand in the open \ next he would lodge an accusation in the EccleGriffith siastical Court. born the same year as Whitefield. Harris. to From one district the do the same work. in in expe- and in all whole-hearted consecration to the Saviour. Yet the work grew counties. and began in his own home-parish. in which case the clergyman would pro- make air sure of the church key. Brecon. to in the houses. and the catechism. there was a general reformation in several and places of worship were everywhere crowded. unlike the great evangelist in disposition. . he had to encounter the opposition of the clergy. and. to teach reading the Bible in the Welsh tongue. as a consequence. Howel rience. visit from house to house. without the consent of their clergyman. psalmody. he lived in the simple faith that God loved him. pressing. Ignorant of the disputed points of religion.HOWEL HARRIS ings of the people. Talgarth. Jones testifies that in Wales not one Dissenter in ten separated from the Church of England for any other reason than ' for want of plain. for His freely own name's sake. parishioners. in a language and dialect they are able to understand.

moving away wood. go on that sent you will assist. ' London. comfort. to some was frowned upon by The preaching of the godly clergy own brethren. to 173S. how shall I joy to meet you at the judgment-seat How you would honour me if you would send a line to your affectionate though unworthy brother. and Contrary winds delayed Whitefield at the New he says : At . We can see from these brief sketches what was the state the of things in extent. assuring Whitefield of his profound love for him.' Were you to come Wales would not be labour This devoted young Welshman had several times offered himself for holy orders. as the sun in the ! ' To this letter Harris replied the day after its reception. and protect you. I ' My dear Brother. Go on.' truth. Passage. to To his great joy a letter came him from Whitefield soon after his return from Georgia. as well as in America and in Scotland and England. and make you more than conqueror through His great love. December. and saying: in vain. in Church of England their in Wales. for We can also understand why Whitefield broke a few days from the thousands of Bristol and Kings- His soul and the soul of Harris leaped fire. and. —Though I am unknown . and welcomed and supported by Nonconformists. you in person. I love you. and been refused because he preached as a layman. in this land. or to silence.So GEORGE WHITEFIELD as he manner had never felt the like with any one before. telling him some good news of ' the to work of God it in Wales. kingdom of your heavenly Father. to each other like flames of An incident of the short passage to Wales to is much ' too characteristic of the times be omitted. George Whitefield. yet to hear have long been united to you the in spirit and have been rejoiced how ! good pleasure of the Lord prospered in your hands. and so he was shut up to this way. The Spirit of the Lord was Nonconformity. Oh. I am a living monument of this He and shine and wish you may be the spiritual father of thousands.

A GAMBLING CLERGYMAN
the inn there was an

81

unhappy clergyman, who would not go
it.

over in the passage-boat because I was in
I,

Alas

!

thought

this very

temper would make heaven
he saw

itself

unpleasant to

that

man,

if

me

there.
I

I

was told that he charged
after,

me

with being a Dissenter.

saw him soon

shaking his

elbows over a gaming

table.'

mind and taken
Shuffle in
'

the boat.

The clergyman had changed his The image of him recalls Parson
!

Roderick Random,' and shows, alas
in the

that, at that

time,

some parsons

north and

some

in the west

were

painfully alike in character

and

in uselessness.

The Welsh

visit

was very

short,

and was marked with those

experiences which Whitefield was to
for the rest of his
life.

know
the

as

common
hall,

things

First of to

all,

the church at Cardiff was

denied,

and he had

resort

to

town

where he

preached from the judge's seat to a small audience of four

hundred people.
but some

No
it

outrage was attempted in the building,

of the baser sort
outside

amused themselves by

trailing a

dead fox around

—a

very

trifling

annoyance

to a

preacher with such lung power, and

heard in spite of the shouting

who could make himself and noise. Then there were
as

melting meetings of a more private sort with the religious
societies
;

and on the whole he had reason,

he

says, to

think that there was 'a most comfortable prospect of the

spreading of the gospel in Wales.'

On

his return to Bristol

he had to

suffer

meaner opposition

than any he had met with before.
delighted to preach to the prisoners,

Newgate, where he had

and where, by

his gifts,

he had relieved much

distress,

was closed against him.
teacher,

Un-

willing to lose their friend

and

many

of the prisoners

sent a petition to the mayor, praying that he might be allowed
to

come among them
their

as usual

;

but the mayor would not grant

them

request.

Mr.

Dagge, the keeper, a convert and

friend of Whitefield, remonstrated,
7

and urged

that Whitefield

82

GEORGE WHITEFIELD
;

preached agreeably to Scripture

but the only answer was to

appoint another clergyman to the post of chaplain
forbade his denying the poor unfortunates
all

— for shame

religious aid.

This disappointment was cause
expelled Methodist,

for

great

rejoicing to the
:

who wrote

in his journal

'

Some preach
:

Christ out of contention,

and others of goodwill

however,

Christ

is

preached.'
in the

His persecution had ample compensation
of which he had
for labour

become

conscious,

and

in the

new power new opening

which he had found since

his arrival in the west, the

fields giving

him room enough

for

any congregation, and the
all

people delighting to meet him there in
cold and snow of

weathers, even the

March not being able
and
in the

to

keep them away.
villages,

At Bath,
daily

at Bristol, in

neighbouring

he was
if

engaged

preaching to thousands
if

in the

churches

he

could gain admission to them, and
pole or in the
fields,

not, then

under the May-

or in any

open space where the people
it

had a
ful

right to assemble.

Then
their

was that he

felt

the wonder-

influence which pervades mighty audiences, possessed with
attention
to

one concern, bending
engaged
in

one

subject,

and

one

common

service.

His favourite congregation

was the Kingswood one, which met on the Sunday.
crowds standing
in awful silence,
side, was,

The
strik-

and the echo of
says, very

their singing

running from side to
ing.

he

solemn and

Weariness and sickness often oppressed him, yet he

always found strength

when

the

task faced

him.

He

was

already beginning to learn the curative properties of effort,

and

to trust for invigoration to

what exhausted him.
his side.

Then,

too, there

was popular sympathy on
was closed, and
to address a

He

had but to

take his stand anywhere, and an audience was before him.

When Newgate
o'clock

his sister's

room, where he had

been accustomed

congregation as early as six

on Sunday morning, could not accommodate a fourth

EARLY MORNING PREACHING
of the people

83

who came, some gentlemen gave him
first

the use of

a bowling-green, and his

congregation in that novel church
first

was

five

thousand.

This was his

attempt at preaching in

the open air early in the morning.

Its success,

and the kindand
en-

ness of friends

who had come

to his rescue, cheered

couraged him ; his heart was

full to

breaking of grateful emotions.

Pressed by repeated invitations, he next presented himself
in a very different part of the city,

where many dwelt who

neither

feared

God

nor

regarded

man, and

preached to

thousands in a yard of the glass-houses, declaring both the
threatenings and the promises of the Almighty, so that none

might either presume or despair.

His courage and

tact

were sometimes severely

tried,

but

more

at

Bath than

Bristol,

by the scoffing which he heard as

he passed through the crowd, and by the laughter which
greeted

him when he mounted a
;

table for his pulpit.

The

merriment never lasted long
zeal

for that true love

and unusual

which carried him

to

such congregations bore him strongly

and patiently on with

his work,

and

it

was not in human nature
to the passions of his

to continue trifling with

one so superior
to

audience.
spell

Whoever came

annoy must

either

submit to the
stay,

which soon caught the most of the audience, and

either a willing or

an unwilling hearer, or go away disappointed
the last

of his sport.

To

we

shall find that Whitefield

was

never beaten, hazardous and questionable as some of his
afterwards were.

efforts

His convictions on the power of preaching,

penned

after

he had hushed and awed a jeering crowd at
'
:

Bath, give in part the secret of his confidence

Men may

say

what they please, but there
preaching, which,

is

something in

this foolishness of

when attended with a Divine
bend or break.
Lord, and like a

energy, will
" Is not

make
word

the most stubborn heart
like fire, saith the
?
'

My

hammer that

breaketh

the rock in pieces

"

84

GEORGE WHITEFIELD
The time when he must
leave the city was near
;

and

that

his

work might not

fall

to the ground, or

come

to a stand after

his departure,

he again and again requested Wesley to come
it

from London and carry
that he ought to go.

on

;

but Wesley could not be sure
Bristol,

His inclination was not towards

and on

resorting to his practice of bibliomancy,

many
:

passages

of Scripture had a sinister meaning.

This was one

'

Get thee

up

into this mountain,

and die

in the

mount whither thou
His journey was
Charles could

goest up, and be gathered unto thy people.'

next proposed to the society in Fetter Lane.

not bear the mention of
at haphazard,

it

;

but an appeal to a Bible, opened

brought him under the power of these strong
I take

words

'
:

Son of man, behold
;

from thee the desire of

thine eyes with a stroke

yet thou shalt not

mourn

or weep,

neither shall thy tears run

down

;

'

and thinking that they were
Still,

a voice from heaven, he held his peace.

the brethren

were not

satisfied,
lot.

and, to settle the

difficulty,

an appeal was
a

made

to the

This said he must go.

Many wanted

Divine confirmation of this supposed Divine announcement,

and the
thrice,

rest

consenting to the suggestion, a Bible was opened
hit

and some strange passages were

upon

;

one was
in

this

'
:

And Ahaz

slept with his fathers,

and they buried him

the city, even in Jerusalem.'

The
of

journal of Whitefield contains the following entry for

Saturday,

March
and

31st: 'I was
friend,

much

refreshed with the sight

my honoured
hither,

Mr. John Wesley,
I

whom

I

desired to

come
to

whom

had now the pleasure of introducing
at Bristol.

my

friends,

he having never before been
to water

Help

him,

Lord Jesus,

what Thy own

right

hand hath

planted, for

Thy

mercy's sake.'

Wesley writes
I

in his journal

'Saturday, 31st.

In the evening
I

reached Bristol, and met
first

Mr. Whitefield there.
to this strange

could scarce reconcile myself at
in the fields, of

way of preaching

which he

set

WESLEY LEARNING OF U'HITEFIELD
me
an example on the Sunday
;

85
life
(till

having been

all

my

very lately) so tenacious of every point relating to decency and
order, that I should have thought the saving of souls almost a
sin, if it

had not been done

in a church.'

The
in

freer
all

and more

impetuous nature of Whitefield stands out

distinctness

from the statesmanlike nature of the founder of Wesleyan

Methodism, as the two friends begin the work of Sunday.
Whitefield had seen, more by the instinct of his quick emotions

than by the reasoning of his mind, the value of his irregular
work, and already had
able to
its fruits

approved

it

to

him

as accept-

God

;

and

that

day he went out confident and joyful,

while Wesley was bewildered and half inclined to turn away.

True

to his cautious, practical

mind, Wesley adopted
its

field-

preaching only when he had seen

worth, just as he took up

the class-meeting idea from others, and only consented to lay

preaching because

it

had been started by men more headlong
not to hinder a work of God.
;

than himself, and these supported by the wisdom and piety of
his mother,

who warned him

Others moved, he quickly followed
ticable,

and,

if it

was found prac-

passed on and took the lead.

Whitefield took

him the round of
less

his

work on April

1st,

and

any heart
quailed

less

bold and

devoted than Wesley's must have

when he saw what was expected of him.

They began
service,

at the bowling-green with the usual

Sunday morning
ever.

which was attended by a larger audience than

They

went

to

Hannam Mount, where
numbers.

the colliers

and others came
to

in unusually great

They passed on

Rose Green,
either of

and here the congregation was more enlarged than
the

other

two.

Twenty-four coaches and

many horsemen
says,
'

mingled with the crowd, and though the wind was not so
favourable as usual,
cry aloud,
'

I

was strengthened,' Whitefield
last farewell.'

to

and take my

Prayers, blessings,

and

good wishes were showered on him

as they returned to the

86
city.

GEORGE WHITEFIELD
At seven, Whitefield went
he had
to take his leave of
to
it

one of the

societies,

and found the room and the way
to

so crowded

that

mount a

ladder,

and come

at the

door by climb-

ing over the tiling of an adjoining house.

The morning of those who came to
on both
left,

the following day was spent in talking with take their leave,

and

tears

were freely shed

sides.

Crowds were hanging about the door when he
friends

and a company of twenty
;

accompanied him out of
gifts

the city on horseback

and

if

he was leaving no small
gift

behind, he also was carrying away a substantial

of two

hundred pounds

for his orphan-house.

He

travelled

by way

of Kingswood, where the colliers,
says,

unknown

to him, had, he

'prepared an hospitable entertainment, and were very

forward for
I

me

to lay the

first

stone of their school.

At length

complied, and a

man

giving

me

a piece of ground, in case
I

Mr.

C

should refuse to grant them any,

laid a

stone,

and then kneeled down, and prayed
might not prevail against our design.'

God

that the gates of hell

This became the famous

Kingswood School, the
have been educated.

original of the institution in

which the

sons of successive generations of Wesleyan Methodist ministers

Whitefield had not been gone three hours from Bristol,
his
vile

when

friend Wesley submitted, as he

says, to

than he had on the preceding day,
societies,

make himself more when he preached to
highways the glad
;

one of the

by proclaiming

in the

tidings of salvation to about three

thousand people
fearlessly

and on
Within

the following Sunday

he stepped

into the severe

path that Whitefield had shown him a week before.

three weeks of Wesley's assuming the lead of the Methodist

movement, scenes such
created

as Whitefield's preaching
:

had not yet

became common

some

of the hearers were seized
;

with

fearful

agony and cried out

then they as suddenly

shouted for joy.

WHITEFIELDS CURATE
On
April 9th Whitefield, after having paid a second
to Wales, reached his native city.
interest in
fied

87
visit

Early friends

who took an
grati-

him and

his

work must have been peculiarly

both

with his vast
in

humble manner

and extending influence and with the which he bore his successes and there
;

was also one, who had not been counted of that number, who

had more joy than any of them.
Dissenting minister.

It

was

'

old

Cole,' the

Some one had

told the

good man the
one of the

smart saying of the youth of thirteen about stories in the
pulpit,

and when he heard Whitefield
he quietly remarked
tell
'
:

tell

one

in

city pulpits,
field

I find that

young White-

can

now

stories as well as

old Cole.'

He
'

used to
in his

subscribe himself Whitefield's curate, and follow

him

excursions into the country to preach after him.

These are

days of the Son of man, indeed

!

'

he would exclaim, as he

followed up the younger man's work.
fully in

He

had an end

beauti-

keeping with his zeal and the simplicity of his char-

acter.

One
;

evening, while preaching,

he was struck with
till

death
his

he then asked

for a chair to lean on,

he concluded

sermon.
'

That

finished, they carried

him
exit

upstairs,

and he

died.
story,
'

O

blessed

God

! '

exclaims Whitefield,
will,

when

telling the
'
!

if

it

be Thy holy

may my

be

like his

It

was not unlike.
Passing through Chafford, Painswick, Stroud, Stonehouse,

Cheltenham, Badsey, Evesham, and Bengeworth, and preaching in bowling-greens, in town-halls,

and

in fields, as

he went,

he came to Oxford.

Here, through his going to exhort one of
fell

the societies, the vice-chancellor

foul of him.

The

society

had before been threatened,
hortation
;

if

they continued to meet for exall

and when the

'

were

upstairs,

and on the point

of bidding Whitefield goodbye before he started for London,
the vice-chancellor sent for

him

to

he demanded

to

know

if

Whitefield had his

come down. In a passion, name in any book

sir.88 there. or otherwise I will lay you by the What do you mean by going about and alienating people's from their proper pastors ? . at Letters from Savannah.' The vice-chancellor said Yes and you had best take heels. contain- ing good news. Then he turned his back and went away. set out for London. affections Your works are full of vanity and nonsense in this you pretend to inspiration. .' I will you first by the heels. His eleven weeks' labour which is in the country had kindled a fire not extinguished to this day. : ' but ' I . and these shall follow. ' GEORGE WH1TEF1ELD Yes. and made him desire an early departure to the people of his charge.' was the reply. intend to take it out soon. yourself out too. If you ever come again lay manner among these people. and having prayed with his friends. met him Uxbridge. Whitefield turned.

STONEHOUSE. I God strengthens me exceedingly. No licence was forthcoming. he living of Savannah. feeling assured withdrew to the churchyard. he said that his Master had. by His providence and compelled him I to preach in the churchyard at Islington. nor was the preacher sorry by being in priest's orders for that. For peace' sake he determined not to preach When now the communion and preached service was over he there. called him out in London Spirit. In the midst Whitefield's demanded and forbade his preaching without one. The churchwarden would dispute Whitefield's of the prayers he entered the church. in the church. right. but his churchwarden was of another mind. Methodism. As soon as Whitefield arrived in London. which was in the diocese of felt that he had legal standing ground. into Moorfields. to vicar of Islington. To-morrow am to repeat that mad trick. I sweat through and through. written to a friend that day. 1739 MOORFIELDS — ON COMMONS —AT FAIRS AND RACES was favourable MR.CHAPTER May IN VI to August.' He evidently was . and on Sunday to go out is glorified. that his Master Bristol. licence. though and holding the London. The word preach till of the Lord runs and People's hearts seem quite broken. the vicar gave him the use of his pulpit for a week-day service. ' as well as in In a letter.

and he was left mercy of the congregation. for which at once parted and made an open way fields. then the of its Bedlam. In due time he drove up in a coach. or he Moorfields on the second day after his expulsion. friends. The news the city that . His tall. domain of the rabble he would never come out first Moorfields. To this place and to this people Whitefield felt himself called to take his message of love 29th. him to the middle of the and thence — for there was no pulpit there fields.go GEORGE WHITEFIELD would not have announced his intention to preach in well satisfied with being driven to adopt his country practices. which had been the brickyard of London. from Islington Church. and many. great multitude fields to hear him but to pre- while away the time before his arrival there was a little liminary sport in breaking to pieces a table which had been placed for his pulpit. It upon which he took was a novel sight to the preacher — that mass of London rabble —as his eye ranged over it . whichever it may be called. His body-guard was soon detached at the from him. and the smoothness of the The partnership was quietly declined. — to the wall which divided the upper and lower his stand. graceful figure his manly and . in gown. it was a more novel sight to the people —that young clergyman as he lifted him. site next the exercise ground of the city archers. had fallen into possession of the roughest part of itself the population. paths. of twenty-four. of his going to Moorfields soon spread through it. where fashion took daily stroll. bands. accompanied by some side. On ' Sunday morning. and peace. self and cassock. in the shade of the trees its peculiar way. up before them. simply by this part's presenting in the presence of fashion. and desiring to share. April assembled in the an ' exceeding . and afterwards the City Mall. on hearing said that if he ventured into alive. or withdrawal. and with one of them on either attempted to force his way to the place where the table ought to have been found.

you might have been tempted to think the man had done But now God has sent a child that cannot speak.FIRST SERMON IN MOORFIELDS commanding bearing attention . the foolish virgins. to him. that melted with tenderness and kindness his raised hand. it. Then in . with a : last entreaty. they stood charmed and subdued. for the day nor the hour in which the as the preacher. as indeed it as if he believed it. shall There be a day a scroll all in which these heavens be wrapped up — the elements melt with fervent heat — this earth and things therein be burnt up. not to reject his ' message because he was young to me. something. no disturber durst ye know neither ' meddle with his neighbour. strongest passion. and loved did. with finger .shall like Son of man cometh ' . and wanted them also to accept as indeed he No scoffer durst raise his shout. and then — for which direct for a moment turned men's minds to himself only to them onward to the Master — entreated them. he spoke of the wise and he had a pleasant egotism. something interested for time if it it which every one was it and for eternity and he delivered was . 91 his . as the thrilling text flew all around. or the soberest instruction. that the excellency of the .' Quietness and attention reigned through for the host while. and every soul of every tribunal of nation summoned to appear before the dreadful the righteous Judge of quick and dead. When he spoke. cried. his message was so solemn and so gracious. Had He by a learned Rabbi. a me that the glory might be all His own. or the most indignant remonstrance. which called for — everything about him declared him a . blue eyes. as were all real it. every one hearing 'Watch. to receive rewards or punishments according to the deeds done all in their bodies. perhaps an hour and a half. therefore. and they heard his strong but sweet voice. ' do not ! reject the message on account of the meanness of the messenger youth of uncircumcised but the Lord has chosen sent to invite you I am a child. clear.' Oh ! do not turn a deaf ear lips. he begged . exquisitely modulated to express the deepest. man who was capable of ruling them and they were willing to listen to him. and pointed upwards.

and dispersed. I care not I how I appear in the any of you should be set upon your watch by this preaching. ! brethren glory ! the thought of being instrumental in bringing some of you fills me with fresh zeal. preached up to his congregation he gave them the best. my glory in men — I and am persuaded. He saw for in them men who had been Christ had died. evidently touched ' and moved by what they had heard. and score's for violence and crime.92 power may. I entreat you the Lord Jesus will receive all that call cry. He duties and he laid solemn responsibilities he pleaded with them. The wind. Let letter-learned vile if Pharisees. Think of a theme so lofty. " Behold. " . Let that in be continually sounding your ears in were assured forth to this was the night " Behold. hundreds of whom had come for sport. then. privileges . And At the roughs were transformed into saints five o'clock in the evening of the same day he met. he called upon them to forsake sin and come to God he . . on 1 Kennington Common. watch and pray" upon for Once more. and summoned them to their high on them their whom . of a manner so bold yet so humble. but of God. Criminals were executed here. ! — to Him faithfully. which was favourable. . . "Watch. thousand. of a spirit for moved with such yearning a crowd. . offered them pardon and reconciliation and eternal life through the blood of Christ. it be seen. despise my youth it . the Bridegroom cometh " O. and wept over them as with a mother's love judgment and heaven and hell to their he opened view .' will Whitefield. joined in the Psalm and the Lord's Prayer.be seen sight of such GEORGE U'/IITEFIELD to be not of man. an audience class computed at twenty and of a higher in of people than he had addressed the morning. therefore. and in old prints the congregations are represented as fringed with many of them hanging on the gallows. . you will have no reason to repent that God sent a child to cry. carried his words to the furthest hearer lis-tened the whole company with as much decorum as a congregation in a church. the Bridegroom cometh and begin now to live as though you which you were to be summoned to go Him. made in the image of God.

the formal. they responded to his appeals for his orphan-house. evening after evening. as where is the congregation which curious. All went well between civility him and the Trustees. who crowded to him from below. No doubt many came from anything but religious motives. for liberality of the at the use of the orphan-house. more than twenty pounds of which was in half-pence. which had from the first been exemplary. to him and his successors for ever. the foolish. pounds nineteen Moorfields was his church on the Sunday morning. were ? The second of about . to receive the gifts of the people. The evident emotion of the people while he preached. and that his word was bringing forth fruit. who received him with much agreed to everything he asked . and after his third service there he collected fifty-two shillings and sixpence. which was composed twenty thousand people. He and declares that he was that nearly weary of receiving their mites. congregation at Moorfields. and gave him a grant of five hundred acres of land. their silence. to Letters came . days he collected from them his almost two hundred pounds. 93 now devoted to preparation for the voyage and to open-air preaching. and at the close of the services he stood on the eminence from which he had preached. their awe. their tears. is without the not idle.EFFECTS OF HIS PREACHING All his time was to Georgia. The common was church on Sunday evening and during the week. telling him how useful his preaching had been the writers and many persons waited on him to receive further private instruction. one man could not carry the load home. the who do come if to be and who would be greatly startled they made any better. The Trustees was rivalled by that of the congregations for in nine Moorfields and Kennington Common. faith showed that he had their and sympathy. most likely had many sightseers and . and the generosity with which. alteration for He even says that he could mark an the better in the congregation at Kennington Common.

heard two miles and Whitefi eld's voice nearly a felt mile. saw that a sunshiny day for trade had come. are ready to cry out. and the audience gladly paid for collection at every service official There was a pew-rent and a but with this advantage. " How glorious did the Rev. occupy a stand or go without the privilege of It is said that the singing of these congregations could be off. to look down upon vast crowds. ' but many self-righteous bigots. collecting mites from that I the poor people " But to Lord grant may be . who perhaps would have had as much pleasure.94 so. well- accustomed as he had become Quick. in the shape of waggons. and soon provided accommodation scaffolds. The sight that evening surprised even Whitefield. enterprising men. in erecting stands on a racecourse. when they see me spreading out my hands to offer Jesus Christ freely to all. on the evening of the same day to consist of — a congregation which was and forty reckoned between thirty thousand persons on foot besides many horsemen. he was not able to throw off some sense of discomfort arising from his being an outcast from the sanctuary and pulpits of his Church. had the congregation on the common. and from his having to gather his money for the orphan-house in such an irregular way. and be vile. Mr. feeling manifests itself in Something of this an entry in his journal while : he was in the first flush of his out-door popularity ' I doubt not. it. if not a little more. and no hearer was to compelled hearing. that no . brought the collecting-box round. Whitefield look to-day. he stood venting his enthusiastic ravings in a gown and ! cassock upon a if this is common. GEORGE WHITEFIELD most likely. when. and encouraging as were the sympathy and help of the people. and other contrivances .' he says. deeply persuaded as he was that God had called him to it. Much as Whitefield the importance of his work. and about was such as eighty coaches. neglecting the dignity of a clergyman. or stalls at a wake.

to follow the preacher. should see him but Whitefield in and his friend Seward were both admitted when. yea. excited congregations. answer to Periam's request. One day he 50. and will rejoice. but in a new way he was Methodically mad to . " You are one of Whitefield's gang. . . but Periam. had sent him Bethlehem of the Hospital until the fits should leave him. . ' and tender relations. cursed him most heartily. in body and mind. Periam was supposed ' to be his mad. They thought sister him sound. on his reception. and said (though Whitefield had not then either seen him or heard of him). The all officials hospital treated him. father and sister. who were declined of weak They thought he ought to have a huge dose of physic.•ONE OF WHITE FIELD'S GANG' more vile.' Ye scoffers. made instrumental to mock on I rejoice. it. . does not appear to disadvantage when seen nearer at hand. threw him upon the bed. The intenseness of his feeling while writing those words let was not the calm satisfaction of one who could afford to others scoff or praise as they might please of a tion. they went to the hospital. when or five attendants ' took hold of him. knowing that he was quite fou: well. put a key into his mouth. . they were associated with duty and heavenly privilege there was a conflict between the It is and the Spirit. He No. nor any of Whitefield's friends.' Orders were given that neither Whitefield. both different opinion." and so drenched him. not an unwelcome release to get disengaged from these eager. with the gross cruelty which one-while was practised towards mind. I 95 know this foolishness of preaching is the conversion and edification of numbers. and mark how he attempted to fulfil the precepts he had publicly taught. received a letter dated from Bethlehem Hospital. cited three His was of a and symptoms of his madness. signed Joseph Periam. it was the struggle his man who felt acutely the disadvantages of and who was determined to accept them flesh new posi- only because .

sold his clothes. yet inly moved things divine. The fact is. The by hallowed hands transfused. that he Thirdly. To minister in Faithful. and two of their sons. Mary-le-bone churchyard in is which he laid said to be the only piece not consecrated. became inmates of the institution. Vessel of grace. reading one day sell all about the young man whom our Lord commanded the to and give taken it to the poor. he was a literalist. and gave his money to the poor. . promising boys. that piece of St. After a few years both of them died. .96 First. in which Whitefield had taken berths for himself and eleven others. that GEORGE WHITEFIELD he fasted for near a fortnight. Secondly. by Jesus used Stir up the gift gift on thee bestowed. and well-beloved. on condition that he should be taken to Georgia. in the come upon so strong a statement concerning sacrapoem of a man who was such a High Churchman that in consecrated made careful arrangements to be buried ground . and fulfilled the abundantly animated charge which Charles Wesley of nine verses : addressed to him in a ' poem Brother in Christ. and often owned of God. and add thy prayer to mine . there he married one of the orphan-house mistresses.' ' It is not strange to mental he efficacy. he thought that the words must be literally — so he sold his clothes. The ship Elizabeth. Attend. was detained by an embargo until August. but alas for human is ignorance. that he had prayed so as to be heard four storey high. religious anxiety. and during the odd weeks thus accidentally thrown into his hands he laboured with tremendous energy. As Aaron called. Accordingly he went with Whitefield to America . At length Whitefield and friends secured Periam's release. and given them In his first to the poor.

9/ Go where the darkest tempest lowers. kingdom shake. and powers. Mr.' new sect. and due time sent him reproaching him rate. Satan's strongholds. was at Northampton. the Rev. and take the spoil. the third place at which he stayed for preaching on one of his short excursions from able. civility The doctor. Doddridge. for his 'civility' to the Methodist leaders.' Not to follow him step by step. and accomplished Dr. . DODDRIDGE . Whitefield most courteously — perhaps in more cour- teously than joyfully. his pulpit to was the steps of a windmill three thousand people. pull down. the impelled him. for he had not always thought favourably his of his visitor. the father of United Presbyterianism. hell's ride on . At any the chapel pulpit was not and Whitefield had to take his stand at the starting- post on the common. Thy foes' triumphant wrestler foil Thrones. Rogers. land. through God. principalities.' duly noted by his biographer.DR. Bedford had a clergyman. we may still single out some experiences which will illustrate his spirit that own mode It of action. and there Whitefield preached to Good news came 8 him from Scot- Ebenezer Erskine. who had adopted Whitefield's plan of open-air preaching. that he met with the pious. whose attention forms of and complaisance which are usual is among received well-bred people. through God. offered. the opposition he met with. Engage. . London. who was striving with unwearied industry to keep the lamps of learning and religion burning to those among * the Dissenters. The weapons of thy warfare take. With truth and meekness armed Mighty. and the encouragements that cheered him. and some of brethren were not so well inclined as himself to the 'several angry letters. o'ercome.

he would fain continue hint from A and him to the congregation at Moorfields. and Sapphira over again. ' Lord. the heart out. or count him other clergymen. on in ' Lukewarmness and Enthusiasm.98 GEORGE WH1TEF1ELD ill wrote to say that he had preached to fourteen thousand people. do Thou to to spirit up more of my dear Amen. compel poor sinners come in. while to his weeping congregations he explains his favourite doctrines of the new birth and fication justi- by faith . I will demn the you. makes weep as for a brother. his heart so moved when he till gets upon the love and free grace of Jesus Christ.' friends and fellow-labourers to go out into the highways and hedges. at that time. sick right. in assailing is warms to him as he seen going . even when other ministers were moving in the path he had chosen. and in his burning love for souls. a half has passed by. and weak." says Bishop Burnet. George Whitefield the 'civil' reception the bishop gave him two days he far. The great need of the country called for more help. and only who say we are not now con- to receive the Holy Ghost. you blind guides. that. penned them. that it he must soon leave the country. tell at the time ot ordination the bishop that you were inwardly to take moved by Holy Ghost upon you the administration of the you acted the crime of Ananias "Surely. and who count the doctrine Out of your own mouths Did you not of the birth enthusiasm. ' Church? Surely. though an hour and midnight. we may infer that there was peace thus But count Whitefield wrong.' but from after which the people of London and Westminster were specially . His soul was also stirred within — so he new calls them — him ' to testify 'against those vile teachers' those." These words might about this have had reference to a pastoral letter written by the Bishop of London. warned against the enthusiast. "you time lied not only unto man. Yet Whitefield was at ease. but unto God. . to preach in the rain or the sunshine his eyes overflowing with tears. he prayed.

twelve or fourteen thousand people. not his usual twenty . after excursion into the country.' friend. rejoicing that another fresh inroad was made upon Satan's territories." compassion for the rich that made unto I us wisdom. with Christian friends. The numbers who Kennington as almost to flocked hear him increased. who of God righteousness. was on a Thursday evening that 'he introduced. to preach in his journal Black- Wesley says ' I went with Mr. The room was soon filled. I exhorted and prayed for near an hour. sanctification. and Blackheath . by Mr. their coaches Some of them seemed to attend.' ' The Lord ! give me many After sermon Towards the end of the month scheme for hindering his enemies devised a new reports him. at the " Green Man. or suddenly. speak the word. he found. "Jesus Christ. Whenever he journeyed killed. In the early part of June he preached mostly at Blendon. John Wesley. Amen. to whom made a particular application. had died an Coming to Blackheath one evening. Mr. and had great enjoyment in the fellowship of Bexley). Amen. I was greatly moved with were there.WHITEFIELD AND WESLE Y AT BLACKHE A TH ejaculations 99 and prayers for him to are poured out on every side. many friends (among whom was the vicar of It who were of the same mind as himself. He I a little surprised me. Whitefield to Blackheath. Lord. or were circulated that he was wounded. Wesley's following me in fieldpreaching in London as well as in Bristol. 'his honoured at and reverend heath. where were.' he says." About ten we admitted all to come that would. Bexley. and redemption. by desiring me to preach in his stead . and then went to bed. which did (though nature recoiled) on is my favourite subject. while others drove away from so uncouth a preacher. and great shall the company of such preachers be. and at their Common drown one Sunday weeping was so loud his voice. I believe.' Whitefield continues in his journal him ten thousand times more success than He has given we spent the evening most agreeably together.

and the rest had stayed at home.' and recommended the people storm. and found that they had none. the 'if you preach here to-morrow. was forbidden h'im his pulpit. and at Hampton Common. text.' first Whitefield went away. Randwick. you shall have the constable to attend you. to do as he pleases. telling him that he thought it his duty as a minister to inform him . at He had raised created great excitement at Gloucester. from the 'And they cast for him out. to prepare a gathering Matters were a little threatening when he visited Tewkesbury on July 2nd. who demanded their warrant.' ' No. The bailiff replied that was the determination of the whole council.' Whitefield answered. and that the people had been noisy. The noise. was owing to to their sending the constables with their staves. much surprised and rejoiced at him His Another blow fell on him the same time.' preaching. ' He is very welcome.' said Whitefield. apprehend me when I should come into the town. Three thousand people attended an evening service outside the liberties of the town.ioo GEORGE WHITEFIELD Wherever he went he to see thousand. to allow friend.' The bailiff retorted in anger. That night he preached on Blackheath. because of a report that he was dead. on his arrival at his inn. found the people alive. a friend of Whitefield. attended off by four constables. streets. but one thousand. The bailiffs of Tewkesbury had also. that a certain judge had declared if his determination to take ' Whitefield up as a vagrant he preached near him. much opposition to his coming thither and had him. The his next morning he waited upon one of the for bailiffs to ask reason it sending the constables. to as large a congregation as ever. said I think proper. if my sir. ' and ' reflected upon the bailiffs. These were quickly sent by a lawyer. the vicar of Bexley. but I apprehend no magistrate has power to stop even in the bailiff.

that in July. . He rode right through the town to the six and preached to about thousand hearers . people from the streets. Next morning. of honesty. Whitefield and his friends then left for Evesham. and. and a he preached within their they would apprehend him. the roof was ready to be put up. parts crowding field. the bailiffs wisely refrained from keeping their threat. when Whitefield visited the place. he was kindly welcomed by the incumbent. Kings- wood had put on a had formerly been the blasphemy different appearance the colliers. among the humbler classes. all which he found much alarmed. the school had been carried on so successfully by Wesley. of quietness. that. fruits Methodism was It yielding its first- of purity. and no constable came within sight. from him procured the loan of a Tewkes- bury of a . would have been cases. well . where he met with sympathising threat from the magistrates. . he did preach and the magistrates were Passing on to Pershore. is This. quiet. and he was preaching ' next morning at ten. however. and of godliness. if friends. balls. were to be heard singing hymns in the woods. who terror of the neighbourhood. with a heart of love to his dear countrymen. 101 and to not to those who do &c. Immediately after the sermon he took horse.THE BAILIFFS AT TEWKESBURY that magistrates were intended to be a terror to evildoers. instead of pouring out . and reached Gloucester near midnight. effects of his labours. liberties. with a company hundred and twenty horsemen. gratifying had any record been kept of particular have served as examples of the rest. The full exciting day's work had begun at seven o'clock at Evesham. which might however. field in apparently.' What trials he had were counterbalanced by the happy he . then at five in the evening he turned. he desired him next to be as careful appoint constables assemblies. towards Tewkesbury. to attend at the horse race. visible in the places visited.

shortly tailor who was a by trade. the This fact refuse of a clergyman's library. spirit. The numbers were countless who came the services to ask for counsel as to 'city of destruction. the clerk. their One may into at serve to show what thoughts were finding all way humble homes throughout preach at Badsey the land. and did not read above a page or two before ' the truth broke in upon his soul like lightning. that as if he could die for it. was remembered when. Always well esteemed before. and the vast number remained may be what they after supposed to have had a profound interest in heard.' with and found a ' The landlord of Counter- whom he got into conversation upon the subject. went to work was left. incident. set informed him that he too had found Whitefield's doctrines forth in some old books which he possessed. related in the letter of a Quaker to Whitefield. life This wandering as it which Whitefield was living.' for his His fingers itched for the book more than with him. heard with the Church homilies and singular agreement between them. God ') and satisfactory was viewed with much displeasure by as an angel of . and mainly guided by general statements about the spirit and behaviour of the congregations where he Curious hearers were that had preached somewhat continuously.ro2 GEORGE WHITEFIELD we are wanting. after The old clerk Breferton could get no rest in his . work. at the landlord's . and he was allowed to take it home A second of the books in his which he borrowed so strengthened him he felt new faith. acceptable was to the people (who on one occasion ' at least rung the bells and received him to his own conscience. dropping fairly off. hearing Whitefield he set to work to compare what he had articles. afterwards. all he borrowed the last book that the rest having been lent. cup. he was now threatened by his neighbours with the loss of custom and livelihood.' how they might leave the which they had too long inhabited.

' Probably resentment was for occasion of the expulsion one of the landlord's last children had been touched by Whitefield's preaching the time he visited Basingstoke. by preaching the gospel only to the Whitefield congregation to which he was lawfully appointed. as that the sun shines at noonday. that there was no room Whitefield had just thrown him and his party. By and by they But. It was too .' he said.ADMONISHED BY BISHOP BENSON others. thrust us out of the will They have already. work in which I am engaged. warning him against making a breach of the . if you and the rest of the will take bishops cast us out. own odd expres- —he was let ' refreshed with the news that the landlord would not the them stay under his roof. think it is doing God service to kill us. foresee the consequences very well. 103 Even Bishop Benson sent him an affectionate adin monition to exercise the authority he had received the manner it was given him. or for declining the chill at that he inveighed against the clergy. and Whitefield sought his there about an hour from the own room he had been when the constable handed him a letter mayor. my lord. when sion — to use his . upon the bed.' raised. in synagogues. Matters were worse at Basingstoke the himself. late to preach. and at Abingdon he was for genteelly told ' by one of them. to seek for itself and when they got one. another inn . it. amid the mockery and gibing of the crowd. our great and us up. common that it Master So much excitement and strong feeling had been was not always commercially wise their for inn-keepers to admit Whitefield to ' houses . He and his friends went out. one sense. replied within four days. and weary. languid next evening. my blood runs it is the very thought of to act as I I am as much convinced my I duty can do. trary to his and denied that he was acting con'As ' commission of preaching wherever he could. the crowd amused fire by throwing rockets around the door.

104 GEORGE WHITE FIELD Whitefield immediately wrote an answer. said ' : your minister would give believe you have me leave. and had less success than he probably would have gained had he tried. Whitefield thanked him. and had an interview with the mayor. lo disturb. Sir. what he could so well use when he chose — humour and . and to prevent profane cursing and swearing.' Sir. you sent last night .' The of mayor view the . cut short the interview by saying that he field had wrote Whiteyet. I ' Whitefield interposed desire to : : I honour you as a magistrate. you ought preach in a church. To-morrow I hear. The letter ' which followed style.' said the mayor. and not anyways discourage. which must have endangered his gravity this much more than his temper.' Whitefield followed his letter next morning. but the mayor broke out ' Sir. by bruising each other's bodies by cudgelling and wrestling if you do not this. for the More same and the mayor. paid him the respect due to a magistrate. which he would send him he pleased. if another letter. and persons breaking the sixth com- and mandment. yet. saying that his. a swift witness against your partiality. there is to be an assembly of another nature . I think it my duty to inform you ought to protect. was very much though-I-am-a-butcher Whitefield replied in his most serious manner. peace. and took in the ' his leave. he knew of no law against such meetings as If ' you thai no law can be produced. you sneered me in the letter sir. . and be . I some sinister ' ends in why do you go about making a disturbance? sort followed. as a clergyman. and only know what law could be produced against ' my if preaching ' in my to opinion there is none. and had a ' attend. His object was : to see prohibitory law. he pleased to be as careful to have the public peace preserved at that. who found himself a fair to ' poor match ready preacher. or permit others an assembly of people meeting together purely to worship God.' ' And so I would. though ' I am a butcher. I shall rise up against you at the great day.

having asked counsel of God. and his which he generally threw over to audiences had no fair chance exert itself. and perceiving in my spirit. I saw a stage and as I rode further.RE VELS A T BA SINGSTOKE geniality. but nothing occurred to hinder him from speaking freely against revelling. ready to perish. but. and if he did. nor do the authorities seem have had any serious intention. I met divers coming to the revel which affected me so much I had no rest And therefore. intercourse of His soul was absorbed in the one thought of winning the people for his Saviour. There seems reason to believe that Whitefield had purposely revel. wrestlers. except that of hindering the preacher and sheltering them. The crowds which day were resolved to were to assemble at the revel the next have their coarse pleasures to and sins . for whom Christ had died. his wisdom may be questioned for the people had time to become exasperated before his that conquering influence arrival. showmen. or. were sure to be active on the side of their interests the whole town had been set against and thus it. However. the rabble and the boys saluted him and to take his departure. and no minister or magistrate interpose. Landlords. and their attendant rabble . 1 05 But he could not keep down his tremendous earnestness. rather. he could not bring into action along with it the lighter qualities which have their part to play in the life. him before he entered his work. being resolved eight o'clock in the to go on with he went at morning into a field to preach. and Id bear my testimony against such lying . Upon this I told my dear fellow-travellers that I was resolved to follow the example of Ilowel Harris in Wales. him 'strange names.' He mounted ' he says : As I passed by on horseback. Only in going to and fro from the field did he meet with any unpleasantness called . an unusual warmth and power enter into my soul. alive. I could not bear to see so many dear souls. cudgellers. come on the day of the . One had that the said that he should never come out and another drum should beat close by him. though I was gone above a mile. .

determined to give him prevent his making disturbances . almost as bold. some of those to whom I was about to speak but all While I was on the stage. He the announced that he would preach at Hackney Marsh. and ten thousand gathered around him. I perceived. ' a secret blow and one of them had the friend of audacity to confess their intentions to a Quaker Whitefield — J. . and it was well that he went to an inn and not to a friend's ruffians house. more . day of a horse-race. on race. within a week.' There had been more danger in Basingstoke than he saw. it should be well understood that that he did not boast of them . I got on my horse with unspeakable satisfaction within myself. They immediately consenting. and fearing conviction every time I attempted to speak. Nothing daunted by were sent after his late peril him — — full particulars of which he. one struck me with his cudgel. he did not covet notoriety that he did not act without either prayer or consideration. hardly any of whom left him for the Some who left returned very quickly. which in vain I received with the utmost love. that I had now begun to attack the devil in his strongest holds. and had borne my testimony against the detestable diversions of this so that I might save ! generation. At last. was sweet frame. and began to ways. I rode back to town. . got upon the stage erected for the wrestlers. Portsmouth — the day after Whitefield left the town. made another experiment. as had been expected. Many seemed ready to hear what I show them the error of their had to say but one. and to them he addressed a few words specially. Before any censure for rashness or recklessness is pronounced upon him and for these efforts. willing to be offered up. as to what they would. ' set the boys on repeating their huzzahs. in a My soul. and after much pushing and thronging me. zealous than the rest for his master. finding the devil would not permit them to give me audience. be vanities. let the consequences.io6 GEORGE WHITEFIELD my own private person. A band of twelve had and been lying in wait in that quarter of the town where he was ' expected to sleep. which was more successful. I got off.

' As my own soul. much for me is not by way of tion. His burden Controversy always attends deep religious movements. hope of and to an unquestioning belief of the gospel of the they could of come only from one who had much ' mind Him who.' I The harvest very great. and bishops and clergy were soon hand to help. though He was rich. Neither Whitefield nor his views worse for the assaults they sustained. Fain would I love my Master. and helps to hold the religious world in equipoise. joy and peace. It tempers the assumptions of the proud. gives clearness to the dim conwere the ceptions of both parties. who hath done but gratitude. dist wildfire Metho- — for there in wildfire flashing in those strange congregations which assembled in Fetter Lane.' Yet one or two sentences from his letters well deserve to for be linked to the story of his toils and sufferings. and. on Kennington Common. and will . not go from is Him . so am ashamed . yet for our sakes became poor. friend to pray that his zeal ' might be tempered with knowledge. its abuses apart. and gives God me often mightily strengthens me I in the inward I such foretastes of His love that am almost continually wishing to be dissolved that Christ. man. and entreated a said.BEGINNING TO BE A CHRISTIAN He both feared that his faith 107 to might fail him before he went Hackney Marsh.' perfect freedom His yoke easy. I can do no more retalia- for Him. His service light. any more than the formal calls party of the Church was damaged by the arousing was which rang in their ears like the shout of the hosts of God. to a They bear clear their own ever- testimony to secret lasting glory. it may be hailed as a blessing.' he should I bring sufferings causelessly upon myself. . and Bristol — needed regulating at and subduing.' It is almost needless to say a word about the state of mind in which such labours were carried on. ' may be with But I is am only beginning to begin to be a Christian. ' It would grieve me.

consequence of their preaching. II. When they tell us of extraordinary communications they have with God. When they speak of their preaching and expounding. everyof. at the same is surely very proper that men should be called upon for some : reasonable evidences of a Divine commission I. To cope opened with the Methodists was more stimulating. it it is capable But.' to The Bishop of London. soon after his arrival . now thought be his duty to check him. but no notice was ' : except in one sentence in the journal for Thou answer me. VI. he culled from such parts of Whitefield's journal as were then published illustrations of eight dangerous phases of the new teaching. in this profane and degenerate age. thing that has an appearance of piety and devotion should not be considered in the most favourable light that time. from Savannah.' he says.' sin in his eyes than the The was evidently a greater for the former and but new enthusiasm. ' that. allowed it the old lukewarmness would probably have been its ancient comfort and ease. and more than ordinary assurances of a special Presence with them. and paternal. after the ecclesiastical fashion. who have a special and immediate mission from God. an extraordinary manner. He : Caution ' with a definition of enthusiasm ' A strong persuasion on the in mind of persons that they are guided. ' God forbid. proper. by a brother clergyman taken of shalt it. When they boast of sudden and surprising effects as wrought by the in Holy Ghost. and the bishop braced himself for his task as one his ' who relished it. and the V. Dr. of a Divine inspiration. The appeal addressed to was not very arousing it was dignified. as the sole work of a Divine power.10S GEORGE WHITEFIELD first The shaft was shot at Whitefield. And Holy this is owing chiefly to the want of distinguishing aright between the ordinary and extraordinary operations of the Spirit. . Gibson.' After discussing the subject generally. effects of them. When they talk in the language of those III. O it ' Lord. by immediate impressions and impulses of the Spirit of God. When they profess to think and act under the immediate guidance IV. and wrote a pastoral letter on latter Lukewarmness and Enthusiasm. When they claim the .

He is strong and effective on his in own ground. make any preacher of truth feel serious : ' Where. and forces the bishop to of two horns of a dilemma mission. and thus admit the validity of the priest's. and even of Christ Himself. He rejects. which better and wide of the mark. gifts and influences which know. and little has little difficulty defending positions which. VII. he rebuts by asking whether his lordship would have the preacher ascribe anything to himself? count against him gets an animated answer. VIII. The and thus his charge of boasting that he spoke of his preaching and expounding and the effects of them. my . Whitefield's answer. of course. and would have been omitted. by his still He contends that he can in own joy and peace and satisfaction is any particular work. When they profess to plant and propagate a new gospel.' which appeared only twelve days after the or three days in the ' Pastoral Letter. would have been tioned. upon one —deny the priest's Divine com. graciously and effectually moving his that a general influence . which The may fifth well lord.' was written in two It midst of preaching engagements. own Divine right and authority as bishop or contend for his own commission. the idea of having extraordinary operations of the Spirit in the working of miracles. or the speaking with tongues . in these days ques- of subjective religious thought. as unknown to the generality of ministers and people in a Christian country. first opens with some remarks on the are feeble part of the letter.' 'The Rev. as the sole work of a Divine power. or operation of the Spirit must imply a particular operation that the Holy Ghost may direct and rule our hearts in the minutest circumstance.CONTROVERSY WITH BISHOP GIBSON spirit 109 of prophecy. but lays claim to the ordinary continue. whether the Holy Ghost heart . with him. He claims for himself a Divine comsit mission in his work. who is ordained by his hands. When they speak of themselves in the language and under the character of Apostles of Christ. Mr.

but as adhered to it to the last. my whether had any more than a bare human commission In the sixth count the bishop had laid his finger on a very weak place in Whitefield's creed to his . He in was as impatient connection with Luther of any mention of good works justification. will fulfil them in due time. He also did the same thing with the grounds of the seventh count. he not only boldly announced Solifidianism. as well as declared his mistake frankly and fully.no is GEORGE WHITEFIELD ? the enthusiasm of such a pretension in the been a preacher Church of England Has your lordship for so many years. to his soul that he should see greater things than these and that there were many promises to be fulfilled in him. the question of the last charge. in these views and he expunged from his not the obnoxious passages revised journal. and have you never seen any sudden or sequent upon your lordship's preaching surprising effects con? Was lord. Works ought . many souls to be called. ? ' this my I case. even in the most limited sense. which related principally to the doctrine of justification. to come as the fruits and evidences of justification to but were not. . came to see that if he was mistaken all. But on which were a thoughtless use of Scriptural language. Whitefield himself . it. In his answer he declares that God has in part fulfilled his hopes of success . should I not have reason to doubt. tions of sufferings and that some passages of Scripture are really believes so powerfully impressed upon his mind that he God most. and many sufferings to be endured before he should go hence. be called a condition of A host of pens became busy upon the contested points. things which God by His Spirit had spoken . He had gone that) so far astray as to prophesy (for was nothing short of in his journal. nor can Whitefield do more than appeal is own sincere persuasion that he it right. that his enemies are fulfilling his expecta. that there certainly would be a fulfilling of those .

up to go forth into the highways and hedges. O my dear brethren have compassion on our dear Church. that we may have that wisdom which cometh from above. passing through popularity and Conscious of the applause without moral injury —and by this time competing engravers were multiplying his portrait as fast as they could. that we may fight the good fight of faith. Oh. persecution. . into the lanes and to compel poor sinners it is come in. and that it does not become Christians to resist the powers that are ordained of God. to whosoever they are. He has purchased with His own blood our own faults. they are to be found. Whitefield made a tender appeal to others who might be ' constrained to do as he had done. and much worn down with the months and a half. to in the opposite. arm people against a suffering time remind them again and again that our kingdom is not of this world. strong convictions For unknown how many have come me under of their fallen state. but patiently to suffer for the truth's sake. Oh. which and let them not If you are found faithful you must undergo perish for lack of knowledge. and that we may never suffer for . I gigantic labours of the past seven on board the Elizabeth. being made perfect by we ! shall be qualified to reign eternally with Jesus Christ ! Amen is Amen That appeal as if much needed difficulty of to-day as ever. and giving Lord's thanks for the benefits God has imparted to them by the ministry of His ! word. He says : I cannot but shut up this part of my journal with a word or two ot exhortation to stir my dear fellow-labourers. but only for righteousness' sake : then will the spirit of Christ and of glory rest upon our souls. saying. and to rival publishers were contending for his journals selfishness as still —anxious he went subdue such pride and dwelt in him. let us strive together in our prayers. for the people must be sought. hereafter.AN APPEAL some taking Whitefield's side. and suffering here. first In closing the journal which contains an account of his open-air preaching. ' Blessed be God ! am much rejoiced at retiring from the world. desiring to be awakened to a sense of sin. longing to know himself better. some Their effusions add nothing our knowledge. Great things to God has already done.' . whom God shall streets.

had characters in it worth a passing — Periam. ship Gladman was a convert who followed Whitelove to the man and love to his Distress brought him under Whitefield's notice. madman. He was a Boswell early death admiration and fussiness. IN 1741 — ITINERATING AMERICA FOURTH VOYAGE BREACH WITH WESLEY MY notice family. him and his crew.CHAPTER August. field from a double motive Master. Gladman and part of his men her in a boat. and his friend Mr. they sighted a vessel. who. Seward was a gentleman of Evesham. got to the methodical . William Seward. 1739 THIRD VOYAGE VII — March. whom we know Seward. and but for his interesting facts would have preserved many which are now lost. pulled to which she answered. became companion in his in travel to help the good work. two children. end of whom know at the his last visit to Georgia. a sea captain. one boy. to his Whitefield's wife's mortification.' as Whitefield called the eight men. who accompanied him. . the rich layman A\ . hitefield and Gladman. and hoisted a signal of distress. thoroughly inspired with Methodist enthusiasm. and begged a passage for the whole number. His — had been wrecked on a sand-bank near the Gulf of After ten days spent in that situation by Florida.

and at the same time indulged one around him his favourite to follow his. whither Gladman was breakfast. had never been out thing that ever pressed hard upon him past bitterness he quickly forgot . took to letter-writing and the reading of some very strongly flavoured divinity gift . to whom he would now and | The only grief was that the Quaker was not explicit enough upon justification by faith and upon the objective work of the Saviour. to England in the same Gladman became. He framed refutations for his . Methodists. Boat and crew came safe to Tybee Island. and where Whitefield invited him to A deliverance so great prepared him to receive the kindly counsels which were given him over the breakfast-table. through to return with Whitefield further instruction. .' instituted public prayer morning and evening. 'family. The become versatile preacher. satisfy Nothing would second voyage him but on his to Georgia. In this last-mentioned work he had the occasional help of a Quaker. felt had been on board ship but two days when he he Present duty was the only . almost as forgetful of what he had passed through as in the world. 1 1 but. future troubles he left with lived it God. off for the sandbank the vessel made and them Thirty days more were spent into to in their confinement then they built a boat. ten miles off Savannah. and passion of exhorting every Lord and Master. all who was men. and thoroughly. and well gifted with ability to to things to all make himself contented if in all places. make their escape or perish the rest were fearful of such a frail craft and stayed behind. again lend his cabin. a Christian of deep conviction and firm faith.LETTER-} VRITING which was promised them . yet Letter-writing was a great pastime of the 9 . which he and five others stepped. with the determination . and as host and guest soon afterwards returned vessel. as sail soon as they put left . He lived one day at a time. brought.

either All that for their literary merit or their theological grasp. and. was attempted was to comfort and cheer each other in the conflict with earth and hell ences. he begins to show that great things shaping themselves in his .' he says to Howel Harris about his congregations. if argument. compel them to cry. However. when I have resigned the parish. his world-wide work suggests itself friend ' : and with his usual promptitude he writes to a I intend resigning the parsonage of Savannah. weep out. in a very distressing way. who wanted This was the work of a cheering in their espousal of the cause of Christ. them. And lt melt them into love. to students who wanted encouragement. " To soften. " Behold. man ' of only twenty-four years of age. determine nothing wait on the Lord. show word the kingdoms of the upper world. possible. His journal from . useful. I if God should : me to such a work. how he loveth us As America are is approached. months' voyage some of them mere notes to backsliders — during his three they were addressed to converts who wanted reproof. ' Show iliem in the map of the . and thereby call down fire from heaven. Press on them to believe on Him immediately. to ministers who wanted words of brotherly love. supposing I should be kept besides. as ! were. The I shall orphan-house at a distance can take care of." if it Speak every time. sweeten. be more ever call I at liberty to take a tour round America. and the transcendent glories of them and assure them that all shall be theirs if they believe on Jesus Christ with their whole hearts. Intersperse prayers with your exhortations. as it were your last . mind.' The voyage was soul. every my " ' dear brother.H4 GEORGE WHITE FIELD letters none of them have written any worth preserving. and refine. and hence their letters abound in ' experi- Whitefield wrote sixty-five letters — none of them long. even the fire of the Holy Ghost.' . both to his body and soul — to his however. I .

and I drove so exceeding heavily. and the bitter consequences of them. But now he . The calls to repentance life for and faith. during his views in a very decided way. began. indeed. the simple declarations of the unspeak able joye wherewith the Saviour has loved willingness to help all who message he had delighted to spite of the views and His power and Him. and went felt . Until this time the broad. when turned out of Paradise David. Alas ! a consideration of aggravated took off my chariot wheels. When in this condition I wondered not at Peter's running so slowly to the sepulchre. and floods of contrite tears gushed out before my whole family.DEEP EXPERIENCES August to 115 November is almost as dismal and painful as the ' early parts of night. to from the time of his conversion. of which he had been a student this voyage. Surely my sorrows were so great that. when loaded with guilt quite the sense of his sin. constituted the proclaim. I should not so look up. Adam his adultery .' Brainerd's. and as I did then. did truly smite upon my ungrateful breast and cry. mourning all the day long. and indeed I wept most bitteiiy. look to he was presently to embrace. the assurances of pardon and eternal to as God. when he was convicted of and Peter. without seeing the Saviour of sinners. God be merciful to me a sinner I ate but very little. plain statements of Scripture had sufficed for a foundation for his teaching. I that was I always to see myself such a sinner as Lord. in us. Surely I felt something of that which ! . had not God in the midst of them comforted my soul. when with oaths and curses he had thrice denied his Master. the commandments binding every many as man to will turn purity of heart and life. the load would have been insupportable All the while I was assured God had forgiven me but I could not forgive myself for sinning against so much light and love. is much as be able to man ! The affect old Puritan theology. Tears were his meat day and his state of One extract will suffice to show what was : mind ' until towards the end of the voyage I underwent inexpressible agonies of soul for two or three days at the remembrance of my sins. and with that look broke my rocky heart. what am. ! At length my Lord looked upon me. I then. He had been a primitive Christian. and which. he proclaimed to the last. if ever.

' His Calvinism was not system of (as it never in the purest hearts) a cold divinity. of Cambridge. .Man turned Dissenter. strengthened him much. Wales he will be more explicit than he had been for God is forbid. in a Redeemer. every holy and tender . he may watch and read and pray he may practise good works the more the better he may nay. Edwards. could the glory and the honour be given to the God of our salvation. since he saw him.' which contained The Preacher^ by Dr. that we should shun to declare the whole counsel of God. tie which binds him to his Father in heaven. free- grace men. Whitefield would have cared nothing for his favourite theories. to and Arminianism the extracts ' Backdoor Popery. of God. He also determined who He gave His people to the His people. he must seek to perfect system .1 1 GEORGE VH1 TE FIELD J . and the Redeemer that should never be broken. God has been pleased to enlighten him more in that comfortable doctrine of election. and now their principles agree. as face answers to face in the water. called 'The Church from of England. demands but he must not say a word about these being conditions for the reception of is any favour provided from above. but a strong persuasion that. — it — holiness in the fear of God. for every consideration of gratitude and love. must have a system of theology deny he must hold with the . he must believe in free- or it . or reject A book written by Jonathan Warn. to covenant But for the centering of every- thing in God. all .' He tells Harris that. only by the acceptance of such dogmas and an earnest proclamation of them. my dear brother. to When he returns ' . he must accept the dogma of imputed it. Whitefield was salt won over to Puritanism by the truth which has been the of that man must in no sense be a saviour to himself. righteousness. He — as the phrase is— a Saviour should be saved by the Saviour. — . or with the predestinarians will. All is retrospective.

and the whipping-post in standing The last-named instrument of justice was active operation. in The provisions had run out. and timid about facing the diffi- culties of public life on shore — the many responsibility of preaching to large congregations. stocks. who had sent a good stock on board for him and his family. two . It same the was a long. he landed at Lewis Town. straggling place. starvation. though grow wider and longer that many never so wide across it. not less resolute. one third of whom were Quakers (half the inhabitants of the State of Pennsylvania were of the faith). built in the the market-place unpaved still . had a pleasant ride through the woods to the Quaker town.PHIL A DELPHIA While he was plunging into Calvinism. was as swiftly and irrevocably rushing ism. accompanied by his friend Seward. into the opposite system of Arminian- A separation between himself if and Wesley was already speak out. not less bold. and the kind thoughtfulness of WhitefieWs English friends. and the opposition of such as differed from fearless for him — yet again ship's joyful and because he knew that prayers were being offered him. That determination ' to none of the counsel of God. or a very lean dietary. the houses pleasantly midst of orchards . which was a day to come. the temptations of popularity. Philadelphia. which then numbered probably eleven or twelve thousand inhabitants. as he was sure to do. divided friends could not shake hands Thankful for his voyage. saved both crew and passengers from possible Whitefield.' was an extension of a already to made in the foundations of for Methodism. and hide crack- inevitable each adhered. and determining be more outspoken on the five points fulfilling 1 1 to at — happily he was slow his this purpose — another mind. as they used to do those days. and much more acute than own. about one hundred and miles fifty from Philadelphia. to his own convictions. the pillory.

that whereas England the only proper place for a sermon was thought to it be a church. which he was not slow to do. Aged youths Mr. and took part other services. The week's stay which made was as quiet . three of whom were ministers. peace-loving. civilly. The churchwardens treated him better than all their brethren in England had done. and asked him to gratify their taste. about twenty miles from the city. . and within sight of the whipping-post. letters duty was to deliver some to committed and then go on board the Elizabeth. and their cheered him not a around was peaceful. and was himself blessed with four sons of Christian reputation and i influence.nS women a GEORGE WHITE FIELD month being whipped at it. he preached to a large congregation. which was Sunday. in great prosperity. its Gazette was rejoicing its through the shrewdness and industry of famous proprietor and Poor Richard's Almanac had wit but a few years before given citizens for the and wisdom to the good sum of fivepence. which to see his family. in Philadelphia the people preferred hearing elsewhere. Benjamin Franklin had his printing-office opposite the market-place.' who in The day following. Vital godliness was said to be low among them. and not so intellectual as the Bostonians. tolerant. came into the lie city to speak to him. fellowship The Quakers were little very friendly. and balmy with brotherly /[ The atmosphere all love. The Pennsylvania editor. Their desire to hear the great Methodist was intense for his immense fame had reached Whitefield's to his charge. received him 'very He next paid his respects to the proprietor and the commissary. and give twenty dollars for a single now some are willing to number of it The people ! were quiet. first their town before him. who had an academy for for training pious the ministry. Tennent. and the clergy of denominations showed him great courtesy. different in Feeling was so from that which he had left behind him. had arrived the night before him.

his . filled the sky.J9EJVJA MIN FRA NKLlN in t i 9 and agreeable and when he as any he ever made all any place. which was Saturday. seemed so unwilling to go away after they had heard an hour's sermon. he became an attached and lifelong visit that personal friend. as had been. in the I course of which silently resolved perceived he intended to finish with a collection. where material and workmen were it scarce. This made Franklin decide not to subscribe. the ordinary religious buildings to preach from the steps of the court-house to congregations no building could hold. left ministers favourable to him . The story is well known.' he says. making collections wherever money could be Franklin approved the scheme. and I he should* get nothing from me. he all as if he could preach night . that he began to pray afresh. the people. It seems to have been during this Whitefield triumphed so signally over Poor Richard's prudence. for Whitefield consulted Franklin about the orphanstill which he was obtained. and lights were shining in the windows felt of most of the adjoining houses. he must have felt an unusual joy Once when the night was far advanced. Whitefield did not heed but deter- mined to follow his own plan. self-controlled Calm and if under most circumstances. ' to attend one of his sermons. had in my pocket a . but urged that the house should be built in Philadelphia. temperament caught fire at the glowing words of Whitefield and he did not become a convert to his views. and which was not so prosperous this counsel. and which listened in solemn silence while the prolonged twilight of the late autumn days in his work. Franklin was a constant and delighted hearer. ' I happened soon I after. house. but too good to be omitted here. and not in a settlement which was thinly populated. and indeed the night after. All places of worship were open to him. and afterwards they crowded his house to join in psalms and family prayer. not feeling the pressure of a coming day's work.

and every pleasant if the innocent town was so oppressed by the terror- . that I all At this sermon was also one of our club who.1 26 GEORGE WHITE FIELD As he proceeded I handful of copper money.' ' dancing schools. three or four silver dollars. and I to the history of generals haranguing whole armies. being of my sentiments respecting the building in Georgia. and five pistoles in gold. probably it was near about the time of this visit that the far the observant Franklin tried to find out how preacher near could be heard. and we can only fit some of Most those which are told of Whitefield into the right part of space. by emptied there my pocket into the collector's dish. I street towards the found his voice distinct till I came it. perhaps. The request : ' . This reconciled the newspaper accounts of his having preached to twenty five thousand people in the fields. when one night ' he was preaching curiosity to learn Franklin's shop. emptied his pockets before he came from home. to each of whom me to allowed two square feet. stood near him to lend him some money was made. his oratory . of which It had sometimes doubted. and suspecting a collection might be intended. however. gold and precaution. Anecdotes seldom bear dates. near Front Street. and concluded to give the Another stroke of determined me to give the copper. the right locality. had. made me ashamed ! of that.' visit ' has been said that Whitefield's ' threw a horrid ' gloom But over the town. felt Towards the conclusion of the discourse. by retiring backward down the river. to the only man in the company who had the firmness not to be affected by the preacher. hegan to silver soften. I computed that he might well be heard by more than thirty thousand. and that I it my distance should be filled with auditors. not heeding the right year of time. His answer was " At any other time. the assemblies. and and he finished so admirably." and applied to a neighbour who for the purpose. he a strong inclination to give. of which the radius. friend Hopkinson. I would lend thee freely but not now. and for a time put a stop to the thing. far He and says : I had the how he could be heard. for thee seems to me to be out of thy right senses. when some was noise in that street obscured Imagining then a semicircle.

urgent. Know- All his beliefs had power over him. Next morning. It is not meant that he was silent on the awful question of future punishment in his case. and from tell and peace. or with morbid pleasure with a spirit . left the following letter with him way to the Man of Sorrows. she came to Whitefield's house. every allusion to the casting out was testified also of the joy of filled which welcome. what shall I say to express my . : ' Oh.FUTURE PUNISHMENT exciting preacher. was a night of penitence for one lost soul. terror was not the power he wielded. ing the terror of the Lord. but which too seldom . but loving. in good work) which you have been and if you have any regard to a . ( went forth to what he had seen.' it 12 showed a strange pleasure guest.' That silent night. seeing he firmly believed in it. when the houses around the preaching-stand had lights in their windows. making him its welcome and hanging upon The truth is. . and desired to join in prayer and when devotions were over. before it was light. thanks and from you through Jesus Christ the instrument of beginning in (for the my soul I owe to my good God. it was a cloud which ' burst in blessings all their head. his character. and was too frank and too transparent to keep anything back. near which sat or stood some listener. yearning tenderness. the thought of any man's perishing Whatever they lie fault may be found with some of his views —and exposed on unmasked by sophistry it never can be honestly charged upon him that he pictured the every side. and joy. which could not endure in his sins. his nature have been mental reservation. he persuaded men. fashioning his ministry . and determining he . And if the people of i Philadelphia walked under a cloud while Whitefield enjoyed their free and generous on hospitality. but his soul lived mostly on the radiant side of his visions of love. in always his words. unguarded by argument. of a class which used often to find their come now to any pastor. his creed. — torments of the great condemnation in flashy colours. for. silence would.

when He came out. And Jesus. of a second New York. sermons must have been fire. who wrote after in his own name. his party four horses. thundering denunciation of Tennent indeed. The preacher had delivered his soul of a faithful message the spring of this Ministry. hoping penitent terror-inspiring ' had not long been gone when child of seven. as I reject am confident is you have. ( I they met with Gilbert Tennent. where woods.' sermon was epoch-making. ' was based upon the pathetic words of the Evangelist. which saking that even I. who imitated the rude dress of the terrible ( and preached with power. may lay hold of this blessed opportunity of for- all.122 GEORGE U'HITEFIELD naked wretch. and they rode on through the and Brunswick. no wise my humble life. the eccentric Presbyterian j minister of the place. day for it character of the Presbyterian ministry in America from that to the present. He determined to go. saw much / ' people.' request. and that's not only dust but sin. man was approached by a him little who came to request to take her to Georgia. Baptist. and the name of many others. miserable. This determined the evangelical because they were as sheep not having a shepherd. repeating the request. fiery Nothing that sarcasm and Whitefield's { Whitefield I could say could surpass the . in order to persevere in a virtuous course of The the ' trembling. like refreshing showers after a prairie when he came into stern in the neighbourhood of Tennent's labours. I .' year on 'The Danger of an it Unconverted testimony and had printed It for an abiding among the people. blind. at which places he preached with great freedom. and was moved with compassion toward them. Noble. Friends lent him and . stopping at Burlington and Trent Town. as she had ! heard that he was willing to take children with him Three months before his arrival at Philadelphia. you I. letter came immediately his arrival. will in poor. inviting him to that place . a letter had come from Mr.

He is a son of find doth not fear the faces of men. we have experienced in our own ( Beingdeeplyconvictedof sin. but never before. that we can preach the gospel of the power of it Christ no further than heart. the Presbyterian minister. ' and angrily informed him his assistance was not wanted.' says Whitefield. and his ardent zeal to save all men. for all being asked for. him in his meeting-house. Mr. He convinced me more and more . and driven from time to time I off his false bottoms and dependencies by God's Holy Spirit at his first conversion.' To the fields he went that afternoon. he has learned experimentally to dissect the heart of the natural man.' and ' that Tennent preached ' at meeting-house. Hypocrites must either soon be his converted or enraged at thunder. his pulpit before that.GILBERT TENNENT Tennent joined Whiten eld's party. heard such a searching sermon. upon their That Whitefield. and perhaps . as the church had been denied without fields. which was crowded night profligate learned to look after night. Noble received them night ' affectionately. and I preaching. the sacred office of pastor who held per- and teacher. they soon grew more serious. 123 off with and rode them to New York. to join in the preaching campaign. / An attempt to get the town-hall was unsuccessful but Pemberton. He went to the bottom indeed. name and that. along with his fine indignation at the unfaithfulness of unworthy men. and did not daub with untempered mortar. The it Commissary denied Whitefield the use of asked for. was glad to have . had a touch of censoriousness.' New York was even was not so tolerant as Philadelphia. he should preach in the places were alike to him. that in the if they of preached the gospel he wished them good luck the Lord. the journey being shortened by each traveller's telling the rest what God most the I had done for his soul. and though some seemed inclined to mock. Whitefield replied. and some who had been past lives with shame.

'I am. spirit Oh ! that God may enable you to rejoice in rejoice is in . which cherished the ness. this latter quality growing upon older. suffer for it ! my Master's sake. He was no young to who. ' Hon. Mother.' ' . Mr. Dare to deny My honoured mother. faith. brought it. November 16. and never rest till they end in a sound conversion.124 GEORGE WH1TEFIELD him as he got . Him. flee I beseech you. or old Mr. God willing I leave this place next Monday. Tennent. you will if not. happiness of seeing me will . George Whitefieed. and takes his place as a listener and After leaving New York. thinking himself so competent guide the people. with respect his heart. I believe. though unworthy son. your ever dutiful. must not omit informing you of . when he reached New York. dare to take up your cross and follow Christ. while the spirit former declined. have been pricked to the heart. Pemberton. show his relation to the old home circle. Oh ! my honoured mother. memory of the least kindness with fond faithfulof humility in the became uneasy about some fancied want presence of Mr. you be sorrowful. his sensitive mind. age and goodness. — Last I night Gud me hither in health and Here is likely to be some opposition. Pemberton. I beseech you by the mercies of God in Christ Jesus. my soul distress for you flee. 1739. ! . yourself. and many. emptoriness. New friends are raised up every day whithersoever we go the people of Philadelphia have used me most courteously. and how con- stantly the his one absorbing topic of salvation by Christ was on his pen and tongue : ' NEW York. twelvemonth I purpose returning to England expect then to have the safety. A will letter written to his mother. honoured mother. Lay hold on Arise. and he sought to make amends in a letter which must have touched the good man's heart deeply. cannot be denied for but his must also have had rare reverence upstart. to Jesus Christ by go. and In about a in about a fortnight think to set out for Virginia by land. much more old men and diffidence in their views with neglect he never looks more dignified and in his manly than when. and do not let Him God hath given you convictions. manner and like old he meets some aged Samuel. learner. If you have the of Christ. delighted to treat . and consequently a likelihood that some good will be done.

His wandering life. 'the College. whatever might become of any good men had piety just which sought its shelter. however. One day he was taken to see a hermit. which the dauntless. that this caused him had to 'wrestle' much for them in himself. sarcastic Tennents built in faith. vehement. to mention the early part of the service. gone forth . It and where White- was announced may serve to keep alive an that. and the curiosity of to bring to his notice see and hear him. They sure that it was right. to recover in private his composure and joy. Then for they talked together of what plans would be the best promoting the kingdom of our Lord. Out of the log-house. ' his heart. had here a all felt The minister whose soul who knew nothing of work which thoroughly commanded others. the excitement which his presence always all to caused. Tennent's Academy. who had lived a solitary life for forty years a hermit. The old man talked with much field feeling of his inward trials. The best plan. it Seven or eight . were sure some of some of the oddest phases of life. were almost ready to follow for the instruction of work more and a foundation was being laid to their from many ' was so hot about the the Pharisee-teachers new birth. where his father to preach. and the saddest and tenderest too. rose Princeton College. . but not a misanthrope. in interest in his feelings amidst his labours. due time brought to Neshamini. old Mr. was a preaching tour. and that at night he circle to withdraw for a while from the conversation of the of holy men.' as it was contemptuously called by such as thought that learning could not be nursed in such rude quarters. and when asked by Whitein so close whether he had not many such a retirement. the three thousand people who were assembled to hear him seemed unaffected.A LOG-COLLEGE The them field 125 return of the party from New York who in lived. under the direction of Tennent. was already in operation in that log-house which stood hard by.

but by presents for his family. fear. . and preached there to about seven thousand people. not only by crowding to his services. Mr. children. Friday he preached twice at at Newcastle. and wrestled with his troubles alone.126 GEO AGE WHITEFIELD ' : he answered with pathos and beauty tree el No wonder that a single which stands alone is more exposed to storms than one that grows among in others. to Town to about five thousand on Saturday. next day a street. neglected ordinary comforts. The good people sending him of Philadelphia showed their appreciation of their visitor.' He rejoiced to hear of what was visitor being done England. On . came at her father's call. who was standing hard by. the young man and think and feel with the eyes of thousands on hitch . and kissed his when they parted to live daily. preaching wherever he could get a congregation. know what she must do to keep and increase it. Whitefield left this city. and sympathy must have little graced him whom repentant prodigals. that she may daughter's heart. Franklin's newspaper for November contained the intelligence that ' On Thursday last. the Rev. — the old man to continue little solitary.' The daughter. The along the and ' : and both stood weeping while Whitefield exhorted fulness to watch- and prayer and closeness Wonderful gentleness of fellowship with the Saviour. and women could approach without and whom old men loved as a son. and was accompanied Willing's to Chester by about one hundred and fifty horse. him A in life might once have made the preacher the also hermit all for had not he shunned human society. and a grain of it fell into my German yesterday in She wants to speak with thee. which was to proceed to Savannah by sea while he went by land. as it the single tree which has no fellows to shelter the storm ? contends with German came to him as he was passing said Thou didst sow some good seed Town.

. sensitive.' Another difficulty. stood in the way of a union between the English priest and the Scotch Presbyters. Bridge. to my and shining . who preached the truth in 1 The cordial and tender love which I bear you will not permit I me to neglect any opportunity of sending to you. exclusive of other ways of worshipping God. necessarily lead you (when- . They. which I think to be called you Cameronians. Will not this. clear sir. his in interest in other workers was not abated. it is computed. besides the question of appealing to arms to decide religious belief. resting about half an hour between the sermons. He ' says have but one objection against your proceedings all I think I —your insisting only on Presbyterian government. Some few passages contrary to the spirit of Jesus Christ and His apostles. came on hundred . in England with the Wesleys. Wales with and in Scotland with the Erskines. to about three thousand on Sunday. My only scruple at present " whether you approve of taking the sword in defence of your religious was with him. .' It rained most of the time. air. soul for raising you and several other burning for is. and yet they stood in the open Meanwhile His heart was Harris. the divinity of their The latter held form of Church government and the sacredness of their ordination in so exclusive a way as practically to excommunicate a minister of any other Church. . A correspondence for a trip over with the Scotch brothers was preparing the the border way some day. bless the Lord from lights. to about eight thousand. he preached twice. I remember. its dignified one.PREACHING IN THE RAIN about two thousand five 127 and the same evening at Christiana at White Clay Creek. of whom about three thousand. poetical brother Ebenezer. rights?" I One of our English bishops. He writes to . Whitefield refers to this in another letter to the same friend. the bold. took up arms. I thought. I think. when in your sermon before the Presbytery. appear Him in this midnight of the Church. were a little suspicious of favouring that principle. gentle. horseback. Ralph — Ralph majesty was the fearless.

and whose again else . enjoyed. if not about persecution. Gilbert Tennent. To get again upon his track southwards. to travellers. . thinks this As for will be the consequence. though noisy guests might sleep in the next room. every case the Negroes of the house were got . in how. my own part (though I profess myself a member of the Church of England). White Clay Creek and William Tennent's a ride through forest. now a hundred in place of the now the family whose hospitality was being and now a stray visitor who came in nobody knew a handful of forty. or outward way of worshipping God ? Our dear brother and fellow-labourer. meetings with people who had some connection talk with the old country. and said he would write to you about it. for way was dangerous enough Crusoe nature like to gratify anybody with a Robinson out and howl —the evening wolves would come could pleasantly recall the a kennel of hounds round the travellers.128 GEORGE WHITEFIELD all ever you get the upper hand) to oppose and persecute that differ from I / »/' Church government. or the bed be made in the kitchen . I am not very solicitous to what outward communion he belongs. and together. now and everything happened. His fears about opposition. as travellers were to receive and thus the private house — generally that of a military man — was as often sometimes the the resting-place for the night as the tavern. Gentlemen were as glad to show kindness to where few human beings were it . be seen. Odd past. and if I see a man who loves the Lord Jesus in I am of a catholic spirit sincerity.' you in their . proved it. Once away from hospitality. But taverns were a welcome lodge. Mr. and life partially cleared country. The congregations were like now usual twenty. seeing and sharing in the lay of the sparse population which scattered along his route. he had swamp. only too true he himself was to get no small share of spirit The denominational and the spirit catholic clashed as soon as ever they met.

and night was coming on so that we were obliged to go back and lie person's house who kept the ferry. 10 . As night came on the moon of was too beclouded to show them where the by-paths led from the main road. across the noble expanse. and he gave morning. six miles We fast. and at sunset a tavern .IN THE FOREST The account passing. broad. the praise Him who hath set bounds to the sea that it cannot pass. attempted to go over it . would have been more welcome when the house had a goodly together for a dance ! company of neighbours who had come Such a company. a congregation was gathered to hear the word. For twenty miles the along the shore of a beautiful bay. and thus the path to a house where they purposed seeking lodgings was missed. but.' pleasantly at Christmas . must it have a word of exhortation. the hostess provided a Christmas dinner. and had to take their chance among the roads and by-roads. New Year's Day was spent in riding just within . Maryland and Virginia. Day was spent very Newborn Town it public worship was attended. ' 129 to realise of crossing the Potomac helps one the condition of the whole land through which they were ' Potomac. Whitefield's heart rejoiced to hear shore resounding to shore. is a river which parts It is the two provinces. however. which stood South but another kind of visitor than a parson. was reached. for it There was nothing but to push on till some resting-place could be reached. and especially a Methodist parson. the sacrament was received. after we had rowed at the about a mile. as level as a terrace walk. the wind blew so violently.' Whitefield says. both night and The morning proved as delightful as the night was travellers rode to prove disagreeable. the porpoises that were enjoying their pastime for making sport them all the way. where they brought out such things as they had. and heard with tears . Then they rode into the forest. and would take no fare from the traveller when he Carolina offered it.

and a ride of seven hundred and miles was over. . His absence from Charles still Town had of changes. The moon now shone way again into the out clearly. it and therefore great fire thought best to mend their pace. the master of which gave them lodging. but sufficiently so to allow He visit himself was this. expecting at every step to come upon more fires and more Negroes. and they had not gone they saw a full light. along which they rode twelve miles. not been long. However. travels. was changed into a cold friend and then into a hot enemy. said that they The Negroes seemed surprised. defend him with life and fortune.i3o GEORGE WHTTEFIELD far before it. was seen near the roadside. informed us whose they were. of the more timid hearts infer This made one that these Negroes might be some of a company which had made an insurrection in the province. Two of them went up towards and saw a hut of Negroes. and knew no such man. short days more and a morning carried him safe into Charles (abbreviations in Town and names had not begun called by fifty its at this Charleston was still full name). and the there was a second nest of rebels. of whom they inquired about the gentleman's house to which they had been directed. on the preceding had promised to to America.' Two time. All the rest adopted his suspicion. who. and had run away from Soon another travellers. and they soon found for their main road. who refused the use of the English Church. their masters. imagining that made a circuit into the woods. and upon what occasion they were in those places in which we found them. when they had the good fortune large ' to see a plantation. he gave us satisfaction about the Negroes. and one of them observed Negroes dancing round the fire. and were but new-comers.' Upon our relating the circumstances of our ' says Whitefield. there were the Inde- . changed into a field-preacher and in consequence of Commissary Garden.

' he says. Lord.' The first night they slept on the water. joyful and had a meeting with the family. and the second on the shore. as they were the lambs of his own home. and has various kinds of acres. and watches the as progress of the work which as they can have. and can more conveniently go upon their lands to work for it which so far off the . are behind . He busies himself about is them daily. He has begun the fence. off 'is situated on the northern part of the colony. He and it has also stocked built a hut all with cattle and poultry. where 'very were as plainly addressed as the Kings- wood colliers. without after his arrival five to make them good a home and now that the dear old places are silent father or mother. which had been there three weeks.' he says. He looks more like a settled family arrival. soil in it . in ' an open canoe. my friends.AMONG THE ORPHANS polite congregations ' 131 pendent meeting-house and the French Church. than during any The huge congregations. consisting of left hundred acres. are cleared. is my design to have each of the children taught to labour. do Thou teach and excite them . The slaves. which would left not allow of too is five minutes' leisure with him. The poor orphans and feels are around him. through the diligence of it a part of Some . and his humane heart thinks if for them with unwearied tenderness. man during the three months after his other part of his life. which Habersham. rest of the distance to Savannah was performed by five water. diligent and laborious. lonely. land. I choose to have will greatly forward the work. about ten miles very good. fire to keep away wild At noon on the second day they reached Savannah. so the anger of opponents. so as to be qualified to get their own living. with a large beasts. Savannah. whom he had schoolmaster of Savannah when he returned to England. On the second morning he went to see a tract of land. town because the children will then be more free from bad examples. steered and rowed by ' Negro The poor slaves. had chosen as the 'The it site of the orphanage. were very civil.

in my house near twenty more. the other for There is also to be a still-house for the apothecary and I a workhouse. I Lord. Met. No new to instruct them. would be well all laid out. January 29th. the second nine feet high. I shall see the children and family quite . I find it will be an expensive work . The foundation is to be brick. and is to be sunk four feet within. not taken would be as the Indians. my strength and my Redeemer. as a God whose mercy Negroes could endureth for ever. the ground. the most pitiful objects. O Lord. in ignorant of probability. and my friends may carefully watch over every soul ! or shall be committed to our charge Whitefield did not wait until the orphanage was ready before beginning his philanthropic work. in the colony . the one for an infirmary. comparatively speaking. Whatsoever is done for God ought to Monday. but it is for the Lord Christ. and garden before and behind. for Continue and other Thy infinite mercy's sake. that is. I hope it ground. they begin to live in order. trust ere my return to England. 30th. — Took in three German orphans. and God. as well as with all our might. as this Blessed be God. but at once hired a large house. Behind are to be two small houses. and that he might get he went to several of the . Wednesday. or require more pains Was all the money I have collected to be spent in freeing these three it children from slavery. settled in it. be done speedily.1 32 GEORGE WHITEF1ELD meat which endureth to everlasting life. February 4.— Went is cast in a fair He of has given us a goodly heritage. and the former trustee of the orphans. Thursday. morning and took possession of my lot. and took in all the orphans he could find all. in answer to our prayers. and out the ground whereon the orphan- house It is to be sixty feet long and forty wide . I think. possibly look Tuesday. if I have also in. the first ten. according to appointment. all God and Christ. that I ever saw. The money and I that will be . The house is to be two story high with a hip roof. who. called it Bethesda. and raised three feet above. He will take care to defray all charges. the house mercy for I hope many acts of mercy will be shown there. who heard the recorder read over the grant given me by that is the Trustees. will show that this I to labour also for that January 24th. spent on this occasion will keep many families from leaving the colony there are near thirty working at the plantation already. and that many will thereby be stirred up to praise the Lord. In all there will be nearly twenty commodious rooms. a yard is to be built. blessings to them. more despicable. January laid —Went this day with the carpenter and surveyor. grant that and took a minute of their approbation of the same. as would employ many more if they were to be had. . with all the magistrates.

had been accused . knowing they worked for God. or more. as they could spare family consisted of between sixty and in them. and knelt prayer. and also that he had deter- mined to to.THE FOUNDATION-BRICK settlements and brought them ' 133 a great . was laid by himself on Tuesday. while at Bristol. without any mallet parade— even without a full silver trowel or faith. my private This surgeon put I furnished with all proper drugs and utensils. at length my seventy.' as he calls the orphanage. His very friendships were to cause him his greatest troubles and the his first signs of them appeared while he was busy among family. They sang that a down with him to offer the dedication hymn together. gratis. which me to no small expense. But all was not at rest. bidding them remember work heartily. there a letter and a journal from John Wesley reached him. and nearly a hundred mouths had to be sup- plied with food.' The foundation-brick of the 'great house. and he gave them a to word of exhortation. 1740. I poor case. He says that many also of the town's children came to school and many poor people who could not maintain their upon application had leave given them to children. Forty children were then under his care. . Arminius has been told already. March 25. little send their ones for a till month or two. a mahogany — but with assurance of The workmen were the spectators. exclusive of who were under family. For once he was behind his ness to contention. gratis home himself. self That Whitefield him- had been anxious about the respective views of Calvin and speak out the conclusions he had come friend. and it was an honourable slow Wesley. which many sick people were cured and taken care of have now by me' (he writes this six years afterwards) 'a list of upwards of a hundred and thirty persons the surgeon's hands. Most of the orphans were up with lice. and three or four almost eaten in I likewise erected an infirmary.

t To this Whitefield could not consent he answered him I : ' could now send I a particular answer to your last . how would the cause of our common ? Master every way doctrine ! suffer by our raising disputes about particular points of us offer salvation freely to all Honoured it sir. municate have lately read the life of Luther. I pray God. consult the lot as to whether he should preach and print his sermon on print ' free-grace. To the best of my no sin has dominion I over me. should I join and make a party And.134 GEORGE WHITE FIELD anonymous. not in the end destroy brotherly love. asking latter.' His letter to Whitefield at Savannah was upon perfection. . in one word. you would have my love confirmed toward you. last [tart of his life nowise to his honour. and whatever to others. about misrepresentations wherein at present we differ. and the final who are in Christ. that the comand think it was so much taken up let . it am ten thousand times more when I saw you last. remained Soon after Whitefield sailed the sermon appeared. yet I feel the strugglings of in- dwelling sin day by day. and present salvation from all all the guilt. who willing to wash your if feet. should we dispute. then. of not preaching the gospel. let by the blood of us freely Jesus . is my honoured friend and brother. perseverance of those The doctrine of election. light I God has communicated to us. and insensibly take from us that cordial union subsist between us ! us divided against you ! and sweetness of soul which. but. and accordingly he did so in but at Whitefield's request. than why. beseech you by the mercies of God in Christ Jesus our Lord. apparently because he did not preach up election. their respective doctrines of election to give and him up the former and embrace the . for once hearken to a child. who was then as his friend England. if possible. he desisted from publishing so long in the country. interpretation of the passage can therefore by no means come into your mentioned in the letter. write no more tome knowledge. and as explained in your preface to Mr. also adopted into his creed the doctrine of perfection ' free. the power. Halyburton. Wesley that all is. I convinced Will of. This led him to in a letter. You think otherwise when there is no probability of convincing? . and (l the in-being of sin. full. may always How glad would the enemies of the Lord be to see How many would rejoice. he drew said ' preach and . and the lot .

good in There . and he was pained at the heart. and working of the orphanage.' / Unfortunately he did not abide by these truly Christian purposes. dear sir. notwithstanding they might differ from him in other points. provoke me lists as much as you please. them on their cruel treatment of their slaves. the more I may love you. Whitefield's kind heart was busy with another good work That while he was gathering the orphans to his house. . be a caution to us to it . who I in all probability equally loved the Lord Jesus. and Carolina had brought him near slavery and all its revolting accessories to . Let this. to But Whitefield was absolutely blind s lavery the wickedness of as sla very . and he might have come had he pondered to a better understand- ing of the subject it. Virginia. and wrote to the inhabitants of those expostulating with states. be silent about the wrongs of such as had no helper he took pen three in hand. that for though was a popular notion it slavery was permissible. was not the notion of every one . hope it will be to me for. month's ride through Maryland. that the more you judge me. and learn to desire no one's approbation but that of my Lord and Master Jesus Christ. Among his Quaker but and Moravian friends there were some who could have led him into the light. had he spent time in conferring with them . It would not do . of controversy with you on the points wherein we Only I pray to God. if the people were denied the use rum and slaves . his incessant preaching gave him no opportunity for thinking . At his first visit Georgia he expressed his persuasion that the colony must always continue of feeble. it was only the brutal conduct of some of to the masters that appeared wrong to him. neither was Wesley so forbearing as he ought to have been. I do not think ever to enter the differ.PLEADING FOR UNITY in disputing 135 with Zuinglius and others. and he afterwards dishonoured himself by his slaves for the becoming a slave-owner. by the blessing of God. is little or nothing to be said it extenuation of his conduct in his day.

136 GEORGE WHITE FIELD He for and forming an independent conclusion. will all not unless you repent. and at the same time plead the freedom of the Negroes but at least he might have kept his own hands clean. but they insisting upon I lie it he stood . . may be safely affirmed that the lash was never used on the farm where Negroes did not go home evening meal. On the day of the appearance of the letter to the slave- owners. them. in his letter One shows that his mind might have for Christians to arrived at a just conclusion but for the hurry which called him away to other things ' : Whether it be lawful buy slaves. which he was very unwilling up. " I speak the truth in Christ. you be damned. to .' broke up the club. But that was if I shall not take upon me to to determine. that the children were not brutalised that the by the sight of cruelty . He says : Heard of a drinking club that to had a Negro boy attending their them. however its condition mitigated. paramount. and said. is the orphan-house stood . and have sentence given a practical rebuke to his neighbours' sins. It must be much than religious wars. which hardly appears to have been the he must have concluded that of the war for enslaving men who were same in flesh as their captors and buyers. just the thing he was bound determine and his convictions on the unlawfulness of in war for religious ends had any depth case. had only one first thought. Seward chronicled in his journal a story which well illustrates ' the quality of Negro human for nature.' . which has not met ." This unexpected speech since. because the It was might have been impossible for him to preach. who used mimic people do diversion. and weary and sore to grind their corn slavery is still for the But slavery. The gentlemen bid him mimic our brother Whitefield. and thereby encourage the nations from whence they are brought to be at perpetual war with each other. and cared nothing for a second. and of equal value less justifiable the sight of God.

The before . did not care to be wooed for a housekeeper instead of a wife . but not a disappointed lover.A LOVE-LETTER Within six 137 days of the ceremony at Bethesda.e. there was much active and many ministers who had been of class. He sailed in his sloop. the city. hostility. Whitefield was called northward by the claims of the orphans. as religious excitement. from whence Philadelphia Whitefield hastened his journey to by way of the Willingtown. i.. no doubt Miss Elizabeth Delamotte. The sloop made The a quick passage to Newcastle.' ' His letter to Miss ' E to her. sister of Mr. until Whitefield . who first welcomed him to Georgia. he was not in love. absence of others it its eloquent preacher some it had conquered. and Whitefield stood a rejected suitor. however. It lady at Blendon. was in same strain . be the matron of his orphanage. ' He the declared that his heart was free from calls that foolish passion which the world Love. and was enclosed in one addressed to her parents. Delamotte. and were following up Whitefield's work. for he subsequently learned that at the time of his offer the lady state ' (in spiritual things) was in a 'seeking only . had hardened and driven into open well as in All around Philadelphia. and nothing could be found them in Georgia. he makes no great profession She.' the 'Pharisee-teacher had become earnest. and no sooner got on board than he was addressed to an English devoted his time to the writing of as strange and loveless a love-letter as ever was penned. in which they are asked whether they think their daughter a proper person to be his helpmeet in his work. truth had not been inactive during . besides. who must be for maintained . minister of Abingdon passed through a very spiritual great trial he entered into the his honesty of peace enjoyed by Whitefield and had conduct attests his sincerity of mind. He been for some years a preacher of the doctrines of grace with- out knowing the power of what he taught. labourers.

hearers who had entered church on seeing Whitefield go were more deeply persuaded than ever of the truth of Besides. and yet had only about twelve thousand souls. 'a great ' fluence was observable ' among them when he spoke.' The Commissary fields of Philadelphia told Whitefield that could lend him his pulpit no more. came and preached After Whitefield's departure. and had did not the comfort of being treated as he treated others who The his minister preached best to upon justification by works. he asked those of them cession for him. A congregation which fail had a pastor in such a state of mind could hardly to in- receive Whitefield's word with great emotion. when he went from fifteen preach the open thousand people came together. On the following Sunday morning. for he judged that light way of duty he would be nor was he left most likely to find and peace without the blessing he so earnestly desired. but failed. Thanking God that the were open. and the word came with a soul-convicting and comforting power he to many. in the and preached morning to six thousand. air. to make inter- anxious and unsettled. to church. orphans at seven o'clock. he again resumed work . like a made him look the church persecuted man. his Still who could pray in the . though with success for many in. The same day he went morning and evening think with him. such attacks evangelical doctrines. doctrine of justification by faith. and gave him one hundred and ten pounds Philadelphia itself for his .138 GEORGE WHITE FIELD for him. and in the even- ing to eight thousand. he attempted to preach. ten thousand assembled to hear him. A second collection of eighty pounds showed that . and did damage Whitefield's ill favourite . he betook himself to Society Hill next day. Humbly confessing to his congregation the deception he had practised on himself and them. and gave him something to answer it hence to was no wonder in that.

The indiscreet zeal of Seward might. He wondered to see the change soon made in the manners of the inhabitants religion. the dancing-school and concert-room have been shut up as incon- .THE WORLD GROWING RELIGIOUS more than curiosity. ' would mutter in coffee-houses. drink a bowl of punch. in which people of denominations went to hear him he speculated on the extra- ordinary influence of Whitefield's oratory on his hearers. a threat that he should be caned. field's Another of was to trumpet White- praises in the newspapers by writing both advertisements and paragraphs. it — how. very serious consequences. under a promise that he would take the consequences. He gave his own colouring in the New York made it papers to his exploit with the assembly rooms. Whitefield's preaching there. whom he seems to have fawned upon. ' had been closed by some one : in His disingenuous paragraph was as follows Philadelphia that. and then morality/ all cry out against me for not the preaching up more franklin was amazed at way . give a curse. during this visit. Excited at finding that a proprietors of the assembly son of Penn was one of the rooms. to drive out all the people to hear Whitefield. and then locked the door. had moved them to come. Franklin to tipplers there was one subject of conver- From sation. and appear that the rooms authority. so that no one could walk through the town of an evening without hearing psalms sung in different families of every street. The tipplers. or a 139 desire to hear a reply. from being thoughtless or indifferent about if all seemed as the world were growing religious. and on their admiration and respect for him. We hear from since Mr. Whitefield says. This freak cost him a good deal of abuse. and the maintenance of the his follies keeper's family. notwithstanding they were often told they were half beasts and half devils. he obtained the key of the rooms from the keeper. have cost both him and Whitefield.

. that vinced to the contrary. with the Rev. P gentlemen were convicted of their error by Mr. — 'Journal of a Voyage from Savannah to Philadelin travel 1 was con- &c. Sick and weary. an independent at magistracy. graph. never returned. as the result of a blow from a —a martyr.' 1740. Whitefield preached his way from Phila- delphia to York. . The is services were early and numerous. and it cannot be regretted that the latter.' phia. that principles are an utter detestation of them. as appears from William Penn's step in a dance is "No Cross." Circumstances called both Gladman and Seward away from Whitefield's side before New York much was reached . it was an honour to them. sometimes 1 Here ' a scene in Benjamin Franklin's shop. for that I myself was formerly as fond of them as they could be. May — Called at Mr." in which he "every a step to hell. New healthy his work for Whitefield unfinished. I told them I thought no one would construe it so but if they did. — slaves . heart. first and by some of says. Noble received him.Mo GEORGE WHITEFIELD . Whitefield's preaching. and met and several other gentlemen of the Assembly. blessed be the Lord. Seward died rioter in 1741.. who accosted me very roughly concerning a paragraph I had put in the papers. to acquaint the Trustees of Georgia with the state of the colony. George Whitefield. 1740. which they abhorred. companion Mr. in Wales. also a free title to the lands. where his friend Mr. by William Seward. A strong. Gent. sistent with the doctrines of the gospel at enraged that they broke open the door. to procure an allowance of Negroes that is. alleging it to They much insisted that my paragraph insinuated as if the be false. very sect whose It is which some gentlemen were so most extraordinary that such devilish diversions should be supported in that city. but. Mr. Franklin's the printer's. as Whitefield was attached to to him. could he say that he had done as did there under weakness of much as Whitebody and much loneliness of late. occasioned by this para23. and money for building the church Savannah. no ' Crown. field man might flatter himself that he had achieved marvels. 1 to bring They were despatched England over some one to take charge of the orphanage in Whitefield's absence.

Brotherly kindness was there to cheer him. two boats. to ask for his counsel. and attended by crowds which few speakers could have made hear. which were afterwards to reach him both England and America. and which he was invited the inhabitants. nearly twelve thousand people were assembled. too. that plied the ferry near Derby. thousands cried out.FAINTING CONGREGATIONS in 141 the fields. it was common last left for a great number to go with . indeed. as he proceeded the influence increased. he preached his way back to the from New York Philadelphia. the friend of the Negroes tell but to how he preached and was preached and cared for the against —how he comwho came in to repeat a tale forted the sin-stricken large Negroes. were in the employed from three o'clock morning to hear until ten in ferrying passengers across who wanted him as often as possible. house of Anthony Benezet. Savannah Still He does not say what they contained. first was here. three who gave him It hundred pounds. but only that in a packet of letters from Charles ' Town and orphans. would be already A new feature. many of them having come from a great distance . and the generosity of the people. so that they almost his voice. him as far from their homes as they conveniently could and on the morning when he Philadelphia. drowned . stirred all his gratitude. till at last.' were two or three letters from my little feeble and low to in spirits. however. and was welcomed . that he received the of those childish letters from his in dear orphans. where the Tennents and other men of a similar spirit had been labouring with to much the success for some time. though was not very remarkable until he reached Nottingham. He had not spoken long before he perceived numbers melting. numbers told. both in the morning and afternoon. in strongest terms by some of Thinly populated as the place was. was beginning it to manifest itself in his congregations.

142 GEORGE WHITE FIELD Oh. Lord. last They seemed persons awakened by the trump. after God by Thine?' prayer. the congregation was as large as that at Nottingham.' in the all His affectionate nature was beautifully shown many kinds thoughtful letters and messages which he addressed to of friends during the time that the sloop waited at Newcastle for a fair wind to take him to Savannah. However. tears. The word was sharper than a two-edged sword. what strong crying and ! f -. and coming out of their graves to judgment. and crying out to I God for mercy could think of nothing. But the affection he orphans was wont to inspire was strongest in the hearts of the his return to and his dependent family.' he says. I myself was so overpowered with a sense of God's love. and recommended ourselves we went to rest. and when they had got a Lord Jesus Others cried out in a manner little strength. at Fog's Manor. commotion was in the hearts of the in people. would hear and faint again. others sinking into the arms of their friends. singing psalms and hymns. and their bitter cries and groans were enough to pierce the hardest heart. that it almost took away my life. and some other friends. Blair. was strengthened to go with Messrs. and on Savannah with the five hundred pounds that he had collected among the . where Blair was minister. Some were pale lying as death. I trust. like The next day. Blair's house. And after I had almost as if they were in the sharpest agonies of death. at length I revived. to Mr. where. most were drowned tears. and as great. Oh ! what struck different visages were there to others be seen. ' if not a greater. were shed and poured Some fainted. when I looked upon them. Tennent. and most lifting up ! their eyes towards heaven. and slept. finished my last discourse. were wringing their hands. Whitefield says. about ' forth after the dear twenty miles from Nottingham. in the favour as well Oh. and having taken a little meat. Look where I would. was ever love as under the protection of our dear Lord Jesus. so like much as the great day. others on the ground. In the way we refreshed our souls by to We got to our journey's end about midnight. we had taken a little food.

Next day the house was a miniature Nottingham-Fog-Manor The excitement began with a man who had come with him from the scenes of his preaching triumphs. His coming opened the fountain of by all hearts. and natural gratitude rose quickly into higher religious emotions under his influence. and then began to pray in every corner of the house. kissed him with tears of joy. their life . several of his little and old were parishioners. who seemed be weary with the weight of their At public worship young After service. All were not quiet even the next day.A REVIVAL IN THE ORPHANAGE him. total strangers. their comfort. This lasted for nearly an and the concern increasing rather than abating. and wept over \ 143 northern Churches. his family. and some could not most in the from praying aloud as they went. and reminded them the more vividly of the coming of the Son of man. and his failure their return to want and misery. broken-heartedness. They did so. when we consider how profoundly in the result of Whitefield's trip interested every to the North. girls. congregation. one had been His success was their home. Weak and . A storm of thunder and time added to the lightning which burst over the town at this solemnity of the night. Whitefield also went and prayed for half an hour with the some to of women of the house and three sins. and among opposers. . who owed him nothing they owed him themselves. hour. and reformation among among rugged till sailors. and who became much stirred up to pray for himself and others. each in turn hung upon his neck. returned refrain home crying along the street. he wisely desired them to retire. all all dissolved in tears. And no marvel. exhausted he lay down for a little rest. but the condition of house conlifted strained him to rise again and pray and had he not his voice very high. and the children. the groans and cries of the children would have prevented his being heard. whom God had wrought penitence.

me both in body and soul. and experiences of examine the writings of the the most established Christians. but in a more decided it attitude towards the disputed question and the treatment . farewell. I dread your coming in a over to America. and therefore do not blame me if I do not approve of all you say. I write not this. irresistible grace brought you to heaven.' me The brotherly spirit is still there. I dread coming to England. Sister H hath lately been convinced of and if I mistake not. you will know that sovereign. was partly spent in writing England. He said : ' Honoured sir. am supported under the prospect of present and future trials with an assurance of God's loving yea. Here are thousands of God's children who will not be persuaded out of the privileges purchased for them by the blood of Jesus. I cannot entertain prejudices against your principles and conduct without informing you. Honoured I sir. The more the I most experienced men. From my I I soul I wish you abundant success in the made a may never see you again till we meet in judgment then. from heat of spirit. Perhaps did He draw you. to friends in May 24. if not before. God Himself. and with more success. perienced ministers direct all Here it are many worthy ex- who would oppose ! your principles to the utmost. dear and honoured Mr. My next The Lord to the end. Wesley hereafter will be convinced also. the more I differ from your notion about not committing sin. because the work of God is carried on here. and your denying the doctrines of election and the final perseverance of the saints. I find. My prayers constantly attend both you and your labours. journal will acquaint you with fills new and I surprising wonders. honoured sir. but out of love. God me what to do Sometimes I : where we work goes on without divisions. and that most glorious manner. it . by doctrines quite opposite to those you hold. day on board the sloop. unless you are resolved to oppose these truths with less warmth than when I was there last. John Wesley anions? the number. think and speak the same thing the teaches my friends the doctrine of election. T740. long to hear of your being spiritual father to thousands. disThen you will know tinguishing. God loved you with an everlasting love. At present I think you are entirely inconsistent with yourself. think best to stay here. even to all eternity. because all employed in it are of one mind. name . and therefore with loving-kindness of the Lord.144 GEORGE WHITEFIELD His last His return to Savannah introduces us again to the Wesley trouble. neglect no opportunity of writing.

TROUBLES WITH WESLEY -j 145 should receive. . how can we walk letter.' can say that I ever mentioned it in public discourses. you are suffered to be of one opinion. The counsel to modera- tion and to avoid teaching doctrines on which the Methodist leaders were divided was. But when His time is come. make us both of Then persecution will flame out. where his heart was most at I home I ' : should have rejoiced at the sight of your journal. ' possible. in a very short but kindly 'The against case it. hymn of praise for what God has done for May God bless you more and more every day. division between us think I had rather die than to see a if and yet. ' No one.' runs into much Then he so a pleasanter strain. his intercourse with the northern Presbyterians having made him change thus much. For Christ's sake will us not be divided among ourselves nothing prevent a division as your being silent on this head. ' puting with him. for Christ's sake. for any response to the entreaty not to follow a public course of hostility to his old friend. But neither will receive unless from one of their own opinion. he letter. and of another. never. he beseeches Wesley. long to sing a your soul. says. to the letter of May 24th : is quite plain. and it will be seen whether will lives God we count our dear unto ourselves. to speak out. made during his himself. namely. I Therefore. for Christ's sake. to speak against election in his sermons. however. to and cause you Before these triumph in every place. to avoid disI . so that we may finish our course We look in vain. whatever let my private sentiments may be. sending a message to those on either side. notwithstanding his resolution. for a time. one mind. ' last voyage. honourably acted upon by He wrote to a friend in London. with joy.' do what man cannot. 1 . beseeching him to desire dear brother Wesley. replied.' last words reached Wesley. is There are bigots both for predestination and God it. together we oppose each other?' In another which was written on if June he 25th.

To ' preach his last sermon to ' the dear he went from his bed. and seemed not unwilling to take his flight with him into 'the arms of the from their beloved Jesus.I p The in spirit GEORGE WHITEFIELD fashionable people of Charleston. my God. crowded around the windows. and i that the Lord was his righteousness.' The next day he life. and appealed home. but the that effort almost cost him his set his Sometimes he hoped / God would imprisoned soul at liberty. so longeth As the my soul after the full enjoyment of Thee. expressing by their looks and attentions . were anxious again to hear him before his intended New England. to use his stately steps of own metaphor. and was carried to the chapel. melted him into tears. Many and of the rich people . of Ponpon.' The poor Negroes.' Com- missary Garden having denied him the use of the church. but at tree to noon he rode a mile and preached under a great auditory. A dear friend and companion wept over him. all around showed him great respect his departure hospitality and on the day of from Charles- ton he rode to the house of Colonel Bee. the intense heat having quite exhausted him. who had learnt master that the sufferer was a friend of their race. now considerably visit to changed and manner by the preaching of Whitefield. The next morning he was too weak to offer family prayer. hart panteth after the water brooks. He set sail. where. ' advance that day. the our glorious Emmanuel often appeared. further an attentive Weakness hindered ' either a second sermon or any said. travelled and preached. forty miles from town. which was reached at midnight. in the meeting-house of his friend the Independent and for this alleged irregularity the commissary cited him to appear before him. The thoughts of his Saviour's love to him. -people of Charleston Whitefield denied the authority. he preached minister. Surely. and came to them fresh from the ' excitement of Savannah.' he it cannot be long ere this earthly tabernacle will be dissolved.

had come and when he visitors to solicited a Baptist minister who was among the preach for him. as he did. ' 147 says Whitefield. a spirit ' ' Lord Jesus. WILLING by and wept. just as he began family prayer. alas ! in a short time I perceived I was enabled walk about. beloved orphans in very prostrate condition. O me faith!" visit Pressing invitations to New England having come to . with death. however. mustered the body's broken powers for another prayer begun and hardly had ' a gun. and urged (so great was his faith for another !) that God would strengthen him if he began.WEAK BUT great concern. prayer — A my few broken accents. he thought. More friends. and feeble indeed must he have been to give up. and could hardly bear up under the joy and satisfaction which he The arrival of some Charleston friends somewhat revived him. and sat attentively to hear the sermon. in. as soft lips. he was justly reproved. The next day was Sunday. the Baptist minister said Did I not you God would feeling that strengthen you Whitefield bowed ' his head. of body and concern but again he was cast down by weakness of mind. for Thy of mercies' little sake. alas ! his time of departure was come. The willing heart effort. receive — fell from his Yet he was still appointed to life. never let me Thee again. and He got back among the felt. had entered his heart. as the visitor himself explained his conduct. He soon arose. When ? ' Whitefield ' : and his friends tell returned home. and prayed.' a my body grow stronger. that gentleman peremptorily refused. when he Dearest Lord. and the greatest part of the congregation was under deep concern. The influence quickly spread abroad. ' The master who hoped to sat But.' when one of the visitors dropped as if shot by The power of God's word. he was struck. and one night. the thought of officiating. distrust recorded the events of the day in his journal. And his Whitefield stood rebuked.

took a walk and read it. told me one day that " he was convinced ot remember dear brother E the perseverance of the saints. I Many trust. consequently. as plain as I I feel the which I breathe. soul not to evade sufferings. through the cooler weather and the fresh sea breezes.i 48 GEORGE WHITEFIELD in him from the Rev. but with a single desire to see His blessed face. ministers Puritans. and do every day — nay. and his patience was taxed by the cooler temperament of his friend. feel air His blessed Spirit daily filling my and body. yet he was not sanguine of recovery. only give severance. I almost every moment — long for the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ.' frankly. Colman and Mr." and. Dr. but he will be convinced when he hath got the Spirit himself. and feeling desirous to see the descendants of the and sailed first to Charleston Rhode and thence accompanying him. ' To of walk with naked hearts together was his conception brotherliness and friendship. .. He I replied. can say have been on the borders of Canaan. wish I it knew your principles fully. effect Did you write oftener and more than silence and reserve. this several Charleston friends time his frame had recovered something of its former vigour. Boston. His complaint that Wesley was his silent and reserved came from * ' ' deep dislike of having anything hidden. but an ardent nature his cannot understand such profound self-possession. when. all especially the account of yourself. Longer consideration was a sign like might have led him of unwillingness to believe that Wesley's silence to dispute. God has I now for some years given me this living witness in am assured my soul. I told him you was not. I When k < have been nearest death. Cooper. he left his family again. are not a proper judge. The day . I had the pleasure of receiving an extract of your journal. might have a better Whitefield was thoroughly consistent in his pleadings for peace. I pray God to give it His things. "you have not the witness of I the Spirit within yourself.. He ' wrote to Wesley Last night I This morning blessing. will prove beneficial. I my evidences have been the clearest. By to Island. or the food I eat. by your me leave with humility to exhort you not to be strenuous in opposing the doctrines of election and final per- own confession.

gentlemen. Bristol to feel . A ' : famous divine. an aged Dissenting minister. when he met him you here. When and two he had approached within four miles of Boston.' unknown friend would provide lodgings for him and his ' his party. and church undiscovered. Pray show this to your other friends. save your soul. his attend Divine worship. was gratified that he had come. The minister of to Whitefield's preaching in Church of England consented pulpit. \ and gave him wavered . a gentleman asked him whether Then the name was not Whitefield. The Assembly one day adjourned its sitting The same respect was shown him to at but his heart was cold in his work. came to pay their much esteemed for his good respects to him. chief of them all old his Mr. and. Colman received him house the governor of Massa- chusetts. several other ministers to his . he was met by the governor's son. and others seemed little. in the street. Jonathan Belcher. Soon a number of gentlemen. He reached Newservice. and with meekness receive the engrafted word. Exhort them to avoid all clamour and evil speaking. his special friendship. brother-in-law of Dr. but declined to give him the use of the church. Yes. a friendship that never the commissary was polite.' Rhode sat in the Island was expecting its visitor. port just after the beginning of Sunday evening .' ' remarked I am sorry to see And . Clap. after sermon. which is able to be contended for with heat and passion. and was works. who had held charge for forty years. Avoid them I if possible. and said ' I hear there are divisions among you. the . who was said to be prejudiced against him and also his enemy. r then they are not / Such a proceeding will only prejudice the cause you would defend.FIRST VISIT TO after NEW ENGLAND to 149 he wrote to Wesley he wrote a friend in Bristol. as he thought but friendly eyes had marked him. The But 1 doctrines of election and final perseverance to hold as well as you. the . it was.

The Methodist camp was distracted with the two sections of theologians. and peace in privileges sin. Those that before. and I will pay I' his expenses. holding respectively the views of Wesley and Whitefield. ' the affection of his Society. fidelity for me. joy. . be necessary to pay some attention to several packets of after his letters him at Boston immediately arrival. The friends from England wrote him strange cries of things. I shall see very to My coming England to will try my to my Master. errors but this happens our trial.' His manner : Wesley was the impatience of an unheeded affection ' Honoured 25th.' replied Whitefield. I fear.i5o GEORGE WHITEFIELD is so the devil. what a fond conceit it is to cry up perfection. I cannot say I am indwelling am sorry. But it we mingle with which came to the crowds which thronged them. honoured to hear by many I letters that you seem to own : a sinless perfection in this life attainable. that of perfection. exalted in still place. and the news which came word of expostulation. in to Boston made Harris offer his first To Howel he expressed his fears for his place English converts. I suppose. fields Once again were his the meeting-houses and the before will to be sanctuaries. I Sir. and spoken against had troubled Whitefield its to see a new him him doctrine. to have from I believe. now." I know not what you do not expect to say indwelling sin is finished and destroyed Besides. of Fetter Lane running into sad especially mine. are for Some . These. dear sir. are free of the sons of I God but sir. ruffled more . in me till I bow down my head and give up the ghost. some time known what the Holy Ghost.' he began. would have plucked out their eyes shy. and yet cry down the But this and many other absurdities you doctrine of final perseverance may think . ' this is sent in answer to your it letter is dated March the think I have fur righteousness. think I cannot answer you better than a venerable old minister in these parts answered a Quaker " Bring me a man that hath really arrived to this. and avoiding me. I ! . tested To have his favourite doctrine of election con. I suspect. let him come from where he will.

' if blasphemy himself. that you were truly convinced of sin and brought to the foot of sovereign grace! Elisha Cole. how can I concur with you ? It is impossible I must speak what I know. his talk. Edwards. "Christ died for souls now in hell. are well worth your reading. the whole discourse. dear sir." and "Veritas Redux. there in if reprobation so horrid? rightly explained. with greater frequency in tenderest Neither need much emphasis be seemed It on the doctrine of comin reprobation. you do not believe there will he a general gaol delivery of damned souls hereafter? Oh. see no blasphemy in holding that doctrine. You will have enough to do now to answer pamphlets two I have already seen. He may pass by sorne^_ Judge_whether it is not a greater blasphemy to say. rests on a foundation different — the 'A old foundation of all theology. word of application ' winds up The Boston meeting-houses were filled to the utmost of . on "God's Sovereignty. That ' great blasphemy. because you cannot own then. Every son of man . it be. that you would stud). I What.TROUBLES WITH WESLEY will run into. Oh. that you would not be too rash and precipitant If you go on thus." Surely. If_God might have passed by all. that you would be more cautious in casting lots Oh. which he to regard with unruffled placency and satisfaction. I do not wonder that you think me wrong. in the sight of God. But I have done. souls perish for whom Christ died his laid .' ! "i . ! ! " . is without believing the doctrine of reprobation. is. If you think so meanly of Bunyan and the Puritan writers.the covenant of grace Oh." written by Dr. he must necessarily be renewed short by the Holy Ghost. honoured sir. was not in alto- gether avoided by Whitefield call who. that got such honourable mention. was only in his letters it and and that only for a brief period. would he could recurs let upon his hearers to tell him how no phrase passages. ' only as a piece of marred clay ' being marred. I find your sermon has had its expected success it hath set the nation a disputing. Clay. it 151 because you will not own election. the most impassioned way. .' this His sermon on 'The Potter and the have been supposed to be built upon far which might fairly conception of election and reprobation.

notwithstanding the lamentable selfishness shown by some of the people a real desire to in the meeting-house. of Rhode Island. servants. the apostle of the Indians. because. Walters. there was know the truth. others leaped from the windows. The made students of Cambridge had and his language to in the them was. A terrible and unaccountable it panic seized one of the congregations as was awaiting his appearance. in nowise damaged his popularity. a bachelor. most public manner both from the pulpit and the press. with that of his predecessor. all who gave away stood the friend his to the poor and needy.r52 their large GEORGE WHITEFIELD dimensions by the congregations which crowded to hear the famous clergyman. sions extended over one One to of his excurmiles. fusion. Some threw themselves out of the gallery. had lasted in the Roxburg congre- . he returned Boston without being in the least fatigued. . and of children. Clap. several visits from him. accord- ing to his after confession. The calamity. His invincible presence of mind did not forsake him. hundred and seventy-eight yet and had sixteen preachings. through a ministry of forty years. and others were dangerously wounded. One hood. Roxburg. When he came it was a scene of wild conpreach on the common. which weighed heavily on his spirits. whose ministry. of Eliot. both harsh and uncharitable. of his greatest pleasures was to meet with the aged. Neighbouring towns were not forgotten. and some of the strong trampled upon the weak. and slaves. He suffered himself to be guided too and there are always plenty of alarmists much by hearsay who can find nothing many but heresy in tutors and worldliness in students. his intention to and he announced Many thousands followed him through the rain into the field left but there were five dead persons behind in the meeting- house. devout ministers who were income in Boston and its neighbour- There was old Mr. There was also old Mr.

and in perhaps better kept by the ministers and people than any other place known (!) world. and on the same Dr. .' By what power five of compression Whitefield contrived to get into the different services is Sunday when he had those is noble collections not clear. Puritan habits obtained in New ' England. a lineal descendant of Rogers the martyr. the longest. 1 for things when he neglected himat this The currency in New England was so much depreciated time lliat . at fifty pounds to the orphanage . good-humoured were piece of banter. minister said that in that place was the pleasantest time he had ever enjoyed throughout the whole course of his There must have ' been something thoroughly good in these Lord Brethren. The life. Colman's meeting-house. Rogers.' The five generosity of Boston was not behind that of any place. and powerful though now much impaired by still old age. 1 The immense number of people without giving.£100 sterling was equal to ^'550 Massachusetts currency. minister of Jesus Christ. Moody. and as if unwilling to depart left the meeting-house. of Ipswich. it slowly. and the perplexity letters increased on finding that three bear the date of that autumn day. and his be almost ready to sink under him at night.AGED MINISTERS gation one hundred and six years. plain. a worthy. Mr. At York was one Mr. a second afternoon congregation gave four hundred and seventy pounds. relieved the day with a One of the letters. in Whitefield relates with satisfaction that the Sabbath is New England in the begins on Saturday evening. Well might his animal legs spirits be almost exhausted. Sewall's meeting-house an afternoon congregation gave hundred and day. who lived : to hear three of his sons and a grandson preach all the gospel they were labouring in Whitefield's day. 153 There was the Rev. says Whitefield. At Dr. disturbed by Whitefield's neatness of dress very different from the Oxford days. sent to a brother whose weak mind had been .

letter ' he says : letters? Dear Brother Wesley. I then dressed decently. all love you heartily. so much. talk think and pray truth. He thought he could not die easy gloves were mislaid. about to enter into. every chair and piece of furniture was properly arranged when he and his friends retired for the night. ' if he had an impression that his I could not but smile ' —he wrote to his friend ! — 'to me find you wink at the decency of my dress. diligence to make your if calling and election Remember you little. I much. — What mean you by disputing in all your May God give you to know yourself. Alas my brother. take heed false see Beware of a all peace . and then you will not plead absolute perfection. strive to enter in at the strait gate. had been poisoned the people were . you are master of the subject .' that so The second letter of that day's date informed his friend. Let God I teach you. in my opinion. and He will lead you into error. that he scarce had time to eat bread. and practice. I : neglected myself as much as you would have me I above a twelvemonth but when God gave me call it. that he had all suddenly. devils. Be humble. myself once thought that Christianity required for go nasty. are but a babe in Christ.154 self that GEORGE WHITE FIELD he might be a good Christian. or call for the doctrine of election a "doctrine of . stay till Salute all the brethren. you are in Christ anew creature. the spirit of adoption. I have known long since to what I it is to be in that state you are." My dear brother.' The commotion caused current in Boston by his presence and died the preaching was not diminished by a report which during or was very one of his excursions. Now its his dress and everything about him was kept in scrupulous order. Not a paper in his room was allowed to be out of place. otherwise you will hurt the cause that you defend. as . or put up irregularly . . pray you may be kept from both in principle If you must dispute. many persons came to him under convictions and for In the third advice. you out of principle and am more and more But I convinced that the / Lord would have me to act in that respect as I do. and give sure. am almost ashamed mention any such thing.

do you come. attentive. the great weeping. kissed him. in his coach to Charleston Ferry. was coming on fast. whose attentions had been most kind and uninterrupted. and go to heaven without them. drove him. and he frankly and gladly did not Yet the two great Whitefield did not men come very very close together. recalled Blackover. through his travels in New England. Whitefield returned with five hundred pounds for his orphans. with a tenderall. and Whitefield's ministrations quickened afresh fact the feelings of that all memorable season. if come to Christ. eager.' Old people bowed their heads in grief. Whitefield's God. which consisted of about twenty thousand. immediately before he died the child said : I shall go to Mr. whom he describes in as 'a solid excellent Christian. and the end of the was more remarkable than the beginning. thoughtful. Whitefield's intention on leaving Boston was to proceed to Northampton to see Jonathan Edwards. had lost Everything fanned the flame of in hoth in the people visit and the preacher. and Edwards gave Whitefield necessary .' five or A great revival had taken place in Northampton some six years all before. make a confidential friend of Edwards. towards the close of the service. little The touching words of a boy. furnished the ground of one of Whitefield's strongest appeals to old ' and young . and the darkening shades of evening which. handed him into the boat. and with tears bade him farewell. ness that desired the salvation of said ' : Little children.' The last congregation. largely entering into other men's labours. to see 155 him for their late fear that they zeal. who died the day after he heard Whitefield preach. assembled on the common. said so. His labours Governor Belcher. not in anger. when the preacher. heath scenes of a year before. on the Monday morning. In point of he was.JONATHAN EDWARDS more rejoiced him. but at present weak body. your parents will not and the myriad faces.

156

GEORGE WHITEEIELD
about his notions on
impulses,

cautions

and

his

habit of

judging others to be unconverted.
other as servants of the
other's work.

They, indeed, loved each
in

same Lord, and rejoiced
sitting

each

Edwards might be seen

weeping while

his visitor preached.

From Northampton he passed on
Haven he dined with

to other places.

At

New
tears

the rector of the college, Mr. Clap.

The aged governor
of joy.

of the town also received

him with

His preaching here was upon the subject of an
too hastily and too severely.
Fairfield,

unconverted ministry, and he did not altogether avoid his

Cambridge

fault

of censuring

Riding through Milford, Stratford,

and Newark,

at

each of which he preached, he came to Stanford, where his

words smote with unusual
his track,

effect.

Many

ministers

hung upon

and

at Stanford

two of them confessed, with much

sorrow, that they had laid hands on two

young men without

asking them whether they were born again of

God

or not.

An
as

old minister,

who could not
and
his friend

declare his heart publicly,

called Whitefield
his

Mr. Noble out, to beg, as well

choking emotions would allow him, their prayers on

his behalf.

He

said that although he

had been a

scholar,

and had preached the doctrines of grace a long
believed that he had never
soul.
felt

time,
in his

he

the power of

them

own

At

this

point Whitefield set up his

'

Ebenezer

'

and gave

God

thanks for sending him to
It

New
;

England, of which he
;

speaks in the highest terms.

was well settled
it

large towns

were planted

all

along the east of

meeting-houses abounded

no such thing as a
found
;

pluralist or non-resident minister

could be

the colleges had trained
in private

many men
life
;

of

God

;

God was
Spirit

honoured

and public

and the Holy

had

often been poured out upon churches and people.
It

was with but a desponding

heart,

and not expecting any

DEPRESSION AND SUCCESS
great movings of soul

157

among
that

his hearers, that

he rode towards
encourage
to

New

York.

His companion, Mr. Noble,

tried to

him, by assuring

him

his

last

visit

had done good
from God.
for.

many, and bade him look
first

for great things

The

service

was an earnest of things not looked

Pember-

ton's

meeting-house contained an anxious congregation on

Friday morning, some being hardly able to refrain from crying
out
;

and

at night the

excitement was greater
the depths
;

still.

On Sunday

his soul

was down

in

before going to evening

service he could only cast himself

on the ground before God,

confessing himself to be a miserable sinner, and wondering
that Christ
to the

would be gracious

to

such a wretch.

On

his

way

meeting-house he became weaker, and when he entered

the pulpit he would rather have been silent than have spoken.

The who

preparation for his work was such as only devoutest souls,
feel

a constant need

for

the

comfort and aid of an
effect

invisible Friend,

can have

;

and the
it

of the sermon was

marvellous.

Scarcely was

begun before the whole congrecrying arose from

gation was alarmed.

Loud weeping and

every corner of the building.
agitation that they
field
fell

Many

were so overcome with
their friends.

into the

arms of

White-

himself was so carried away, that he spoke until he could

hardly speak any longer.

Larger congregations came the next day, and the feeling

was

still

intense,

in the evening he bade them farewell, and
ten

carrying with

him a hundred and

pounds as

their gift to

his orphanage,

passed across to Staten Island.

At Newark
fell like
if

the scenes of

New York
like fire.

were renewed.

The word
'

a

hammer and
die,

Looking pale and sick as
to the ground,

ready to
I

one cried as he staggered
be saved
to
?
'

What must

do

to

Whitefield's

host

from

Charleston,

who
affec-

seemed

be accompanying him because of a personal

tion for him,

and not because of thorough

religious

sympathy

158

GEORGE WHITE FIELD
was struck down and so overpowered that
left

with him,

his
all

strength quite
the night after.
tian,

him

;

it

was with

difficulty

he could move

From

that time he
to the

became an exemplary
last.

Chris-

and continued such

Whitefield was

now

thoroughly spent, and could only throw himself upon the bed

and

listen

to

his

friend

Tennent while

he

recounted a
of the

preaching excursion he had lately made.

The power

Divine Presence passed on with them to Baskinridge, where

weeping penitents and rejoicing believers prayed side by

side.

The apathy

of

many was changed
joy.

into

deep alarm, and the

alarm passed into exultant
Whitefield reached
first

Philadelphia

exactly

a year after his

visit to

that city.
for

The

season of the year, November,
services,

was too

late

comfortable open-air

and

the

Philadelphia people, having once suffered from inconvenience,

had made provision against
not been long gone

it

for the future.

Whitefield had

when they determined

to build a house

which should be

at the disposal

of any preacher

who had
first

anything to say to them, but his accommodation was their
object.

Persons were appointed to receive subscriptions
;

land was bought

and the

building, which

was one hundred

feet

long and seventy broad, begun.
it

When

Whitefield returned,

was well advanced, though the roof was not up.
raised,
in

The

floor

was boarded, and a pulpit
of preaching the
first

and he had the
It

satisfaction

sermon

it.

afterwards became, by

common
and
is

consent, an
the

academy

as

well as a preaching place,

now

Union Methodist Episcopal Church.
;

This

visit

was similar to the previous one
were noticeable.

only a success

and a

failure

congregation did not cry.
the recorder, a

man

of

The failure was that once his The success was with Brockden, more than threescore years, who came
In his youth he had
cares

under the power of Whitefield's words.

had some

religious

thoughts,

but

the

of

business

A RECORDER CONVERTED
His avowed
belief,

159

banished them, and he at length sunk almost into atheism.
however, was deism, on behalf of which

he was a very zealous advocate.
did not so

At Whitefield's
what

first

visit

he

much

as care
visit

to see

his oratory

was

like,

and

at the

second

he would not have gone to hear him

but for the persuasion of a deistical friend.

He

went

at night
steps,

when Whitefield was preaching from the court-house
Not

upon the conference which our Lord had with Nicodemus.

many words

were

spoken
that

before

his

interest

was

awakened by the conviction
to
his

what he was hearing tended
it

make people good.
wife or

He

returned home, reaching

before

any of

his

family.

First his wife entered,
;

and
but

expressed her hearty wish that he had heard the sermon

he said nothing.

Another member of the family came
;

in,

and

made

the

same remark

still

he said nothing.
again.
'

A

third
he,

returned,

and repeated the remark
'

Why,' said

with tears in his eyes,

I

have been hearing him.'

The

old

man
have

continued steadfast in the truth, and was privileged to
spiritual joys as

deep as

his teacher's.

When
family

Whitefield

came

to

Savannah and
to their

learnt that

his
at

had

been

removed

permanent

home

Bethesda, he went thither.

The
a

great house, he found,

would

not be finished for two months longer, in consequence of the

Spaniards having captured

schooner

laden with
for the

bricks

intended for

it,

and with provisions intended

workmen

and

children.

He

found also that a planter, who had learned

of Christ at the orphanage, had sent the family rice and beef,

and

that the Indians

had often brought
left.

in large supplies of

venison when there was no food

The work

of religion,

which was dearer to him than even feeding the orphan,
prospered

among

the children,

among the labourers, and among
his
all his

the people round about.

His heart was contented with

work, although he was five hundred pounds in debt, after

160

GEORGE WHITE FIELD
gifts

exhausting labours and the generous

of his friends.

He

now appointed Mr. Barber
of the
institution,
its

to take care of the spiritual affairs

and

intrusted to
affairs.

James Habersham the
institution

charge of

temporal

The

anticipated,

in its cheerful

tone and wise management, those well-ordered

schools which in later times have brightened childhood's years
in

thousands of instances.

Religion was the great concern

but

due weight was
its

laid

upon the connection between
or
at

its

emotional and

practical parts.

Praying might not exempt

from working

in the fields

some

trade,

and

spiritual

delights might not supersede

method

in labour

and humility
bene-

of heart.
factors
;

The orphans
daily

often sang a
to the
to

hymn

for their

they sang

praise

of their

Redeemer
in

and always before going

work they joined

a

intended to teach them that they must work for their
living.

hymn own

Whitefield had carried about with him, and shown to several

New England
Christmas Eve,

ministers,

the draft of a letter which he had

written in reply to Wesley's

sermon on

'

Free-Grace,' and on
the orphan-house to

1740, he sat

down

at

finish the letter,

and send

it

to his friend.
;

The sermon was
denunciations of

a noble specimen of eloquence
Calvinistic doctrines almost

its thrilling

produce the persuasion that they
to

are as horrible
be.

and blasphemous as Wesley believed them
zeal

The headlong

of the

preacher allows

no time,
;

permits no disposition, to reason.

You must go with him you
listen to

must check your questions, and
it

him.

At the end

seemsas

if

the hated doctrines were for ever

consumed
in

in

a flame of argument and indignation.

The

letter

reply

can boast no such qualities

;

it

never

rises

above the

level of

commonplace.

It

was headed by a short preface touching the
publication and expressing the persuasion

probable effect of

its

that the advocates of universal

redemption would be offended

BREACH WITH WESLEY
that those

161

on the other side would be rejoiced
sides

;

and

that the

lukewarm on both
carnal reasoning
'

— such

as were

'

carried

away with

— would wish

that the matter

had never been

brought under debate.

The second were

very properly, but

very unavailingly, asked not to triumph, nor to

make a

party

and the

first

not to be too

much concerned

or offended.

One
at

paragraph was sadly

illustrative of the

keenness with which

men who have
weaknesses.

enjoyed each other's confidence can strike

'I know,' Whitcfield says, 'you think

was eminently

called the friend of

God

;

meanly of Abraham, though he and I believe, also, of David, the

man
sent

after

God's own heart.

No

me
!

not long since, you sho..ld

wonder, therefore, that in the letter you tell me, " that no Baptist or Presbyliberties of Christ."

terian writer

whom

you have read knew anything of the

What

neither Bunyan, Henry, Flavel, Halyburton, nor any of the

New

England and Scots divines ? See, dear sir, what narrow-spiritedness and want of charity arise from your principles, and then do not cry out against election on account of its being " destructive of meekness and love."
'

It

was a small matter what Wesley might think of Abraham

or David, but Whitefield should have abstained from alluding
to opinions expressed in private.

The

last part

of the letter

was a wonderful compound of sense,
Dear, dear

love,

and assumption.
be not rash

'

sir,

oh be not offended

!

For

Christ's sake

!

Give yourself to reading.
carnal reasoning.
salvation,

Study the covenant of grace.
little

Down

with your

Be a

child,

as you have done in the late

and then, instead of pawning your hymn-book, if the doctrine of
hymn-book, and making man's you have in this sermon,

universal redemption be not true; instead of talking of sinless perfection,
as

salvation

you have done in the preface to depend on his own
will
.

to that

free-will, as

you
.

compose a hymn
it

in

praise

of sovereign, distinguishing love.

And

often

fills

me

with pleasure to think
at the feet of the

how

I

shall

behold
it

you casting your crown down
filled

Lamb, and
show you

as

were

with a holy blushing for opposing the Divine sovereignty in the
will
!

manner you have done. But I hope the Lord you go hence. Oh, how do I long for that day
12

this before

1

62

GEORGE WHITE'FIELD
letter

The
its

made

a shorter passage across the Atlantic than

writer generally did;

and having,

in

some unexplained
ends without either

way, fallen into the hands of the Calvinistic party in London,

was instantly printed, and used

for their

Whitefield's or Wesley's consent.

A

great

many

copies were

given to Wesley's Foundry congregation, both at the door,

and

in the

Foundry
'

itself.

'

Having procured one of them,'
naked
what
fact to the
I

says Wesley,

I related (after preaching) the
r

congregation, and told

v em,

I

will

do

just

believe

Mr. Whitefield would, were he here himself.
tore
it

it

in pieces before
;

them

all.

Upon which I Every one who had received

did the same
left.

copy

Oh! poor Ahithophel!
of

so that, in two minutes, there was not a whole "Iln; omnis effusus labor /'"

Apprehensive

some

difficulties

that

awaited him

in

England, Whitefield took ship at Charleston, along with some
friends, in the

middle of January.

During the whole voyage
yearning for
;

he was
a
full

anxious for the future.

One day he was
his

restoration of friendship with the Wesleys

the next he

was meditating the publication of

answer

to the

sermon

on
it

'

Free-Grace,' and consoling himself with the thought that
in

was written

much

love

and meekness

;

a third day he
'

seemed

to hear the Divine voice saying to him,
shall set

Fear not,
;
'

speak out, no one

upon thee

to hurt thee

another

day he was writing

to Charles

Wesley deploring the pending
as
if

separation, expostulating with

him and John
that he
to

they could

undo the
brother.

past,

and declaring

would rather stay on the
oppose him and
his

sea for ever than

come

to

England

He knew

not what to do, though he

knew

perfectly
it

well what he wanted

—the

old friendship to be what

had

once been, and

every dividing thing,

whether raised by him

self or the brothers,

done

utterly away.

Nor were

his longings
It is painful

for

peace stronger than those of Charles Wesley.

to observe the

way

in

which the two friends strove, with un-

which prevailed over to Charles' loving letter. he so far forgot himself. wisdom which was heeded only for At first he said that he would never preach against the brothers. according to the testimony of John. ' labouring which he used the strongest and most affectionate opposing him that his soul was language . Four months before Whitefield ' wrote his reply to the sermon on Free-Grace. he was say. just recovering from a severe illness. ' in the most peremptory and offensive to manner. though Charles was sitting by him. When Whitefield reached England. his friend. if ' to have heard us weeping. that so far from listening to compromise as different gospels. against 163 a tide which they felt was hurrying them into trouble and sorrow. to met him. It would have melted after any heart. print his reply. possible. and at the dictation of a lot .BREACH WITH WESLEY availing effort. who had been summoned London. his doctrines Then seemed to him to be too important to be held back .' When ' John. the breach might be prevented 1 Soon afterwards.' says Whitefield. he submitted his letter. who returned its it endorsed with these words ^ up thy sword into place. and soon triumphed over the counsel of love and awhile. whatever his private opinion might be. under the provocation of an anonymous letter. still and tempted Whitefield pen and hovered near. Wesley and he preached two and him therefore he not only would not join with him. to preach there. or give . prayer. however. That evil fortune which made Wesley preach and print a sermon on one of the profoundest subjects. that. and when he went to the Foundry. judgment : . and drawn after Whitefield by love stronger than death. at the invitation of Charles. which to the had had printed before leaving America.' But not so. he declared that he would rather Whitefield saw at him dead set his feet than . sent for peace. upon peace.' Charles.' in him a letter. as to preach them. the meeting ' between them was most touching.

' I know. our heart his is as your heart. ' : was more taunting than kind to write How easy were it for me to hit many other palpable blots in that which you call ! en answer to my sermon ! And how above measure all . but would publicly preach against him wheresoever he preached at all. con- mptible would you then appear to impartial men. the Lord be judge between me and thee The if general tenor. but. foreign to the intention with which it had been undertaken.' said Charles Wesley in his letter to White- field. the unwilling heads of rival parties ' among own Many. their have quarrelled had they been They were converts.[64 GEORGE WHITE FIELD the right hand of fellowship. plain from their truly devilish plans to but. he took occasion. is. of patronage and pity. my enemies know. we have seen from . public as even and private exhortations. to indulge in most irritating language towards Whitefield. as effect it . He assumed an would have It air of superiority. either E'^ense or learning But I spare you mine hand shall not ! be upon you . American received embittering news from home and on his arrival his ear was assailed by reports from brethren who were already openly opposed to Wesley and those who held the anger of Wesley his views. both of my all. True. for my sake " ! It may be safely affirmed that the left to two friends would not themselves. all It was easy for the accused to answer that was alleged against at the him . and perverted the school at Kingswood to improper uses. same time. Whitefield. be assured. desire nothing so at the much head of as to see George Whitefield is and John Wesley different parties. they " Spare the young man. which ruffled many a cooler man than his former friend. unfortunately. when would I touch thereon at testify. even Absalom.' He next ungenerously accused Wesley of having mismanaged things at Bristol. my as dearest brother.' letters. there was also on account of Whitefield's indefensible .

and struck it without suffi- cient cause. enemy of a he struck the 2. In preaching his peculiar views in the chapel of the Wesleys. Whitefield was wrong — 3. i. lot. first blow. In printing and publishing his sermon because In using irritating language to his opponent. and the high character of the chief actors makes it all the more painful. and 2. It is but a sad task to record these things. will soon be seen breaking and vanishing . made to him when he returned home. In exposing private opinions and deeds. Wesley was wrong in the beginning In attacking Whitefield's views at the taunt of an anonymous . In yielding his mind to the influence of inflaming representations sent to him from England. : The matter may be summed up 1.Breach with Wesley breach of confidence did more . the course of events soon took a different direction and the shadow resting upon the close of this chapter and the opening of the next away. 165 of partisans and that and the meddling damage than thus the doctrines in dispute. . 3. Happily.

for him.CHAPTER March.' fully All the circumstances were told her. VISIT 1744 POPULARITY — FIRST TO SCOTLAND —CONDUCT at OF THE DISSENTERS ON The for the March 25. own he was even threatened with arrest for three hundred and fifty pounds drawn ' for in favour of the orphan-house by his late dear deceased friend and fellow-traveller. He says: . a friend came ' : to inquire he knew where a lady of his acquaintance might lend three Whitefield replied or four hundred pounds. Yet his faith refused to print never failed. who had made hundreds by him. 166 . a morning that succeeded earnest prayer on the night before. and not worth twenty pounds of his debt . and he was a thousand pounds orphans. 1741. Seward. Whitefield wrote to Habersham the Orphanage a dark yet hopeful account of his trials. it Let her lend it to me. Mr. God willing. 1741 LOSS OF VIII — August. she shall have again. divisions among the Methodists affected his congregations so greatly that from twenty thousand they dwindled down in to two or three hundred. and in a few months. neither did his charity.' His bookseller. and she cheer- put the money into his hands. ' 'I am enabled to strengthen myself in the Lord my God if and early one morning.

and preached under His own converts forsook him . Thus he held on his his way amid contempt and hatred. he called in the help of a number of laymen. and Whitefield abhorred the appearance friends the Wesleys. and accordingly. 167 Every church was closed against him . by the name of the Tabernacle. It a few free-grace Dissenters stood firmly by was decided by them congregations. and he determined to begin on the old ground — Moorfields — on trees. of opposition to his old fresh to hear early in standing so near the Foundry. of them would not deign him a look as they passed by others put their fingers into their ears. as in open-air preaching. Twice a day he walked from Leadenhall one of the to Moorfields. they borrowed a piece of and set ground in Moorfields. the congregations grew rapidly and at the people's request. was opened two months of ^Vhitelield's landing it and filled within in Crowds were gathered together in morning lectures. the Wesleys could not have him in their pulpits. which. . However. ' He called Cennick ' to his aid from Kingswood.CAST OUT He was an outcast for awhile. either to preserve them from the contamination of one Calvinistic word. to build a large wooden shed he should for the which would serve until return to America . not for doubting that he must again win the hearts of the people Lord and Master. there was no way of gathering a congregation but by taking his stand in the battle- open air daily . seeing he preached against them by name . or to ward off the witchery of that charming voice which never charmed in vain. a carpenter to work upon the erection. and him. was similar to that at . some . But it had one drawback England. His experience his at Bristol. Here again. necessity reconciling him to the idea. a awakening began immediately . Good Friday. he was the forerunner of Wesley. to which he paid a visit before Tabernacle in London was erected.

then something seemed to say. when once the storm had discharged profound relief that It was with he wrote to his friend the Independent ' minister of Charleston. that both aimed at promoting the glory of their that they agreed in endeavouring ' common Lord . and which was assoholy works ciated with his among the colliers.' As for Whitefield himself. in which he took the ingratitude of meekness. Still Busybodies on both sides carried and stirred up He there listened too much to them. though different in judgment. strife. in which the peace and comfort of his heart through the gospel never failed him for an hour. and to convert souls to the ever blessed Mediator. for at Kingswood which he had founded.' and Word of God was running and being glorified. the hearts of these was something stronger in mistaken. they were one in affection . both boys and girls. All his healthfulness of soul got free play itself. many and on which he little child. supported him through so leaned like a day. in in his spiritual children with sorrowful welcomed rebukes his as a 'very for the little child. no part of his career displays his completeness of devotion to the Lord Jesus which he more perfectly than this. saying that the battle he thought that the the heat of was pretty well over. cleared his way surprisingly. than abhorrence of their respective tenets . who sent this person to give thee .' and to thank another for his kindness to them. was denied tales him. and a breach ensued.1 68 GEORGE WHITEFIELD The house first London. which he had preached and begged. this Cannot that God. in which he found time ' one friend to write to his dear little orphans. That kind hand which had difficulties. angry Methodists on both sides. One when he found himself forsaken and almost quite penni- less. for Whitefield gratefully records that.' which he carried burden of debt orphans without once regretting his to intercede with responsibility. his suspense was broken by a stranger coming and putting a guinea into his ' hand .

fifteen hundred ? ' And the inward voice circuit in was not untrue Wiltshire. The which friendly relation between Whitefield and the Erskines. way for me everywhere. and and everywhere 'is his orphans found friends.' He strongly deprecated Whitefield's appearing in the pulpits of . and soon he was to have such a of subscribers to . and with those of their fellow-country- men generally. Scottish caution. The work of the Lord am comforted day and night. this task they were naturally anxious to in to get all possible help. from Whitefield with true in the first instance. God makes increases. his charity as perhaps no one else ever held in his hand he could count on helpers in every county in England and Wales. lishing a and had the In of founding and estab- new church. said. in large districts of Scotland. dear Whitefield come. and in America from Boston to Savannah. making inquiries about his open-hearted invitations to their from Scotland. 'if would afford him in them. 169 make it up . The whole kingdom also was opening list doors to him . soon he was making his apostolic other counties.' he said. now caused pressing The Erskines and difficult task be sent friends had just its seceded from the Church of Scotland. and whose theological views harmonised perfectly with their own. Ralph wrote very urgent . answered only correspondent. Essex. and had often said to visit how much Accordingly. else it He in was more intimate with them than with any one pleasure Scotland. terms: 'Come. my I in this I am carried as on eagles' wings. plan .FIELD PREACHING HIS PLAN guinea. begun by a brotherly letter letter Ralph after Erskine.' In London he saw such its triumphs of the gospel as he had never seen in England before. on the ground of corruptness. and looked with high expectation the mighty preacher who had achieved such wonders England and America. and come to us also. 'Field preaching.' he possible.

a faithful ministry from the land. but Kirk people were as anxious opportunity was thus An made for him to go to any party who would have him. and the power of religion with Far be from us to limit your great Master's commission to preach the gospel the gospel to all promiscuously to every creature. is your own practice now in England. and said that he was neuter as till to the particular light.' it GEORGE WHITEF1ELD should be ' improver! against the Associate letter. had the first and must have the first visit. and not to enter into any particular connection whatever. preach who are willing to hear us. he would come simply preach the gospel. ' I come only all preacher. who are it to strengthen carrying on a course of defection. of whateyer_jienomination. to join a reformation in I It will be wrong me Church government any further than have light given me from above. visit Had none but the Erskines sought a from him. all while abstaining from interference with the points in dispute . and. . which. reformation of Church government it he had further to would be enough . after expressing his pleasure : on hearing the good news of Whitefield's success. he said ' How desirable would Scotland. We.' Whitefield thought that the Associate little Presbytery was if ' a too hard ' upon him. Whitefield wrote to Ebenezer. lest Presbytery. only the Erskines claim. that when you come to Scotland. to see Him it be to all the sincere lovers of Jesus Christ in " travelling in the greatness of His strength " among ! us also in your ministrations . . but of the people.' The answer of Ebenezer was creditable to his candour . . referring to fall said that he could not as an occasional in with suggestion. On its the day of receiving this it.170 the kirk. But we preach not upon the call and invitation of the ministers. All intended by us at present is. I suppose. there can be no doubt that he would have to gone Scotland to preach only in connection with them. your the hands of our corrupt clergy way may be such as not and judicatories. between them and the Kirk as their rivals to see him. worming out it. to preach the simple gospel to who are willing to in hear me. ourselves.

first little ! hearing and then asking questions in How He love the children. but love gentle best keeps breaking through light to lend It its own in to the hearts of the little ones. Chief of that all cares. . H 1 order and other things with some cash very Lord bears But the arrears hang on bear all me yet. that God may effectually work upon your heart The little betimes. " What shall we do to be saved? " How ! was Jesus did in the temple. and bid him "feed His lambs. as Irving wrote and now and again the harshest a of his creed appear in most unpleasing form every line . and intends to send brother shortly. the He Mr. was : his manner that he wrote to a child at Boston .HIS 'DEAR LAMBS' Full of cafes he took his passage from 171 London gets to Leith. arms and bless them heaven. who had partaken of the religious influence so sedulously diffused by Whitefield during his is worth a place m every student's room. Haven which in America. or loo good. for you cannot be good too soon. am persuaded He will.' They had to him in exceedingly. My I my burden . was to distant family. letters They parts cannot compare with such charming to his little daughter. nor 'My dear Child." encourage you to come to Him. hats He sends word that he has ordered and shoes 's for the children.' When he sailed he found time to gratify his desire about the orphans. since slander was soon busy with a tale about personal ends which Whitefield was serving. — I thank you for your letter I neither forgot you my promise. and yet chief of all earthly joys. Hence- . may He yours for you. O. to He hopes. how did He take them up And when He was just ascending His sacred to the highest how Let tenderly did all this He speak to Peter.' Sifting the rest of the correspondence. Barber be accounts —and not without reason. ' when he begs aboard. redeem time rejoiced particular answer his dear lambs' letters. orphans early t Georgia are crying out. and ten of his short letters are preserved. we come upon a sentence in a letter to the students at Cambridge and American ' New tour.

as Ralph Erskine phrases it. and go and to Cennick. Next morning guest and host conferred together alone on Church his matters. and Erskine described as upsitten.' being generally little Yet there was no warmth about the stranger whom for. not to get a parish. as once surprised my me text. was such They urged a longer stay.' The Mary and Ann. landed Whitefirst Leith on July 30. and urged him to preach in Edinburgh on the day of his arrival. and at in the meeting-house — in the afternoon of ' a very thronged assembly. . but. nor to be polite preachers. in order became the gospel of Christ.172 GEORGE WHITEFIELD therefore. ' over the belly of vast opposition.' and at came to Ralph's house Dunfermline at ten o'clock at night. telling lovingly. he was firm in his resolution to go wherever he was asked. in the house. .' testify against them ! Whitefield wrote him : that Erskine had received him 'very He says ' I preached to his and the townspeople ' — this was the day after his arrival. and to set me right about Church government and I informed them that I had given the Solemn League and Covenant. field at after a pleasant passage.' As to preaching. which Ebenezer lukewarm. notice of preaching at Edinburgh this evening. Were a invitation Jesuit priest or a Mohammedan to give him an he would gladly comply. for a he would not have it again way thousand worlds. . After I had done prayer and named all by opening the Bibles witness to before. but now. as they desired it. the rustling . but to be great saints. made a scene I never was Our conversation after sermon. into the Kirk or into the meeting-house. the Associate Presbytery and the Kirk both struggled Persons of distinction welcomed him. hope you will enter into your studies. ten years before Wesley visited Scotland. when Whitefield admitted . But he stayed in the city only an hour. I forward. to converse more closely. He was come ' to a generation lifeless. 1741. . and went thence. that he had changed views of ordination at the ' time of his ordination he knew no in that better way.

felt at Nor need any . Ralph's house. Hence their reason wishing to convert Whitefield was plain. two elders. and this evening I preached to many thousands in a place called Orphan-house Park. form of Church government which was different from to keep him in suspense. Erskine accompanied me. Thomas and James Mair. There were present Ralph and Ebenezer Erskine. meant his conversion. Clarkson . to the determined to keep himself from The were separating from the Established Church on the ground that no persons holding ' unscriptural . surprise be such stickling for Church government they were in an unenviable position of separation.' The proposed conference took house on the sixth day place at Ralph Erskine's after Whitefield's arrival in the country. The Lord was there. and in the meanwhile to secure his services in their meeting-houses for the establishment of also their cause. This was agreed on. and thus naturally anxious to prove their zeal for order as well as for orthodoxy.' and Ebenezer began the proceedings Some that of the venerable men had come in with the persuasion they would Presbyterian . Alexander Moncrieff. succeed the making Whitefield portion an Associate wiser hoped for nothing more than to stagger his faith in any and every theirs. Whitefield had evidently come all alliances.CONFERENCE WITH THE SECEDERS I 173 would in a few days return and meet the Associate Presbytery in Mr. Dear Mr. It was thus that the conversation turned upon Church govern- . 'tryst. but knew that must be an beyond the power of a morning's would be enough to enter into sitting of any Presbytery with it an alliance meeting seceders him. James Wardlow and John Mowbray. and Mr. Ralph called the with prayer. ' tenets should be admitted members of the Church unscriptural tenets was so rigid and the interpretation to as mean that any man who for differed from them in his views of Church government should not hold communion with them. Adam also Gib. it These affair .

GEORGE WHITEFIELD though Whitefield went away with the impression that they also wanted to bring him round to the Solemn League the mist. following the which cannot be done without who. when they had gathered Churches by the preaching of the gospel. While was being con- tended that one form of Church government was divine. no doubt. supposing Presbyterian in government mount. communion indeed.174 merit. and also in foreign parts is fit and now is it that you should be considering how that body to be organised and preserved.' has Ebenezer Erskine replied. among whom there are : good Sir. men. each one holding to the skirts of his sacred Church. Then he that fixed himself on a resolution. made sure he could never reach.' a judicative capacity in the name of the Whitefield answered that he could not see his But. and Covenant ! That was most ' likely a spectre in To Whitefield's question. . and Episcopalians. to Whether. supposing he fall were to die. communion of the Church of England. with fine dexterity ' God made you an instrument souls to of gathering a great multitude of the faith and profession of the gospel of Christ . ' was. his which. example of Paul and Barnabas. them again.' he said none in that communion can join me in the work you have pointed to neither do I mean to separate from that I am of the ' . was urged. . it be agreeable to the pattern shown the excluded a toleration of Independents. keep cool when dealing with a prelatist it ? The interview ended in a scene. and ordained over them elders in every which you cannot do alone. till I am either cast out or excommunicated. throughout England. the flock would be scattered and might a prey to grievous wolves. Anabaptists.' All tempers were not cool under the reasoning that went on how could nine Scots. it way to anything but preaching. with it the views he had expressed about ordination. visited city . without some two or three in met together Lord.

about Whitefield's lying open to appeared from his also for his declining conversation on that head and coming harnessed with a resolution to stand out against everything that should be advanced against ' (presumably the Estabto rest lished Church). indeed. no would have come about neither would Ralph . 2. of the Lord. told him that he was ' sorrowful for being disappointed light. as he rapped the Bible that lay It is on the table evident is ' : I find it here. ' became all and We are far from thinking that are Christ's friends that join with us.' that Whitefield's ecclesiastical position 1.U'HITEFIELDS ECCLESIASTICAL POSITION Whitefield. the Lord's people. said ' : I do not find here.' brothers Had the Presbytery consisted only of the two disruption and young David Erskine. Indeed. the son of Ebenezer. laying his it 175 hand on But his heart. dear . No. for the future to be judged of by these three things: That he did not believe that any form of Church government was of divine origin. Whitefield threw him into confusion but in calmer moments. Ralph must not be allowed under the ' shade of bigotry which the words attributed to him. have been provoked to insinuate the orphan-house was making in a letter to Whitefield. when meeting his seceding followers at the table his better self. of bells and of expectation of sermon when the ringing and the firmness . he must be the connection must cease. that ' him temporise. as . free to leave the That Church of England . the We are He may have used very words in the that warm discussion. Church of England did not any longer he was not cast off. and that all are His enemies that do not. who wrote and plainly. but kindly.' would cast over him. Ralph Erskine.' Alexander Moncrieff replied. if his conceptions of ordination to the ministerial functions. That his ordination to be a priest of the accord with 3. The to unfortunate close of the conference was a great sorrow to Whitefield. he could speak as say.

who heart and conscience. and with patience and meekness so injuries. with love towards his enemies. and no small about this appealed to the man the riches new preacher who depicted scenes. r ' d as the most wicked meetings among themselves all indeed. in all classes of society. and who offered to every Some of Divine grace with solemn urgency. He had the ear At seven people from the poorest to the noblest. who had been in the city.' Yet he was on a flood-tide of popularity in the Scottish capital.' The v ?ry children of the city caught the spirit of his devotion. very thought of it. and never courting the favour of any. x\ to them the letters At Heriot's Hospital the boys. if you think I I temporise on account of the orphans. Whitefield bore midst of applause.' Be it far from me. His . who had long maintained an honest were stimulated to profession Christianity. that one minister thought that God had sent him to show him how to preach. Great numbers of young men aged met of for promoting their Christian knowledge . established fellowship . children's meetings sprung up over the city. were against him ground that his character was not sufficiently established called and even his friends commonly of the in him 'that godly youth. exemplary under the reproaches. abhor the There was commotion division. and especially how to suffer. 'you mistake. in the fields.' GEORGE WHITE FIELD Whitefield replied. and Christians. and would hear him eagerly while he read of his orphans.176 sir. seek closer brotherly communion. the morning he had a lecture by ' which was attended the common people and by persons of rank. Great as was the danger of himself with humility in the this time. on the . the and the slanders which were heaped upon him. careful never to give offence. In the pulpit he was like a flame of fire among men he was most calm and easy.

Bisset. Crieff. Kinross. Perth. Glasgow.' given in charity will impoverish the Edinburgh Dundee. Forfar. Maxton. Killern. His to disinterestedness conspicuously his refusal accept a private contribution which some zealous purse. was said that he was hindering the poor from paying debts. still. his their and impoverishing their families. Bisset * This alarm about impoverishing the country does not look so absurd it when is remembered that in 1706 the total revenue of Scotland was only £160. Haddington. Falkirk. be my motto All he cared his family he would rather bear any its burden than have burdened. ' I make no for he said 'what have I give away. effect. Airth. Paisley.' " Poor. His pleadings on ' behalf had the usual tongues busy. Ogilvie. one of the ministers of the himself At : kirk. Newbottle. Montrose. This Mr. that. gloomy for the when applied . Fintry. to and Aberdeen received a visit from him. Stonehive. yet making that many was it rich. lassie. It Thousands of prayers were lies and thousands of were spread abroad against him. fact was that largest donations came from the all He said to his it friends respecting ' this slander.' friends . Cupar of Angus. I would have no one little afraid of doing too much good. Kin^." shall . and some evil men ' soon had their offered for him. or think that a country. and is thus described by — first ' my coming here. for he never noticed publicly. his labours . His visit Aberdeen was at the oft-repeated request of Mr.000. thought of giving I him. Balfrone. did not monopolise Stirling. Galashiels. they refused me the use of the kirk-yard to preach in. 13 . to. But the rich. Benholm. Culross. things looked a little magistrates had been so prejudiced by one Mr. Brechin.Aberdeen temper shone 177 was cheerful and in grateful. Inverkeithing. Cupar of Fife.

big with resentment. Most of the congregation seemed surprised and chagrined. Ogilvie. Though blooded. had been put upon and that all Him by my being suffered to preach in that pulpit might know what reason he had to put up such a petition. after my arrival. which he said were grossly Arminian. they are very different in their natural tempers. it being Mr. about the middle of his sermon he not only urged that I was a curate of the Church of England. expressed themselves quite concerned at the had met with. The interval being so short. and on the morrow the and more than solemn /ill was hushed. colleagues of the same congregation. and immediately pulled out a paper containing a great number of insignificant queries. who. having great fault to find with both. he entreated the Lord to forgive the dishonour that was prepared . but also quoted a passage or two out of my first printed sermons. The people being thus diverted from controversy with man. Mr.178 is GEORGE WHITEFIELD Mr. Mr. stood up and gave notice that Mr. In the afternoon Mr. especially his good-natured colleague. strengthened in Whitefield since his return from America troubles. Whitefield would preach about half an hour. expectation of hearing my . immediately after sermon. were deeply impressed with what they heard from the Word of God. Bisset officiated I attended. and begged I would accept of the freedom But of this enough. At the time appointed I went up. in some part of my discourse. I lectured and preached the magistrates were present. The congregation very large. The one what they call in Scotland of a sweetis the other of a choleric disposition. without consulting me in in the least. at colleague with whose repeated is invitation I came hither.' of the city. Ogilvie. dear for it. magistrates sent for treatment I me. into the sessions-house. The spirit of love had been remarkably developed and . he would not have expressed himself in such strong terms. naming me by name. but in the midst of them. Mr. kindly chastening to his The to fine frankness of his nature and the sincerity of his religion were shown at Aber- deen in a letter which he wrote Wesley asking his forgive- . had proved a spirit. and took no other notice of the good man's ill-timed zeal than to observe. wherein I had corrected several of my former mistakes. Bisset neither a Seceder nor quite a Kirk man. and light and life fled all around. Ogilvie's turn. Ogilvie took me to pay my respects to Soon him he . which I had neither time nor inclination to answer. He began his prayers as usual. his keen and undeserved as they were. that if the good old gentleman had seen some of my later writings. the magistrates returned and the congregation patiently waited. The next morning.

courage. and became the friend. Lady Frances Gardiner (wife of the Colonel).' and. we may add. ton. he took his way from Scotland to his Wales to be married. for the . Lady Jean Nimmo. . month he calls before the marriage. 1741) he was at Aber- gavenny. perform his journeys on Scotch people gave him above hundred pounds for his Riding his gift-horse. once gay. if for the Associate Presbytery it also brought him more was wel- worldly honour than he had ever before known. There is the marriage with the matronly housekeeper. seeing she compelled some complainers. correspondent.MARRIAGE ness for a wrong he felt 179 in another to in he had done him. and religious helper of the Marquis of Lothian. does not appear. 14. inoffensive whose in his name he had mentioned famous letter to a very way Wesley from Bethesda. and Lady to five Lord the Leven gave him a horse orphans. neither rich nor beautiful. Not a word has been found about his courtship. Wesley. Lady Mary HamilDirleton. In the case of Bohler he had not sinned openly. who speaks of her in his journal but a . ready to be joined in matrimony to Mrs. Lord Rae. had a favourable opinion of her her 'a woman of candour and humanity. to repeat everything to his face. His Scotch excursion did much little kingdom of God. Colonel Gardiner. James. but he knew that he had broken the law of charity faults are in his own heart . who had an Eden-like story told about been free with their tongues in Wesley's absence. and such much to the true Christian. Whether he preached on journey or not.' one of whom in he his cherished hope that she would not hinder him work. a widow of about past thirty-six ' years of age (he was twenty-six). which. and Peter Bohler. but for three years last a despised the follower of the Lamb. He comed to their houses by several of the nobility. but in ten days (Nov. the Earl of Leven. though not .

near Pontypool. . and preaching a large hall at which his friends had hired and Mrs. James. Whitefield was he could conveniently take her Abergavenny. and addresses to Mrs. whose virtues Johnson has praised almost certain that Whitefield sometimes sat able table with that strange guest. . I it would not is for half a heaven but find their her there. his best friend in was Mr. down at the keeper's hospit- . high terms. probably not knowing that he was praising a convert of Whitefield's. may serve to brighten a prosaic event. building religious societies. minister of Ebenezer Chapel. Home-life they could never know so long as he would preach all day. 1 Bristol had another distinguished visitor at this time. said. Three days he was in in Bristol. who saw through the commissary's enmity. staying till with him on his journeys. His wife was a woman of eminent piety and strong mind they were married in youth. was so enchanted with when to visiting at their house.' happiness. Whitefield. Jones died of the and the afflicted widower would ' when speaking joys of another world. Mrs. It is Dagge.180 to GEORGE WHITEFIELD be depended upon. 1 His appeal from the jurisdiction of the commissary Charleston was of now returned to him from the Lords. and years only deepened first. their affection. until and write letters at night. . say. And she seems to have been as good a wife to him as perhaps any woman and could have been. was most happy in his marriage. this practice he kept up he died. the tender gaoler. and there was an end of that trouble. Ebenezer Jones. that he immediately soon paid his determined change his condition. There was probably no cessation of preaching only a few tell days after the celebration of the marriage he wrote to an Edinburgh friend that God had been to pleased to work by his later still hand since his coming up Wales. Savage was detained in Newgate for a debt of eight pounds .

taking his wife with him. Be not slothful Go bed seasonably. and to the prejudice of your in business. For many weeks I found my heart much . brother S not rise some. He spent the winter 1741-42 mostly in preaching in his tabernacle. this wise circumspection. and probably lodged with some Methodist friend. or comforted in .Moorfields during the late holidays. and the fact that he was always the guest of men of undoubted piety or of untarnished repuhis may in part be ascribed triumph over all the base slanders of his enemies. pick up the fragments of prayer. This. Everything was helping to prepare him for another of those daring religious forays of is the most brilliant captain . rise early.WHITSUNTIDE IN MOORFIELDS His work now lay in 1S1 Bristol. time . 1742. and that you do . and more with Be much God. ' With this I send you a few out of the many notes have received from pressed to deter- persons who were convicted. N will never do me and I am to persuaded such a conduct tends much to the dishonour of God.' in secret Converse with To tation. ' I tells know not what to say about coming to your house for me you and your family are dilatory. the desire to hear the truth was more intense than Finally. one carefully chosen. times for till . The soldier the best historian here ' London. May I 11. nine or ten in the morning. where he began 'a general monthly meeting that place first to read corresponding letters. wooden which he London. dear Mr. own precious soul. this was the enterprise he attempted — to beat is the devil in Moorfields : on Whit- Monday. To one London he replied : brother who have him and his wife. that not less Redeem your precious one moment may be lost. which he won successes itinerant preaching and everywhere ever. he went to London. converted. as he was careful about the houses he went to. and it. nor was it every one who could have wanted to his presence. man.' and between his and London in — the same district in .

many thousands led captive by the devil on Whit Monday. a large spacious place. called. and that ! awhile to be turned into lambs. not for the Redeemer's. but Beelzebub's. — all busy in entertaining their respective audiences. preached from these words easily guess that there You may I "Great is Diana of was some noise among was honoured with having a few stones. ready. Paul. Satan's children keep fields is up their annual rendezvous. at six o'clock in the morning. got the start of almost all immediately flocked I mounted my field pulpit the devil. I came. trumpeters. This encouraged me to give notice that I would preach again at six o'clock in the evening. in a bad white. noon but what a scene sense of the word. they found the number of their attendants sadly lessened. to fight with the the beasts at Ephesus. drummers. given. and such With a bleeding with compassion for so his will. it Judging that. many . from one end to the other. they listened. &c. I ventured to up a standard among them them. seemed. as for all sorts of have been by one in. I il ever. side. trumpeting on a large stage. vanities. I saw. rotten eggs. . Madam Moore. when. I I and immediately." &c." should now be were. waiting as earnestly to hear the gospel. I must inform you that Moortold. booths of kinds have been erected like. ! I ventured out again at The fields. seemed for craftsmen. whilst engaged in calling them from My soul was indeed among lions but their favourite. exhibitors of wild beasts. players. and the enemy's agents made a kind of a roaring at some distance At length they approached nearer. less I suppose there could not be pulpit than twenty or thirty thousand people. masters of puppet-shows. like Ephesians. on purpose for people to divert themselves all For many heart at years past. but as me in my black robes and my pulpit. but what thousands and thousands more than before if possible. the whole fields. I think all to him and ran to me. . &c. which was very large. Perhaps there were about ten not for me. All was hushed and solemn. still more deeply engaged in their unhappy diversions but some thousands among them — . as : to their great mortification. in the name of Jesus of Nazareth. They gazed. but for Satan's instruments to amuse Glad was I to find that I had for once. — players. This Satan could not brook. thousand in waiting — . far the greatest part of my congregation. harvest. and many heard the joyful sound. and the Merry from our camp. they wept and I believe that serpent. as it were. My was fixed on the opposite St. soon as the people saw a man left . felt themselves stung with deep conviction for their past sins. All his agents were in full motion Merry Andrews. mountebanks. and pieces of dead cat thrown at me. preached on these words: "As Moses lifted up the I around it. For awhile I was enabled to lift up my God's people kept voice like a trumpet. puppet-shows. attended by a lift large congregation of praying people.1 82 to venture to GEORGE WHITEFIELD preach there at this mine season. One of his choicest servants was exhibiting. all Being thus encouraged. but lying. praying.

however. preach- — for the noise was too great at times to preach — about full We then retired to the Tabernacle.' Bare ' facts support the statement that some had been plucked from the very jaws of the devil. but always with the violence of his motion tumbled down. attempted to slash me with a long. and a large body. and ordered that way might be made for the king's marched quietly through. many of their company behind. and given fourteen shillings to boot and several were numbered in the several converted . less that 183 that they had taken many day on account of my preaching. heavy whip several times. and went their way.THE TABERNACLE SOCIETY Andrew. threw down their staff. advanced towards us with steady and formidable steps till they came very near the skirts of our hearing. over to join the besieged party. This was the beginning of the Tabernacle society. got upon a man's shoul- and advancing near the pulpit. to pass through the congregation. of command. society at whose days would But : in all probability have been ended is Tyburn. before we had done. ' G. He heard and answered. The ranks opened while all then closed again. &c. leaving. gave warning. for just as they approached us with looks full of resentment. Three hundred and fifty awakened souls were received in one day. I trust were brought officer. I think I continued in praying. who had been living in open adultery one man was who had exchanged his wife for another. and I believe the number of notes exceeded a thousand retire to join in . and prayed to the Captain of our salvation for present support and deliverance. Finding their efforts to fail. &c. and almost undaunted congregation. who. and having got a large pole for their standard. attended by others who complained pounds ders. Whitefield. Here a second . in such an unex- pected. I know not by what accident they quarrelled among themselves. with my pockets of notes from praises persons brought under concern. out of the very jaws of the devil. ing and singing three hours. praying. but I mutual praise and thanksgiving ' must have done. spiritual and read them amid the and acclamations of thousands who joined with the holy angels in rejoicing that so many sinners were snatched. assembled together. letter his exploits were not ended. quite on the opposite side. unlikely place and manner.' Whitefield married . I saw. believing you want to to God and the Lamb with Yours. his Soon afterwards they got a recruiting sergeant with I gave the word drum.

. . against the supporters in order . expressed their approbation by repeated laughs. would you think it ? after they found that peltings. and closed our festival enterprises in reading fresh notes that were put up. and threatening. as the great Mr. " that man. when left to himself. for He was begun on Monday was not quite over till Wednesday evening. was determined it to stab me . praising and blessing God amidst thousands at the Tabernacle for what He had done for precious souls. therefore I was not much moved. and I narrowly escaped with my life passing from the pulpit to the coach. the enraged multitude soon seized him. he must have undergone a The next day I renewed my attack in Moorfields but. whilst hundreds of another stamp. and so the Such an attempt excited abhordestined victim providentially escaped. and . con- cluded with a warm exhortation. struck up with his cane. being high and the supports not well fixed in the ground. and as soon as I got into the field-pulpit their countenance bespoke I opened with these words the enmity of their heart against the preacher. and a pulpit being prepared for me by an honest Quaker. a place almost as much frequented by boxers. instead of rising up to pull down the unhappy I must own at wretch. Being strongly invited. by the strong impressions that were made. a coal merchant. and shamefully exposed his nakedness before all the people. and had it not been for one rence of my friends who received him into his house. unless with compassion for those to whom I was delivering my Master's message. 15. A vast concourse was assembled together. Law expressed himself. I ventured on Tuesday evening to preach at Mary-le-bone Fields. " I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ for it is the power of God hath triumphed gloriously The battle that : . was welcome to many. gamesters. which I had reason to think. though the scene of action was a little shifted." for the pulpit I preached in great jeopardy . I thought Satan had almost outdone himself.* would not do. and perceived a sword just touching my temple. but a gentleman. a beastly action quite abashed the serious part of my auditory. whether I had wronged human nature in saying. and numbers of enemies strove to push my to throw me down.1 84 GEORGE WHITEFIELD ' London. I felt my wig and hat to be almost off. But the Redeemer stayed my soul on Himself. and such like. "a motley mixture I of the beast and devil. severe discipline. —Fresh matter of praise ! bless ye the Lord. seeing the sword thrusting near me. since now they had such a spectacle before them. 1742. rake. is half a devil and half a ." or. I it tottered every time friends moved." Silence and attention being thus gained. unto salvation to every one that believeth. after pious Bishop Hall. one of the Merry Andrews got up into a tree very near the Such pulpit. but first it gave me a shock recovering my spirits I appealed to all. ' My DEAR Friend. But Satan did not like thus to be attacked for as I was in his strongholds. noise. May . as I afterwards found. as Moorfields. beast. A young I turned about.

and made the more contentious by low estimate of their ' foreigner's full holy contendings unfriendly. GIB'S 'WARNING' 185 on account of the deliverances He had wrought out for but being about to embark in the I could enlarge Scotland. 6. and thus to deliver his own might be. in the New Church Bristow. Whitefield. welcome him when he stepped all hearts were not glad for his return. Mary and Ann for must hasten to subscribe myself. . one of the venerable nine with whom Whitefield had the to it amusing interview at Dunfermline. now went from . never once gave way struck turned up their little on the contrary. The Associate Presbytery — still smarting under the rebuff of the preceding year. I me and His people. at Accordingly he 'published. devil-blinded people that crowded to hear the deceiver. girls. the voyage afforded him a few days for quieter engagements. 1742. happily.S. " A Warning against countenancing the Ministrations of Mr . accompanied by his wife. amid the blessings and tears of the people. — I cannot help adding that several little boys and who were &c. Even the Erskines were But the most conspicuous enemy was Adam Gib. driven to the greater vehemence for their testimony the more they saw the ' it ' unheeded. before rushing into the heat of an immense revival. and handing to me people's notes. though they were often pelted with eggs. the souls of the poor deluded. ' P. every time was weeping eyes. &c. again to out. and. thrown at me. Gib was resolved soul. of Edinburgh. ' G. the excitement of London to that of Scotland and. dirt. God make them in their growing years great and living martyrs for Him who out of the mouths of babes and sucklings perfects praise ! Whitefield. Most of his time landed at on board ship was spent in secret prayer. June 1742. upon Sabbath. He Leith on June 3. ' Yours. expose Whitefield. and seemed to wish they could receive the blows for me. many But of whom followed the coach up to Edinburgh. I preached. ' — were of wrath.ADAM . I fond of sitting round me on the pulpit while but.

though was not. White- was no minister of Jesus Christ were scandalous of disorder . on the south side of the Clyde. to say that their difference as to how much concerned he was off their outward things should cut with each other. . Twice a day Whitefield went to the Park. and now a suburb of that city. to themselves. ' that were possible. so that people ought to avoid him. diabolical . sweet fellowship and communion He pro- tested that his love for Erskine greater than ever it . success must be. about miles from Glasgow. that Mr. thus if ample scope to make his charges. and to him. a commotion that Gib was urged and taking this as a hint from Provi- dence that he should finish his holy task. A little congregation moved by deeper religious feeling than that to hear his voice in a which agitated Edinburgh was anxious village called five Cambuslang. George Whitefield certain sound. from duty to God.' Whitefield was not soured by such detraction and abuse. its The Rev. field Gib shows. to the Church. Meanwhile the people. and Erskine's brethren was their zeal for that he applauded God. Wonderful things were beginning parish of nine to take place in that small hundred souls. " ' ' and certainly the trumpet gave ' no un- The Warning caused such to print. according to knowledge. that his call and coming and to Scotland that his practice was disorderly his and fertile that his whole doctrine was.' flocked to the Hospital Park and the shaded wooden amphitheatre which had been erected a day they for their accom- modation. in his to prove them. William McCulloch. to fellow- men. in some respects. but wrote to Ebenezer Erskine. fifty-seven . and that his heart resentment ' in it. own . and was had no frequently levelled against himself. who had been ordained minister on April 29. and twice came to hear him.1 86 GEORGE WHITEFIELD . ' he expanded a short ' sermon of eight pages into an getting Appendix of and way. was a . to posterity. not heeding Gib's filled Warning. 1731.

when he went to Glasgow. move their in passions with The news of the revivals England and . same doctrines which were touching rugged Kingswood both hemispheres depraved London roughs. 1742. a weaver. a shoemaker. and had been as vitally affected as they had heard the religious leaven thrilling voice which had spoken them. and more anxious to feed his people with sound truth than to declamation. slow and cautious as a speaker. great evangelist had also been heard by some of the people influence. had made a temple of her own in a deep ravine near the church. visit months before Whiteround the field's second to Scotland. in their turn. The was touching the whole body of the people five and at the end of January. science. kingdom of God and then renew his application of truth to the con- The . side. they were printed. petition and Robert Bowman. nor could they forget his words. and nature. afforded an admirable place for the gathering of a . but he dwelt mostly on regeneration. as interested as he did. Ingram More. or throw off their On they his previous visit to Scotland. and formal ministers and professors of religion in . and they. unostentatious piety. he would recount on a in the Sabbath evening what was going on elsewhere. as fair anticipating their wants. America had awakened a detail to his lively interest in him he began to felt people what he knew. had stood on the gravestones of the high churchyard in that immense congregation which trembled and Others. carried a .CAMBUSLANG REVIVAL man of considerable learning 187 and of solid. again. The sermon over. large and there the pastor would preach the colliers. had read the sermons after if wept as he denounced the curses and offered the blessings of the word of God. A fields dilapidated church and an over- flowing congregation next compelled the good pastor flock to resort to the for and his if worship. The from it grassy level by the burnin the and the brae which mass of people rises form of an amphi- theatre.

parish. by those who had been guilty of these under its and who had come It power. there was chaff . after . examined men. three hundred souls. more than two hundred of converted and brought whom home were. or kindled afresh the extinguished religion. followed by . and all moral Cursing. conditions. praying the minister to set and ninety heads of families signed it. presented every appearance of a work of the It Holy Ghost. The day which was most Then wounded lectures. convinced of their perishing condition without a Saviour. Next came a daily sermon. and effort into brought them in thought and purpose and com- munion with Father in heaven. for the temporal interests of the parish was Thurslecture was given. . It won forgiveness from the imparted patience and love to endure the It injuries of enemies. private teaching. and delusion from spreading by faithful and indeed the work. the work of preaching and teaching did not devolve upon one man help. bound pastors It and people together raised an altar in the fire with a stronger bond of sympathy. and on Thursday a to call at souls began fort. It kindled remorse for acts of injustice. ministers from far and near came to see all to and wonder and hinder hypocrisy as Great care was taken by them . revengeful. swearing. It of domestic made men their students of the word of God. household. ' had been awakened and he believed.' The congregations on All the hillside had also increased to nine or ten thousand. one of the Thursday them went in his and all that night the faithful pastor was engaged good work. all ages. exhortation. True. field and prayer and before White- got there to increase the intense feeling and honest conaccording to viction which were abroad. It compelled restitution for fraud. embraced all classes. fifty convenient day. hopefully to God. McCulloch. the computation of Mr.1 88 GEORGE WHITEFIELD up a weekly lecture. and drunkenness were given up sins. the manse to ask for counsel and comof and at last.

For an hour and a half the loud weeping of the the stillness of the company filled summer or night. but the watchfulness it. but from a sense of the dishonour they had done to the God and their Redeemer. At six in the evening he preached again. at No doubt the audience on the brae- was much the same each service. The great sorrow which swelled penitential hearts was not selfish. It it. the crying of those whom they bore moved all hearts with fresh emotion. and there was a swaying to where the w ounded one r fell. and fro more susceptible woman. 189 and wisdom of the away. rang above the preacher's voice and the general wailing. Whitefield's ride from Edinburgh into the west was through places where the greatest commotion was When he came to Cambuslang he immediately preached to a vast con- gregation. and the congregation was broken again and again. and visible. and prepared the way for the word to make . was a very field of battle. who dated their contheir version from the work at Cambuslang. walked among neighbours with an unspotted Christian name. had come together on a Tuesday at noon. The most remarkable absence of terrible thing in the whole movement is an experiences. which.CAMBUSLANG REVIVAL among the wheat. as they passed. minister detected years afterwards and quickly drove it And for long humble men and women. while now and again the cry of some strong man. and. and a side third time at nine. and then died peacefully and joyfully in the arms of One whom they had learned in revival days to call Lord and Saviour. notwithstanding Gib's warning against hearing sermons on other days than the Sabbath. work in Cambuslang meetings was first at The influence of many a parish. Often the word would take effect like shot piercing a regiment of soldiers. and we are prepared to its hear that by eleven at night the enthusiasm had reached highest pitch. as Whitefield himself has described Helpers carried the agonised into the house. fear of future and came from no punishment.

before joining in the great and solemn ceremony. the their voices much rejoicing the heart of Whitefield awake in the neighbouring manse. seventeen hundred tokens were issued to those who wished to communicate. Many walked sound of as he lay the fields all night. at the request of the ministers. scarcely remembrance of our Lord was a mighty outwardly devout. All around the inner group of believers for a who were to partake of the sacrament host. and the twenty thousand were not tired of hearing it. when the last communicant had partaken. McCulloch took his place. and preached till past one in the morning. tables stood under the serve one of them the people so crowded upon him that he was obliged to desist and All through the day. His sermon was an hour and a half long. still unwearied. days. Friday night he came to to Cambuslang. and aged Christians were assembled with the freshness of their early devotion upon them. was the day of it New first converts had looked forward to the time of their loving confession of their Redeemer. . met in one congregation. GEORGE WHITEFIELD When Whitefield ended his sermon. preaching . and Whitefield. and to take part in prayer and exhortation. preached to them. The following Sunday was sacrament day. and on Saturday he preached more than as twenty thousand people.19° fresh triumphs. praying and singing. The brae. He On says that there was such a shock in Edinburgh on Thursday night and Friday morning as he had never felt before. and he hurried back to Edinburgh to do some work there. ready to hear. ' less earnest or less in Two ' tents were erected the glen . Godly pastors had come from neighbour- ing and also from distant places to assist in serving the tables. and even then the people were unwilling to leave the spot. Sabbath. however. and when Whitefield began to go to one of the tents to preach. by one or another never ceased and at night. and still all the companies.

and others crying out and mourning over a pierced Saviour. He could hardly to have power.' the The sermon preached by him on Isa. But whither am I going forget my- when writing of Jesus. referred to by his converts than we look in vain for a single passage of interest or is power .' Whitefield seen thousands bathed swift as lightning from one end of the auditory in to another. but his was well have 191 been followed by quietness and to cry for leisure. easier to understand the unfailing unction with which fail common to the ' thoughts were clothed. 'fled as 'The motion. without affectation The hopes I of bringing more souls to Jesus Christ the only consideration that can reconcile me ? to life.CAMBUSLANG REVIVAL Such a day might repose. and how intense was becomes his God. It Passover in Josiah's time. For this cause can willingly stay long from my my wished-for home. is Lord Jesus. who could say.' His qualities of meekness and self-restraint were as hardly tested by the meddlesomeness of would-be advisers as by the . able time at Cambuslang. when entreating sinners to yield to God and be joined or boast. Preachers have preached it most effective sermons on that day. for the day after communion Sunday sanctity than the has had Presbyterians almost more their Sunday itself. remembering how it perfectly his heart realised the idea of union with his personal devotion to the will of God. no heart whatever his body might do. The following Monday was among sure to be just such a day as he could most thoroughly enjoy. and was a memorsays. others almost swooning. You might have tears. But. more frequently yet it. Some at the same time wringing was like the their hands. I my self wished-for Jesus. 5 — Sunday night was upon ' ' For thy Maker is thy husband —and was a sermon any other . liv. in is The thought meagre and the language tame there a total absence of the dramatic element which abounds in his all treatment of narrative and parable. His love fills soul.

it is very satisfying to As for my my own soul. . which ought to be true. me to tell how often I use I secret prayer if I nay. is that your Arminianism ?' the bedside ' ' ' . cannot go to It is if think my it spirit is . and their happy reconciliation. dear sir. full. work of God prospers. . if he had heard the not? following vagabond anecdote. which. If the by the Divine blessing. down to rest. the two combatants slept together in the same bed (Methodist preachers sometimes slept three in a bed !). is that your Calvinism ? night Whitefield awoke. not in bondage. did not use it. M dear is sir.' his his letter breathed much : of a and with wonted charity added ' To which to I hoped dear Mr.' 1 As soon as news of the Cambuslang work came from the west. the Seceders called a Presbytery. not for God in my usual set times. as first. answer Mr. if it is Some time after the quarrel upon the five points between Wesley and Whitefield. better and what you will then. Dundee. Willison was quite averse. Whitefield 1 What would Willison have thought of Whitefield. with a prompti- tude that showed as their prejudices and condemned fast their act rash and ignorant. for between nth of July and the 15th — the date of the act of the Presbytery no examination of the work could have been made.2 GEORGE WH1TEFIELD Willison. in one sense did not pray without ceasing.' During the said Wesley in a reproachful tone. ' to his habits of As to the Whitefield told his corre- spondent that he thought sectarian spirit. : . at the Wesley knelt down and prayed before lying close of a toilsome day. a minister of : the Kirk. and found his friend fast asleep on his knees by rousing him up. he said 'John.k. as to the question of episcopacy private devotion. and secondly. The notions of Gib the were evidently popular. know mean. but Whitefield threw himself upon the bed at once. or frequency of preaching. was jealous over him on two points first. George. I your hands become more I daily enjoy. of blind rage of enemies. appointed a highly for the diabolical delusion which had seized the people. but through weakness of body. would be difficult for me to keep up that frame of soul which. Morning if and evening retirement I certainly exceeding I good .

' he says.' other. in America. would you think fast to have appointed a public humble themselves. In less than a month we Cambuslang are to have another sacrament at —a thing not 14 . ' : Last night some of my was going I but am. which was proclaimed from Dunfermline. and that. My blood at that time 'and I was unable to write with becoming The strain made upon Whitefield by his exhausting labours brought back again the spasms of sickness with which he had been so frequently seized friends. it. and other places and all this because I would not consent to preach only for them. he could believe spite of personal goodness of another. much better. Cambuslang. and could take. who. he had a short interview with Ralph Erskine. when an no old man. and wait with confidence the time when should be overcome with good Soon after the fast. and Ralph We have seen strange Whitefield's faith in the power of love justified to bring brethren to a right state of in the case of violent mind was even Adam Gib. good Lord. But to what lengths may prejudice carry even good men From giving way to the first risings of bigotry and a party at ! spirit.A FAST FOR THE REVIVAL expressed friend : 193 letter himself with much composure in a to a 'The it ? Messrs. Writing to one of his friends thought I he said off. ' embraced each things. every copy should be obtained and burnt was too temper. if he knew how ' : to recall them. 'and their adherents.' said he. confessed to his nephew that he wished that copies of his pamphlet against Whitefield were on the face of the earth. and brotherlylove so prevailed that they said. among other things. as they term . for my being received in Scotland. hot. deliver us ! And the charity of this large-hearted in the man was not words in full on paper. as they call how did Jesus fill my heart! To-day it. wrong done evil to himself. Erskine. till I had light into. the Solemn League and Covenant. and for the delusion.

and some of the latter went to the table. many of the Secession. Between forty thousand people were gathered in the glen 1 on the Sunday. and child gone from the city and joined It will help us to understand how widespread was this time. woman. Glasgow. especial entreat all to pray in an manner for a blessing at that time. from and Stewarton. and numbers of of course some even from England and Quakers came to be hearers did Ireland. it.] 94 GEORGE WHITE EIELD I practised before in Scotland. Irvine. he returned thirty home and with the ' Nunc Dimittis ' on his lips. and McCulloch liked the proposal. and of these three thousand communicated. Meanwhile prayer-meetings arranged for through the whole of the intervening month. Blantyre. Bonar.' mount on the wings of faith and love like an This second celebration was first. distant as well as neighbouring Irvine from Edinburgh and Kilmarnock. pro- posed that there should be a second on Whitefield seconded him.' A fortnight later. preached three times with much energy . more remarkable than even the It came about in this wise. his people before giving an answer. he I My bodily strength renewed. — so. Old Mr. was determined to be present. thought it best to favour It was therefore resolved to dispense the Lord's Supper were again on August 15th. The they. 1 The the religious work at Glasgow was about twenty thousand. Soon after the first celebration. who took one of the tents which had been three days to ride eighteen miles. if we remember that the population of . but must confer with several after supplication it. of Torphichen. meetings for prayer were informed of and and deliberation. of Edinburgh. too. and eagle. and when helped up to pitched. Communicants came from places. Kinglassie. in the is when he had got desired to Cambuslang and shared said ' : muchdaily sacrament. Ministers arrived from Edinburgh. Douglas. and Cathcart. Webster. Had every man. an early day. Rutherglen. Great — not partakers. Kilsyth.

They and who a ' rallied round the blue ' Covenant. some of whom had no love for the split prelatist. flag of the The Cameronians. Protestation. under the two-thirds of one of the congregations assembled to hear Whitefield in that village. the whole would not have made more than of the neighbouring places. though the weather. true Presbyterian Church of Christ in Scotland. . had broken. Whitefield himself was in a visible ecstasy as he stood in the evening serving at ten at night. anti-Whitefieldian. running greater and greater lengths in misguided and were beginning to for the among themselves. of the anti-Popish. rivalled in Declaration the ' Act of the Associate Presbytery. had come hoping to find. The Seceders _were zeal. if There was not all. Webster preached with immense effect. antiSectarian. a similar work of grace was proceeding.THE COMMUNION AT CAMBUSLANG energy of the truth which was all 195 day long preached by several ministers in different parts was so great that possibly a thousand more would have done so procure tokens. and it rained fast. some tables . and Whitefield followed in the same manner later in the day. James Robe. not wanting that power which perhaps must. anti- Lutheran. at seven o'clock. anti-Prelatic. ' called their document Testimony of the The Suffering Remnant ' Declaration. tables if they could have had access to The staff of ministers were assisted at the by several elders of rank and distinction. notably Kilsyth. which had day. excepting as . and been the his great audience in the churchyard could heed only favourable his all words. This was a chance Kirk presbyters. to launch out at him of the ministers and they began to call to account some who had employed him. In many fostering care of that wise and devout minister. The greater the work the hotter the opposition and the more furious the denunciations of opponents. On following morning. he fortified their falling Church. the people of Cambuslang. anti-Erastian.

A his more way of damaging his reputation and impeding in work was to hit upon by one or more persons America. publisher.1 96 GEORGE WHITEFIELD at Published against Mr. The his more of an bearing assault upon Whitefield. George Wishart. than of an attempt to assail him through own work. in twenty-three days. only the in the people in Scotland light. indeed. Both letters were published without the names of offered for public acceptance. published written on May 24th. to who wrote friends in Scotland what they pretended be true accounts of the condition of religion in New England. through Tennent. and against the work and the ignorance and tained its Cambuslang and other places amply . were asked to regard Whitefield same Whitefield summed the whole : manner up in a manly. and no mode was swift the letter itself was of transit in those days enough to carry news across the Atlantic and back letters were. and another to Mr. : every one's mouth with Tennent. The and real letter Wishart's imprimatur only repeated the old cry. and talk his about religion its attack was upon work and friends. and whence he made constant excurhis services. one of the ministers of Edinburgh. the other upon the word of The first was deemed worthy of an answer. impartial paragraph. He says . the their writers. sions to places that effectually wanted was if it shattered when Whitefield pointed out at all. George Whitefield and his encouragers. where he had fixed his headquarters for some time. and were its one upon the word of Wishart. One of the letters was written to a minister in Glasgow. which Whitefield wrote at Cambuslang. it had come from America since its had been tampered with arrival in . for reference was made yet in it to a sermon London on May ist. injustice of the declaration sus- pugnacious crafty title. that Whitefield filled had taken people from their business. Its authority that.

and envious. have had a monopoly of the preaching they and. some put Church government in too high a position relative to spiritual religion. some were angry. who are supposed to be unconverted. and they became truly humble walkers with God. appears in a Boston Evening Post. in a letter to Mr. has borne his testimony against as strongly as which the Boston any of these eminent in old ministers. He says : The method of setting up separate meetings upon the supposed is it unregeneracy of pastors in places All that fear enthusiastical. 1742. July 26. in others. Parsons. instead of doing them good. but. schismatical. The practice of openly exposing ministers. and his message. as they grew acquainted with the Lord Jesus and their own hearts. and the over-boiling zeal places. in public discourses. by particular application of such times and places." . as of it should seem. printed Gazette. Many young persons there ran out before they were l I checked them in hemanner myself. though not at all in his letter ' published in the late way of expressing himself. were some who hated the the preacher malignity. most dangerous engine to bring and confusions. This is nothing but what is common. never became and never allowed his labours for men's salvation to relax in the least degree ! The 1 labour of defending is work. some irregularities have been committed in several Mr. disappointed. But must the whole work of God be condemned as enthusiasm and delusion because of some disorder ? others were guilty of great imprudences. they would gladly bitterly assailed . as well as doing it. serves to God ought oppose as a the Churches into the most damnable errors only to pmvoke them. by the imprudences of some. in the dark background. ago. the intemperance of their zeal abated. Tennent himself. and to declare our own arrogance. proud. and struck at him with a deadly How strong in the grace of God must man have been who bitter. quiet services .ENEMIES ' 197 in There has been a great and marvellous work New England . Some sincere souls were anxious for pure religion. and found. was How much Tennent himself was sobered in judgment upon some questions. It was so England some few years called . strictest * ' The opposition to Whitefield was of various kinds. never quailed before the storm. which they con- founded with their familiar.

of Edinburgh.198 GEORGE WHITE FIELD all left not in Whitefield's hands. is now in the Lord. I paradise of God: methinks I hear her say. News of these alarms and troubles came with . His words. these hands should administer to your necessities." . . Blessed be God that I have a house for my honoured mother to come to. after those of the Cameronians and Associate Presbyterians. The Spaniards had to be carried to a and the orphans had place of safety. useful friend. His mother had sought his sister's home in house had come into a temporary his house at Bristol his possession to —and the event as if —probably he so delighted him : that he must write welcome her had been present Honoured Mother. vindicated the work in the west of Scotland with great calmness and charity towards adversaries. calls you in His word. . though pleasant burden. Webster. honoured mother. — I rejoice to hear that you have been so long under roof. sources. as well as to the defence of preaching and its fruits. Your only daughter. ' my indeed. Thoughts on the Present Revival New Eng- The short retirement which Whitefield managed to snatch from the revival work was devoted to domestic concerns. will eternal in the heavens ! Ere long your doom. I shall be highly pleased when I come to Bristol and find you sitting in your youngest son's house. "Mother. I had rather want myself than you should. say. If need was." May His Spirit enable you to Jesus.' &c. come up hither. troubles having overtaken the institution from two magistrates had' been acting with a high hand both towards the masters and the children. I am sure. ' Jonathan Edwards also in wrote his land. lo I come. be fixed.' The orphans were The still a great. " You must shortly trust. but General Oglethorpe had proved a warm and also raided the coast. go hence and be no more seen. You are heartily welcome to anything my house affords as long I am of the same mind now as formerly. as you please. were like summer breezes after an east wind. O that I may sit with you in the house not made with hands.

must certainly. give a statement of his disbursements and The latter was satisfactory all . Parliament had resolved to support the colony of Georgia that they had altered : its constitution in two material points. namely. the burning bush. though on was never consumed. in all other places he was dependent upon other clergymen. growing their own vegetables. At the end of . In the long suspense he kept a quiet mind. and he delighted how the house had answered fire. motto.ORPHANAGE ACCOUNTS successive posts. and receiving constant remittances from England. 199 and he had to wait for reassuring letters. Winter was coming on to think of returning to fast.' receipts. His philanthropic assaults. in all outward appearance. and in a flourishing condition last that the . which. write Accordingly. failing their support. one of his the works was to in 'A Continuation of and to Account of the Orphan-house Georgia. thing considerable. effort laid him open the to all kinds of In America and at home money was last in every enemy's mouth. make every part of the house habitable that the stock of cattle was some. Hunting and shooting their for much of their food. and carried on the work so . and. having fulfilled their contract. Whitefield's God would not see them want was never put to to tell shame to its . free titles to the lands and that if they should see good hereit after to grant a limited use of Negroes. but that in the as South meantime a tolerable shift might be made with white servants. and from the former we far as to learn that the workmen were discharged. must betake himself to Nonconformist chapels or to the fields. and it was time for Whitefield London to the only chapel which he could call his own . be as flourishing a colony Carolina. and . the inmates of the orphan-house were always provided faith that for. helped by the kindness of nearly all around them. these they had allowed the importation of rum. killing some of own stock.

feeling that disputing embitters the spirit. ' and controversy if care not. but now English peers and peeresses. the name of George Whitefield in it. I say. He worked from morning midnight and was carried through the duties of each day with cheerfulness and almost uninterrupted tranquillity. Hitherto. common and till market-place.' called them. No small influence among men was still. .2oo GEORGE WHITEFIELD Edinburgh to in less : October he took horse. and the quiet way latter far the Scotch contendings. as he he found himself as busy as he had been on the in the . society The was large and in good order. led by the Earl and Countess of Huntingdon. and rode post from London than five days. and daily improvements were made. O ' Edinburgh! Edinburgh! I think I shall never forget thee!' He ever passed from a great contention with heart as peaceful as rested in human bosom. He went chastened and humbled to Scotland he returned that his in the power of quietness and confidence. so that Jesus be exalted On his arrival in London he found the Tabernacle enlarged and 'a new awakening begun. ruffles the soul. justly in store for one who. found He the had tried the disputing in way the in the Arminian struggle. but quoting Wesley's ' own words die.' ' Let the King live for ever. It was at this time that the congregation began to be sprinkled with visitors of distinction. it and hinders from hearing the small voice of the Holy Ghost. with whom the best of terms. persuaded was not the task of doing anything but preach the Lord Jesus. and to preferable former. its dear to him the writing The city he left was now very name would make him say. as he knew and loved Him. . and by the Earl's sisters. In his winter quarters. could he was now on to himself.' he said to another friend.' be banished out of the world. as Whitefield did to Wesley. Whitefield's intercourse with the nobility had been confined to those of Scotland.

too. and none more than myself. The low. though for I am still suffering from the effects of a severe cold. and that I shall be the better for all your excellent advice. but best known as the also father of Dr. the 'hero of Culloden. The Duchess of Ancaster. as I never expect any at the hands of my fellow-creatures. entered by the Duke of Cumberland. Lady Townshend. Yet is whate'er she hates and ridicules Her letters to the Countess of Huntingdon are very . Whitefield. would some- times sit on its benches. in exposing knaves. and painting fools. to obtain — ! . Lord Hervey. during this winter of 1742. his ghastly countenance covered with rouge. and Lady Cobham were exceedingly pleased with many observations in Mr. ' ! Shines. alas the means of doing me good I do want .NOBLES AT THE TABERNACLE the Ladies Hastings. which he supported by drinking milk. Most remarkable of was the haughty face of the Duchess of Marlborough. all Topham Beauclerk. Sepulchre's Church. Lord Lonsdale. but where among acted a conspicuous part myself the world — have — hope. began to mingle with the 201 humbler orders. or others. came. from her birth all her life one warfare upon earth. wooden Tabernacle was sometimes. characteristic of her pride and revenge they show also that she did want to be good. in religious my improvement knowledge is very obliging. Your concern I do hope God knows we all need mending. as it might have been for good. which has made me lament ever since that I did not hear it. The Duke is of Bolton. and Lord Sidney Beauclerk. Johnson's friend. among whom his efforts had won such astonishing success. changes in I have lived to see great and now mercy from God. asses' wretched in health. 'great Atossa ' Who Finds with herself.' and by Frederick. who hunted the fortunes of the old and childless. in my old days. but not to give up being wicked. that must accept your very obliging invitation to accompany you to hear Mr. Prince of Wales. She says ' : My feel dear Lady Huntingdon very sensibly all is always so very good to me. Whitefield's sermon at St. and I I really do your kindness and attention.

little wretch at Twickenham. But we must die we must converse with earth and worms. perverse. Lady Fanny has my best wishes for the success of her attack on that crooked. And lielieve me.202 the corrupt sons GEORGE WHITEFIELD and daughters of I to find it ? Your ladyship and kindness. she replies ' I thank . ' When alone. if for This is very wicked. my reflections forced to fly the society of those — her. To Lady Huntingdon's invitation to attend : one of Whitefield's services. Women of wit. beauty. Marlborough. I shall honour by your obliging inquiries my . Adam am must direct me. and I must go. and I often wish I had a portion of it.' In a second letter to the Countess she says : and recollections almost kill me.' physician . A more amiable man I do not know than Lord Huntingdon. no other purpose than to mortify and spite know. there is Lady Frances Saunderson's great rout to-morrow night all the world will be I do hate that woman as much as I do hate a there. your ladyship for the information concerning Methodist perpetually It is preachers their doctrines are most repulsive. Now. but I must go. all in endeavouring to level ranks. my dear madam. rival of Atossa in pride. I ' Another occasional hearer at the Tabernacle was the less Duchess of Buckingham. Your most faithful and most humble servant. after Your ladyship health. monstrous to be told that you have a heart as sinful as the common . and strongly tinctured with towards their impertinence and disrespect all superiors. the patient than she under reproof. and I am I detest and abhor. but and hating Methodist doctrines with all her heart. Pray do me the favour to present my humble service to your excellent spouse. for I know your goodness will lead you to be mild and forgiving. and perhaps my wicked heart may gain some good from you in the end. and do away with is distinctions. but I confess all my little peccadillos to you. You are all goodness — — ' ' ' S. and quality cannot hear too many humiliating truths they shock our pride. This highly offensive and insulting and so I cannot but wonder that your ladyship should relish any sentiments at variance infinite does much me with high rank and good breeding. wretches that crawl on the earth.

yet he stood unmolested on a spot Dursley from which his friend the Sunday before. where he preached in a field with uncommon At six in the freedom and power to twelve thousand people. Cole's tump ing time. ' honoured it as his Whitefield's tump. mounting horse. His native until city delighted in the sound of and not one o'clock on the Monday morning. from the top of who first a knoll named. evening he preached to the same number on Hampton . last and Lady two ladies. after the preacher pulpit. rode to meet a con- gregation which had of a risen Lord. for he bade them farewell. ' hoping to feel the . Lady and Lisburne. before starting Wales. Perhaps the memory of departed worth helped to expand his susceptible heart. Gloucestershire.ABUNDANT LABOURS be most happy to accept your kind offer of accompanying favourite preacher. The Duchess . his voice after . With the exception of the his teaching none of them accepted lived according to To gratify their taste for the highest oratory. l^ ground in In the spring. Adams had been driven but On Hampton Common. Whitefield started for his old and found preaching there His friends in the to be like preach- ing in the Tabernacle. was the motive them to so strange a place.' The list of Whitefield's noble hearers of is increased by the names of the Earl Hinchinbroke. was an great ' alarm- and his soul enjoyed exceeding liberty. power He read prayers and preached then rode on to Stroud.' Quarhouse. Sick and unrefreshed he rose again at and.' come at seven. it. of Queens- berry insists on my patronising her on this occasion consequently she will be an addition to our party. Oxford. 203 me to hear your and shall await your arrival. or to please the pious Countess that brought who invited their attendance. could he lay his weary body down to five. and when he stood it noon on old Mr.' he preached amid much solemnity at to a congregation of ten thousand at . county had been in roughly handled of late. rest.

on of the impiety . 1743. The following morning he met as large a conplace. speaking wonderful power to a full congregation at Smith's Hall. organised by Wesley. Common and still his word was societies with in power. and a plan of classifying the Whitefield was chosen moderator. at a conference in London. and as in point of arrange- ment English Methodism. A general love-feast of the religious Hampton was is next presided over by him. kept close to my bodily strength renewed and I went bed about midnight very cheerful and very happy. That those brethren who scruple the to receive the sacra- ment in Church. of the administrators and the usual communicants there the Dissenters. Only three months previously. later. All that he has to say about such abundant labours simple loving spirit ' beautito fully like the in which he delighted soul was be to about Jesus .' My . and that engagement closed the day. This was the germ of Welsh Calvinistic Methodism. under his word with at and at night he was in Bristol. ' his Father's business. gregation in the same and then set out for Waterford.204 GEORGE WHITEFIELD . eighteen months it. four clergyto confer men and three laymen had met at the same place together on the best way of organising Welsh Methodism. should the continue to receive clear in the Church. January 5. on and among account it of their lukewarmness. until Lord open a way to separate from her communion. in South Wales. closely resembled One of the resolutions passed at this first Welsh Conwas ference reveals in a curious to the Established this ' : way the relation of Nonconformity It Church and of Methodism account to both.' to Whitefield had come Waterford a second time to preside over the second General Association of Methodists in Wales .' a congregation of The next morning some thousands was trembling and rejoicing Uursley . various kinds of workers was decided upon.

which polite Whitefield describes as one of the greatest and most places in Wales. several and one fired a salute.' and then Whitefield preached to them a sermon upon the believer's rest. ferry. thousands with them. desired who were assembled till at the great him to stay at they rose.' the justices. . including several persons On another day. and despatched several important things. Yet such attentions never turned him from of seeking sailors all his great purpose the lost. and they would come to hear him the cross. ' At Carmarthen. announcing intention to a month. close and solemn discourse upon walking with God . and . Judging from the amount of business done. sessions. Him for His help Wales did honour to her visitor. its 205 1743). gifted with members were with a some at capacity for work.WELSH CALVINISTIC METHODISM (April. the until for which lasted when the whole business of the Association was and feeling that God had been with them in all that they had done. from which hour they next day they sat ' worked till two in the morning. These for — the refreshment soul — prepared them midnight. when he was crossing Carmarthen Bay in the ships hoisted their flags. finished. and between the days when justices and honoured him. and Llassivran to a Moorfields one. they did not forget to bless before parting. As soon as London was in reached he wrote his to his friend stay Ingham there for Yorkshire. he mentions with satisfaction that at at Jefferson he preached to a Kingswood congregation. on the day after his arrival. and many of quality. White- field opened the Association ' noon. for the body and the refreshment another sitting. among which was till his appointment to the moderatorship whenever he was in England. They came. The till four in the afternoon a little refreshment followed and of some warm talk about the things God. There was an interval from seven ten o'clock. ' then they betook themselves to business.

and passed through seven counties it ! No wonder weariness and feebleness hung about rate. who. and Whitefield felt himself obliged to put the facts before the Bishop of Sarum. but preaching was continued at the same only relief being in the shorter distances travelled. ' In perils by mine through which he and his friends were Wiltshire had for own countrymen was another experience now called to pass. sprinkled here and there for the with golden guineas. preached about forty times. the holidays once . to attack the prince of darkness in ' Moorfields for. orphans and the old kindness towards the preacher and extinct. Churchwardens and overseers were strictly . The incessant toil was making itself felt on that slim body In about three which contained a spirit of seraphic devotion. he says. crowns and had been gathered from among the crowd . that on his face and when in private he wept for hours the tears of his consuming love for his Lord. he travelled about four hundred miles. visited about thirteen towns.^06 in GEORGE WHITEFIELD more he.' that Besides. the for a time. however. some time been in commotion through the ' animosity of several clergymen. became so full of heaven that Whitefield sometimes lie . longed when in public to he might give God thanks down anywhere. and whitened with a few shillings. heart all The loving itself made It light of the body's weakness. weeks. wicked place and Many a load of copper. there was a bond of sympathy between Bethesda. said many precious souls have been : captivated with Christ's love in that wicked place sinners Jerusalem bring most glory to the Redeemer. and enjoyed for the more deeply the secret consolations which come from above. spent three days in attending two associations. his adopted ones was not Moorfields lifted the last straw of obligation in England from Whitefield's back on the second occasion of his getting free. does not seem to have interfered to stop the disgraceful proceedings.

in Wales also. cutting his leg severely against a stone. dear. braved and suffered for their con- stancy the loss of goods and friends. but in half an hour the mob. and threw him in twice. joining the if in no other way they could stop them from new sect. time.' On him a July Sunday afternoon. anxious for more sport. . and led him to Bourn brook. some of them with the threat. aided rank. and a preacher ' to his neighbours. and compel them to declare themselves Dissenters. hundred of them came with their rough music. Most of the poor. water and the creeping things which breed in and threw in him twice. Meanwhile the constable and justices never heeded the appeals made for their interference. entered his house a second dragged him downstairs. and Whitefield appealed to the Bishop of Bangor against having certain good people indicted for holding a conventicle when they met With some to tell their religious experiences to each other. a convert of Whitefield's. large families. who proved to be to Whitefield my very a steady old friend. effect he urged that a continuance of such treatment must inevitably drive hundreds. Adams quietly returned to his house to pray. A few denied that they that they had ever been Trouble arose to meetings and some promised would go no more. forced their way into his house. carried to a skin-pit full of stagnant it. in. but countenanced the lawless . to cheerfulness and exhort his brethren under suffering . A friend of his who expostulated was thrown then beaten and dragged along the kennel. difficulty was with the Minchin-Hampton who were of higher of the poorer class. from the Church. But the -greatest rioters.PERSECUTING THE METHODISTS forbidden to let 207 the Methodists have anything out of the parish they obeyed the clergy. if not thousands. and abetted by was directed those Their special hatred against one Adams. and told the poor that they would punish them.

and called his meeting illegal and a The rabble of Wedgbury. just as Whitefield announced his the ringers pulled the ropes peal. and to the hearts of the faithful in England. must have added to the excitement of a Methodist's coming to a town. The way. must have been delighted fell when a sod and prayed.2o8 GEORGE WHITEFIELD The clergy was satisfied with the suppression of Methodism. in and made the bells utter a clanging which the finest voice became profound useless as a whisper. keep a day of fasting and prayer It for its right issue. and interval was granted. receive him. Wales. his authority for preaching. Preaching was for a time suspended. too. Counsel prayed that the rule it might be enlarged until the next term. as and another struck he stood among them But happily the clergy and the blackguards. for the fields. and the Methodists stirred up the liberality of friends to bear the expenses of the trial. wisely determined to claim the for a rule of protection of the law. Gennis prayed for Whitefield's coming . St. and . had not a national union. evil in if united for some places. in the He and they moved for the rioters Court King's Bench to lodge an information against five of the ringleaders. his clasped hands. If Ottery was inhospitable. on the reverently-bowed head of Whitefield.' to see how the Church and the roughs would in the belfry text. outrages. as he and his friends made riot. was employed by the two sides in a characteristic the rioters increased their offences. where they might worship in peace. and Scotland. satisfaction in And there must have been the parsonage when the clergyman told an admiring circle how he had demanded of the arch-Methodist. in those days when such ' great liberty ' — on one side —'was enjoyed under the mild and gentle government of King George. at There must have been great glee Ottery when. Whitefield it now consulted with London and friends as to the line of action all would be best to take.

I ' being both in a comthat I frame. he was thoughtful for his wife's comfort and delicate safety. and herself thus saved and him from being thrown out. Mrs. and came 15 . with a long whip. that and that people were beginning not feel. and ran to the rescue one of them seized the horse's head. But his was not the best of keeping . the doctrines The expectation of a son's being born to all him now filled his heart with a father's pride . and. and nearly a inhabitants. The horse went down as though held by a pulley. for Whitefield says that. He thought that on society . probably because the ditch narrowed very much towards the bottom. only rationally to discern. Whitefield up the side of the ditch. on to which he had scrambled. take Mrs. But he was a poor and soon drove into a ditch fourteen feet deep. of Cambuslang. his his In expectation of the birth he restricted the neighbourhood. two or three pulled Mrs. love ! But. if a fine drive. must own to my shame felt rather regret than thankfulness in escaping what I thought would be a kind of translation to our wished-for haven. and others. Whitefield put her hand across the chaise. conversation fortable Doubtless the accident broke off a close religious . the whole a healthy change was passing over prejudices were falling off. out that they were killed. rider. as well as his notions of public duty would permit. that the chaise and horse being taken up. but powerfully to of the gospel. we went on our intended way. turning out to hear him. and our bruises being washed with vinegar in a neighbouring house. for a woman to to be committed to one day he nearly killed both her and himself.ACCIDENT his visit 209 renewed the days to his call. Whitefield for a driver. Bystanders shouted . oh amazing we were so strengthened. drew the preacher from the back of the horse. and even indulged far as to work London and domestic affections so according to advice. its Exeter also third of answered its many of clergy.

Many things make me believe he was not only to be continued to me. in October. His letter is touching for It disappointed love and humbled con- fidence. whereby. his son was born. then brother's house. to be content with borrowed furniture to complete his little stock in hand. but to be a preacher of the everlasting gospel. I was called to sacrifice my Isaac — my own child and son.' The was short as a dream. God willing. 1743. my own. runs thus 'Last night. as . writing an account of his death ! He con- fessed and deplored his its : own need of the chastisement. now find. misapplied several texts of Scripture. ambitious of having a son of mitted to give Pleased with the thought. home was not furnished when he came. his The little one was not born in a sumptuous house indeed. like itself humble heart of the to mighty orator was just friend in Gloucester letter. . . 1744. having little who little repay you. Satan I was perI me some wrong impressions. February mean to bury occurred to 8. The ' : simple.' mode of translation news reached him It would appear that he again. and his father had . beyond my cumstances to maintain them here. he hastened London. wife's My brother will receive a letter about little my coming. God willing. my dear it I know and cir- wife one to Gloucester. Upon my coming here. will Next week. this day seven-night. and my own so divinely employed. child's life She and the one are brave and well.210 GEORGE WHITEFIELD rejoicing in home never risked that God our Saviour. about four months old. without . baptized When him the infant was about a week old. for I find I leave. his father in the Tabernacle in the presence of a great congregation. A and month afterwards. when he wrote I an old This afternoon received your kind and thank you a thousand times for your great generosity of in lending will me some come furniture. Within three weeks his Whitefield was sitting at the 'Bell' in Gloucester. in the country to as soon as the which to he had made a short preaching excursion. grateful.

. ^Whirffidd^ .'. (RKOW./ . vj ' -^ ire --^-g^ clayV^liS. 1900.

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All the grief Abraham during the three days' journey to the land of Moriah. sometimes he stays a little behind to pour out his heart before Then methinks I see him and servants again. and talking to them of the things pertaining to the kingdom of God. Our parting from him was solemn. just as I was closing my sermon. but looking up. with which he often melted his vast congregation into tears. in it which to I blessed the Father of me a son. side. on the evening of which. and with a holy freedom God. he pictured them to his hearers. . as they walked by the way. text for I recovered I and then concluded with saying that this been preaching. and taking it from till me so soon.' There was one sermon. he was taken and laid in the church where I ' shed . was denied the delight of fondling a child of his own —the and sermon on Abraham's struggling of faithful offering up Isaac. continuing me so long. I join in a prayer. as he died in the house wherein I was born. was buried but I remembered a saying of good Mr.DEATH OF and immediately called mercies for giving all to HIS SON 211 knowing what had happened. and therefore Isaac innocently. by his with was henceforth painfully real to Whitefield while. All could see the vision of The good old man walking with his dear child in his hand. We kneeled down. but I hope tears of resignation and then. now that his always affectionate which might nourish the orphans of other fathers and mothers. and by the answer found that the flower was cut down. join his son . . All joined in desiring that I would decline preaching ." and therefore preached twice the next day. . and many tears. Henry. " All things work together on which to had that good them love God. prayed. . I must the child " that acknowledge. loving him. and then turning aside to weep. which would lose no force of heart. first communicated. for he had no mortal to tell his case to. . tenderness and love at least. strength. I inquired concerning the welfare of parent child. with Isaac. At first. And. . trembling voice and glistening eye. and first preached. namely. weeping must not hinder sowing. it gave nature a little shake. the burnt-offering. and also the day following. and now and then looking upon him. was baptized. Little did Isaac think that he was to be offered on that very wood which he was carrying upon his shoulders. ' perhaps. the bell struck out for the funeral." made me as willing to go to my son's funeral as to hear of his birth.

" My father " and he.. " Adieu adieu ! . and were under the dominion of their finest and purest emotions. his father. endearing expressions passed now alternately between the Melhinks I see the tears trickle down the patriarch's father and son cheeks and out of the abundance of the heart he cries. and money. and the Lord calls thee ! away blessed .2i2 GEORGE WHITEFIELD . behold I show you a mystery hid under the sacrifice of Abraham's only son which. and the wood laid in order. which came off at Gloucester on March 1744. " Here am I." Come. my son. ! ! my son The Lord gave be the name of the Lord Adieu as my own soul ! ! thee to me. with — equal affection and holy condescension. fancy that you saw the altar erected before you. . when men had well entered into the greatness of the human sacrifice. Adieu. and are ready is to say. since Jesus Himself wept at the grave of Lazarus? Oh. and was the object of every one's attention. weeping. unless your hearts are hardened. And indeed. "It the love of God in giving Jesus Christ to die for our sins. the preacher said 4 I see your hearts affected. and praying to the Most High to strengthen his earthly parent to strike the stroke. ! who can refrain weeping at the relation of such a story ? But. and said. adieu ! my Isaac ! my only son. because they reckoned that the gentlemen and the jury would be prejudiced against the Methodists. for good men should not keep their children at too great a distance spake unto Abraham. said. all ye tender-hearted parents. who know what . and before all his his grief for his son was assuaged he was putting forth energy to secure justice for his poor persecuted converts at Hampton. trial. must cause you to fully too. that is it. what pious. and that plentiwould willingly hope you even prevent me here. and the beloved Isaac bound upon it fancy that you saw the aged parent standing by.' Then. was anticipated by the defendants with much confidence." Yes. I weep tears of love. The 3. to place preaching. whom I love ! " I see Isaac at the same time meekly resigning himself into his heavenly Father's hands. Whitefield entered court when the second witness was being examined. .' ^ The evangelist had an ever-changing experience . I see your eyes weep. it is to look over a dying child.. pleading. For why may we not suppose that Abraham wept. going from place collecting Assizes.

cautious spirit of men who that any false step might multiply their disabilities. and were studiously the State. could be heard against the wit and arguments of Woolston. and not to risk in any wise the good opinion of its bishops and clergy. of oratorical rioters un- pleading. kept down in In consequence. with the exception of Doddridge and Watts. not the fearless spirit of those field. to open the charge of enthusiasm. or fear. And for the fear there Dissenters were only permitted to hold under great disadvantages. To consort with him would have exposed them of Dissent and the to double odium — the odium odium of Methodism. their leaders looked upon him with contempt. only paralleled by that which any man might now have all of being esteemed a fanatic. argumentative preacher. 213 amid much In laughter. Collins. their opinions dislike. spite. agitated nearly Christian apologists. of hard swearing. the defendants' counsel went on to describe the Methodists after the fashion which best suited his bad case. who could safely dare to assume any position. and of the genteel influence which the doubtedly had at their back. ground with safe. such as Butler. the jury found the defendants guilty of the whole information lodged against them. or Waterland. however. that we may note the attitude of the Dissenters towards Whitefield. Whiteidle the dread of orderly bishops and the reproach of clergymen. Theirs felt was the worldly-wise. Our narrative must now run back for a few months. they therefore carefully shunned. but. there was a great to ^desire on the part of most of them keep on friendly terms with the Established Church. in Great weight must also be attached to their laudable desire to grapple it on safe all forms of religious error lie . Many of them had shown him much kindness.THE DISSENTERS while. and to was not deemed dealing with Deism. Only the calm. or was some reason. and Tindal. Shaftesbury. of being suspected of . sensible A feverish fear.

was virtually to yield right of speaking on religion. if were supposed to constitute the proper. the its ? men whose very profession of Christianity made it require a fresh apology from its accomplished defenders to equally able assailants Doddridge. not the perfect. and who also took a lively interest in all public movements affecting the honour of religion and the welfare of mankind. who was ' very cautious with the erratic curate. covered that he him from the sneer was a poor enthusiast. if common sense and reason must condemn To have anything to do with the most religious. — the enthusiasts. he had shaken hands with reproach of Chris- Whitefield or Wesley tianity. I as not knowing how much you have been engaged pray God to guard us from every temptation. and especially of a tutor. he did not fear to entertain the Evangelist and to bid him speed.214 GEORGE WHITEFIELD zeal. so low thereby. .' . sedate religious habits. Persuaded of the usefulness of Whitefield's ministrations. stands out as a noble exception to the somewhat timid body with which he was allied. who had many friends in the Establishment. His sound and varied learning. class of that time. any sympathy with ardent devotion and burning reasonable faith. Any such passion as glowed in the hearts of the early Methodists. me I about your preaching in the Tabernacle. Christian. and sinking the character of a minister. up the if not the most learned or the most intellectual. while his humble in piety com- pelled him to countenance the new party the Church. A a faith well buttressed with arguments on the evidences of religion. there. and Watts wrote saying sorry that since your departure I I am have had many questions asked the Dissenters. find among many of our friends entertain this idea but I can give no answer. together with his solid judgment. and quiet.' He even went to the extent of supplying Whitefield's place as preacher at the Taber- nacle ' . and avoid. God His magnanimity surpassed that of Watts. Who dare write against Collins.

conscientious. as I know some actually were who have been wrought upon and reformed by these preachers. . a swearer. and what they were doing among tion . ignorant. When the hackneyed charge of enthusiasm was levelled against them. which daring charity soon brought Nathanael Neal. DODDRIDGE'S FRIENDLINESS 215 liberal. having weighed the matter diligently. son of Neal. 1743: a time- ' It was with the utmost concern that I received the information of Mr. Mason your prefixing a recommendation of a book of the Trustees). I think a man had better be a sober.' On Whitefield's first visit to Northampton. his noble reply was ' In some extraordinary conversions there may be and often is a tincture of enthusiasm. and irreligious part of the populato and was not be moved out of his position either by ominous shakes of the head. the rude. but. serving letter. Doddridge was only polite in personal intercourse. and that I now find myself obliged to apprise you of the very great uneasiness which your conduct herein has occasioned them. Whitefield's having preached last week in your pulpit. a thief. honest. or by open opposition on the part of his co-religionists. than live without any regard to God and religion at all. and knew what the Methodists were. the historian of the Puritans. always thoughtful. which letter they have desired theirs. are particularly in pain for it is it with regard to your academy. a drunkard. and yet they are afraid of giving their thoughts even in the most private manner concerning it. and that I attended the meeting of Coward's Trustees this day.DR. The Trustees .' . I think it infinitely better that a man should be a religious Methodist than an adulterer. and by others craftily . when that matter was canvassed. in a rebuke from London. as they know an objection made to it by some persons in all appearance seriously. and said. without the advice of me to inform you has given them great offence. he opened his pulpit to him. an attorney. lest it should be made an (excusing occasion of drawing them into a public opposition to the Methodists. chaste. or a rebel to his parents. dated October 11. industrious enthusiast. . but on the second. as they are likely to be in some measure by your letter to Mr. Doddridge.

. The answer of it of Doddridge and honest in one part he says shall : ' I always be ready to weigh whatever can be said against Mr. . that you took several steps.' and dared to the task ' the cen- . Whitefield. and the feelings which he had only hinted is at before. when taken con- . Whitefield. I must acquiesce. to have some weight with I those who censure I is this step on the ground of imprudence. as well as against any of the rest actual demonstration before I can admit and though I must have all him to be a dishonest though I shall never be able to think I all he has written and heard from him nonsense. and on says : October 15 th Neal wrote again. or to think that he the pillar that bears up the whole interest of religion if among appease us. furnished with so particular an account of the circumstances attending his visit that may enable me to say you were so far at that time from seeking all his preaching in your pulpit. have been sufficient to have prevented it which . and your a matter of difficulty for that the respect many of your people bore to own acquaintance with him. yet am not so zealously attached to man. the day of the Lord. so that Neal returned again letter is of remonplainly tells strating. as for am sensible it will not abate the enmity which some have many years entertained towards me. doubt not will. And this moderation of sentiment towards him will not I my angry brethren. tender.' Doddridge continued sure ' ' imprudent. itself. and I am sure ought.216 GEORGE WHITE FIELD quick A answer returned from Northampton. must have made it regards on his coming to you to have avoided showing him some polite Northampton and I greatly rejoice in being .' Two spirit sentences. these circumstances could only wish that were able to make known as far as that censure likely to extend. and humble in of Doddridge expresses are. ' He I am not insensible. His third more plain direct. they had succeeded. in when the secrets of all hearts shall be made manifest to the part I which I do from my heart believe that with respect have acted in this affair I shall not be ashamed. in which the devout. and indeed that if I you thought you could prudently venture on. Mr. and I have him as to be disposed to celebrate is him as one of the greatest men of the age. and such as might. and be patient till . sir.

come knowledge. a sufficient explanation of the firm Christians : union between these distinguished least . love to Him at increase as it I struggle forwards towards Him and look in the Him.' Rumour was papers . I ' am my one of the yet of God's children. and as it appears that one and a copy. feel . when. have been for some weeks printed in a large edition. when applied for. cerning me and my little conduct contained therein paper has or no connection with another. did rather 26. tears of love. . nor them go out of hands find to any. Whereas some anonymous papers against the people called Methodists and myself and friends in particular. ' George Whitefield. : enemies. was refused me. midst of the hurries of I cannot speak to Him otherwise than by an ejaculation. many queries of great importance con. and handed about and read in the religious societies of the cities of London and Westminster. I and a child and is my daily joy. sometimes with life. impartial answer may be made thereto by me. The mean attempt to was probably never known to his sever to its but this other meaner work of an enemy. the following advertisement appeared in London ' in general. Doddridge. and I know not how soon I may embark for Georgia. and whereas. communion. Indeed. with the singled out as their writer.' different Other persons of a in station than Neal. and given into the hands of many let private persons. his friend . 1 am therefore obliged hereby to desire a speedy open publication of the aforesaid papers. accordingly. were. On January 1744. and more exalted were trying as well as he what could be to done in a secret in way damage the Methodists in general. in order that a candid.' said that . and Whitefield Doddridge from intended victim or particular. with strict injunctions to lend their I them after to no one. having had the hasty perusal of them.ASSAILED BY THE BISHOPS nection with 217 many ' similar expressions of Whitefield. not silent about the authorship of the secret no less a personage than the Bishop of London was Whitefield.

answer. &c. I should be glad to be informed whether the report be true that your lordship composed them. am. — My name is Owen. wrote to the : ' London. but two days was sent to him : his printer left the following suggestive note for Whitefield ' February 3.' To this after it letter the Bishop sent no answer at all.218 GEORGE WHITE FIELD Bishop himself to ask for information frankness and courage which always distinguished him. suppose your lordship has seen the advertisement published by me. Syms. in the and the other Right Reverend the Bishops concerned publication thereof. And ' I will not fail to wait is upon you with one copy as soon as the impression I finished.' The in a ' contents of the anonymous pamphlet are not difficult to discover from Whitefield's 'Answer. 1744I 'Sir. to As I think it my duty answer them. dutiful son and servant. your most obedient. to be with Mr.' which he addressed Letter to the Right Reverend the Bishop of London. if George Whitefield. J. about four days ago. . and waited upon you to let you know that have had orders from several of the bishops to print for their use such numbers of the " Observations upon " with some additions as the Conduct and Behaviour of the Methodists — — they have respectively bespoken. concerning some anonymous papers which have been handed about in the societies for some considerable time. or your lordship left please to favour be pleased to direct for me.therefore I I Simplicity becomes the followers of Jesus Christ. your lordship's keeping. the better know to whom I may direct my A sight also of one of the copies. 1744. 'My Lord. and it think my duty to trouble your lordship with these few lines. Whitefield charged the pamphlet with having an intention to represent the proceedings of the Methodists as dangerous to Church and . I am a printer in I Amen Corner. if in oblige.' namely. that I may lord. ' PS. sir. —-The bearer will bring your lordship's answer me with a line. of the pamphlet. February i. would ' much my ' Your lordship's most obliged.

my and lords. Whitefield perused the Acts of Charles II. and such who. as well as the lords. in order to 219 procure an Act of Parliament against them. Then Whiteof reaching field enters upon a defence of his favourite mode the multitude. to preach to them and to pluck them as fire- brands out of the burning. Toleration Act. cock-fighting.. is to Is it be vile. the Methodist preachers go out into the highways and hedges. Lord and the and pungently inquires it ' : I would humbly ask your lord- lordships whether ships' would not be more becoming your put characters to your clergy on preaching against revelling. .' The pamphlet charged this the Methodists with breaking the statute law by their field- preaching . by quoting the example of our apostles.ASSAILED BY THE BISHOPS State. while self-righteous To show such poor sinners the way the power of Christ's resurrection. have precious and immortal souls. by the help of my God I shall . that Acts against field-preaching related only to seditious conventicles and of this offence Methodism was not guilty. like. than to move the Government against those out of love to God and our Lord precious souls. invite the rabble? " . These rabble. and preach unto such revellers repentance towards Jesus ? God and faith in What if the Methodists by " public advertisement do . His conclusion was. Church of England and turn Dissenters it neither we do till we to are thrust out. to secure themselves or to oblige that is. put their lives in their hand. my it. . putting themselves under the His answer to such an attempt was the same as he gave to the Scotch Presbyterians leave the will ' : As yet we see no sufficient reason to . in which the word ' field ' is mentioned. and be quite sure of the law on all point.. are the publicans These. be more If this vile. and harlots that enter into the king- dom of heaven. not ridiculous. them by turning Dissenters. precious blood. for which the dear Redeemer shed His great rich. formal professors reject to God.

or ready to leave the colony for want of I being employed. who arrived soon after I left the colony. though I should have left England However.' a few questions He raised which throw some light upon Whitefield's ecclesiastical position. Thomas Church. but refused the stipend of fifty pounds per annum which they generously offered me. easy. at the request of many. his ecclesiastical superiors should arraign him at the bar of the proper courts would he give any answer at question. finding the care of the orphan-house. and only when. such as not catechising. because the honourable Trustees I knew had sent out another thought it my duty to abide till I minister. all to the There was his non-residence at Savannah ? —what could he say in defence of that He replied : ' I wish every non-resident minister in England could give as good an I account of their non-residence as can of my absence from Savannah. In the meanwhile. the which is really not their fault . the parish. came. Whitefield. Upon my second and the care of arrival in Georgia. my even in the eyes of worldly men. ? pluralities. to With what bishops face can he do it ? The Rev. G. &c. and that too in the most important articles. I accepted it. where had collected a sufficient sum wherewith I might begin the orphan-house. every day themselves others. and collect money an orphan-house. or not using the Common Prayer in the ? fields what had Whitefield to say about them That when. and does it not render the author of this pamphlet justly liable to contempt.22o GEORGE WHITEFIELD lords. and as believed that erecting an orphan-house would be . among ' rescue of the with a Serious and Expostulatory Letter to the Rev. for building Neither did I I put them to any expense during my stay in England. I was more sooner had I not been prevented by the embargo. the vicar of Battersea. as most of my parishioners were in debt. non-residence. There were irregularities in curtailing the liturgy. When I came over to England to receive priest's orders. when at same time he knows that the generality of the clergy so notoriously break both canons and rubrics. I immediately wrote over to the honourable Trustees to provide another minister. presented me to the living of Savannah. the honourable Trustees. to charge the Methodists with breaking canons and rubrics. too great a task for me.

me to preach and to towards carrying on the orphan-house. went from place to place he encouraged believers and sinners called repentance. It upon for was presumed that Whitefield would be sure to appear on the Hoe on But the the night of his arrival. long wishful to see him. And now. but not better ones. he took passage in a ship which from Portsmouth. Second thoughts. who wished again to hear him and sent him urgent requests to to come among them. America. Plymouth was not at it first altogether gratified with the distinction that rested several weeks. led the captain to refuse for fear him a berth in his ship he might spoil the sailors.' The family at Bethesda. but preaching and begging for them and theirs . and the thousands living between Savannah and Boston. his congregation first some one brought his arrival announcement of was false news. and his first taste of Plymouth . it was not to fleece my flocks. was not loitering or living at ease. friends and loving converts . He then betook himself to Plymouth. I relations. sail and secured a passage to in a mast-ship that was to under convoy Piscataway in the New England. and both crowd and bear were disappointed.SHAMEFULLY TREATED AT PLYMOUTH the best thing I 221 duty could do for them and their posterity. The and journey from through the midst of as he London to warm to sea-port was a pleasant one. judge you whether my non-residence was anything like the non-residence When I was absent from my parishioners. and was to sail constrained in him take his fifth voyage to June. or lay it up for a fortune for myself and of most of the English clergy. 1744. The following night brought him . most of which was expended upon the people. and when I returned. always came home furnished with provisions and money. I thought it my from time to time to answer the invitations that were sent Christ Jesus in several parts of America. and by this means the northern part of the colony almost entirely subsisted for a considerable time. and then go and spend it upon my lusts. and to oppose him and draw away a bear and a drum. sir. The Lord stirred make more collections up many to be I ready to distribute and willing to communicate on this occasion.

and went and assailed him with a gold-headed stick as he lay in bed. and Whitefield went sleep meditating on the propriety with which the Litany to pray — we are taught in ' From sudden death. stairs I am ready to help you. laid a spirit. rushing up- while his friend was escaping. He then withdrew from the but this was no protection against the fast purpose of a little knot of young men. By this time the neighbourhood was ' alarmed. and thus the sport of the young to gentlemen ' came to an end. and thinking . and as he chamber door. 'Take courage. the landlady helped him down- with a push. if probably in a bragging to injure him. a restraint for which he popularity.' to There was undoubtedly some danger be apprehended. The assault increased his curiosity drawing ' two thousand more to hear a man who had like to have been murdered in his bed. good Lord. The cry of murder raised by Whitefield and at last his landlady and her daughter retreated to the stairs made him afraid. saying to his friends who counselled the prosecution of the offenders. is to be commended. Whitefield had permitted the coward to come up to his room. The house door was shut. inn to private lodgings . a lieutenant of a man-of-war. not One of them. Then a second bully whole band were outside listening to the scuffle — no doubt — shouted stairs as the out. to put indignity upon him. for wager of ten guineas that he would do the business the Methodist preacher. Thinking he was some Nicodemite. deliver us!' Preaching called Whitefield out next morning. took one of the women by almost the heels and threw her so violently upon the to break her back.222 civility GEORGE WHITEFIELD was the bursting open of his room door by several men under pretence of a hue-and-cry. that he had better work to do.' and. and he went to it. who had resolved. Once his voice arrested the attention of a field in band of workmen who were passing near the which he preached.

how- charm of when they came to stand for a little while under the and one of them Henry Tanner. The next the sermon was on the as it text Beginning at Jerusalem. he added ' : Thou man. and this time to enter into in turn ventured to joy and peace in believing. and Whitefield. a life. failed filled their 223 pockets with stones to pelt him. His end was according as to an earnest and oft-repeated prayer. and arranged to throw him from his block.' and contained.HENRY TANNER him mad. was sure to do in the hands of a pictorial preacher. description of the cruel murder of the Lord of It an admirable topic to the conscience life 1 for admitting a close application of truth . strength failed became a good servant of the Lord Jesus Christ him in the pulpit. mostly exercised at Exeter.' . they ever. and such to die. and when the last sad scenes in our Lord's to his congregation : had been portrayed. hands in innocent blood. swift aptitude for fastening and for preaching to one person in the midst of a multitude it. without any one but that person knowing of went on to third time speak words of tenderness and encouragement. Their resolution. and one who sought the was recovery of ' Jerusalem sinners ' with the greatest devotion. — a ship-builder — at least went home with a serious heart and a resolution in hear ' it that he would come again the next night and night more. and his ministry of sixty-five years. and he was carried thence . while speaker and hearer seemed be only with each other the conart the sciousness of each other's glance. did the young A man come to hear.' with The his own effect was great and manifest. As he spoke in on the young ship-builder to and then. his eloquence . was one which could boast that hardly one of last its sermons had fallen uselessly to the ground. on any passing event. Whitefield said are reflecting their You who imbrued his eyes fell on the cruelty of these inhuman butchers. By and by he preach the gospel.

Though Whitefield was leaving the country. at the set had an interest in the religious toll ' work which had been on foot. and would not take from the crowds which passed forbid that over to hear the sermons. for existence. Christ's work . prejudice and opposition and effort. lives. efficient.' said the kind-hearted fellows. the God we should sell word of God. who knew the grace of God as a living power in their hearts. Methodists were looked on as game. and the Methodist anywhere. soldier was not ashamed of his Saviour . sometimes at the hazard of their proclaiming the good news of redeeming love. and as had happened a hundred times yielded to his love before. and praising God. was not interrupted lay-preachers. Great companies of him in the midst. The ferrymen. in every county where he had laboured. whilst The a contrary wind hindered him from sailing. joyfully went about. and one of the most had been called into and towns. In eight years a new ministry. with for offered him a piece of ground a society room. Freely and of themselves some sur- who had been opposed rounded with walls people.224 GEORGE WHITEFIELD evangelist laboured bravely amidst his troubles. would return from the dock at night singing ferry. and penetrated into villages Even the press-gang aided fair in diffusing the truth. too.

trouble. to take advantage of the breeze. The of one hundred and ships which sailed out of Plymouth Sound was therefore attended by several convoys. Orders were given to tack about.CHAPTER IX August. and off the islands then. theological The 1 usual dangers of ocean travelling were August. 1744—July. suffering from a violent pain increased his his side. on the 16 . as the wind sprung sent a vessel up a little. Fully were consumed between Plymouth and the Western they lay floating in a calm for days . Whitefield was in poor in health. and one of the ships. increased by the men-of-war which were cruising for spoil. France and England were at their old fleet folly of treating each other as fifty natural enemies. missing her stays in turning. there came a mishap which might have to the bottom. and a good deal of nervousness was evidently abroad. 744. 1748 FIFTH VOYAGE— ADVENTURES AND CONTROVERSIES AMERICA INVALIDED IN INGS IN BERMUDAS — WANDER— SIXTH VOYAGE THE and fifth voyage was diversified with nautical adventures discussions. ran directly against the Wilmington. at this time. six and the tedious voyage weeks Isles.

this is a night of rebuke and blas- phemy . and the bishop's brethren. being of the larger vessel. that the awful. show Thyself. . while the other was so broken her apprehensive and crew were Presently they field's captain ' came up with informed them is the convoy. who wrote or. and take us under Thy own immediate protection be Thou our convoy. Churches would be a service or startling The and of Whitefield's preaching. The pamphlet complained of the irregular practices of the Methodists. which was seen no more during the the voyage —a circumstance which. and then proceeded to inquire whether the doctrines they taught or the lengths they ran beyond what was practised among effects the religious societies or in other Christian dis-service to religion. groans The Wilmington. the adventure of that day comes in its proper order. and God of the dry land. and of what had when Whiteto happened. hymn. God of the sea. This your praying. and ' Whitefield expressing their feelings. such as appeared at . no damage. O God. with one day's exception. the praying men got together. and be d you ! Shocked by the profanity. anonymous pamphlet once gave authoritative counte- before mentioned. we may go into Whitefield's cabin and consider the thoughts which he is planning for the benefit of the Bishop of London.' who fear Thee and The next day a violent gale parted who fear the Wilmington rest of from the convoy. Until proved rather agreeable than otherwise to Whitefield. he says . they answered. cried out. and make a those difference between those Thee not. Referring to a question in the : pamphlet on the subject. the crying fainting and convulsions. at the rate. were laid upon him as a reproach and it is well to know what he himself thought of them. his wife deck of which singing a suffered cries and friends around him.226 GEORGE WHITEFIELD sat Whitefield. Cambuslang. any nance to it.

and brought them out. paid by (what our author calls) good men. Thou have me to do ? " and was afterwards three days without and did neither eat nor drink ? Is it not to be feared that if this author had been seated upon the bench. Men and brethren. who labours to drive poor souls into Does not this ? appear from the relation given of them in one of the journals referred to Are there not many journal. it may be. to-day. arm and display His power in bringing sinners home to Himself as suddenly and instantaneously as in the first planting of the Gospel Church ? And may He not now. 30). relations of the co-operation where no such bodily effects are so much as hinted at? And does not this give ground to suspect that the "due and regular attendance on the public offices of religion. and sometimes. from the agency of the despair ? evil spirit. who." is little better than a dead formal attendance on outward ordinances. and be all the while far from the kingdom of Did ever any one before hear this urged as an evidence of the co-operation of the Spirit ? Or would any one think that the author of the continue in God? observations ever read the relations that are given of the conversion of several in the Holy Scriptures ? For may we not suppose. that many were cast into sudden agonies and screamings (Acts 37) when "they were pricked to the heart. co-operation of the &c. The pamphlet . he would have joined with Festus in crying out with a loud voice. proceeding generally from soul distress. 29. Sirs. written for our learning for ever ? God the same. and said unto Peter and the rest of the apostles. and whatever else Is not recorded in the Book of God. 6). yesterday. reveal His With this important deduction from the instances quoted by Whitefield of persons undergoing great agony of mind at the time that they were turned from their to the own way there was of living way appointed by the Lord — that miracle to alarm — his explanation may be accepted. my ii. tremblings. as well as formerly. account of his own all conversion. and said. "who sprang and came trembling and fell down before Paul and Silas. much ? learning doth is make thee mad?" And and are not these things.EXTRA ORDINA R Y CONVERSIONS ' 227 Would not one imagine by this query that these itinerants laid down such things as screamings. "Paul. in a serious and composed way. and heard this apostle give an what wilt sight. what must I do to be saved ? " Or what would he think of Paul. " Lord. which a man may of the Spirit in the same all his lifetime. lords. said. trembling and astonished (Acts ix. author think of the conversion of the jailor (Acts x. as essential marks of the Holy Spirit ? But can any such thing be proved ? Are they not looked upon by these itinerants themselves as extraordinary things. what shall we do to be saved ? " Or what would this in.

in his favourite and thrilling sermon on 'The True Way of Beholding the Lamb of God. sinners he says to When and Christ's spoken we are understand Christ's all obedience and death — all that Christ has done. sinner in the Father's sight. since sinless. sufficient righteousness for all to whom it was to be im- The language in which. As God He satisfied at the .' one person.' . He wrought out a full. or instead of. to been effectual. dured on the part of our Lord Father on behalf of so righteousness is hands of His angry ' : many of. and has been already in Whitefield's tification but all the conceptions which mind stood related to the conception of jus- severely may now have our consideration. The gravamen of the jus- charge is directly against the supposed immoral tendency of tification bestowed solely upon the ground of another's merit. all that Christ has suffered for an elect world. and of the height to which he carried them. for that will believe on Him. and also died a painful death upon the Cross. our human obeyed. and thereby fulfilled the whole moral law in our stead. . being perfect.' The position of our Lord was that of a substitute — the view which has always Spirit. those whom the Father had given to Him. not being required for Himself.nature — 'He Whitefield's words are ' : In that nature ' i. His system was logical. dealt with . which. God and man puted. He was always pure and might be imputed to any who would believe on Him.228 further GEORGE WHITEF1ELD complained of Whitefield's notions of justification. and thereby became a curse for. The atonement was so much suffering enat the . same time and that He in obeyed and suffered as man and. The sense sins of the elect : were laid on Him in the most literal He was there as a . and before the Father's law it and upon the head of such a One should be poured.e.. was meet that the indignation The active obedience of our Saviour con- stituted the extra righteousness in the moral world. through the Holy the conversion of souls.

" most direful tortures of vindictive ciples. me. 229 in some parts. our Passover. in fire. crying and It extorts all sweat. wast sent from heaven in this important hour to strengthen our agonising Lord. was sacrificed for us in the evening of the world. a bloody sweat. who now agonises in prayer! on Hark! with an "If it be possible. if ye can. His garments are over stained with blood. . . " My God. otherwise they would now break and our souls more stupid than any part of the inanimate creation. sympathise with a crucified Redeemer. so must now entreat you to venture a little further into the same garden. breaking forth into that dolorous. Gabriel. and afterwards roasted with So Christ. . Alas ! is it troubled now? His agony bespeaks it to be exceeding sorrowful. His hands. fire of His Father's wrath Lamb of God. who for us .THE SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST he describes the sufferings of the Redeemer. as though it was shocked and confounded to see its Maker suffer. But our hearts are harder than rocks. melting and attractive for its is. what Christ endured in this dark and doleful night yourselves felt me what you when you heard this and same God-man. who . It tender sympathy of love. whilst expiring on the accursed tree. my God. even unto death. in some degree at least. tell See how He Again and again He addresses His Father Tell me. It extorts strong many tears. that was to be killed in the evening. there none with Him. See laid how the incarnate Deity lies prostrate before His Father. ye let this cup pass from Me!" the iniquities of us all. His face. " Sword. yea. as I desired you just now to go with me of to the entrance. Him blessed angels. has one short clause which seems to indicate that Whitefield was not quite ' satisfied with what he said : The it paschal lamb was further typical of Christ. whereas the holy Jesus. or whatsoever thou art called. smite My fellow " ? Well might nature put on its sable weeds well might the rocks rend to show their sympathy with a suffering Saviour and well might the sun withdraw its light. the paschal lamb was roasted. why hast Thou forsaken Me ? " Were silence fill you not all struck dumb ? And did not a universal awful heaven itself when God the Father said unto His sword. its great Antitype. tell tell me. out of But how the fulness of His heart he said. But — stop — what is is that we see? Behold wrath ! the Lamb Cod undergoing the Of the people. unheard-of expostulation. or they would even now. the spotless and then roasted in the the cross. was burnt and before He actually expired upon to To satisfy I you of this. if you can bear be spectators of such an awful tragedy. first slain only with this material difference. " Now is My soul troubled. even of His diswas ever sorrow like unto that sorrow wherewith His innocent soul was afflicted in this day of His Father's fierce anger? Before He entered into this bitter passion.

and leave your swine-trough. O young men. find them.' settle Congregations had no time to theological down upon and begun Whitefield's fault with mistakes or inconsistencies. poor guilty prodigals.2 5o GEORGE WHITEEIELD for our salvation. by receive Christ with His righteousness not fear the greatness or number of your sins. as I acted once myself. come home. in the Father's wrath. You are lost. Feed no longer on the husks of sensual delights Your heavenly Father now calls for Christ's sake arise and come home you. And O that God would now bow . See it view it again and again. as it were. undone. In his sermon on ' The Lord Our Righteousness he doubts and struggles rushes straight in among : his hearers' his — doubts and troubles which own rebukes and pleadings have created. are playing the prodigal. awaits you. you and His all. Are you backsliding And yet the Lord for ever adored be His rich. then. Consider at how dear a rate it was purchased. and was thus roasted. come home. damned for ever. Come. and wandering away afar off from your heavenly Father's house. descend and as Thou hast shown me Thy such O let Thy blessed Spirit apply Thy righteousness to some young best prodigals now before Thee. abundantly pardon you and if the Lord gives you that.' Note the short clause. Come. even the righteousness of His dear Son. without it. be angry . — — . on. ! . nay. and therefore styled the Lamh of God. free. Consider what great need you have of it. See yonder the best robe. I will rejoice with the angels in ! heaven. who. and exclaims ' Who ? you will knows but Beg of God it the Lord to give may have mercy faith . mercy. for Whitefield was too wise : at winning application ' to the last he would put an getting prac- application to every paragraph rather than tical results. 'as it were. no. O Son of God. fail in Love was stronger than ' logic. brother in the gospel. sinners? so am I. Before the questioner had well to consider if what hope of acceptance with repent and believe souls to leave his ' God any one durst cherish the atonement was only for the elect. the heavens and come down in Descend. and clothe their naked souls with robe ! . fitly men. Indeed I will not. his soul was called to . like the elder then. and sovereign grace is my righteousness. You need For are you sinners? so am I. come home. even by the blood of God. Are you the chief of sinners? so am I.

Mrs. All but one stood ready for fire and smoke. Whitefield dressed herself to be prepared for events. dreaded enemy. in a Triennial Visitation of the same year in 1741 . ' and gladly betook himself to his desk and his quill to write Some Remarks upon a late Charge against Enthusiasm. ' : and the reply was the one it with which we are familiar Though is the quintessence of enthusiasm to pretend to be guided by the Spirit without the . Guns were mounted chains were put . passionate pleading ! The rupted writing of theological letters was very rudely Wilmington was inter- one day. he to on deck. when. The good ship toiling through the Atlantic without her convoy. though he might formally have denied the doctrine of the Fatherhood of God. made an engagement. Gibson. .' The position taken by the bishop almost the same as that chosen by Dr. but not his quarters. the Clergy of that is Diocess. two ships were sighted which the captain took to be enemies. when were two friends ! On came the lo ! a nearer view showed that they The chaplain had another kind of enemy to fight with. to the alarm of all. Richard. bearing down on them with all the for sail they could crowd. Lord Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry. and published a Letter to at their request in the present 1744. told Whitefield retreated to the hold of the ship liking when his that that was the chaplain's place . 231 it. In the Rev. and about making cartridges. and beat arms with a warm exhortation. But see the tender. delivered in by the Right Reverend Father God. Whitefield included. His words warmed the hearts of braver men.A FALSE ALARM Here we have. Preparations were at once . and being urged by one of New England crept friends to say something to animate the men. about the masts the great cabin was emptied of everything hammocks were then set slung about the sides of the all ship.

As soon as he was somewhat better.' At the end of eleven weeks the Wilmington came within sight of port. of which he partook lay shivering. him. gnawed the boards of the and perhaps wood might have pleased him. Exposure increased the pain of a severe attack of colic. and Whitefield was received house of a physician. nervous time. . con- vulsed from his waist to his and a total convulsion was expected every moment. formerly a notorious Deist. the pilots missed the bar of York its harbour. he eagerly and. and. Whitefield. Towards morning into the men found the inlet. from which he had been suffering for some He was also so hungry that he could almost have boat. Half an hour colic. as he done him no more harm than the raw potatoes. with some friends. after he was put to bed. that into a delirium. yet is every Christian's duty to be guided by the Spirit in conjunction with the written word. it was said. It fisherman. It His haste delayed soon grew dark. say that the New-lights ' were expecting one Mr. yet days he could not bear the sound of a footstep or of a voice. in answer to a question ' about what was going on ashore. racked with nervous toes.. Happily the worst did not come. of remonstrance. but converted at Whitefield's last American his arrival visit.23- GEORGE WHITEFIELD it written word. he begged them not Fearing that he might fall be distressed. and say things were wrong. the minister of York. and the smack and all passengers were tossed about night. The long confinement had made Whitefield imin spite little patient to land. the only food on board. and that the day before many had been praying the for his safe arrival. he told them a baneful influence — so anxious was he never to exert — that such a thing must not surprise for four them. would distance the ship by several hours. to hear a freely. and which. As his wife and to friends stood around him. transferred himself from the ship to a fishing-smack that had come alongside. weeping.

On their arrival they found him the pulpit Soon a relapse came agony of body. called to bid to him welcome America. . when ' of a sudden Whitefield and doctor. and looking to the astonished congregation like one risen from the was taken for a last sermon by both people and open to preacher. each other. and looking its earnestly into that kind face which always wore gentlest when such ' as she approached it. It Doctor. or to attend his funeral in if were dead. she said in her broken English. get you here yet . 233 to Moody.' The sick man prayed might be as the simple-hearted . to preach on. by the help of die.' come home and grave.SERIOUS ILLNESSES old Mr. and his friends again thought that his lay in end was come . aspect on the ground beside him. pended . But nature was hard pressed by the effort. yea or nay. for a The effect of his word was. to He Meanwhile news had gone Boston that he was dying and he when it reached that city two of his friends started for York. yet while he his greater pain was that he had been announced and could not go. his view. and consented. the minister who had been appointed was leaving the house said to his friend for church. he was laid on a bed before the animation seemed to be suspended. Christ said. first visitor He is gone ! ' Gradually he recovered and the who would Sitting see him. he says. but go first and that it call down you must not come some more poor Negroes. Master. but Jesus . then urged him give them a sermon. and he could hear ' his friends say to . and when. was a poor Negro woman. to nurse him if he were alive. worth dying thousand times over. Get you down. he spoke with peculiar energy an hour. on fire. through his catching cold. my pains are susGod I'll go and preach. his return home. The invisible things of another world lay to and expecting be with for his Master before morning. The hour of service to preach drew near. you just go to heaven's gate. pale as death. and then And he did go.

was not now in the post —and ' paid him the nod. of strongly-worded pamphlets had appeared against ' Some ' of the clergy began to publish halfpenny professors. was thrown upon him . that they him in other respects so roused many came to him to say that they would. testi- monials against him. sorrowfully admit but good predominated over What at reproach was incurred. Here he was convinced departure for England a glorious work had been going on. with his consent. assailed a But they man who was to too good not to wish to be better. instances. as in so many other There were strange instances of the effect of his preaching. either justly or unjustly. and the president. Here.234 GEORGE WHITEFIELD it Negress wished filled. to be . his humility saved him. and refused him excitement in the their city. New England. and prayer and wish were ful- In about three weeks. his faults. There was certainly great and party feeling ran high. and too candid be afraid of confessing Their exposure of real blame on his part only gave him the opportunity to acknowledge (which he did with beautiful humility) . He gratefully declined their offer as unsuited to his taste and work. with Divine work. he was able to that since his proceed to Boston. build in a few weeks the outside of the largest place of worship in America for his use. wherein he had offended and their shameful treatment of of his friends. A great number him. One morning the crowd was too dense to be penetrated. and many clergy who had before met him Governor Belcher's table of governor — Belcher pulpits. and students of Harvard College joined in the assaults. and . That had been irregularities and an unhappy mixture he could not but evil. though still very weak. The democratic feeling was too strong for ministers to control. both in Boston and in almost there all parts of follies.' were shy and distant. of human infirmity .

kept looking up at Whitefield and waiting for anything he could ridicule.A SCOFFER CAUGHT he was obliged to 235 go in at the window.' sheriff. who. was like a to return with behind him. when he wished sufficient what he he thought was food for sport. can you forgive Whitefield with a smile. Mr. pensive. The crowd which bore him Dr. only he was afraid to see him. Immediately hostile to the after him came the high lights. who had been face. however. Prince encour- aged him to venture. had often gone to hear Whitefield preach.' said The visitor thought that the tale of to his wrong-doings would make that impossible. all me ? Yes. . Prince and confess his sins. plaintive voice he ' Sir. the story of his said. But soon he began to feel miserable it under what he heard. is New England friends was more proUpon the renewal of his journeys his Such glimpses of him. and horrified countenance. and his desire to ask Whitefield's pardon. and Whitefield. Obliged to stay. The course as stay among his longed than usual. ' window. Prince told him he should shortly be visited by a very pensive and uncommon person. the door for He went. to his bottle and his and recounted what he could remember. as it 'new and the sight of whose ' appeared through the out. S solid rock 's meeting-house as Whitefield entered. He went once too easily into often for his fun. but Whitesit field asked him to down. sir. ' him. and then spoke him such comfort as the gospel has provided for broken hearts. almost made the astonished people cry also Is Saul among the prophets his ? Another day friend Mr. saw in pale. and then returned friends. and lively imagination. to procure matter for tavern amusement. it at the same time adorning with further exposition. ' In a low. and when he withdrew. was to go to Mr. very readily. get lend fresh we do charm both him and his work. on opening his life. ready wit. to not easily traced. one of good parts.

— his attachment to and then some snatches of news about the 'golden bait' which 'Jesus had kept him from catching at . and watching with that kindly interest which the orphans at Bethesda knew so well. Samuel Morris. though for two years she had not him — doubtless his incessant and distant wanderings had helped to hinder her her was as great as ever. or she would have enclosed a few lines in his letter. When the precious great forest. solemn congregations and offered by the gentlemen who had hundred if management of the free temple there. We see him his availing himself of his short stay in the city to write to mother. Soon afterwards we find him at Philadelphia. for sinners. as little work and next we find him among a band of Christians in the first backwoods of Virginia. Scotland. friends in the dear old country. about his wife being very weak through a mis- carriage. and sent them across the waters. and share his . and written to tell her that. a class of fifty Indian children learning the Assembly's Shorter Catechism. father . called shadow of the his friends its and neighbours to rejoice with him. who own him the as their spiritual . welcomed by twenty ministers of the city and neighbourhood.236 GEORGE WHITE FIELD is One day he the to be seen the at a settlement of Delaware Indians. hunting . These men were Relations and gathered together in a remarkable way. book was received under the owner. offer which he had done Boston people. had got a volume of those Glasgow sermons which had helped to kindle the revival in the valley of the Clyde. ' about his door of usefulness which opens wider and wider . surrounded with enthusiastic. preaching to them through an interpreter. and about the many mercies he receives from God. rejoiced called his in He he roaming the woods. converts of devout Brainerd. eight in pounds a year and he would become treated as he liberty to travel six months an the year a minister in the that of the city.

letters likely his London — the only at this time not — would have contained London friends news about his dear family. that your he exclaims. So he not a word about his own heavy burden with the orphans. where he wintered letters to friends in 1746-47. to travel to Georgia. tears flowing from many eyes as As his meeting-house freely as if Whitefield's pathetic voice were speaking the words a wider range. Bethesda had long wished to see him. others also ' when Whitefield came \ engaged themselves to the Lord. He will be better to you than a thousand Whitefields. in the had needed counsel and comfort midst said of troubles which had arisen at the Tabernacle. but added another load to all that his tender heart already carried. may be looking : towards and waiting on the blessed Jesus from Him alone can come your salvation .' The same generosity which made him accessible to all in . 237 own house was soon crowded to excess. with a Boston young lady.' Whether he ' felt lonely ' without her with whom he had been more than happy he his at nowhere says troubles as . distant little that were only read. lifted up its head.THE CHURCH IN VIRGINIA feast. direct his people to AYhat could he do but One whose eyes. and tidings came to him that ' they traverse the wood bravely. him. and as soon as he crossed its threshold the cry came from London love was his to return and succour his distressed flock there. his We in next much about come upon him Most he wrote Bethesda. The sermons soon took and upon invitation Morris carried them groups of colonists. which by law they were expected to frequent.' Somewhere on left the road his wife. as was called. The little church of Lutherans. and many quiet. but then he never said as comforts. a had to be built. solemn evenings were spent in it.' own daily sup- port? 'Oh. like a flower refreshed with rain. to who could not enjoy such teaching it in the churches.

to the best of their knowledge. given upon oath. corn.' many The sion. or given to them. which I purpose to devote to the support of Bethesda. hath contributed to the said house valuable benefactions.238 trouble GEORGE WHITEF1ELD made him most grateful for any help afforded him in carrying out his benevolent purposes. coming spread from settlement the early light of the fresh spring morn- ings flushed the sky. and disbursements affair A very serious was auditing liability in these days.' While benefactors were thanked with exuberant gratitude. for the use and benefit of the said house that the disbursement had been faithfully applied to and for the use of the same. or charged the house with any of his travelling. and prepared for a ride to the distant preaching-place. farmers and planters bestirred them- selves. I last week bought at a very cheap rate a planta- hundred and forty acres of ground ready cleared. in which they say It doth not appear that the Rev.' Then comes the statement of the : ' auditors. In a letter he shows : both his kindness and his perverted notions about slaves ' God has put it into the hearts of my South Carolina friends to contribute liberally towards purchasing a plantation and slaves in this province. detractors receipts were quietly faced with an audited account of in behalf of the orphan-house. Whitefield hath converted any part thereof to his said own private use and property. is Blessed be God. return of spring saw his him mounted for another excurto The news of settlement and when . Some more I purpose to purchase this for rice. a just ' and and true account of all monies collected by. Mr. and and everything that will be necessary for provisions. week. before the introFirst. . or other private expenses but on the contrary. One Negro has been given me. fenced. or any other. duction of limited companies. the purchase tion of six fit made. Whitefield and Habersham were put upon oath the bailiffs that the accounts laid before contained.

and that of 1747 formed no exception. by many of the devout and the plantation and farm began But the cool to give signs that a God-fearing it. with tears and earnest words. who pleaded before them. drop. and were uneasy as they saw the vision easy life. as well as carried back home by many of the . the claims of his gracious and exalted Master on the trust and love of every soul of man. but by that time fever . Holy thoughts were worldly. and the mysteries of . May ' the heat was trying his ' wasting taberI nacle. American summers always exhausted him. — some of them men of staunch and instruction.A FOREST CONGREGATION Many of tall 239 a lonely forest path and highway. more or less accessible to the glowing eloquence of the evangelist. few sights could be either more picturesque or more impressive. striped with shadows trees and bands of sunshine. By the middle of but. till through Christ strengthening me. and his sense of the love of our Lord so vivid.' he says. warm. but who had a fancy to hear the far-famed bands of trees travellers. and formed themselves All hearts were into a great congre gation. and others again men of thoughtless and spirit and who supposed is that religion might very well be left to a more serious time than joyous days of health vigour. man lived in the pvincipal house on evangelist's health soon began to suffer when the spring changed to sultry summer.' intend persisting I The condition of the southern colonies was so destitute. religion. was enlivened by groups solitary riders of horsemen and piety. and in five weeks made a circuit of five hundred miles . that he carried out his purpose. who longed after religious stimulus and were going to the open glade as devoutly as ever David went up to sad countenance. selves Mount Zion others of them men of heavy heart and who were getting their first insight into them. when the the the blood preacher. Nor were wives and daughters absent from As they tied their neighing horses to and hedges.

him upon that step highly creditable says : both to his charity and good sense. who had to Howel Harris. . and nervous colic At length that which he dreaded came upon him gone. Cennick. and there again resumed his beloved work. It is he could not preach. His chief solace was with an infinite pathos that the burdened. the experience of alternate sickness and has partial recovery. but I must be his tried every way.' It is if. that' thought he should never again leave quarrelled with nacle. to search out and discover to us fresh corruptions. Mayst thou continue and abide in this place. Whitefield's letter to had gone over Moravians.. convulsions shaking him. know that old divisions were being healed.' Compelled to hold his peace. the chief manager of the Taberthe is during Whitefield's absence. harassed. and to lean more upon Him who by His infinite wisdom and power will cause that " out of the eater shall come forth meat. \ and from the strong sweetness. new ones were breaking out. though he sometimes had become so united America it. He ' I am I sorry to hear there are yet disputings amongst us about brick was in hopes. The letter just . pleasant to unhappily. he made way as far north as New follow York. was consuming him.240 GEOXGE WHITEFIELD and gravel griping him. To him from this point would simply with an alteration of the names of places. of preaching us. . which just been before His attention had his heart to be given to things in to London. and its pleasures. teach us to cease from man." I am glad you find yourself happy in the holy Jesus. such a scene would never occur again but I find fresh offences must come. to try our faith. after our contests of that kind about seven years ago. . It has been my meat and drink to preach among poor sinners the unsearchable riches of Christ.. be to recount. walls. persecuted man writes ' : Tis hard to be silent.

My heart Nothing shall letter. And turn their zeal to " Who is on my side?" One moment warmed with controversial fire. answer.' come and water of life. 1747. and others presently to be referred sustain the generous eulogy of his friend Charles to. was in the right. came is to hand. will convince Time and experience. I think we may manage very Thus reprobation sank struggle. some of his friends had prayed him back again into the world. gratitude for the success of his His heart ' was all word : the barren wilderness was made to smile all the way. and ' Not long ago I received others. 241 amply : Wesley ' When Satan strove the brethren to divide. if we omit from fairly. all that bowed to Jesus' name. He He The Nor felt the spark as suddenly expire . wrote a shorter but perhaps warmer At the end of to Bethesda. but I till your kind I / cannot see how it can possibly be effected we all think and speak the / / same things. I believe. near as he had been to the kingdom of heaven. I rejoice to hear that you and your brothers are more mode- rate with respect to sinless perfection. he wrote to John Wesley. I believe. but his face again A little still he felt that. whether he went about Georgia 17 . like his. his summer's labours he turned riding tired him. Your and I hope ere now you have received my really for an outward as well as for an inward be wanting on my part to bring it about. which we may do all ana * agree as will we already do in giving a universal offer to taste the poor sinners thai well. is / you that attaining such a state in this life not a doctrine of/ the everlasting gospel.' What he did during the winter of 1747-48. dated in February last. each/ side the talking for or against reprobation. As for universal redemption. felt revived the pure ethereal flame. union.' love for ever On September said : 11. more would for opinions fight With men whose life. into oblivion — really died without a still The same day he letter to Charles.GROUNDS OF CHRISTIAN UNION quoted from.

! . or rested to recruit himself. O ! my I soul. and all that is within thee praise His holy name This morning . and holding them in rapt attention. in fact. None sickly lives. and that would have been a clergyman preaching from notes to Kingswood colliers on Hannam Mount. and with his orphan-house —was. and as the president said. at Mr. were round the house. with care. ' So sweet the so moderate the clime.' Were we literal to judge of the clime of the Summer Islands by Whitefield's labours in them. or dies before the time. in such poor health that his friends advised him to try the air of Bermudas air. and when I came to take my leave. at the same time watching the of the It orphan-house. what Attention sat on every face. is certain that in the spring following he was much weighed down debts with travelling. preached my farewell sermon it was quite full. to London rabble at Moorfields full Fair. as in the days when he affairs first entered the colony. Its only remarkable difference from his general run the half-amused great of narrative is way in which he records the wonder of the men at his preaching without notes. There was only one greater degree of marvel possible. Paul's meeting-house above one hundred and fifty whites. but a clergyman who used no minutes ' ' in the pulpit was a greater. oh I believe there a sweet unaffected weeping was to be seen everywhere. to thirty thousand Scotchmen who were of anxiety about their salvation.243 GEORGE WHITEEIELD little preaching to companies. The diary of his two months' stay on the island is an agreeable renewal of that journal which he unfortunately ceased too soon to write. besides blacks. — Praise the Lord. One ' entry from the journal may be given : Sunday. A clergyman invalid who could preach twice a day and travel considerable distances was a great marvel. but Whitefield was an energetic invalid. cannot be told. May 15th. Waller's praise might be taken for truth.

' His journals. Amen. spirit could not but disapprove things have I judged !' he says. Being fond of Scripture language. Besides. I have been too rash and hasty in giving characters. on the whole. Carry send on. You may the cabin guess ! how ' it when we have write. Those dread- men-of-war were hanging about first like hungry sharks. 'in how many and acted wrong. have likewise too much made inward . Even Lord and if it be Thy Lord Jesus. passion or a panic seized the left his Frenchman he turned about trembling prey unhurt. me to this dear people again ! The voyage home was ful not to be without alarms. notice The revision had brought under his many things that his maturer judgment and calmer. I long to be ashore. 243 The Negroes without affected. He I says ' : This may spare if it my lungs. it heart was and though is I have parted from friends so often. 'a large French vessel shot twice and bore down upon and us. and I I I find that I frequently wrote spoke in my own spirit. mixed with it . though not 'Alas. and very much affects my in some souls in Bermudas. when I thought and was writing and speaking by the assistance of the Spirit of God. . have often used a style too apostolical. for but it grieves my heart. little in was no other reason.' But some pang of com. he makes some remarks which will illustrate his ingenuousness of temper. too. and on the day of the voyage one of them gave chase. because his health was so impaired. he did Serious and finished he . and at the same time I have been too bitter in Wild-fire has been my zeal. I find every fresh parting almost Surely a great work begun unmans me. both of places I and persons. I heard. doors. We gave up all for gone. and when the Betsy approached the English Channel. though it proved. wept plentifully. O so. both rapid and pleasant. alas less earnest.' four gentlewomen in his abridge- ' However. of. can do but is respect to my writing. at.MISTAKES CONFESSED were few dry eyes. ment ' of Law's which endeavoured to gospelise. Call. Whitefield might not preach during this voyage. My own yet heart. will. were revised and in reference to that work. where they swarmed.

244 impressions GEORGE WHITEFIELD my rule of acting. humbled me much since I have been on board. all but not a whit first tints only showing the of mellow ripeness in soil goodness. "Joseph had more honesty than he had policy." At the same time. and carried me. less zealous or self-sacrificing. and I hope in some degree correct and amend. through such a torrent both of popularity and contempt. more. and pray Him to give me strength to hold on and increase in zeal and love to the end. and also stirred up endless opposition. or he never would have told his dreams. . some of my mistakes. 1748. and less disposed to contend with those that differed from him. and too soon and too explicitly published what had been better kept in longer. God always makes use of strong passions for a great Strong passions have great dangers beginning to understand Less robust in health but he was now how to rule them with a firm hand. than when he last returned from America.' had been made ' to prove the truth of one of his wise remarks.' He work. or told after my death. a poor weak youth. he stepped again upon English on July 6. and hurt the blessed This has cause I would defend. who filled me with so much of His holy fire. I thank God for giving me grace to embark in such a blessed cause. and set so many seals to my unI bless Him for ripening my judgment a little worthy ministrations. and made me think of a saying of Mr. for giving me to see and confess. Henry's. By these things I have given some wrong touches to God's ark. I cannot but bless and praise and magnify that gracious God. .

Whitefield learned on his arrival England. Many and his friends. St. 1748-1752 APPOINTED CHAPLAIN TO THE C3UNTBSS OF HUNTINGDON — SLAVE-OWNER STONED BEFORE A BISHOP THE in English newspapers. the dust. heart yearned towards his family and all Though his first his mother had remained silent letter during his long absence. From welcome the very reverse before. one of fctler acts was to remember her. the author of 'Medi245 . Bartholomew's. A kindly greeting was sent to Wesley. Hervey. and announce by a his arrival. when he resumed and the management of assisted One church also. Moorfields was as white as ever to the harvest. one of Whitefield's converts.CHAPTER X July. tender memories were awakened by the return affectionate home . had interred him as early as April in that the people he found a year. and administering the sacrament to a thousand communicants. was open to him and there he preached in to immense congregations. Their love and devotion to him humbled him to The damaged fortunes of the Tabernacle instantly the pulpit revived affairs. of that which had pained him seven years Thou- sands received him with a joy that almost overcame both him and them. and he had vainly entreated a from her.

' and at the conclusion condescended to assure Whitefield that he had done great In a letter justice to the Divine attributes in his discourse. said ' : Lady Huntingdon he Mr. greatly changed since then. now she wanted to see what it could avail in her drawing-room upon the hearts of high-born ladies / does not appear what kind of an /[ audience he had when he preached in her house the first two and gentlemen.' was complimented on his appearto ance as an author. how I approve of you. became conlifelong sistent disciples of the new teaching. to the house of the Countess of Huntingdon. while they listened with attention and some degree of emotion. The his Earl of Chesterfield thanked him. studied. because his the taste of the polite taste too. world. high-mannered said. and he spoke to them with unaffected his usual earnestness and natural gracefulness.' he T will not tell you what I shall tell others. he would come again. Times have him. prevailed Bolingbroke was afterwards upon to come to ' . and paid him one of at the close. for she had often seen and felt it . of as soon as he landed. and encouraged writings were so adapted to persevere. but after the second service the Countess wrote to if inform him that several of the nobility wished to hear him. The Earl himself went so far as to allow Whitefield the use of Bretby Hall in Derbyshire for meetings. Lady Gertrude Hotham and the Countess Delitz. call was made upon him on the occasion Howel Harris had instructions to take him. In a few days a brilliant circle was all gathered round him.246 tations GEORGE WHITEFIELD among the Tombs. That remarkable woman was already acquainted with the power of his oratory over popular assemblies. and in Thus he tried to keep his place hearts that had once received An this unexpected return. It ' times. Whitefield is . at Chelsea.' The wife of Lord Chesterfield and two of his sisters. ' compliments Sir. he sat like an archbishop.

eloquence. had a holy con- Edinburgh — wrangled. he thus addressed his audience: is "The and attendant angel just about to leave the threshold of this sanctuary. more the The more I was Redeemer comforted me. he paid a third where he had to mourn the death of many of his foremost friends. Whitefield stamped with his lifted foot. The Synods of Glasgow.' this Hume. of Perth and Stirling. ever heard in any person. He gives a remarkable instance of the effect with which Whitefield once employed apostrophe. ere you enter the sacred portals. He has the most commanding eloquence also. 'Once after a solemn pause. . yet natural. visit to autumn.DISTINGUISHED HEARERS the most extraordinary 247 man I in our times.' ' The hearts of the multitude responded to him as before . blackened. action. about him. became an admirer of and peers . and endure the usual ecclesiastical torment about Church government. up his hands and eyes to to heaven. demand attention that. ingenious preacher he had ever heard it was worth going twenty miles to hear him.' he says. ascend to heaven." This address was accompanied it with such animated. whether ministers should be prohibited or discouraged employing the him. of whom Romaine will shortly was the first This work among the nobility again . "Stop. of Lothian and Tweedale. and his visit gave him great cause for joy and thankfulness. that surpassed anything I ever any other preacher. as tending. not. stop. Gabriel. which had a charm for colliers in his opinion Whitefield was the most . from ' or. of course. in the drawing-room of Chelsea. and yet carry with you the news of one sinner converted saw or heard in God. and a Presbytery they thought. and cried aloud. And shall he ascend and not bear with him the news of one sinner amongst all this multitude reclaimed from the error of his way?" To give the greater effect to this exclamation. Within a fortnight the Countess added Whitefield's the name to number and of her chaplains. visit in the meantime we notice Wales this in a few words besides a flying to Scotland.

in that whom alone is life. She determined life win the favour of the Almighty and everlasting simply by her attention to moral maxims. without any reference to our Lord Jesus Christ.' As her name become inseparably life. As soon as he reached London. she became an family earnest friends. ingredients recruited and getting proper rest have me but am apt to believe I have strained myself inwardly. ' : way back. 24.' That pain was to become a grievous burden through many It was too late now to take the| years of incredible labour. he wrote I to a Though for . yet Riding I hope I am preparing Reading. to Theophilus. Topcliff. however. on June heartily into the pleasures 1728. It happened. prayer. took a lively interest in and cared to the poor on her husband's estate. prudential measures which he felt were necessary even before he started for Scotland. She entered station. and affectionate teacher of them to her and Among other things she one day made a . Lady to town. Huntingdon came and and made arrangements great for him to preach in her house to his 't he and nobl e.248 GEORGE WHITEFIELD to One symptom began and began to preach. it is I feel sensible pain in my breath. he suffered from a very severe hoarseness. Lady Selina Shirley was born on August years 1707 — seven was for before Whitefield —and was married 3. November ioth. which was premonitory of sad mischief. and when he reached friend for it. show itself on his return. for a good Master. ninth Earl of Huntingdon. one of her husband's sisters. it is associated from this time forward to the end of his time to indicate her religious position. Lady Margaret Hastings. But no matter who bore inexpressible pain for me. and meditation are the three necessary it. I do not preach. When on his he went into Scotland. came under the influence of those new doctrines which were winning such remarkable triumphs . and not only so. and duties of her high politics. often at Court.

austerities. which. much harder task than he had Scriptures. that will be one of the few ordinations you will reflect upon with complacence. and no calm it. illness then pect fell upon her terrible she was brought nigh to death . A dangerous . for it was not to be borne that the Methodists should gain a Countess. The change was soon as the manifest. might do her good. My lord ! mark my words when you are on your dying bed. according to her was to multiply her good works and increase her This brought her no . The thought haunted her. relief. such to see it. came back into her mind with and she meaning and life and she learned that Jesus Christ our and our salvation. remembrance of her almsgivings and fastings could Then Lady fresh is Margaret's words force. well pleased They thought that the Earl might very properly exert his authority to unconvert her. but anticipated. she had been as happy an angel. to a Turning to the the articles and the homilies. nor were Court beauties. he must increase in haste his. arose to enter upon a career as remarkable as that of any peeress in England. the pros- was her conscience was restless . Her illness left her. The Earl did not care to undertake the task.' . her resolve to live a more religious notions. the neophyte style preached to him his duties in a ears : not familiar to bishops' . Bishop Benson. ' when the lady said : own firm way. Duchess of Buckingham.THE COUNTESS OF HUNTINGDON remark it 249 . she would not relax her devotion ruffled. to the ' : Countess which produced a deep impression was this That since she had known and believed for life in the Lord Jesus Christ as and salvation. to The bishop came. and made life. and accordingly recom- mended her to see his lordship. whom he conversion of the Countess.' tend to The Countess knew that she herself could preno such joy. The kind man was blamed in her for the and was departing and in anger at having ever laid hands on Whitefield. but thought that a conversation with his former tutor.

leaving the Countess in command immense wealth. in 1748. My . Calvinistic in creed. The to following are in some of the the great and noble who came the preaching drawing-room of the Countess of . and henceforth his efforts and those of Lady Huntingdon were directed. to the object of giving an evangelical ministry to the Church of England. The feelings. with much success.250 GEORGE WHITEEIELD Earl of Huntingdon. Whitefield thus refers to the question of union ' What have you I . and free to carry out her wishes without interference from any one. whether in or \ out of the Established Church. \ \ intend. her gifts. I You. devout in spirit. or guide any movement. who rather yielded to his wife's religious zeal than toned it down 13. thought about a union find I ? I am afraid an external one is impracticable. when. therefore. she was unmistakably the proper leader of the Calvinistic side of the Methodist body. will not permit me to abide very long in England societies should but weave a Penelope's I web if I formed . are for settling societies everywhere meet.' : but more of this when we About this time Whitefield ceased to be moderator of the Calvinistic Methodists. and thoroughly con\ secrated to the glory of Christ. and I if I should form them have not proper assistants to take care of them. party. she appointed Whitefield her chaplain. to go about preaching the gospel to every creature. and towards which she took her first decisive step. and cared not to form a The Countess must form any letter to : organisation that might be required. Liberal to profusion in arbitrary in temper. I by your sermons that we believe differ in principles more than thought attachment to consequently I and America we are upon two different plans. Everything favoured her assumption of that position she was soon to gain. In a Wesley. to harmonise with his colder died on October of 1746. consummate in administrative ability. but he could not. suppose. Whitefield might be its great preacher.

To God is. I For. through a serious had. . Bubb Doddington. Lord John. Charles Townshend. Lady Cardigan. and he would not object ' the philosopher of Calvinistic Methodism. Lyttleton. His ' last words. shall have little apprehension of maintaining the all doctrines of predestination and grace against your revilers.' Bolingbroke was only moved so \1 by his brother's death as to offer himself as a . seems to have been a convert. half-brother of Bolingbroke. taught first Lord found Sandwich. mand my pen when you shall will. formerly Mr.' What would have been and his lordship the issue of a contest between Wesley five points ? first on the The eccentric Lady Townshend was one of the . . Mr. With equal facility could she turn Papist as Methodist it a cathedral or a tabernacle for her place of worship. Mr. commit myself be merciful to far I feel how unworthy I am . if mattered not which. she pleased her whim. When she was fancy pointed to an opposite equally ready to dislike and disparage her favourite. were. champion of to stand as . The Earl of Bath. admitting the Bible to be true. Lord Townshend. Lady Betty Campbell. George Selwyn. and the prayer of my heart now He Him died to God me a sinner. You may comCountess ' . St. Once Whitefield cherished some illness hope of her conversion. was one of these. Lady Huntingdon wrote . 1775. but to save sinners.LORD BOLINGBROKE Huntingdon : 251 The Duchess of Argyll. but they had a philosophical side. the Duchess of Montagu. the Calvinistic doctrines not that he cared for them. other The doctrines which Whitefield believers besides the Countess. course. Lord North. Pulteney. I spoken to the clergyman who attended him. to admire Whitefield's oratory and probably she did so quite as much because such her freakish admiration was unusual among her friends as because the oratory was noble and commanding. Pitt. and as late as which she to her.' he said to the it V be drawn in your service.

she silence her for would not prevailed some time hear reason to apologise. it will be long first. Her circumstances the time that — the loss of her husband and only son — at Lady Guildford took her to the Countess's to hear the Methodist chaplain. a similar condition.252 GEORGE WHITE FIELD in when she was again up. The Countess of Suffolk was neither so calmly impartial as Bolingbroke. a circle. and the conspicuous of Lady Mary Methodist in Wortley Montague. the rival friend and neighbour of Pope. through the Delitz. to her face. to —attempted . became. efforts of the Countess member of the aristocratic and had her change of mind duly chronicled the gossiping letters of Walpole. said. for her rudeness. but at length she was upon though only with a bad grace. ignorant both of her presence and her condition. in vain alternately by explaining to her that she was mistaken. Lady Eleanor Bertie. in the presence ' and denounced the sermon as a deliberate attack upon herself. Her self-control gave way as soon as he withdrew.' present Her relatives who were — Lady Betty Germain. and the of Ancaster Dowager Duchess to pacify her. . at the close of the service. might have been thought favourable to her acceptance of the truths of religion : but she was stung and enraged by every word which Whitefield. and evidently indulged in hopes such as had previously buoyed Whitefield She seemed to prefer Methodism for times of trial. to Lady Huntingdon She was never seen again among Whitefield's hearers. She then abused Lady Huntingdon of the illustrious congregation. an aunt of Lady Huntingdon. per- mission to come and speak with Lady Fanny Shirley. Thinking herself insulted. you must prepare yourself with Methodism. Countess on her death-bed she denied the Countess her. and by command. nor so obligingly changeful as Lady Townshend. nor did she ever really forgive the .' he writes to Sir Horace Mann. ' If ' as I hope you ever think of returning to England.

and how they liked him. as proper sub- work upon — and indeed they have a plentiful harvest. for introduction means of winning 'Ceiled houses. we ever heard. which confirms the sneer about big : He reports it Some ladies called one Saturday morning to pay a visit to Lady Huntingdon. of all the preachers the most strange and unaccountable. did you ever hear of such a thing since you were born " To which her ladyship made the . this sect increases as fast almost as any religious nonsense did. even ventured to suggest restrained.. the material. They their word and upon calling on the Monday morning on . Among other — would your ladyship believe it ? — he declared that Jesus Christ was so willing to receive sinners that receive even the devil's castaways. her ladyship. gaudy less and rich furniture. should be ' I believe will be to make a bishop of him.' mind enlightened to see the beauties of Jesus There can be no doubt that Walpole spoke the about the rapid increase of Methodism and sinners . he only cared souls.' Delitz. To the Countess Whitefield writes his in a manner to which shows that 'society' as a attire. Lyttleton very near making the same sacrifice of the dregs of that he has worn. He did not object to Now.'MAKE A BISHOP OF HIM' I really believe 253 by that time it will be necessary . he is preposterous things The reply was. being answered in the negative. jects to all those various characters The Methodists love your big sinners. do not make the world appear a wilderness to a of Nazareth. Barry. ' to the king that the preacher the best way. Shirley has chosen is way of bestowing the dregs of her beauty and Mr. and during the visit she inquired of them if they had ever heard Mr. my lady.' The Countess of Huntingdon thus ' told Mr. through the popularity and success of Whitefield. I Upon .' said the king. name of which the writer forgets —nor is it were as good as They promised her ladyship they would certainly attend. Whitefield. R. she anxiously inquired if they had heard Mr. this Lady Fanny . my ? lady.A. said. truth. "Oh. Whitefield preach. both its love for big its and some one who shared his alarm at advance. a story sinners. she is wish you would hear him he to preach to-morrow evening at such a church or chapel.

for defence of slavery . on most respectable authority. and am so worn out in his service. the atoning blood of Christ had washed them white as snow. They say that in your sermon last evening. I acknowledge. in speaking of the willingness of Jesus Christ to receive sinners. Whitefield assured her that there was no doubt of it." Upon his coming up into the drawing-room. you when she accosted me in the following manner 'Ah. nay. that I think I may with truth be called one of his ' castaways. Whitefield. your ladyship shall judge from the following circumstance Did your ladyship notice.' w Whitefield's labours among the rich were relieved by the more congenial work which than it of visiting some of the provincial towns. that he was willing to receive even the devil's Mr. must plead guilty to the charge the invitation. sir. Now. though her sins had been of a crimson hue. Whitefield is below in the parlour. its entreaty that slavery exist. might be introduced where did not already becoming so great that all The profit of the slave trade was now who had any interest in its extension . that Jesus Christ was for so willing to receive sinners. do not recollect to have ever met with it before but as Mr. and Lady Huntingdon. willing to go to Him. I believe. a very modest single rap It was given by a poor. I did what first I have never been I in the habit of doing— I went and one of the things heard you say was." whether I did what was right or lady. requested to speak with me. Do you think. about half an hour ago. Lady Huntingdon said: "Mr. miserable-looking aged female. sir. was assured. if she was but From the sequel. you expressed That so ready was Christ to receive yourself in the following terms sinners who came to Him. and that it ended in the sound conversion of this poor creature. a little singular in . worse that. in . my castaways. and : . From Gloucester he wrote is a letter to the Trustees of Georgia. I did. that Jesus Christ would receive me ? Mr. I was Yes. its painful to read. it appeared that it was the case. that the woman left a very charming testimony behind her that.254 following reply : GEORGE WHITEFIELD "There I is something. we'll have him up. I have been on the town many years. and hearing the voice of some one preaching. "I certainly.' preached last evening at such a chapel?' : ' ' accidentally passing the door of that chapel. otherwise. that he did not object to receive the devil's castaways. and let him answer for himself. these ladies have been preferring a very heavy charge against you. sir. who at the door ? I desired her to be shown into the parlour. Whitefield immediately replied. sir. and I thought it best you should come up and defend yourself.

21st. and was an instrument of gathering. divided found ' his converts He says The Moravians first my family. who described himself as a waiting servant of Christ. It ' was often when slavery was the it ' domestic institution of America. under the first burst of indignation at the sight of shameful Carolina. It is with touching humility that he refe. under God. he called at Lady Abney's to see Dr. charitably-minded man. said. Whitefield's letter to Doddridge. spirit The mercenary was blind and deaf to the .' He helped to raise the venerable man to take some medicine ' V and within the ' half ' an hour of his departure from the house. humbled. WATTS griefs 255 were clamouring to have restrictions removed. under the Divine had been to him. Whitefield it wrote to the inhabitants of South to the rule. would seem that he was no exception is Whitefield seen. and wrongs of the poor African and it is deplorable that Whitefield. one of the most generous and self-denying of men. field who had disturbed his congregation. and entered on December of his Lord. then I after that the societies which. into the joy servant had ceased his waiting. He speaks as a chastened. White- had felt all the annoyance of having his work damaged and broken by meddling men. and . Watts. my parish at Georgia.DR. himself. in kindly and close communion with the two foremost Nonconformists of his day.s to those dark days when he came from America and turned against him. is full of brotherly sympathy with the doctor in his trouble through the Moravians. On November 25th. cruelties. turned anti-slavery letter men into pro-slavery men and from that which. should have been affected with the popular tone of thought and feeling. and could thoroughly enter into Doddridge's feelings. at the end of 1748. and gratefully acknowledging \ personal benefit that their conduct. not blaming his troublers more than he condemns the blessing. that contact with too frequently dulled conscience. . submissive.

Gloucester. and. his great anxiety to act an honest part and keep from trimming. The revisit work among the nobility to get damaged Whitefield's health not a little. time of the year for open-air services. and hundreds now assemble within a quarter of a mile of me who to teach never come to see or I speak to me. and when Whitefield called upon him he received him . notwithstanding the unseasonable air. and that as fast as he found out his faults he should be glad to acknowledge them. sayings — such as. by fatherly oversight. his happy life . this feeble. though they must father. gladly. Between January 28 and March 1749. Dr. He was glad away into the west. Exeter. often in the open His life was a faithful ' embodiment of some of for life. suffering man performed a journey of six in hundred miles. the offence of the —a change which was is Whitefield would have hailed with satisfaction. Plymouth. through their practices.' spiritual fathers are apt It is not less pleasant to find Whitefield and his old tutor together again at Bristol. preaching as frequently as he ever had done the days of health. though he was content to be under displeasure . and to wean me from that too great fondness which to have for their spiritual children. have I left the Tabernacle.256 I GEORGE WHITE FIELD less suppose not than four hundred. R was now a prebendary. But have been forsaken other ways. I have not had above a hundred to hear me where I had twenty thousand. 10. own at the great day was their spiritual All this I find but little enough me to cease from man. I do not preach but from . bishops and other dignitaries would wear away The prebendary replied that as Whitefield grew moderate. They talked about the Church and Methodism and Whitefield told him that his judgment was riper than it had been at the outset of his career. This the last glimpse we shall get of the kindly man. to some of his former places of labour — Bristol. no slight service his who did Whitefield when misguided earnestness and anxiety in religion might have ruined Whitefield's energies for winter's life.

No may the I name of Whitefield die. and lowly mind towards the' mark for the prize of our high calling in Christ Jesus. . his faults when he told him that he wottld acknowledge as fast as he found them out. made him write to his friend Hervey Lady Huntingdon writes me word that " the prospect of doing gcod at Thither I am now bound. ." I go with fear and trembling. .' To one grow so brother minister he says . so as to win them to Jesus Christ. the world should hear but little oi me henceforward. Dr. : have always found awakening times blossoms. and did not the interest of my blessed Master require my appearing in public. glad your children I fast they become last. fail not to great. have seen enough of popularity to be sick of it. a few weeks later You judge right when you make a sect. pray for me. but not always so like spring times many for much fruit. that I may hold on and hold out to the end. fathers soon wish some is may I not prove dwarfs at A word to the wise sufficient. The Bishop 18 of Exeter. Lavingtpn. ' my . press forward with an even. it is your opinion that I . made him shrink from encountering the shocks of when to he approached the American coast on second visit America. so that the cause of Jesus Christ live. do not want let to the head of a party. return to London is very encouraging.' was with much reluctance that he ' thought of turning from his beloved ranging to renew his work in the Countess's house.' But other work than preaching demanded it his attention .' In quite the same spirit he says to the same friend. knowing how difficult it is to speak to the My dear brother. The same his diffidence which life. I would transmit all the glory that as God what pleased to pour upon me. or set myself at ' say. was no idle word which he spoke to his old tutor. meek. : ' I am .NOT A SECTARIAN 'Like a pure is 257 crystal. and in prosperity and adversity. and never claim It my own ' is His sole property.

without feeling how good and blessed a thing is an honest. and Jesuits are ! to be the true forerunners of Whitefield and Wesley There is only one thing more painful than the reading of it such unscrupulous attacks. Their something wonderful it is impossible to turn from perusing the bishop's slanders and abuse. .258 GEORGE WHITEFIELD him with a fine furnished opportunity of retraeting . like St. The subject was tempting and the argument adopted valid. is with much shown patience and astounding through nine characteristics. ' his life is for its of frankness The bishop wrote.' in which he attempted to draw a parallel the between the old Church and the new sect.' A man calls spirit crushing answer might have been penned by any honest . traced The identity of Methodist and Popish Dominicans. to read Whitefield's reply. or rather new men of his own Church. in absent in America. heart. answer. this and no part of exhibition 1747. as far as his conversation could afford assurance to the contrary. enthusiasm malevolence Franciscans. : belonging to Popery is bad .' as he reply. always spoke of them as a fraternity To the very last he of hypocrites compounded and enthusiasts. . but Whitefield's his is ' Remarks upon and the Pamphlet. Lavington had said that the Anthony. are better than any formal . forgiving Methodist preachers. were attended by 'a . many more and blameworthy words and deeds remarkable than humility. the enthusiasm of the Methodist therefore the enthusiasm and Papists Methodists is is the same of the bad. to know be without foundation. a treatise on when Whitefield was The Enthusiasm of the Methodists and Papists. if everything to an enemy The syllogism was Everything belonging to Popery be evil. and is ' the assurance of Arch- deacon More that the assertion that latter Bishop Lavington in his I days repented of his writings against the Methodists.

much ' — severity far in in our zeal at least there was in mine also that his and Seward's treatment of Archbishop Tillotson too severe. do not you . is generally much — too . too. a fighting enthusiasm amongst them. have often felt the should believe it? true. and than the false zeal of my friends in a suffering hour. it.BISHOP LA VING TON'S ATTACK sturdy set of followers. as their guards. thanks be to Redeemer and His apostles. however you may His irresistible power. which. that when the primitive Christians received the blessed sacrament. because I said. would call their apostle. I literally speaking. I suppose. but actually abused and beat many of those who came to hear him whom you.' Whitefield confessed that first ' there . many of them dumb.' 'You add. when we if ought only. like those of their blessed but. ridicule have not been carnal God. often affirmed. ' " I have heard it it often affirmed .' says Whitefield. called to doctrines. And whatever you may unkindly insinuate about my being aware of a turbulent spirit. 259 armed with clubs under such as should speak menacing and terrifying lightly of their apostle. not as their guards. been mighty to the pulling strongholds in down of Satan's many a sturdy sinner's heart. to imitate us in our faults let the surviving Methodists . These are all the sturdy set of armed followers that the Methodists know of. armed with clubs and other weapons. they killed a and then sucked It is its blood. a candid manner. for want of better arguments. weight of such irresistible power. " I dread nothing more verily believe."' I think many years' experience may convince the world that the weapons of their warfare. heartily. invisible guard. sir. through Him. they have. young But was that any reason why they some of the Methodist preachers set of followers. must have struck them dead. as I believe he (Seward) do. " and so might the heathens have said that they heard child. I condemn myself most would go on. have more than once been attended with a sturdy . which would do again to I have mentioned what we judged wrong in his do not justify it. but opposers and persecutors and who have not only menaced and terrified. still and ask pardon alive. hath struck had it not been for some superior. for it. were he now But then. indeed. Both Methodist preachers and Methodist hearers. their clothes. was by We condemned I his state.

or some other kind person. house at For two days he sought retirement in his wife's Abergavenny (she was now on her way from Bethesda to join him). I retract with my heart. unless you. for it ill-usage. thousands answering his call.' he be a the says. of 1749. were spent in a tour through the west and through Wales. martyrdom. which exhibits so From thence he wrote many sides to his brother at Bristol a letter of his : life and character that it demands a place in his biography My very dear Brother. and though not intended convey a I profane idea. whom. in order to lay all. you will have the honour of Both before and ever since I left receiving in a few days under your roof. let Seward and Tillotson lie undis: Whitefield adds. Enclosed you have a letter from out good Lady Huntingdon. persecution. 'runs thus: I "Very it profane. The whole and the early part of the autumn. and desire may be before buried in oblivion.' 'Your remark. I suppose.260 GEORGE WHITEFIELD for answer turbed. and coming as of old.' He also thanks Lavington for pointing out the ' very wrong expression about the ' hosannas of the multitude. I have been frequently thinking of the unspeakable mercies that ' — . on the subject of desiring persecution Whatever can be produced out of any of I my writings all to prove that have desired or prayed death. &c.' ' themselves . was very wrong and unguarded. and found to it ' so very sweet. to Whitefield's candour . is a perfect atonement for his fault. even when the rain rendered an open-air service both uncomfortable and dangerous. as proceeding from the overflowings of an irregular. man. unless it false print for huzzas." could wish had been to so. but word was my own .' The last admission of that he was wrong all making public the lot Wesley cast in private.' that he would have been glad never have been heard of again. though well- meant ' zeal. Bristol. are pleased to remind me of it. me low God and in rest. is worth it the and does honour of the summer.

the hearty prayer ' Him who hath my dear brother. whilst I me to a throne of am writing. forgive me. I which is but then. will be only like a mere Froteus. that it often brings grace. will be only nature still. Oh. and look to to Him whom we and be made all mourn be done. I am lost in wonder. my day when you agonising in prayer for you. me. and drives your behalf. precious blood for you. Even now. ever met with in hurt enough . shed His Yours most affectionately 'George Whitefield. and consequently a greater share of care and circumspecimprove the glory of tion necessary to Him who hath been always preventing and following you with His blessings. who thought if that X Whitefield had carried religion very near the Court. and I strong crying unto God in your behalf. retirement here these two days hath been very sweet but to-morrow I begin a three weeks' Next Sabbath I am to be at Carmarthen the Friday following at Haverford West. to the fountain of light and life. my dear brother. not my dear brother be angry lime. To a friend. adieu. dis- His work among the rich was done with a scrupulous all self-interest. For the present. to wrestle in soul is bodily sickness upon me.' These prayers appear regard of to have been answered. Surely the language of both our hearts ought to be. though may shift its scene. not quite and that he might have influence enough to secure the appointment of a religious governor to some colony where a . will follow this letter with My tears shall be turned into prayers. hoping I shall see that will have poured out have on you a pierced. Should you prove any afflictions I it will be one of the greatest my life. My .A BROTHER'S LOVE the infinitely great 261 and glorious God is pleased to pour down upon us. A concern for your eternal welfare so affects and begin to redeem. and till renewed by the Spirit of as one God. and want a thousand let spend in the Redeemer's entreat service. " What shall we render unto the Lord? " lives to For my part. At present you can only hurt yourself. life may be one continued is sacrifice of love to of. resolutions. otherwise than a pious husband. in all probability. if I him at length to leave off killing. spiders' webs. am jealous over you with a godly jealousy. . into it. Apply then. spirit of grace and of supplication. That you may take Christ to be your all in all. and that the remainder of your circuit. Till this all schemes for amendment. A worthy woman. from whence every good and perfect gift cometh. A considerable addition all for then be made to your present talents. Nature it is mourneth for a first-born. my ' dearest brother. is going to throw herself under will God into your hands.

for Whitefield found that he had good an understanding of the ' figurative parts of Scripture as any one that he knew of in the world. but at last man could be brought to a firm was done. and a man of of great Many were it the expostulations the bold evangelist before the shrinking stand. as by reproach. On the day of his arrival at Bristol after a month's circuit this he gives account of his work : — . whose dress was very mean —as well it might be. despised. and who was something as of a poet . but enjoyed much of God. and by loving persuasion. faithful minister of Christ ? ' So he hints that four or five guineas might be bestowed on this Zachary. but them. his Lord. and self-denying consecration to the will of One that of the most difficult cases he ever had to manage was refinement. a friend of Doddridge. and because he would fain convince not theirs. he replied that he should be very shy to ask favours. seeing he had but three his pounds per annum from a fund. which would try to free full hindered their Jesus Christ. and the same sum from people — who lived very low.262 GEORGE WHITEFIELD if governor was wanted. even he had interest at Court. he the fearful from the fear of man. an eminent physician. all that he sought Yet he would use his influence with if it equal freedom in other quarters. and especially was for any one in more than usually humble circumstances. it A hard task was for him to inspire other hearts with as- much moral courage well as by example. this Such a tour. By word. to finish the an who had sold part of his library meeting-house in which he preached. of Dr. worthy object came under his notice during obscure Dissenting minister. who had also a faithful Elizabeth. Stonehouse. lest he should be thought to preach for himself and not for Christ Jesus. of Northampton.' How could he for- bear using his interest with a rich and benevolent friend for such a ' poor. as always bore up his own.

soon to find himself surrounded with a great company. and then returned all into the west. honest man. where Methodist doctrines were agitating minds. so that I was almost brought to the crave. incidents as would form the remarkable parts of many life but in this career they are in danger of being passed over as commonplace. and has recanted several things but he goes on . Plymouth the wonderful power which attended was making things look quite new. when the Lord was pleased to lay His hand upon me. It would be a rare thing in the of any clergyman were he. to be asked and entreated by a humble. During till this excursion I kept happy inwardly. at Wellington when Whitefield rode through All along his way he found the good seed of past sowing At times springing up and promising an abundant harvest.' Soon afterwards Whitefield resumed a little his work in London for while. and where he was an his reply to the first especial object of interest. some Yes its candour and simplicity deserved nothing if less. ' : when asked by some one Whitefield writes like an . the bishop had been useful to his first visit in reply to His pamphlet .NOT ONE DRY MEETING ' 263 Yesterday God brought me here. and likely to increase daily. and well in body the latter end of last week. Had my dear Mr.' place was And still the next day the congregation at the same greater. and upon con' senting to do so. M Sit aniiiia mea many dear cum Methohave been distis!" But every one to his post. in upwards of a hundred thousand counties. on being recognised as he passed through a town. he had seen replied. Hervey been there to have seen the simplicity of so souls. I am persuaded he would have said. The journey has as many a life. The bishop. to eight about eight hundred miles. The work Wales is much upon the advance. souls. and enabled me I to preach. it. But lie that wounds heals also. have been Welsh in and I think we have not had one dry meeting. unknown woman to stay and give the people a sermon . after having carried me I a circuit of suppose. on account of part of Bishop Lavington's pamphlet. This happened it.

and the two friends fraternising with such cordiality as only feel. being one of these undesirable 'sons. and did no damage. men whose endangered friendship has stood firm can The bishop was not. The bishop was troubled with Methodists in his own his own clergy.264 in GEORGE WHITEF1ELD the same way yet. nor did he mount the table . the thump of a sod from a Staffordshire heathen. Gennis. from which. which struck deep into Whitefield's head. In his presence. were followed by a stunning blow from a great stone. and almost awful rolled him off the table. it. amidst an at stillness. a I can preach it the gospel without for him. Thompson. Thompson immediately pulled it it off himself. . thought was best to send and Next he had the mortification of seeing Whitefield welcomed to Thompson's house. which in due time appeared Wesley. A second stone. to go without his gratification. Whitefield was for the fourth time violently assaulted while preaching the gospel. but as it was mainly directed against in Wesley's hands Whitefield was content to leave and among St. aimed same object.' try to The bishop soothe him. struck a at the Exeter. and throwing ' at the feet of the astounded bishop. the Rev. gown.' diocese. and the pelting with the refuse of a Moorfield's fair. however. from whence he had thought to banish him. presence of the that Methodist man who had unblushingly repeated the preachers were often attended with carrying clubs under their clothes to a set of sturdy fellows make the congregations reverence their preaching apostle . Mr. The blow of a cudgel at Basingstoke.' His loidship also promised a second part of his pamphlet. he was addressing ten thousand hearers for him. vicar of When off Lavington threatened him to his face that he would pull his gown. and in that of I many of his clergy. exclaimed. A third. also meant poor man fell quite to the ground. This was done in the lie.

. dists as they stop them. it nor to exaggerate another's fault. Laving- ton tried to reform the heathen of Exeter. then turned the rest of their clothes over their heads. 1747 . instead of wasting his time in slandering others who did his neglected work. the crew. neither the mayor nor the magistrates interfering to They kicked the men and subjected them to every abuse and They rubbed the faces of the women with lamp-black and oil .' who carried persecution to every length short of death. led by a bailiff. \ In 1745. or rolled them in the gutters or in mud-heaps prepared for them. they beat their breasts with their clenched fists . . and his clergy do not seem to have been accessory Whitefield.STONED BEFORE A BISHOP to express his 265 shame and regret at being the witness of such an outrage. 1745. but the assailant must have been tolerably sober to hit his when once he aimed so well as next time threw with such force as neither do drunken man on the head. they stripped them almost naked. The riot occurred in 1745 Eavington's Treatise was written jn 1746. abused the Methowould. men often manage carry three large stones into a dense crowd. Whitefield was assaulted in 1749. Whitefield call at re- turned to London. 1 Weak and suffering. indignity. yet a moral conqueror. and the to lay a man on the ground to . and encouraged by many gentlemen. and in that condition kicked or dragged them along the street. clerk. and 'A brief Account of the late Persecution and Barbarous Usage of the Methodists at Exeter. one woman leaped from the hours. simply says was ' a drunken man who threw ' three great stones at him . a parish' laced themselves in and several tradesmen. never wishful to magnify his deeds and that sufferings.' or ' Church The God-damn-me Crew.' by an Impartial Hand. not forgetting on his way to Dorchester Gaol to comfort John Haime.' by John Cennick. The riot lasted for the presence of thousands. For the sake of truth ' it should be stated that the city had a band of ruffians called Rabble. a sexton.' who windows to see the obscene sport. To save herself from one of the mob who attempted even worse outrage. neither did he act the part of the kind Samaritan to the injured man. The only alleviating thought to this story is that the bishop to the assault. and in gallery of the meeting-house to the floor. a soldier who had headed a 1 It would have been more becoming a Christian bishop had Dr. — See 'An Account of a late Riot at Exeter.

and of carry the district round. forth to preach. traced with winding roads. that lie bordering on the moors of Ilkley.266 revival GEORGE movement among for his zeal ' Iff//TEE/ELD his comrades in in Flanders. as he went . as they were a part of the line of the great serpent. when he halted for a moment on and it the doorstone. would be little time that he to could find for soften communion with nature. the incumbent. and among a people as different from those of the west of England as Yorkshire moors are different from Devonshire lanes and orchards. hardened sinners all of the village. standing half a mile from the church. the Norse legend says. and The old parsonage (not the one in which the Brontes afterwards lived). girdles the world piety . which. most would be a hurried glance that he would give. His work was and change the rugged. as far as his iron strength could . illimitable look. and the from its windows a wide view of the door the interlacing hills valley of the from its towards Keighley. sacred both to and genius. ' and was received at bleak little Haworth. and been ! rewarded by a place among knaves and felons ' Whitefield's grand catholicon under both public and domestic trials — preaching— was . and the swelling moors. him and for that he must only exchange the saddle for the pulpit where he made his sermons where he preached . it. or returned from the same duty for he was an untiring apostle of the truth. and since his return home had preached Methodist fashion. like the sturdy was solid and weather-beaten. man who then inhabited We it do not know whether lay his eye often lingered his on the beauty and grandeur that at the around home perhaps . commanding Worth. sheltered valley at their feet. and It was the splendid autumn season ' when he first clambered up that steep road fall winding between wave-like hills that rise on every side of the horizon. by William Grimshaw. if with a long. now used by him of 1 with unin a remitting diligence and in the autumn 749 we find him new district.

shepherds and labourers. mind should ' and understand he only. and listened as if hear his words of they the power of another first world upon their spirits. would have imparted to them. or on hillside . 1749. Truer and kinder shepherd never tended flock than this overseer of the flock among the hills. So number could have been district collected together in this desire to thinly-populated only by a strong hear . because they were dear to him. so be Thirty times a week would in cottage or church. to get through his subject he would dwell with unwearied patience on each part of his message. His church always presented a remarkable appearance on the Sunday. Much has been said about his eccentricities. simply to preach. in which was in September. who had entered holy orders with the unholy wish living to get the best he could. six thousand people stood the churchyard to hear him. Affectionately desirous of people. nor ever thought of his sacrifice. 267 An all-absorbing thing was the enjoying and teaching sin to holiness. who lived daily in the light of his shining purity. loving the tenderness that the feeblest ' and mercy of which also love his it spoke. who sought the lambs in and the sheep by night and day. those truths which had turned his own soul from and which had changed a clergyman. came district to felt from the remotest parts of his wild grace and truth. he might save that which was he preach summer and winter. in weariif ness and painfulness. into a loving shepherd. Neither was he . and anxious it. and above a thousand communi- cants approached the table with feelings of great a awe and joy. that day. it was an idle week when he preached but twelve satisfied times. a mere professional.THE VICAR OF HA WORTH them. but these were little noticed by his people. not the gospel of God but also his own soul. lost. When Whitefield visited them. and received in their every sorrow and in their every joy the sympathy of his faithful heart. The shepherding of the week made a full fold Weavers and farmers.

and went (a pleasant sight to see) to introduce his brother in Christ to the Methodist pulpit in that town. at the who died sixty years ago advanced age of eighty. 1 Tradition long retained a story about the preaching at Birstall. Charles immediately turned his horse's head round towards Newcastle. The week before last I waited on our friend George to our house in Newcastle. and had a congregation of ten thousand visited About the same time he Armley. ' O earth. when he . Nancy Birstall Bowling.ntU_are one a threefold cord which shall no more be broken. subjects on which he discoursed. The Lord united all beginning that multitudes are daily added — \ . Word of the Lord ! ' The story must have been lold her but most likely she heard him preach. all. as the congregations at Cam' buslang and in the American woods were called together. hear the . earth. of one of Wesley's preachers and of Wesley's people he was to welcomed by hear him. and that his voice could be heard on Staincliffe Hill. 1 Proceeding northwards.268 GEORGE WHITEFIELD and by a deep and real interest in the great an unequalled preacher. and gave him full possession of our pulpit and people's hearts as full as was in my power to give. 'a great It day of the Son of man. and where he had been confirming the believers. was. as she was ten years old died. he met Charles Wesley returning from Newcastle. used to tell how the wind blew from towards Heckmondwike when Whitefield preached. He wrote a letter giving an account of what took place which reflects the highest credit upon the work : spirit in which the three friends were now doing moments their ' I snatch a few rejoice to . a pious old maid of Heckmondwike.' to all Whitefield paid his first visit Leeds at the request . before the people come to tell you what you at will know —that the Lord is reviving to His work as the His Church. whose fame was familiar through the lips of their pastor.' says Whitefield. so that G. crying. Pudsey. and myjjroth pr n . W. and Birstall. where Methodism had already won a remarkable triumph. a mile and a half from where he stood.

will by and by attended his successful ministry satisfied. Some at London will be alarmed at the news but it is the Lord's doing. as they. Grace Murray. He was At Leeds we met my brother. we should have been as Sodom. and the pulled society house down by a mob. while the constable later looked on approvingly. At Sheffield. hardened sinners at Sheffield the same and ' : felt himself constrained to warn them from the awful words Except the Lord of hosts had unto left unto us a very small remnant. Bennet. whom Wesley was engaged. . In 1743 Charles had been stoned there. who gave honest George the right hand of fellowship. never more blessed or better . GRACE our hearts. and churches and chapels echoed with the thunder of their displeasure. then a town of ten thousand inhabitants.' his Winter was warning him home to Tabernacle . and attended him everywhere to our societies. Wesley showed astonishing magnanimity towards which Charles all con- cerned. and under the strain it caused he kept the two brothers together.MRS. . 269 for some days. a widow. and we should have been like Gomorrah ' ! God filled his mouth with judgments . says Whitefield.' ' Brother Charles ' and 'honest George did something more ' at Newcastle than preach to . they got Mrs. ' indeed it begins to be cold abroad. This second after visit to Leeds. he unwittingly gave the Wesleys a most appropriate return for their kindness at Leeds and Newcastle. I doubt not. Nottingham. I MURRAY . so he only called at Sheffield. refers. married to John Bennet. It was November now. acknowledge. Three years still Charles found the . It part of made their the Established and Dissenting clergy very angry. to the great anguish of Wesley's heart. and. but especially towards Charles and Mrs. Whitefield played only a secondary part in this blamable transaction. and Ashby on his way southwards. to was a ride with Whitefield through part of Lancashire and Cheshire.

that he might have the more to give to the poor. ' Oh. all ' personal If souls to the glory and kingdom of were profited he desired no more. against them. homeless. Whitefield preached here. yet was he ever mindful of the past. and hate. which he trembled to utter. suffering Redeemer.' his piety. and quite removed the prejudices of our first opposers. character of mine did not at care to part with 'twas . there was before his soul the image of his humbled. sin. some converted and added to the Church.' self-satisfaction in There was not a grain of after V He was hungering and thirsting simplicity interests and godly sincerity. "He that escapes the sword of Jehu shall Elisha slay. He had struggled upwards to a glorious height of consecration and and love. yet he his satisfaction than that of having delivered toiled. rage. is own Other labourers then came visit Whitefield. in every reproach endured. cheering and reviving and defending him. When ' others were wondering at his unflagging afraid of declining in the latter stages devotion. the success of whose preaching thus noticed by Charles : Wesley. my dear I he exclaims to a first this pretty . encouraged them by that most glorious promise — "Behold He cometh with clouds. eighteen months after Whitefield's 'At two I I rejoiced to meet some of my dear children in Sheffield.270 GEORGE WH1TEF1ELD had no deeper soul.'" He was no mighty man. and they to hear. He was subjecting his Lord. Some of them were convinced by him. and every eye shall see Him. in every sacrifice and for the furtherance of the gospel. these conquests over fierceness. he was more him. And made. of his road than of anything else." The door has continued open ever since Mr. and anxious ' day of his final emancipation from friend. but who won one who passed his days in humble watchfulness and dependence upon heavenly aid.' Every expense was con- tracted with miserly vigilance. when self-will fear of contempt marred the beauty and excellence of for the sir. glorying in his strength.

271 death to be despised. setting out in one's to serve This makes me fly from that which our first we are too apt to court. The nobility forgotten. and worse than death to think of being But when I began to consider Him who I endured such contradiction of sinners against Himself.' and have been so cluster of ' above l/ seven Humility was now one of all the most conspicuous among I it that radiant virtues I and graces which crowned his head like stars.INTIMATE WITH CONTEMPT laughed at by all. the winter in the 1749-50. too. if it that he would willingly have could be kept till was about three years old. find a love of power sometimes to intoxicates even God's own dear zeal. 'I hope to earth. in the morning.' me cannot well buy humility to ' at too He went golden seasons ' in London. I find much easier to obey than govern.' hopes to write to the poor orphan-house he sends baker soon and to Habersham to take is at the ' word and it that he has agreed little Joseph and his sister. confor tempt and twice are pretty intimate. and poor people and orphans not that he ' He Lady Huntingdon . 'for. and blessed be God. all.' grow rich in heaven by taking care of orphans on further instructed to let Mrs. were preached tells to. longed to drink of the I then same cup .' also that he hears there a little it infant beside the other two. Large congregations were gathered together at six Tabernacle. Haber- sham is V (probably some widow) and the other poor of Savannah reap the benefit of the .' says he. that ! may out. and makes them spirit mistake passion for authority given and an overbearing For for an it them from above. learn from ' Oh. years. and that to it is much power at safer to be trodden under foot than others so. all see to desire to be nothing ' he cries and to think my highest privilege to be an assistant to I but the head of none. children. have my own it part. Thanks be ill to the Lord of all ! lords for taking any pains with I and hell-deserving dear a in rate.

with his conceptions of the at Court. with a which was brought from abroad. not ashamed. which was spiritual in fair even to him. coming round to her. work of God. and preached Wesley also came to the for Whitefield. will show : how his friends He to in says His Majesty seems by have been acquainted with some things about his us. if it GEORGE WHITEFIELD answers expectation. but men's hearts failed them for fear. and administered the sacrament twice. what passed : discourse with -suit Lady Chesterfield. ' to the Countess. The following anecdote. At length his Majesty ladyship could not imagine what was the matter.' Early in 1750 London was several times shaken with earth- quakes . ' Pray let one barrel ol rice be reserved for them. and the state of excitement into which it and other causes threw the people. His Majesty Her and then laughed right out. Whitefield and I hear said Her ladyship that you have attended on him this year and a half. I have. Wesley's His four friendly advance was kindly met times to and he preached or five large congregations. " I know who chose that gown for you Mr." ground and silver flowers..' Something now induced him chapel. at a quarter There was no more harm done past five in the morning. : — . . which he communicated were observed. The brown particulars are these her ladyship had a of clothes-on. and administered a measure the sacrament to twelve hundred communicants. first The shocks were felt on the 8th of February. answered : to her chair is "Yes. first smiled. than the rocking of the houses and the tumbling down of some chimneys. His work among the satisfying nobility. gave Whitefield a grand opportunity for displaying the fulness of his love in and the strength of his faith God. There . to offer to preach in .272 crop. Tabernacle. and on the 8th of March there came another. and I like him very well " but after she came was grieved she had not said more so that I find her ladyship . was now the subject of conversation as well as in private circles.

The Methodist chapels had enormous congregations. Neither moon nor star shed prepare for the coming of the Son of man. very trying to Whitefield's it refreshing to his heart daily trial throughout the whole of body was a to him. he was not . kindled as was by the love of the Lord Jesus. an event any light upon audience still or preacher. Christ should have had them It was inevitable that his flaming zeal. and moved so rapidly from place to place. bolder and more fanatical than the rest of the people. and sometimes he could It scarce drag the crazy load along. his ' winter in if London had been . and the longer he preached. have spoken The health. and the mightier ' his word. the greater Still became more the congregations satisfied. to begin beginning in six days spend and be spent Him ! ' Twelve times did he preach at Plymouth. to in his Master's strength. like a voice crying in the wilder- spoke of mercy and judgment. A soldier. it bodi souls for the Lord Jesus ' gifted with ten thousand. He warned and entreated them to much more stupendous and important than that which they now expected every moment to see.' was with delight that off into he saw spring return. 9 .s.EARTHQUAKES IN LONDON was talking about judgment and the last 273 day. He went with his hands so of work. He for found it exceedingly pleasant. Whitefield sought his congregation soldier's in Hyde Park on the dreaded night of the all prediction. more had he been all. and burnin r only for His glory. and could hardly in vain. It darkness. that he could hardly find time to eat. an- nounced the coming overthrow of a great part of the a certain night between twelve and one o'clock. ' and hoped now. while others city on Multitudes fields crowded the and open places for safety from falling houses. He wanted . and only one voice was heard in the ness. fled the city altogether. more tongues. and that he went for a the west full time of ranging.

Friends at were jubilant and when he was speaking little Bideford. and yet the pulpit was his only cure. and Cornwall right Land's End. and thought it much better for the change. first with Hervey and Hartley. so that his friends off ' began to pity him ! less. ' what kind of a says. Early in started for Ashby. life The kind people of Ashby. London when he was preaching he was over the himself so first four times a day and when burst of effort in the west. and not afraid to attend Whitefield's preaching in the fields.274 GEORGE WHITEFIELD fire all should the district through which he passed. Plymouth. London. where there all was one of the best St. as he put forth could not felt to do him last That pain which he . and to leave that ungrateful caution. to the Glouces- ter. He had some pleasant interviews with Doddridge. nor to take the evangelist's arm down the street).'almost killed him. returned upon him with increased power. as he came from Scotland was not inactive it now and It again pierced in him. 1750. Such exertions physical mischief.' he says. flocks in fell England. London from the west. " Spare thyself " He does not appear to have permitted one day's rest to his to body when he returned May. where Lady Huntingdon whom he hoped God's people would keep out of heaven as long as possible by their prayers. and coming be independent of that body which had oppressed him at his . the bold vicar of Gennis almost under the the \ mighty power of God which came down upon fail people. to travel in were all ablaze with religious fervour. he was lying ill. He had continued vomitings which . a series of little At Ashby there began the of incidents in this town which well illustrate his was. He seemed to in the strength of the crazy Holy Ghost.' he 'stirred up some of the baser sort to riot before her . with Stonehouse (now a clergyman. Bristol. had plagued him . and stayed his headlong pace.

' Except ye repent. was one Thorpe. and one. he began to preach in right earnest. another rough reception was given to him at Rotherham. for a wager. staves to the baiting. but afterwards rescued. then Wesley's. and took the first text that his eye fell all upon. and several watermen came with great . interrupt his him as he went on to make with filled own mind amazement and His sermon —which room he always affirmed was preached by the help of the the table. at mimicking Whitefield. thought to make merry with his public-house friends at the evangelist's expense. in a public-house. and Sutton.' The words pierced his conscience at once. and instead of mimicking. He and three others engaged to com- pete. and on Wednesday evening some narrowly escaped on their return home. His audience hung their heads to in silence and gloom . left Spirit of God — ended. finally and becoming an Independent.' . then morning the 'bear' had the his congregation drum sounded. door while the gospel was preaching people. which places message was reverently listened to by vast numbers. in order to bring the offenders before him. His competitors took their turn table. The constable was struck two of the mobbers were apprehended. he opened the Bible at haphazard.' After at passing through his Nottingham. Her ladyship has just received a message from the justice. settled as the pastor of . ' first all. none attempted remarks which terror. then he jumped on the I shall beat you According to the terms of the contest. neither thoughts nor language failing him. the most active opponents of Whitefield at One who of Rotherham. without noticing any Afterwards he joined Ingham's society. being murdered. which was this. ye shall likewise perish. saying.ADVENTURES BY THE WAY ladyship's 275 . he descended from in the silence. but also afterwards one of his best friends. The crier was employed to give notice of a bear-baiting. At seven o'clock on a Saturday round him. Mansfield.

' he answered. ' I never saw a poor the poor pilgrim creature sent off in such disgrace. did you gain by it?' 'A soft pillow. The filled moors around Haworth were thronged on Whit Sunday with thousands of people. during which Whitefield's house was often the village inn. In vain did his friend try to dissuade him. night Satan hath showed Some persons got into the barn and stable. At Newby Cote. append to his letter. like a insults who looked more last butcher than a minister. in 1 The people of Bolton . bright side.' adds Whitefield. from whence treatment he had received at he wrote the letter detailing the Bolton. fell 'What asleep. from county to county.276 the Independent rivalled GEORGE WHITEFIELD Church at Masbro. and soon . and there he was exposed to annoyance both from drunkards and gamblers. but apparently without any lay When he returned down again. and have cut horse's tails. my do. He came with two others.' Thus went on from town to town. and charged a constable to take Whitefield into custody ' . but. Sheffield hardened visit. He and went and spoke.' to render the of those which Whitefield bore during this journey. effect. he had to after writing it. at seven ' : on the morning This last a postscript which ran thus his teeth. and the church was thrice almost with communicants. those of Rotherham rudeness and . which a gamblers and their foul language so troubled him that he he must go and reprove them. he reached Edinburgh ' the end of two months. in One night the set of room felt in which he and a friend slept was next to that were carousing . violence a drunkard stood up behind Whiter! eld to preach twice attempted to stab the person and a woman who erected the preaching- stand in her husband's field. Increasing at in power as he went. his friend said. The journey had also its sinners were visibly altered in their looks since the last and received the word with such gladness that to away because they could not come near enough many went hear. chaise and one of the if What would men they could ? ' It was reserved for 'a clergyman at Ulverstone.

all was most pleasant and most He looks at home in his he entertains house adjoining the Tabernacle.' he says. and for some short time after quiet. His coming was hailed with joy in Scotland gregations than ever waited on his word striking. There beloved friend Hervey to breakfast with . and sometimes we find .' and then giving her the communion. quiet . his return from Scotland.' His active life did not altogether remove him from the quiet sphere of an ordinary pastor. The 'and have reason to bless God for ever for this last visit to Scotland. not so but quite as useful. and the beginning of 1 The end to of 1750 751 do not appear . Ralph Erskine and he met. . and to perhaps as many as one hundred and thousand people. and then to . affectionate than ever. daughter of Lady Hotham. his dearly Wesley.him comforting the dying. at her bedside. and shook hands. . and passed into see Whitefield kneeling the joy of her Lord. that his public labours. The re- Honourable Miss Hotham.VISITING THE DYING forty 277 time he had preached more than ninety times. well numerous and exhausting work at all. and preparing them for their change. when he was and enough to were consider- ably overshadowed by personal affliction and the affliction of his wife friends. larger con- and results. and another day four times. time and the second in the evening at six but one day he preached thrice. At first. parting was rather I shall The pamphleteers were more and many ' of his enemies were glad to be at peace with him. followed his efforts as formerly. It is striking to and praying 'as low as he could. last religious teaching from him. This exertion proved too much. the early in the morning. have been so is stirring as other times in Whitefield's life but as the fact ever. too. Such work awaited him on ceived her his return to England. first His general plan was to preach twice every day. comes up one morning him.

He says that she looks like ' good archbishop with ' his chaplains around him. others was the distinguish- How few have we known ! ' of so kind a temper. to ministers — ' Beware of — is and although he has won he is converts in short stay at Ashby. the affability.' 'They have all the sacrament every morning. ' and the promptest wit.' as Wesley says. have frequently thought that this of ing part of his character. Nor good is the heavenly conversation without wit and pleasantry. says. and said of him ' For friendship formed by nature and by grace. and plunged w into all the excitement of his countless labours. ' the spirit of this beautiful expression of It is my comfort that those who are friends to Jesus shall live eternally together hereafter. ' was susceptible I of the most generous and the most tender all friendship. He hardly withdrawn from the ing in them. had the same judgment on this point.' Toplady made him one we is of the best companions But so it is in the world. of such large and flowing affections Charles Wesley. His heart made up of truth and tenderness.' day. nestling ' yet longing to die preach- His favourite caution never out of mind this . fields.' his. a generous expansion of heart. . too. heavenly conversation at night. himself on others to bestow.' only for a few days that sec him spending a life is free from the strain of preaching to thousands. for Whitefield was one of the cheerfullest of men. 'Strong artless sense.' that he comes in from the Tabernacle to . most but captivating the brightest cheerfulness. His heart. and preaching He calls this living at Court indeed. enjoy the conversation of his friend and by and by goes a down to Ashby to see the Countess and four clergymen who are enjoying her hospitality. soon off to London. He It is in lived.278 GEORGE WHITEFIELD ' pray with him.

in March. and what She was. and in converting impenitent. He be I remarks concerning her silently. he wrote a characteristic letter to his friend Hervey. affected him. sudden To me worse than death to be nursed. and after that event she continued for some fell time in a precarious state. ' she will have ! nobody to give her the ' : sacrament unless you come ' White- held proceeds I ventured the other day to put out a guinea . much he sister- and he was sent for to see her at once. indeed.' he says. unwell at the same time as Whitefield. near her third His wife. He Half .ILLNESS OF LADY HUNTINGDON Two fever. which. When arrived at in-law. he found her somewhat lying but her Lady Frances Hastings. Not a word from his pen about his third still-born. Ash by. confinement. When to he finished and started for Bristol. ' for. but he had thought to cast anchor in the haven of eternal regretfully rest. lived and died suddenly without a groan. soon was well enough to engage again in his work. too.' Whitefield's preaching this winter was as remarkable as on comforting mourners. She was a retired Christian. in the any previous winter cheering the for its efficacy in faithful. child. I cannot help wishing that it is may go to live off in the same manner. she became worse. he received the summons ' to put out to sea again but his thought for himself was quickly forgotten in the old passion of his soul — love them of others — and still he wished that he might live to direct to the haven he had almost sighted. better. is Sudden death glory. ' : dead in the house. but in January. like the second. urging him to come Lady Huntingdon at Bristol . ! May my exit like hers Whether right or not. 279 months' work brought on a violent and dangerous which confined him to his room for two weeks. and see friends weeping about one. was in very delicate health. was probably Trouble next her affected fell upon Lady Huntingdon. 1751.

that beautiful character. He has a wife I and four one for children. who saw in the trade a . and some that were born in his house.280 GEORGE WHITEFIELD It to interest for you. doomed to perpetual slavery. a sigh of regret that he never appears to have They cause his met contemporary. gave for myself and one in We shall have good interest our money another world. who. and though liberty is a sweet thing to such as are born free. in Georgia may be overruled for this great end ? As for the lawfulness of keeping slaves I have no doubt. and was above two guineas for you. What a flourish- ing country might Georgia have been. had brought himself very low. 'that the time for favouring that colony seems to be come. had the use of them been permitted years ago ! How many white people have been destroyed for want of . Whitefield's remarks upon new just acquisition are too strange. because the introduction of slaves was at length permitted by the Government. was to relieve an excellent Christian. The pertinacity of those who wanted to make money out feelings of their fellow-men out-wearied the better and holier principles of those rights. for the think now is the season for us to exert our utmost good of the poor Ethiopians.' I he says. it is plain to a demonstration that hot countries cannot be cultivated without Negroes. the certainly American Quaker.' This year his mind was much relieved about Georgia. in debt. violation of human a political and social curse and free scope was given for the capture of Negroes in Africa and for their introduction into his America. ' Thanks be to God. to be omitted. yet to those \ J may not be so irksome. who never knew the sweets of it. slavery perhaps However this be. John Woolman. since I hear of some that were bought with Abraham's money. And I cannot help thinking that some of those servants mentioned by the apostles in their It is plain that the Gibeonites were epistles were or had been slaves. who would have talked and prayed him into a different state of mind. We are told that even they are soon And who knows but their being settled to stretch out their hands to God. as coming from one who had helped the poor indebted Christian. by living very hard and working near twenty hours out of four-and-twenty.

for more than a century. In the original Declaration of Independence of the United States there was a clause reprobating the enslavement of African . j£ \2. You know. dear sir. number of and pigs. earliest orphan-house accounts may be on the same for so page which records the pounds paid entry many horses. I should think myself highly favoured if I could purchase a good number of them. in order to make their lives comfortable. yet as it will be carried on whether we will or not.' In a copy of the found. an \^ And this 'For two servant s bought of George Cuthbert. Love and slavery never can co-exist in peace. It rejoiced my soul to hear that one of my poor Negroes in Carolina was made a brother in Christ. a river of wrong. calves. but diligently improve the present opportunity for their instruction. misery. and I was strongly importuned thereto. From dark deed flowed. and it is a trade not to be approved of. and so much money was yearly spent to no purpose. Henry — Matthew — .' (It will be remembered that he had a hand in urging on the alteration of the law. yet I would not have a Negro upon my plantation till the use of them was publicly allowed in the colony. that I had no hand in bringing them into Georgia though my judgment was for it. but fall.SLA VER V IN GEORGIA them. I intend instances in Georgia ere to see it be long? In the what can be done towards laying a foundation. let us reason no more about it. How know we we may have many such God willing. and we may ' Had Mr. The Trustees favour it. sonally was a spirit utterly opposed spirit and that soon or later one must destroy the other. and 28 all ! how many thousands ' of pounds spent to no purpose at Henry ? been in America. cows. And though it is true that they are brought in a wrong way from their own country. been raised against to occur that To Whitefield himself it never seemed the brotherly love he showed to the to Negroes perof slavery. and lay a foundation for breeding up their posterity in the nurture and admonition of the Lord. religion. dear sir. and shame. I believe he would have seen the lawfulness and necessity of having Negroes there. ) ' never have a like prospect.' was done sincerely in the name of philanthropy and nor does one protest from any quarter appear to have it. And this little did he dream what a ghastly slavery failure this attempt to unite Christianity and would prove to be. Now this is done.

and he need not have availed himself of the right to hold slaves. in 1831. for in the house next to that in which he died at Newbury Port. a shock. evangelist i and ministers should not to give be warned by their support.' has The Prince of Wales counted many of given me Lady Huntingdon's friends among his political supporters. Nevertheless. this painful part of Whitefield's life either directly or indirectly. a reward of five thousand dollars for William Lloyd Garrison. 1 75 1. often attended his . when Lincoln's Proclamation of Emancipation annulled it. The good came the evil. the In New was over- England. But Providence had a strange revenge for Whitefield's fault. shot was fired by the South on the Federal Garrison and a band of Abolitionists. and over the ramparts of Fort Sumter. Garrison was born.. is under lest any pretext whatsoever. invited by the Govern ment as the to be present. which had never attempted slaves. Negroes. Whitefield writes from Plymouth: 'I It suppose the death of our Prince has affected you. which had shared so largely in generated the force that destroyed slavery. had the joy of seeing that liberty for all. Georgia became one of the worst of the slave States.C. and she herself.282 GEORGE WH1TEFIELD to restrain it. before her conversion. Charleston. harm than by their labours they do Whitefield might not have been able to prevent the introduction of slavery into Georgia. it is certain he never would have come out The reward was on his head for thirty-four years. which was a bribe South. the importation of and still wished to continue the clause was struck It out. revival. to anything. a violation all of justice. offered. flag raised again symbol of black and white alike. the leader of American Negro Emancipation. but he would have been honoured for failing in an attempt to stop it. On March 30. but at the instigation of South Carolina and Georgia. S. which the first from flag. whence to any ruffian to seize him and convey him alive. that thereby they do more good.

but and promising were He was soon in Dublin again. 1751. 283 Her absence from Court by the Prince . heard his voice. way. us into Wales. after her conversion was not unnoticed Charlotte and inquiring one day of Lady was. the Wesleys and their helpers had gathered into a society. Dublin was soon aroused by his earnest words. and where joys. there occurred life nothing that deserves detailed record in a like this. and as quickly away to Belfast and . Lady to Charlotte. apparently. welcomed him. as well as abounded. since nothing we must imagine what work he and where the people having prepared his did of . he had preached fourteen years before. next weary traveller. Edwin where she ' he received the laconic. where. sufferings. Mr. men who were hearing as for Athlone and Limerick. where. Lunell. The ' shook his I and turning think I to her said.IN IRELAND Court. Prince I suppose praying with her beggars. to December. where was generally at the full stretch.' head. when am dying. where he was received into the house banker. A few pages of Whitefield's is letters carry it.Jike eternity. and 'Moorfield's auditories' rewarded him for his toil. where he midst of a populace which stood unhurt in the had shamefully treated the Methodists whom . I shall be to happy lift seize the skirt of Lady Huntingdon's mantle. mocking answer. and into Ireland. a Dublin everything. as a hunger-bitten. Hundreds in that city prayed td him to continue among them if and many Papists promised . 1752. as they stood with solemn countenances.' From effort January. both mental and bodily. me up with her to heaven. leave their priests their pleading he would consent to the request alike ineffectual. We . are prepared to hear of journeys and voyages made with the promptness of a general of weariness at the head of an attacking army and and sickness paid said about as the price for the risks run. Then Waterford and Cork.

and under physical weakness which caused violent vomiting. a strong desire body was almost worn in to receive his message. his constitution vDr. ' His the special object in returning so soon was to put orphanage upon a proper for the winter of footing. The numbers were so and the opportunities for good were so promising. but at the end of what exertion and triumph did that laborious repose come For about twenty-eight days he preached less in Scotland to not than ten thousand a day. the selecter society living in the capital evinced. along with the poor and the degraded.284 GEORGE WN/TE FIELD What stay other places in the north. ' His progress through the north a sublime of England towards London was march. few days longer — the importunity of the that attended people of Belfast won from him. From . prostration. than he took ship his fourth America. friend. Niven. to hear him on the day of his farewell preaching. attended with great blood after preaching in the ! loss of Yet in five days he was at Glasgow. who of lived still above the burned The enthusiasm Cambuslang days in in the hearts of the peasantry and the weavers the country. and was England preaching and journeying as usual the whole of the summer. of Cork. his seventh across the Atlantic.' He retired to London 1752 . for was quite worn out in with After his spending the winter America. whither he went next. the efforts of the people and the tears of the people of Dublin could not procure —a large. Mr. and by three o'clock in the morning many of them were on their way to the city. Riding recruited for him . a merchant. and he was no sooner voyage to London. that he grieved he all And the while he had been performing these journeys and labours in the heat of summer. had not come among them sooner. In Edinburgh. Doddridge thought labour. he in embarked eighth voyage in the spring. house of his old cross. More work brought on more haemorrhage and more till his out.

prepare is me to follow after ' The face of good Bishop Benson His : not there he died on August 30. his last visit to America. Like the soldier on the who can but drop lift a word of pity for a fallen com- rade. I that we should be called the sons of God Excuse me. familiar faces. . 1 and up a prayer for himself. is they are tears of love Looking round upon the Christmas. . heaven or on As he swept along from town to town. Moreover. ' A gale of Divine influence everywhere attended till it. is gone . Whitefield could only say. inner life was as intense as the outward was active and busy.' He continued his work he reached Northampton. Whitefield's will be one of the ' few ordinations you will reflect upon with complacence On dying bed he sent Whitefield a present of ten guineas for orphan-house as a token of his regard. kind. must pause awhile.' he exclaims to a correspondent.MISSING FACES Sheffield 285 he wrote that since his leaving Newcastle he had in sometimes scarce known whether he was earth. at Doddridge's face is he died Lisbon. dear friend. and begged to be in his prayers. remembered sister is The face of Whitefield's only not there. Doddridge. Lord Jesus. thousands and thousands flocked twice and thrice a day to hear the word of life. His mother's face she had died a year before. it No wonder that that. ! I find. my eyes gush out tears. on his arrival in the seemed as if the broken tabernacle of the spirit body must the release the ardent quickened it. where he took coach for London. city. while he was paying not there . Her house in Bristol had been his home. my ! manner of this. of the Countess of last ' days verified the remark lord. 1752. Huntingdon My mark my words . circle of Whitefield's friends at we miss some not there . Dr. when you his his are on your dying bed. 'what love is 'Oh. with water at present they are almost fountains of ! But thanks be to God 1752. and the news of his decease followed Whitefield battlefield to America.

quietly toil. and . he was start first Christ. while that she in that city into and when she died he believed not there. now he in glory.' But the was not a long one Ebenezer Erskine was now an old man.286 GEORGE WHITEFIELD also his early . he said with great emotion. and Sunday morning preaching-room. 'And is Ralph gone? in He for has twice got the start of is first me . On June . . is His death occurred on November 1752. and when the intelligence was brought to Ebenezer. 2. 1754. had entered 'the rest that remaineth for the people of God. and worn with heavy labours.' The face of Ralph Erskine 6. he followed his brother after and gently as one sleeping and resting himself he went to his reward.

first The idea of a permanent building seems to have been the Countess of suggested by Huntingdon . In the winter of 1752. The churches were as inaccessible to Methodists as ever but had they been open probably few would have cared to enter them. . being fond neither of money. The Tabernacle was wooden building division that was hastily erected at the time of the between the Calvinists and Arminians. nor ' power.' his attention was forcibly called for his work of providing a permanent place of worship followers in London. numbers. for the freedom preferable to of the the still Tabernacle was in their estimation alterable forms of the unthe Church.CHAPTER 1 XI 753-i-770 CHAPEL-BUILDING — ATTACKS BY ENEMIES — INFIRMITIES — HIS WORK DEATH THE RESULTS OF HIS NO that small portion of the year 1753 was spent by Whitefield in what he called cross-ploughing the land is . happiest man who. and what work was field well enough known without our following him But while he thought that he was the from to field. but Whitefield was slow to move. she and Lady Frances Shirley 287 . went on day by day without any other scheme than general intention to promote the a common salvation amongst people of to the all denominations.

received. and The ceremony was performed with built round the old place. would not let him keep an silence longer with respect to the shocking things of which he had heard. on March i. I will come unto Tabernacle it thee and bless to Three months congregation . A man might be an apostate from Moravianism. and contributed a hundred and seventy-six pounds on one Sunday. The reports of their proceedings ' and of their financial position which he published in An Ex- postulatory Letter' to ears Count Zinzendorf. Whitefield opened his letter with a protestation that a real regard for his king and country. ' In all places where thee. With eleven hundred first pounds the in hand. and this time he was brought to and began to collect money. and Whitefield preached a sermon from the I great solemnity. text. were brought to his by one whom Peter Bohler stigmatises as an apostate but there can be no doubt that Whitefield had his information from more sources than one the letter. and they were seriously in debt. morning and evening.288 GEORGE WHITEFIELD their side. which was to be eighty feet square. But these are things that need not be further named here. later the was ready receive it and he opened by preaching in or more. his . His people re- sponded with their usual liberality. Whitefield evidently acted with candour and kindness. he. 1753. there to such According to the statements which he had had been much foolishness and some wicked- ness practised by the Brethren. again urged the work upon him. and the offences which had swelled enormous bulk. and yet a true witness.' its record My name. to four thousand people In the spring of this year Whitefield came into serious collision with the Moravians. and a disinterested love for his Saviour and his Saviour's Church. laid the brick of new Tabernacle. and his remonstrances did the Brethren good. and as Bohler was assailed in phrase must be somewhat discounted. .

' he things 'are outward when the soul within is warmed with his the love of God ? joy. again. on the Tuesday before. Charles was to upon whom double of sorrow. He writes. way. been pierced with cold.' unrivalled. 'but what. and a little impatience is with her perceptible.' Then. he thought how be pitied. . he had preached in . who His hands and body had asks. seven in the that all evening to a great multitude the open air was hushed and exceeding solemn brightness calls . he had by faith Him who filled them all by their names and that his soul was with shall holy ambition. work would come. that the stars shone with great seen that then. called by the same London. and an insensibility not to be coveted 20 . His eloquence by anybody. on December at .' while Wesley took ' his flight to a radiant throne prepared for him from the foundations ' of the ' world. The time was full and it gave Whitefield and the Countess an excellent opportunity 1 Bristol Lord Chesterfield contributed twenty pounds towards the erection of Tabernacle but begged that his name might not appear in any . . but not Wesley. 1st. feeling Sainte Beuve says that he feared ridicule . his zeal inexhaustible and not to admire both would argue a total absence of taste. the His Wesley was of what physicians pitied thought was galloping himself. astic It would ill become me to censure your enthusiis admiration of Mr. if ever.ILLNESS OF WESLEY His open-air preaching was concluded beautiful to be left without notice. consumption. and he longed to be one of those shine as the stars for ever and ever. it Much and seemed friend sincerely as he desired crown and at this time as ill if another were to precede him. this year in 289 a way too in Bristol He had opened name as that in another chapel. ' there is no resisting youi ladyship's importunities. 1 and then that started for Somersetshire. Whitefield.' he said. and very likely that made him wish his name to be withheld. Whitefield the Church and He almost grieved to think that he must stay behind in 'this cold climate. poor Mr. ' Really. He seems also to have been afraid of Lady Huntingdon's importunities.

2QO

GEORGE WHITEFIELD
The Countess and another
London, went from Bath
state.

to serve their friends.

lady, just

arrived in Bath from

to Bristol, to

inform Charles of his brother's dangerous
diately started for
fell

He imme;

London, and found John
Prayer was

at

Lewisham

he
the

on

his

neck and wept.

now

offered in

all
;

Methodist societies

for the recovery of their great leader

and
the

Charles records that a change for the better came

when

people were praying for him at the Foundry.

Hope, however,
written his

had been relinquished by

all

;

and Wesley had

epitaph, which was a longer composition than Whitefield had

penned
field

for his

own tombstone, but

similar in spirit.

White-

wrote from Bristol to both the brothers, but enclosed

John's letter in Charles's.

To John he

wrote

:

If seeing you so weak, when leaving London, distressed me, the news and prospect of your approaching dissolution hath quite weighed me down. A radiant throne awaits you, I pity the Church, and myself, but not you. and ere long you will enter into your Master's joy. Yonder He stands
'

with a massy crown, ready to put
of saints and angels.
dissolution

it

on your head amid an admiring throng
I,

But

I,

poor

that have been waiting for
left

my
here

these

nineteen years,
is

must be
it

behind to grovel

below

!

Well, this

my
sir,

comfort,

cannot be long ere the chariots

are sent even for worthless me.

If prayers can detain them,
;

even you,
is

reverend and very dear

shall not leave us yet
fall

but

if

the decree
kiss

gone

forth that

you must now
I

asleep in Jesus,

may He

your soul
If in the
;

away, and give you
land of the living,

to die in the

embraces of triumphant
last respects to

love.

hope
sir,

to

pay
!

my

you next week

if

not,

reverend and dear

farewell

My

heart
for
!

is

too big, tears trickle

I pra, sequar, etsi non passibus aquis. down too fast, and I fear you are too
underneath you be Christ's everlasting

weak
arms

I

me to enlarge. May commend you to His

never-failing mercy.'

Wesley disappointed
his health.

his friends' fears

by slowly regaining

He who seemed

so nigh to his rest returned to

work

for

almost forty years longer, and,
his

among

other services,
It

preached the funeral sermon of

brother Whitefield.

was the cause of sincere joy

to Whitefield to see his fellow-

17SITS
labourers spared to stand

LISBON
;

291

by his side

he prayed that the
latter

Wesleys might both spring up afresh, and their
increase

end

more and more.

'

Talk not of having no more work
all

in the vineyard,'

he wrote to Charles; 'I hope
I

our work

is

but just beginning.
thing for

am

sure

it

is

high time to do some-

Him who
little

hath done and suffered so

Near

forty years old,

and such a dwarf!
in the
!

much for me. The winter come
I

already,

and so

done

summer

!

am ashamed

;

I

blush,

and am confounded
affliction

This winter of

for the

Wesleys was one of much
;

physical prostration to Whitefield also

every sermon, he says,

was fetched out of the furnace.
/
I

He

itinerated

between Ports-

mouth and Scotland and back

in this state.

When
his

spring
via
for

came he
making

sailed

with

twenty-two

orphans for Georgia,
;

h Lisbon.
I

This was his ninth voyage
it

and

reason

by way of Lisbon was that as a preacher and a he might see something of the superstitions of For
this

Protestant
the

Church of Rome.
the pageantry
the
factory,

purpose he could have chosen
;

no better season and no better place
all

he was
week.

in

time for

and

activity of Easter

A

gentleman

of

whose brother had received good through

Whitefield's preaching,

welcomed the
wishes
of

evangelist to his house,
gratifying his wishes.
curiosity.

and afforded him every opportunity of

Nor were
for
it

these

the

idle

Whitefield

delighted in travelling for the the sake of seeing

sake of preaching and also
things.

men and

He
that

thought that
fresh

expanded a man's mind to see strange places and
;

customs

and there can be no doubt
due
in

his

own wide
nations.

charity was

no small degree
of
all

to his intercourse with

men
At
and

of
first

all

classes,

Churches, and of
for the

many

he did not care
;

much

distinctions

between

Churches

Baptists

and when Quakers, Independents, Presbyterians, showed him equal kindness wherever he

292
travelled,

GEORGE WHITEE1ELD
and displayed the
less.

great qualities of purity
it

and

love,

he cared yet
to find.

A

more

impartial Christian

would be hard

He
it

expected perfection in none, and hailed every
in
all.

tendency to
present
so

Even Lisbon was
judgment

to

do more than

him with
that

things to be hated

and shunned.

Amid
St.

much

was

against

his

and conscience,
singing in

there were things to delight his taste.

The

Domingo Church by

the

Dominican
'

friars

while the queen
sweet.'

performed her devotions there, was

most surprisingly

The

action of the preachers, a great

number
'

of

whom

he

heard, struck

him

as

most

graceful.

Vividi oa//i,

vivida

manus, omnia vivida?
pressive
gesticulation

He
and

thought, as he beheld their im-

heard
truth

their

tender

tones,

that

English preachers,
well to be a
let
little

who have
more

on

their side,

would do

fervent in

their

address,

and not
that
is

falsehood and

superstition

run away

with
to

all

pathetic
all

and

affecting.

The

city

was a scene

make him

eye and ear.

There were images of

saints with lanterns

burning in front of them, and churches hung with purple

damask trimmed with
hurrying

gold.

There were the

richest
altars,

and
or

noblest of the land bowing before the

gorgeous
their

from

church to church to
spectacle
feet

offer

sacrifices.

There was the
nobles,

of

the

king,

attended with

his

washing the
ier

of twelve

poor men, and of the

queen and
poor women.

royal

daughters

doing the same to twelve

There were processions of penitents, headed
friars

by preaching

bearing crucifixes in their hands, which

they held up before the eyes of the devotees as they exhorted

them

to fresh acts of sacrifice.

His soul was moved with pity

as he saw by moonlight

one night some two hundred penitents,

dressed in white linen vestments, barefooted, and with heavy
chains attached to their ankles, which
they passed along the streets
;

made

a dismal noise as

some

carried great stones on

HIS WIFE'S LONELINESS
their backs,

293
skulls in their

and others dead men's bones and

hands

;

most of them whipped and lashed themselves with
flat

cords or with
effects of their

bits of iron.

Even

in the

moonlight the

heavy penances could be seen on their red and
It

swollen backs.

struck

him

as a horrible sight, in the

same

church where he so greatly admired the singing, that over the
great

window were

the heads of

many

Jews, painted on canvas,

who had been condemned by
pelling people to
!

the inquisition, and carried out
''Strange

from that church to be burnt.
'

way
'

this

of

com-

come in he exclaimed. Such was not Thy method, O meek and compassionate Lamb of God But bigotry is as cruel as the grave.' The whole time was, as he
!

said, instructive,

though

silent.

His wife was not with him

this voyage,

indeed she seems to
after their

have performed but one long journey with him
riage.

mar-

Her health was unequal to the trials of an American summer; and it would have been useless for her to have travelled with him as a companion from place to place.

He

could but leave her to her

own

resources

and the kind-

ness of his friends

— not
and
life,

a pleasant position for a wife, but

the best in which he could place her, unless he relinquished
his evangelistic work,
his

that

would simply have overturned
his

whole plan of

and violated

most solemn convicvisit

tions.

He

implored one of his London friends to

his
fre-

wife frequently.

'Add

to

my

obligations,'

he

said,

'by
in

quently visiting

my

poor

wife.

Kindnesses shown to her

my

absence

will

be double kindnesses.'

With a

family, but not with his wife,

he arrived

at Bethesda,

which he found

in a flourishing state, as

was also the colony.

He
and

had a hundred and

six persons, black

and

white, to pro-

vide for

and

to guide

;

and he seems

to

have known the ages

capabilities

and condition of

often to have sent specific

all at the orphan-house, and and peremptory directions concern-

294

GEORGE WHITEFIELD
Honour,
too,

ing particular cases.
early

was beginning

to

come

to

and

faithful colonists.
first

His friend Habersham, who came
voyage, and to

over with him at his
the temporal
affairs

whom

he committed

of the orphan-house, was
;

now appointed
Whitefield him-

secretary of the colony

afterwards he

became president of the
which he

Council and
self received

Commons House

of Assembly.

from the new college of

New

Jersey, for

had greatly exerted himself before leaving England, the degree
of Master of Arts.

Altogether a better reception was given
before,

him by the country than he had received fourteen years
and
that, as
still

we have

seen,

was gratifying enough.
is,

His weakflesh,

nesses

clung to him, that
time he

his

weaknesses of the

and from

this

may be considered
;

a confirmed invalid

who
at all

refused to be invalided

but his strength of heart was not
far

diminished, and when he got as
in the quietest way,
line,
'

north as Portsmouth,
to the

he said

I

am now come
It is

end of

my

northward

and
all

in

a day or two purpose to turn back, in

order to preach

the way to Georgia.

about a sixteen

hundred
his sloth
for

miles' journey.'

This was he who was ashamed of
to

and lukewarmness, and longed
Yet again, when
his ride of

be on the stretch

God

!

two thousand miles was
all

ended, scenes of wonder having opened

the way, and
to

when
have

he had preached

for nearly five

months, he longed

time to spend in retirement and deep humiliation before that
Saviour for

whom

he had done so

little

!

He had

learnt to be

humble.
Whitefield's tenth voyage was performed in the spring of

1755.
friend

About two months
Cennick
to the
died.
'

after

his arrival

in

England
'

his

John

Cennick,'

he

said,

is

now

added
is.

happy number of those who see God
to follow after him.'
;

as

He

I

do not envy, but want

If not

a strong Christian, Cennick was a very devout one

and the good

Church cannot

forget her indebtedness to

him

for a few

DEATH OF JOHN CENNICK
hymns which he added
tiful

295 tender, beauin his pocket-

to her treasury.
dimitiis,'

Some
them
:

lines,

headed

'

Nunc

were found
of

book when he died.
'

Here

are

some

I

never

am

forsaken or alone

;

Thou
I

kissest all

my

tears

and

griefs
all

away

;

Art with

me

all

night long, and
I

the day

;

have no doubt that
shall

belong to Thee,

And
I

be with Thee to eternity.

would not Thee offend
I

— Thou know'st my heart
Thy
time depart

Nor one
But

short day before

O

let

am weary and dejected too, me to eternal Sabbath go.'

Whitefield found the Methodists very lively in England, and

had the pleasure of hearing
But enemies were also

that

several

clergymen were

preaching those truths which he had done so
pagate.
alert.

much
it

to pro-

He

found

difficult to

keep clear of

collision with Wesley's friends, his

own admirers

and they being,

as usual, as careless about unneighbourly acts

as their leaders were anxious to love

and serve one another.

He

also

had open

and dangerous opposition from
It

some

ruffians in the metropolis.

was to be expected that one who

eclipsed the best actors of the day in grace of action

and natural

ness of expression (Garrick said he would give a hundred

guineas to be able to say
at

'

Oh

'

as did Whitefield),

and who,
unsparing

the

same

time,

assailed

theatre-going

with

severity,

would be attacked

in turn.

The

trouble with adit

mirers of the stage this time was of a complicated kind, and
is

difficult

to say

how much
and

they were to blame

;

for play-

houses, a bishop

his vestry,

and Roman

Catholics,

who

hated King George, are mingled in a strange medley in the
story.
all

It is possible to get

consistency only by supposing that

these hated the Methodist for special reasons of their own,
this

and were, by

common

feeling,

banded against him.

Even

296

GEORGE WHITEFIELD
make enemies wondrous kind for The Seven Years' War was also raging, and feeling Some religious people, apparently the Dissenters, a chapel, called Long Acre Chapel, near the playwas an unconsecrated building, duly licensed
its

hatred of the same thing will

a season.
ran high.

had

built

houses.

It
;

for

preaching

minister was the Rev.

John Barnard, an InMr. Barnard asked

dependent, one of Whitefield's converts.

Whitefield to preach in his chapel twice a week, and Whitefield

consented to do so on the understanding that he might use
the liturgy
'

if

he thought proper

;

for

he judged that he might

innocently preach the love of a crucified Redeemer, without

giving any just offence to

bishop or

Jew or Gentile, much less to any Every one was not overseer of the Church of God.
;

of his mind.

A

band of roughs were hired
chapel door.

to disturb

him

while he preached, by making a noise with a copper furnace,
bells,

drum, &c,

at the

Part of their pay

came

from some gentlemen of the vestry of the Bishop of Bangor

and Dean of Westminster, Dr. Zachary Pearce
their

;

and they did

work to perfection.

of silencing the obnoxious preacher than stones through the

They used more dangerous means drums they threw
;

windows

at him,
;

and always missed him,

though some one

else suffered
his

they rioted at the door, and

abused him and
chapel.

congregation as they were leaving the
serious,

Things were

though Whitefield with

his

strong sense of

humour

called their behaviour 'a serenading

//

from the sons of Jubal and Cain.'
to a magistrate

An
that

appeal

made by him

procured protection for a time.
less

An

appeal to
his

Dr.

Pearce was

successful
;

;

prelate

forbade

preaching in the chapel again
less.

but his inhibition was use-

Whitefield continued his work.

The
;

bishop's vestry

now revived the persecution by the mob made repeated appeals to this exemplary
the
violence,

and Whitefield
overseer
Several
to

stay

and he appealed

in

vain

!

persons

that assail made them stroke. which threatened him with stroke. Whiteits dared the worst. and he himself was threatened with death. had signified his intention to use his right as . . unless he desisted from law. and regretted the part he had taken mit violence. he found a letter 'a certain. to prosecute the offenders. him in this cowardly way .' It preaching and pursuing the offenders by determination. laid Once when he entered and unavoidable the pulpit. Pearce had charged Whitefield with unfaithful: ness to the Church of England. and which he followed to to his The letters of the bishop Whitefield were not it published. Dr. ' past. They give us a explanation and vindication of the course Whitefield had followed for so death. sudden. together with her discipline. until preparation to enter the King's Bench in terrified his enemies. upon the cushion. and the reply was For near these twenty years liturgy. a peer to hinder them from appearing but it is easy to see what their substance must have been. many years. formed with the advice of was his some members of the Government. and the prosecution go on. I all have conoccasions scientiously defended her homilies and articles.RIOTS AT LONG ACRE CHAPEL 297 were seriously injured. am so far from renouncing. much less from throwing aside all regard to. because Whitefield thought that would be a breach of courtesy to proclaim their contents. and upon spoken well of her I Either of these. fearing exposure. paying ruffians to com- The last letters to the Bishop of Bangor are important for more than the information they give of the rioting. and it is certain there were some with audacity and wickedness enough to give the For some unusual purpose a man followed him into the of the Tabernacle while the pulpit Long Acre let trouble was at its worst and field it was generally supposed that he was an assassin. from the answers they received. as thousands can testify. One of them also had previously come under better influences. and his lordship.

thought and many thousands of ignorant perhaps would neither go to I church nor meeting-houses. and my country. of an opportunity of preaching. while many. no. or the subjection to canons literal honesty. though the without my in design. my loid. But. my lord. Your lordship judgeth exceeding right when you say. even to my dying day. which. though it be in a meeting-house: and I think it discovers a good and moderate spirit in the Dissenters. and pray for the her discipline.' to disturb and molest Another extract from the great pain letter cannot be read without by any one who holds that the acceptance of creeds ought to be made in simple. " I presume you do not mean to declare any dissent from the Church of England. I many was denied the use of them. being very hungry after the gospel. too many from the other. I sacrificed my my native soil. who ful sons. This served as an introduction. through the Divine blessing. visiting other parts of his Majesty's dominions North America and serious in that foreign clime will humbly hope that many made truly be my joy and crown of rejoicing in the I day of the Lord Jesus. who will quietly attend on the Church service. souls. myself bound in duty to deal out to them the bread of ambitious to serve affections life. my lord.298 that I GEORGE WHITEFIELD earnestly pray for the clue restoration of the one. it and I even then (as I hope whenever happens it will be an unjust extrusion) shall continue to for restoration of adhere to her doctrines. if treated should not be upon the ground on which he placed it but made dependent upon the customs of any . my king. I suppose style themselves her faith- by very improper instruments of reformation. otherwise the law of God is made void by human . house is in the infant put upon a good foundation. her truly Protestant and orthodox principles. that Being thus excluded. Being further and left my God. I am glad. and daily lament wanton departure of too. without qualifications or reservations of any Whitefield's answer to the bishop might be irrefragable kind." Far be ' it from me . have endeavoured us. to my . and when I was bringing multitudes even of Dissenters themselves to crowd the the churches. what can I do? When I acted in the most regular manner. truth class of men. in order to begin and carry on an orphancolony of Georgia. without any other reason being given than that of too followers after me. especially much wishedFond of displaying when Church and State are in danger from a cruel and Popish enemy. as many have done and continue to do at Long Acre Chapel. unless thrust out. I shall never leave her.

they become mere briita fulmina and when made use of only that honestly appear for their king. laws are invented and compiled by ciples When of little canons and other Church hearts and bigoted prin- men on purpose to hinder persons of more enlarged souls from doing good.CANONS AND CUE EDS tradition. and their God. in my opinion they may very legally be broken. to come nearer to the point in hand — and for Christ's sake not your lordship he offended by ray using such plainness of as in the presence of the living speech— I would. of pastoral while card- gambling. but it would have made one inconsistency the less in his life had he severed himself from a Church with which he could hold but a nominal connection so long as he persisted in his irregularities . their country. Ii Wales. no gainsaying that he was is To judge his conscience not our office . Early in 1756. up the hands of a zealous few. or being more extensively useful. and yet remain true to It is when the best Christian becomes the most objec- tionable member of a Church.. could not tolerate. and it would have been a yet happier thing had forms as to make the warmest its no Church been so zeal it rigid in its in and the tenderest love strange communion its things which constitution. idle clergymen is were passed by without rebuke or punishment. I hope your lordship will not regard a little irregularity. and souls are benefited. let my lord.' Impossible as well-doer.. as he did ' in the following words : But. that looks upon our canons as his rule of action? they do. . like the withes with which the Philistines bound Samson. . there irregular. playing. 299 his appealing so Neither were matters mended by solemnly to the Almighty. or Ireland. and consequently in a very bad sense of the word irregular indeed. the year which our narrative has now reached. a great change passed over Whitefield's personal appearance. we are all perjured with a witness. God. it is to withhold sympathy from an irregular who was singled out as the object warnings and the mark of scoundrels' brickbats. put it to your lordship's conscience whether there is one hishop or presbyter in England. As good is done. since at the worst it as cords to bind is only the irregularity of doing well.

and rounded form did make him seem ' a brave to man 1 . an He used to attitude which he seldom assumed. and country people recognised as he dashed along their lanes. as It is they who heard him knew him in gladly has pictured his earlier him in and in his later the bold and active young preacher whom we as see when we hear him described by a poor man 'preached like one who a lion. but the truth is. under the pear-tree. attended by knot of brethren on horseback. or rode slowly along. but he could not stand the look. pinched tight at the corners. and but for a moment. and were spoken in ' answer to the question. flexible that in ' ' lips. brave man and what a look he had sure.' It is the stout man as of middle age ' whom we face see when another describes 2 him a jolly. people lines. 2 capable of expressing anything — the orator's . chin and a large mouth. which for us in their several painters and engravers have preserved likenesses of the great preacher. which Londoners so well as he rapidly walked their streets. and Whitefield din. he was a jolly. 1 observation of the common happy days. lips. . when he put out his right hand thus. whether he remembered Whitefield's appearance. pondering his next sermon or silently communing with God — that figure was associated with the godly young man who entranced and awed his countrymen —was now changed. to rebuke a disturber as tried to stop Ay.300 GEORGE WHITEFIELD graceful figure which was familiar on The knew a many a common and park and market. and long. unwieldy form. corpulent. into the heavy. say that he should hate himself were he the sour-looking creature they They all agree in painting him with a massive represented him to be. Off he rode. when The he was forty- two years old. a very cheery old gentleman." ' said.' And no doubt ' his kindly jolly.' said he. The man had been very barrels threatening and noisy . and sich a look with him. that this change was . brave man. " There he goes. empty make most An American said he was ' a cheery. ' him.cross of England. in haste to meet some which mighty congregation. The words are those of an aged Oxfordshire peasant. owing wholly These likenesses were a great bugbear to him he especially disliked which he is represented with his hands lifted above his head.

.

.

many thousands these two months past. and judged that others should be equally devoted. I have been enabled to preach twice thrice a last day to many. he asked nothing exhausting toils for his own but food and raiment. Preaching failed to rather increased. in but who same time served themselves an under- handed way. at the : had been his plan to who helped orphan-house no certain income. and who humoured impatience of contradiction. feel that it he began to would be useful to have a second. I And yet I cannot die. in another part of the city.PERSONAL APPEARANCE disease. dread a corpulent body breaks in upon cure. 1756. and he vigorously and perseveringly applied the same remedy to corpulency. When an advised by a physician to try a perpetual quinsey. and asthma. many chapels. It became the mother of souls. but not with the same heavy burden of It success. and difficult the birthplace of many was now becoming a question for the increasing number of Methodists. the smooth deceit which crept into office turned upon him and pierced him. It 301 was neither less work nor he says : less care that ' made him for seem so hale. who. As and for work. flux. It November 7th. . if or a very slender one he said that they loved him they would serve him disinterestedly. he changed the receipt blister for inflammatory and tried perpetual preaching. as well as work. He was doomed He had care give those to carry a flesh. when time came. and might it well have borne with among its the managers of his institution . and the building opened for worship on the same year. it me like an armed man. like . phants. The foundation-stone of Tottenham laid Court Chapel was accordingly by himself on May 10. He could be roughly honest himself.' his complaint. This surrounded him with syco- who pretended at the to be as high-minded as he wanted to his see them. Nay. When Whitefield had got one permanent chapel in London. but it they tell me I grow fat.

determine their and faith. damaging State. Hence it has followed that this movement. people. the use of the some of them not hindering either minister or congregation from declaring that they regard the union of State and Church as which Wesley an unholy alliance. and sacraments of every kind they did not feel the abhorrence of Presbyterians to prelates and the liturgy. and which might have crowded the Church of England with oldest vast congregations of devout and holy people. part of the . As Methodists they were no neither would senters. which arose at Oxford. nominally adhered to the Established Church. the scruples of Baptists about the baptism of infants of Quakers to forms they did not feel the repugnance . There was a Tolera- and the worshippers in new tabernacles and chapels that were beginning to multiply might avail themselves of its protection. it The action of the Church had already determine fall its been taken now remained for the State to mode tion of procedure. not Dis- she recognise them yet they were They did not feel the objections of the feel Independents Episcopacy. It quietly let Methodism the into the ranks of Dissent.302 GEORGE WHITEF1ELD to Whitefield and Wesley. and called themselves Churchmen. Churchmen they might be in name and spirit but Churchmen in modes of action they were not. and useless to the Even the established. which was impelled and guided by duly ordained clergymen. Act. Neither State nor Church had made any provision for this new . Whitefield's chapels and those of the Countess of Huntingdon liturgy in are all Independent chapels. standpoint. and the members of which he selled to abide loyal to the Church of which he was a all has gradually gone the way of dissenting societies it has . politically considered. they did not . . to Church of England. to the Church and burdensome society so solemnly counminister. has become more and more identified with the and most extreme forms of dissent in this land.

and thus to preserve it for the . that they themselves what their fault. serve to excite their anger and hostility. its chapels . although she had practically been a Dis- . It is which it has been invited back. to which they are subjected. which never contemplated any severance at all. numbers are multiplied by and lay preachers tens of thousands . is As Englishmen they cannot help asking what their sin. thus happening that Methodism. Nor their unwillingness to be absorbed. Methodism and all their attendance upon its they cleave the all more this closely to to their denomination. to her twenty years after the after the opening of and seven death of Whitefield. decreased by some petty annoy- ances. adherents are married and buried by their own spiritual teachers. throng every town. Their social disadvantages in villages and country injustice with districts. appended as an auxiliary. Berridge of Everton wrote this chapel. remnants of former days. baptism its and the Lord's Supper are duly administered within its pale . is from the Church aiding to bring about the dissolution Its of a bond which has existed ever since the Reformation. and when they see that it is only their love services. and stand in every village in England ministers its and helpers are legion . the which their children are forced into High Church day schools. and when the Countess as at the idea of was annoyed ministers at nothing so much one of her becoming a Dissenter. should be thus treated of . in a strain which shows that even at that time. How distant does seem be from the day when Whitefield in strove to put his new chapel Church Tottenham Court Road under herself the protection of the Countess of Huntingdon. and the rudeness which too often shocks and pains them at the parish churchyard.METHODISTS AND THE TOLERATION ACT also declared firmly that to it 303 will not return to the ancient fold. A denomination or denominations constituted and managed or in this way are not likely to long for other pastures is and another fold.

God hath His remnant for the among them . . and that the answer was ' : No nobleman can license a chapel. for then and used as such without the consent of the parson of the parish. His language to the Countess However rusty or rickety the Dissenters may appear to you. because your students gown and band can make a clergyman. and when it is done with his consent. almost with the accuracy of prophecy. no minister can preach therein. therefore lift not up your hand against them Lord's sake. and Tottenham Court Road Chapel. With regard Huntingdon about putting to it to new chapel. Whitefield wrote to Lady say that they had consulted the Commons under her ladyship's protection. she disliked her position. to license it as our other houses are and thanks be to Jesus for that liberty to which we have. or . in any manner have one put in his dwelling-house that the chapel must be a private one. both of the Tabernacle. Dissenters. unless a .' That licensing does not seem it have been made at once. and was it. and minded how any one resented was ' : his plain speaking. The bishops look on your students as the worst kind of Dissenters and manifest this by refusing that ordination to your preachers which would be readily granted to other teachers among the are as real Dissenting preachers as any in the land. nor yet for consistency's sake. says. ' to be but one way.' There are other passages in the same letter which describe. impatient when any one told her the bare truth about little But Berridge was an honest man. and which might afford food for profitable thought even yet. the course of future events in Methodism and his in the Establishment. for was in 1764 that as owner.' ' There seems then.' he . Moorfields. that a chapel cannot be built of the diocese. without licence of the bishop becomes a public one . and not with it doors to the street for any persons to resort to at pleasure.304 senter for GEORGE WHITE EIELD forty years.

as there had been at the Tabernacle. who was occasion peril of unrivalled in description. in hand. There was the same crush of hearers. He carried his audience out into the night. His face towards the . vainly is The old man stumbles on. and begged that they might have a constant seat. his foot trembles on the edge as he another moment and he starts the will lie mangled in the valley below. remaining a clergyman of the Church of England.' A neighbouring physician called that it ' Whitefield's soul- and by name it was commonly known among the foolish scoffers. trap.' He thus became the owner of two Independent chapels. AN INDEPENDENT MINISTER in 305 the registry of the as ' Dean and Chapter Paul. meeting-places of certain congrega- tions of Protestant Dissenters from the Church of England calling themselves Independents. Among in the distinguished visitors who were decorum accommodated and Lady Huntingdon's pew. a blind beggar. 21 . Chesterfield might not unfrequently be seen self-possession were as if and once his rigid much overpowered by among iti ! the eloquence of the preacher as he had been a peasant at a Cambuslang preaching or a Welsh miner shouting. staff endeavouring to discover his way. Lord . where in the feeble light might be seen. London.PRACTICALL V he registered them of St. and was practically an Independent while minister. and nigh to a dangerous precipice. could easily make his hearers see . cliff step by step he advances . with his eyes. Good God ! he is gone ! Oratory so perfect and so exciting could not fail to bring some actors among the motley throng that listened to him. when the place was opened. when up agonised Chesterfield. the form of an old man. . ' a host of his countrymen ' Gogoniant bendith Whitefield. crying ' bounds forward to save him. dim and staggering. Many great people came. and feel with his heart and on this he was giving a vivid and horrifying picture of the sinners. deserted by his dog.

of the congregations. weaknesses were cut .' when they had deemed it unfit for production on the stage.3o6 GEORGE WHITEFIELD was that the sermon was preached best when All its Foote and Garrick might sometimes be seen side by side their opinion preached off. to the and exclaimed warm invitation to sinners to come . Seeing this Shuter sitting in the front of the gallery — they were by fixed his eye time known to each other personally in his — he upon him. and improved to the uttermost. felt kind heart. and turned account. were. for his and the field which rent its bosom. to The heavy thunder-cloud hanging on flash of lightning the horizon. for the fortieth time. and Colman . and look and gesture were adapted art. and of which he did not always exhibit the best taste. and all its ineffective parts suppressed all its impressive passages were retained.' The name of the play tempted Whitefield into that playing upon in the use words to which he was somewhat addicted. utterance with perfect Yet he was not bound by memory. who was pronounced by Garrick the Shuter had a warm. and his memory holding his tone with unerring accuracy what he wished to its to say. It was more than the oratorical display which attracted ' to the soul-trap ' Shuter. of wrath. his most vivid emblems coming day rebuke . it but seized upon any passing circumstance. A scoffer's levity would point his stern and a penitent's tear seen in some bedimmed eye would prompt a word of loving encouragement. Conquer. and must have his better nature It moved by the humanity of the teaching of Whitefield. greatest comic genius he had ever seen. to was he who came the rescue of a remarkable play which was rejected by Garrick. Powel.' He also acted in ' She Stoops to At the time of his first coming in ' to hear Whitefield he was acting the part of Ramble The Rambler. Goldsmith thanked him with tears in his eyes for having established the reputation of his ' Good-Natured Man.

and had Mr. nor many others to which he listened. of his. no. he said ' A precious method Lady mine . whom I saw in the street. an anecdote told of him which proves that the old thoughts and feelings were not extinguished. Mr. which appeared two that years before White field's death. his physician advised change of ' And I. that air for his health. . I and asked on me. When his friends rated him is as a Methodist. him. if any be right.SHUTER THE COMEDIAN Lord Jesus ' : 307 And thou. are too seducing. she says visit ' I have had a to call from Shuter the comedian. come thou to Jesus. when I never should have gone back unhappy. ! Had you fallen.' Huntingdon actor. and said to him that he had often. who was an and had tried in hard to wean him from his profession. also. shows There is. while studying my part in the Park. he continued to follow his old calling. met him one day been preaching so Portsmouth. I certainly had a call once. I wish I were . There is a good and moral play to-night but no sooner is it over than I come in with my farce of " A Dish of all Sorts. He was wonderfully astonished when announced ." and knock all the moral on the head.' vice. Oh. end thy ramblings by coming ser- Shuter went to Whitefield at the close of the said to and him : ' I ? thought ' I should have fainted this —how in could you serve me so But neither pointed appeal. Kinsman. how would have been in the service of God but in whose service have my powers been wasted ? I dread to think of it. however. want Shuter to make them laugh. Kinsman. ' have been acting till it ready to die . if they were not sufficiently strong to rule intimate friend The Rev.' said Shuter. him from the His part production of Goldsmith's plays. Whitefield received me at the Lord's table but the caresses of the great. because they : had seen him with Mr. who. .' different our conditions . who hast long rambled from Him. they are. gives us yet another glimpse of this kind-hearted : Writing from Bath to Lady Fanny Shirley. succeeded in drawing his unsatisfying life to a nobler career. poor Ramble. but oh. and to such large congregations.

George YVhitefield. He would help others when debt the and anxiety pressed upon himself. is and with admiration of his when he had more leisure far He promised to come for conversation. He also made a thing to levy on the generosity of the practical charity. and taught them all he did who heard him. but he cannot give up his pro- fession for another more respectable. him his thanks for it. on one day. he said We will sing a hymn. is Franklin's 1 We are not quite sure that this anecdote ' authentic .' Not was one stirred . pulpit. often preached for the French He who Protestants in Prussia. it is inserted here upon the authority of Sketches of the Life and Labours of the Rev. when he visited Scotland. for sufferers ' the relief of the German this Protestants and the by fire at Boston. lie spoke of Mr. money which would have freed him being cheerfully sent to meet other wants. held the plate himself ! descending from the a in It common make a collection for the orphan hospital Edinburgh. some other think he time. during which those who do not choose on this awful to give their mite occasion may sneak * off. as Glasgow people. and of the success with which he pleaded claims not be thought that he never sent the collection-box round for any other object. had suffered much as at the hands of the Russians. . YVhitefield with talents.' issued by the Committee of the General Assembly of the Free Church of Scotland. occasion he resorted : to a strange stratagem ' At the close of the sermon.3o8 GEORGE WHITEFIELD name. But on sixty pounds. Poor fellow ! not from the kingdom. At another time he five collected in his chapels. and collected for much as fifteen hundred pounds them (one pound then and the King of hundred and was equal to four now). he then ordered the doors to be closed. much I affection. and. Many of the nobility attended his chapels while Prussia sent he was making this effort.' . my We had much conversation .' Much but let it has been said of Whitefield's efforts for his orphanits house.

after he time. was entirely owing his having exhorted ranks to be faithful to the . he was returning home. was fain to his heart that he borrow from his neighbour. wounded.STONED IN DUBLIN story of the 309 the collection at man who borrowed money is for Philadelphia this matched by a story of Whitefield's power in Scotch city. the next month he was mobbed and Several Scotch towns had previously this year stoned in Dublin. 1757. they turned their to a vast strength had preached multitude. and the challenged man went But Whitefield so moved church with empty pockets. In May. He ' writes to a friend that every step he took a fresh stone struck him. all alone. on Sunday. ' and some friends him a coach. reel backwards and forwards. and then came a second against him. and his bet was lost. that he would feel himself obliged to give something. all till he was almost thought he and over a gore of blood. An laid a wager with who knew Whitefield's influence. but when Whitefield had appeared once on the ground. It was custom to meet and fight on Oxmanton Green. made him a freeman Commissioner. all This of which to he bore the scar all his life. the . and at their hands received the last violence to which he was to be subjected. he found a brief shelter bringing in a minister's house. Whitefield was the most highly honoured man in Edinburgh. and imprecations of whole injury and without assault. The wager was to accepted . he rode further in gospel triumph through the streets of Papists.' Hatless. and he received the marked respect of the ministers of the General Assembly and of the Lord High From the aristocracy of Scotland he went to Ormond and their Liberty Boys of Ireland. and bleeding. reached Wesley's room. and made him breathless. n a prejudiced mind. another who was going to hear him with officer. and stoned him as. notwithstanding his dislike.' ' He should have gone off in this bloody triumph to the immediate presence of his Master.' oaths. curses.

No is trifle hindered this willing four. and let me know your thoughts. so to do. have therefore sent Mr. he designed a plan for building twelve alms- houses upon it. and prevents that rides the fore-horse my is reading the road be bad I my servant to dirtied exceedingly. who were money. although he : only forty- he is compelled to say to a friend ' This tabernacle makes me to groan. and stood as a monu- ment that the Methodists were not against travels of . the public being kept ignorance of the scheme until the whole sum was promised. . about the postchaise.' at Gloucester. and in the winter 1757-58 Whitefield suffered so the short allowance. I am shaken to pieces. . not to his having spoken against Popery. This is giving you trouble. ' the houses received their inmates.' as he called much it. and soon one hundred pounds of the necessary four hundred were in his hand. The summer difficulties 1758 were begun it is and ever continued into Wales and grievous to mark the increasing- under which they were undertaken.3 io GEORGE WHITEFIELD Christ. S 's my dear sir. The houses were to be for godly widows. first In June. 1758. To escape the danger of open-air preaching was to encounter all the danger of ministering in two large chapels the winter through. The and if one-horse chaise will not do for me . Some other ' good folks ' agreed with him. but. Lord Jesus and to King George. little and thrice on a Sunday. he began to examine things that were near him and finding that round his chapel there was a most beautiful spot of ground. and increased the interest of the congregations. to look at it. With .' Possibly the weakness of the body added to the fervour of the spirit. good works. traveller. as it will not quarter. but you are my friend. to have half a crown a week from the sacrament cost of building The them was defrayed by in private subscriptions. that he was put upon ' of preaching but once a day. Driving likewise wearies me. and desired him to beg the favour of you.

called the Minor. field's it might be supposed that actors were among White. and of the visits paid by the chief of actors to the Tabernacle and Tottenham Court Chapel.' which affected to in it kill Methodism by There is ridicule. refusing. which she offered him. selfish. and brutal. Garrick would doubtless have been better pleased had the public called Whitefield the Garrick of the pulpit. he next ' wrote a comedy. the estate. while refusing to . for whatever reason. deceptive.' He could not always disguise his pleasure when another feelings actor was burlesqued and mimicked. and his would hardly be more generous Dr. Johnson. by what he saw and knew of the actors of made a truer remark than when he observed. himself. not one happy line in and in it is as destitute of wit as of piety. both money and lands. yield to his warnings and entreaties to seek another profession but such was not the case. and respected his character and his calling. that they admired his talents. either for himself personally or for his orphan-house. and took the chief part it. petulant.' To these qualities he might have added are the — for a description of the staff of actors who most brilliant in the history of the English stage envious. From the account already given of the kindly feeling of Shuter. valued at seven thousand pounds. insolent. never towards a Methodist preacher. contemptuous. guided no doubt his day. of a Miss Hunter. Finding himself so successful. that the stage made ' almost every other man. faithless. the comedian. for Whitefield. talent To be inferior to him in histrionic would not calm the fretful temper which most of them had.ACTORS When he visited Scotland in 1759 in — his elevei mth visit — he by / \ exhibited his disinterestedness ked a very marked way. There was something the impudence of the . Foote first of all entertained the play-house goers by imitating Whitefield's appearance and manner of speaking. and not himself ' the Whitefield of the stage. friends that is to say.

Yet his lordship could only assure her that it tendency of the play been found out before was licensed. Garrick.' Nevertheless was con- tinued. combined months after Whitefield's death . He would cheerfully say. never entered the city but to bless the theatre after the first it. which drew crowds of the aristocracy.312 GEORGE WHITE FIELD both author and performer think you of one of those itinerant field-orators. and made many a pulpit Mr. of half our industrious fellow-subjects ? ' ' Whitefield. and applied its suppression altogether —a most proper request. 1 The favourite dish of the pocket-picking alluding to Whitefield's defect.' . he could do nothing immediately. but its with the heartlessness of caricaturing a man who had just dead. the for Madan wrote to Garrick on the intended representation of the play at Drury Lane. who. at opening sentence worthy of ' What though declared enmity with common sense. as it was. Mr. licence would have been refused . yet not to the detriment of Whitefield's ministry. Squintum. The Rev. pick the pockets. the Duke of Devonshire. on hearing of the merriment of the town at his expense. a cow-heel only upon if they were to peep upon Dr. at the same time. and who was emptied night. should never have appeared the offence with his concurrence. was a cow-heel. Lady Huntingdon waited upon Lord Chamberlain. Foote showed at his brutality by bringing the play upon the stage Edinburgh within two indecency. Squintum. called the greatest of the field-orators. and see his table. ' How surprised would the world be. The Countess next appealed to it who promised and added to use his influence in excluding ' for the present. anything that was levelled against Methodists for its impurity condemned had the evil it. apart from . simply said. have the address to poison the principles and. as Foote. ' All hail such contempt ! ' But his friends were not content to remain inactive. that it that had he been aware of the offence it was calculated to give. as he sat down to it.

and was thankful when were prudent. His prayer was silence resignation. nor did he write many. Johnson. cousin of tried Lady Huntingdon. ' a new life at I the sight and touch to How gladly would bid adieu ceiled . . very little. 313 Edinburgh had more self-respect than London. . Whitefield was this same year brought into contact with the notorious Earl Eerrers. field-preaching.DELIGHTS IN OPEN-AIR WORK thunder out rebukes. which certainly toils had always been an acceptable cessation of the ing. refreshed him.' was his old enjoyment. forgive me my all pardon all my sins. which revived him again. As it to the cause weakness and sickness. can be expected from a dying man. of his steward. to He was by his peers for the murder Mr. he thought was the loss of his usual voyages. where he had to say. the expansive landscape. Thus he proceeded slowly from place to place. He ' : twice received Whitefield last but his heart was unmoved. It ' Little. an which he spent all in careless self-indulgence. He was beginning to know what nervous his friends orders are. so long as the Lord Jesus enforced of his upon him. and kept him from His words all appearing utterly shameless. The open sky above sight his head. O is God. and the all and sound of nature's charms. His execution was delayed from April 16th interval May and 5th.' An unusually sad and weary tone perceptible in nearly Whitefield's letters of 1761. as an live imprisoned Indian would of the prairie. for and did not press him to preach much. before the bolt was drawn were errors . Lady Huntingdon very politely restrained him a little. if of preachtoils they often brought the quieter and less exhausting of writing. For to- weeks he did not preach a single sermon the ability little say but a few words was gratefully received as a his reviving in dis- bondage. in indif- ference to the religious solicitude shown in his behalf. getting as far north as Edinburgh.

He them that their com- pliance with his request would relieve him of a ponderous load which oppressed him much. things. there one assailant to answered (there was a constant fusillade of pamphlets kept up against him). Warburton. where he was paying a farewell visit man before his departure for Lisbon. and his own health. Warburton opposed Methodism. and Mr. filled The Where was assailant was Dr.' In this confidence he was not mistaken his friends proved true to him and to the cause which he served. Neither the politeness due from guest to hostess. and he was glad to make feeble arrangements for sailing to America the following summer. before But be we see him on board ship at Greenock. and the success they had gained in the land was a sufficient reason for his attempting to demolish them. The condition and wants of Bethesda. in all and believe. Whitefield had found kindness and help he was fierce now to encounter totally and uncompromising to the doctrines of hostility. ' the Lord. unless absolutely necessary I trust he added. and a faithful labourer to be laid in his grave. who since 1759 had the place of good Bishop Benson. will give you a right judgment . they accepted the respon- he entreated Mr. thing. Even before the death of the charitable Doddridge. where he emis barked for his eleventh voyage. Robert Keen.314 GEORGE WHITEFIELD ! houses and vaulted roofs open-air work. winter him much as ever. Hardy. nor the con- . as Bishop of Gloucester. he showed his dislike of enthusiasm in a characteristic in way by rating Lady Huntingdon and Doddridge the dying Lady Huntingdon's house. He accordingly persuaded his friends. a woollen-draper in the Minories. to accept the his other office of trustees to the two London chapels and told all concerns in England. seemed to tell him that he must attempt another voyage. When . sibility. Mr. Keen not to consult him about anyfor. prostrated ' he exclaimed when he resumed his Yet as his revival was only temporary .

Indeed. the fanatics were to the priest's office. the inspiration of Holy Scripture. 'Of his oratorical powers and their astonishing influence on : the minds of thousands. the word used by Warburton . His book might have done one great service to the Church had it been devoted only to the discussion of a question to his conclusions which he introduces as but a stepping-stone against the infidels and the fanatics. Allen. but with respect to his doctrines. The work he wrote was operations of the called a vindication of the office and and Holy Spirit from the insults of infidelity the abuses of fanaticism. on the title-page is changed into fools ' in the pre- face . there can be no doubt they are of I a high order . it was more than he could do to treat a Methodist with fairness and charity. Dr. As by Bishop Gibson. fanatics with Gibson the Methodists were are ' with Warburton they 'fanatics. more warmly at whose hands Warburton had received ordination so by Warburton. at ' He was now to strike a heavier and more blow the false and pernicious doctrines. and the debate became so warm pressed by argument and sorely ruffled in temper. could restrain his vehement at temper. and Lady Huntingdon. no doubt leaving as many marks as he carried with effective him.A SSA ILED BY BISHOP WA RB UR TON sideration 31 due to a feeble friend. spoken in laudatory terms of Whitefield's and respectfully of his doctrines. Hartley having abilities. false. assailed than is the infidels.' consider them pernicious and The conversation that grew into a Warburton.' Nay. Warburton remarked. Mr. namely.' which were spreading and triumphing on every hand. thoughtful view of that great subject might have saved Christianity from many a reproach . His sober. Hartley. hastily the room. Dr. less courteous than Gibson's 'enthusiasts'. On another occasion he provoked a skirmish his Prior Park —afterwards own residence — where he met Dr. left debate. Oliver.

&c. with all its depths . rule at is I do not see what great need we have of any established at least in respect to practice.' fairly He and exactly summed up the bishop's reasoning by saying it that. the Holy Ghost upon the heart of man view which substantially the same ' Bishop Gibson had advanced against enthusiasm. insinuating arts. robbed the Church of us its promised Comforter. or moral suasion.' but supported by a greater show of reasoning. But the conclusion he wanted was something subver- sive of the Methodistical belief concerning the operations of . can human all its reason. but because they daily see so many who profess to hold this established. and entitled. and thereby and left without any supernatural influence or Left that in this is Divine operations whatsoever. Whitefield asks with pertinence and force heights . yet told is forlorn state.316 GEORGE WHITEFIELD it had been commonly adopted by the believers of our to reach faith. so much as pretend to much ' less to maintain and blow up into a settled. self-denying rule of faith with their lips. which he called ' Observations on some fatal mistakes in a book lately published. with all its can calm philosophy. fire. since corrupt nature sufficient of itself to help all. persevering all their lives long in nothing else but an endless and insatiable pursuit after worldly ease and honour. with kindle. Now. by the bishop in the ' : charity the one thing which to abide Church for ever. And I verily believe that the Deists throw aside this rule of faith entirely. in the form of a letter to a friend.' . not its barely on account of a deficiency in argument to support authenticity. in effect. habitual flame of holy heart ? such a spark as this in the human felt Upon ' our ability to do without the Holy Ghost he remarked with a pungency which Warburton must have keenly : Supposing matters to be as this writer represents them. To these views Whitefield wrote an answer. abundantly us to persevere in a religion attended with ease and honour.

' It is not without interest to observe that Whitefield's discussion was with a bishop. No such startling and appalling. can be led into the new Before Whitefield friend life in sails we must Grimshaw. these outside gatherings worship had been offered by the congregation . which used to be erected He for was standing on the scaffold . which occurred on April 1763. as well as happy. More solemn was the effect of his words on another occasion. his ministry as had ever attended the very voice of were It was as if God were speaking. and he announced with text : solemn voice and manner the solemn 'It is appointed . that man was afterwards found among Grimshaw's converts. long. hope. effects felt there. A little while longer. notice the death of his 7. the time for the sermon had all come first . when his he was seen they waited . as Whitefield travelled north in March.( / BELIE VE IN THE HOL V GHOST ' : 317 He proceeds for The Scriptures are so far from encouraging us last to plead a diminution of Divine influence in these faith is days of the gospel. and Years of labour had only strengthened his persuasion that the Comforter still abides personally with believers. we are encouraged by very established rule to expect. all eyes were turned upon him and ears waiting for his words. and first and last upon the doctrine of the Holy Ghost. for he seldom got so near Havvorth without affording himself the pleasure of preaching there. he up hands and earnestly invoked the presence and working of the Holy Ghost. that. when once he cried out to a : man who had I seated himself on for thee ' the tower of the church ' Man. that without His action upon the heart no man Christ Jesus. thereby this on the contrary. have a word . to spend a few moments in silent prayer. because an external rule of established. and pray for larger and more extensive showers of Divine influence than any former age hath ever yet experienced. Probably they met at Leeds. lifted Silently then looking round upon them.

for . and while he did so a wild shriek of terror arose from amidst the mass. cry aloud their : and spare not ! ' The people were then one of number had ' died. exhorted the people to remain into the in ' while Grimshaw pressed Hastening back : crowd to see what had happened. ' Oh. but Whitefield still. Not overcome by the strengthened by the secret Helper whose grace he had implored. and he was. silent. his occurred to him that .' Again. Whitefield commenced again.318 GEORGE WHITE FIELD men once to die. dying an immortal soul has been called into eternity is the destroying angel passing over the congregation told that text . remarks could hardly be appropriate to them he therefore proceeded to say that as they had long enjoyed the ministry of a faithful pastor. . he he approached the scaffold Brother Whitefield.' to warn the impenitent of position. but through every heart when it was known that a second person had died. and cried out. A second time the was announced It is appointed unto men once to die. sir.' ' He paused. God's sake do not speak so I pray you do not flatter them . their perilous Fear and eager interest were in all hearts as the motionless congregation listened to his word. tried more ways than he faithful . stand amongst the dead and the . you . they must surely be a sincerely godly people. and proceeded. he was not always It enough for the stern preacher was common for him to expose the mistakes and pretensions of professors of religion. it and getting on that topic before Grimshaw's congregation. arose a second shriek . from the spot where Lady Huntingdon and Lady Margaret Ingham were standing. ' in a strain of tremendous eloquence. said as a few minutes. Whitefield was always either solemn or vehement but really faithful as no one could have of the moors.' Some confusion followed. this Such preaching as might lead to the opinion that . when Grimshaw interrupted him. and a shudder of awe ran terror of the scene. unto but after this the judgment.

In one instance. love. • Jesus. which was probably spoken early in his ministry. among whom was work- For one-and-twenty years had he proved . and after for I enjoyed that quietshore.' he I says. The war between England and France had kept him absent from America eight years. like the last struggles . to judgment of Christ. All hath been Not an harmony and last relapse But my is and I have little my of much turther public usefulness.' times. charity. when Whitefield was present. carried The complaint which ing most fatally. Others can die. himself a good minister district of his travels not one soul was there in all the with whose spiritual condition he was unacquainted his . thirty-five bottles of wine were used in the ordinance. a great change must have passed over afterwards assured his congregation through his labours. most of whom. caught by him in visiting his flock. ' hath made the ship a Bethel.DEA TH OF GRIM S HA W I fear the greater part of 319 them are going to hell with their eyes open If ! Grimshaw was not mistaken in this judgment. It may have been Grimshaw that Whitefield was thinking of when he said. preached in Scotland several as it seemed. he could not but believe not hold the be one with The church could to number who some- times came for communicate. some years on hopes since oath to be heard. He Romaine that not fewer than twelve hundred in the people were in communion with him . Weak and weary he Ready to fall. yet able to do something. and after a twelve week's voyage landed in Virginia. ness which have in vain sought breath short. A few exertions. and after he died no parishioner could hear name without tears. Grimshaw off was putrid it fever. he sixth time sailed for America the on June 4. but I ' specially cannot. and one congregation would withfill draw another to its place. even in the greatest hurry. 1763.

was in he gained one of his greatest oratorical conquests and a com- parison of the anecdote with that which relates Chesterfield's excitement people. New York. were in his own heart. and that dark cloud rising from beneath the western horizon ? Hark waves rages ! don't you hear distant thunder ? ? Don't you see those flashes of lightning There is a storm gathering ! every ! man to his duty ! ! How ! the arise ! The tempest The air is dark and dash against the ship What The ship is on her beam ends Our masts are gone ! next ? " ' This appeal instantly brought the shout. But what means this sudden lowering ' when suddenly. of will serve to show his mastery over all classes of On this New York occasion he was preaching before the seamen nautical tone and manner that were irrehe thus suddenly broke in with. but could not get a when Whitefield preached. he had never seen there before. But. the taper be lighted up again in heaven. he from above. only he would have success If the fault if it could be gained. and was so much strengthened by There was such a flocking of all ranks in New York It to his preaching as this city that . and are making fine headway over a smooth sea. blessed be God. or glimmering flashes of a taper just burning out. will is all that can be expected from me. and Boston the cold as to be able to preach thrice a week. ' sailors to their feet with a Take to the long boat to ! His power engage the attention of ship-builders was as great as that of exciting sailors. assuming a sistible.3 20 of a dying GEORGE WHITEEIELD man. was not uniform. we have a clear sky. before a light breeze. " Well. for help . and we shall soon lose sight of land. If the would pray.' From Virginia he proceeded northwards to Philadelphia. his success Still. of the heavens. while he preached. . my boys. one builder declaring that he plank down could build a ship from stem to stern every Sunday under the sermon at the parish church.

and your heads in a while look upon your hands. had come to speak to you in my own name. and and once But to his I have not come to in the "What does the babbler talk of? " you in my own name. were in his hearers. he would correct if they were . knees. A curious student from Princeton (New first Jersey) College was present. and have an audience. have I ? I come here to preach to stocks and you in the name of the Lord God of I I will. and not a great deal even of congregation seemed as uninterested as himself. he would ask them whether he were preaching to men or to stones. after a long delay in the north of the colonies. ' and he began to say to himself. might your elbows on your sleep . caused by bad health and the unsettled state of the Indians. sound asleep . His ideas are all commonplace and that. he cried out. his meant stones to . Young is said to have his sat down and wept when j his royal hearers slept during sermon but Whitefield would have done something very different — most likely what he did to a small American con- gregation on a rainy day. Dr. he would charge them with it as they sat if they were stupid and uninterested. No I come : you — ring fixing name of the Lord hand and foot down with a ' of Hosts force that ! ' — here he brought made the building The congregation and I must and will be heard ' ' started. thoughtless.' There was no more sleeping or indolence that day. Hosts. I am not I have come to I have waked you up. ay/ said Whitefield. he travelled to Bethesda. ' Ay.' — mere sat in show. The part of the sermon made no impression upon the student. 22 .A SLEEPER AROUSED fault 321 it . do it. Other things besides preaching filled his mind when. Whitefield now stopped his face ' darkened with a frown If I rest changing his tone. man is not so great a super- wonder ficial after all. and must. eyes on him. and has This told the story. one old The man and who front of the pulpit having fallen . you up and say. and the old man awoke.

like New Jersey. along with the pleasure peace and plenty of his cherished his which he retreat. he had long wished to make further provision for the education of persons of superior rank. tion for the whole of the southern and might even count upon many youths being . and for the future support of ' a worthy. who would have vinces preferred having their sons educated nearer to send home. home authorities . professors and tutors. James Wright. he therefore prayed his Excellency and the members of his Majesty's Council to grant him in trust two thousand acres of land on the north fork of Turtle River. and Whitefield returned to . felt in seeing the he had the satisfaction of thinking that second the project would be accomplished. and other good purposes intended . who might State . Esq.322 GEORGE WHITEFIELD it. His Excellency gave a favourable answer. in time to his wish spend Christmas with the orphans. able president. and referred the matter to the support it. them to the northern proinstitu- that a college in Georgia would be a central district. setting forth his petition that in addition to his original plan. but saw with concern that many gentlemen. He memorialised in governor. or lands south of the river Altamaha.. sent from the British that a considerable West of India Islands and other parts sum money was soon to be laid out in purchasing a large number and of Negroes. and reached add as he had so often done It before. thus be fitted for usefulness. either in Church or that he witnessed with pleasure the increasing prosperity of the province. to had long been to the orphanage a college . had been obliged . for the training of gentlemen's sons and now. for the further cultivation of the orphan-house other additional lands. which he had carried out these many years at great expense. This memorial was sup- ported by an earnest ' Address of both Houses of Assembly.' which bore the signature of James Habersham as president.

my into he said. before cannot stand him. 'I breakfasted. be ready for the grave. old man. number of her to which was partly due Whitefield's preaching under a tree behind the White Lion Tunbridge Inn .' Stand.' He breathes nothing but peace and love. and he till sure that he should never in breathe as he would.' he says in his with Mr. hairs. for a long while. . though he that I.AN OLD MAN AT FIFTY Work and sickness 323 had wrought a his striking change in his appearance when he ended twelfth voyage. who seemed to be an old. Wesley was painfully struck when he met him towards the close of the year in journal. Whitefield.' into . no difference from what only that later I was at five-and-twenty. called Nicodemus's Corner. ' had also a strange corner. has hardly seen fifty and yet it pleases God who am now in my sixty-third year. was a chapel in and the learned were to hear his expositions of truth. Whitefield called upon me. ' and insist upon my not being brought action too soon. at Bath. The poor to all. being fairly worn out years . Whitefield must needs open on October witty 6. ' London. he breathed yonder heaven.' have fewer teeth and more grey in his journal ' : A month Bigotry Wesley again wrote Mr. scarce know what I write. no weakness. find no I disorder.' old shattered barque hath not I been in dock one week. although the to body appeared chapels. she had another at Norwich . is That his health must have been grievously broken evident from his ' : touching appeal to his friends Keen and Hardy friends. He went and preached It one of the sermons which many of the It 1765. comes. Tender love Asthma had now felt firmly seated itself in his constitution. no decay. but hides its head wherever he The heaven. in his Master's service. and a third at Wells and when she had got one finished it. silver cord was not even yet to be loosed. and the soul the for Lady Huntingdon was increasing She had one at Brighton.

Now came the intricacies of 'red-tape. Why did he object to a compulsory clause respecting the master? Was he opposed and their choice to the Church of England ? By no means communion. not help. to go and hear Whitefield. but by delay they intended hindrance. like the majority of the wardens were sure to be of that would be sure to fall upon a master them- selves in belief.' The to original ' memorial of Whitefield. used to smuggle bishops. but who did not want to be seen such a place as an unconsecrated chapel. to give the home authorities the fullest opportunities for maturing their thoughts. to the Archbishop of who effectually frustrated its intention by a bigoted demand but a that the charter of the college. and were impatiently waiting for information. should contain a clause making obligatory to appoint none member of the this Church of England to the office of head- master. just inside the The curtained seats door were both convenient and secret. remitted the Lords Commissioners it Trade and Plantations. colonial supported by the was ' Address of the Houses of for Assembly. praying that since the colonists were deeply interested in the scheme. daughter-in-law of the Archbishop of Dublin. he would not have the daily use His is of the liturgy enjoined article he would not have one doctrinal letter to the entered in the charter. To demand Whitefield offered respectful but uncompromising opposition.324 GEORGE WHITEFIELD whom she had persuaded in which Lady Betty Cobbe. ? And how was the plan for a college at Bethesda prospering First of all Whitefield waited a long time. were it one granted. privilege for a He would have no exceptional Churchman . . but choice and compulsion were very different . archbishop stating and defending his views as noble and catholic a its production as ever came from his pen. and they sent Canterbury. He therefore memorialised his Majesty. something might be done. while himself and his toils references to are as pathetic as they are modest.

his trifle ' truthfulness was stake. and which he had offered his dying prayers.' should be upon 'a broad bottom and no and how could he now withdraw from his word ? More than that. and he had preached and upheld them question turned upon freedom or everywhere. Benson had made a dying bequest. and uncoercive genius of the English Govern- ment . in for liberty of In upon the disputed all points. The whole As for for compulsion. Whitefield addition to at the reasons already given. AND EQUALITY No . because of his Grace's moderation towards Protestant . ' be founded. Whitefield thought that an institution to which Dr. his acceptance of them was as literal and honest as man could give. moreover. it had been read twice every Sunday first orphan-house from the day of the institution of the ? house. ' Because of the known.' he had Undoubtedly upon a broad far as to say bottom that it ' . most of the money which he had collected for the orphanhouse had been given by Dissenters. From the first. 325 Did he dislike the liturgy ? he loved it it. mild. Dissenters because of the unconquerable attachment of the .RELIGIOUS LIBERTY things. for was not the memorialist a Methodist? thought and action ? and was he not pleading reply to their remarks said that. the orphan-house. whenever he had asked upon what bottom the intended college was repeatedly and readily replied. Did he disbelieve the doctrinal articles No : on the contrary. and he might not been to with it. some claim upon or the All that he could say could not move either the archbishop Lord President. long- established. replied. he had even gone so from the pulpit other. and could he be so basely ungrateful as to deny their liberality them admission to the very place ? which had created and sustained he If it were asked by what warrant he had said that the college should stand only on a liberal charter. had the archbishop also. and had injured himself by his frequent reading of in Tottenham Court Chapel in the .

as but I would fain. Americans to toleration principles habitual feelings because of the avowed and sentiments of his own heart. to act after his decease. in and expound the houses. read. for taking tures. But their judges did . and a truly catholic.' ~^ in His plan was defeated. are well worth preserving ' and : his last words to the archbishop If I know anything of my own heart. whilst here on earth. he now proposed to add academy to the orphan-house. To come a public as near his idea as possible. can hope all for a continued heartfelt enjoyment of that peace of God which passeth understanding. which were doomed to disappointment In 1768 six students of St. act the part of an honest man. but nursery of sound learning and religious education to the latest posterity. fresh that no opportunity should be omitted of making a for application a college in charter. I have no ambition to be looked a founder of a college . for upon them singing to pray. may please your Grace. upon at present. a disinterested minister of Jesus Christ.326 GEORGE WHITEFIELD . Scrip- hymns private and for being tradesmen before entering as students. ' upon a broad bottom.' He wrote as feeling that his very piety and salvation were involved in the position he assumed. and to form a proper trust. In this way. it whenever those power might think for the glory of God and the interest of their king and country to grant the same. In order to uphold his reputation America. moderate I presbyter of the Church of England. or remembered it for the future.' Thus his beloved Bethesda would not only be continued as a be confirmed as a seat and house of mercy for orphans. and in this only. Great and worthy aspirations. with this proviso. he published his correspondence with the arch- bishop. impartial tribunal of the great Shepherd and Bishop of souls at the great day. and sent it to the Governor of Georgia for circulation. or even before. and be thereby prepared to stand with humble boldness before the awful. Oxford. were expelled from the university for holding Methodistical tenets. Edmund Hall.

and even But the delinquents had Jesus of Nazareth was a carpenter. what evil or crime worthy of expulsion. disqualify them for the private or public discharge ? of their ministerial functions that they was extempore prayer ! had used. neither had any one been called before the bar of any public court of judicature answer praying for for ! to it for at least a century. and so did David St. he asked. . which was not an unknown sound even at ? Thus far his polemics. why should the ViceChancellor of a University forbid his pious students ? Or was devout than Papists there And more harm Oxford in hearing a psalm-tune than in listening to the noise of box and dice. he demanded. been found guilty of praying. Extempore prayer a crime It was not a crime to be found in any law book. And how But it could that. and this very exercise of praise are we taught by to Paul to . But these men sang hymns. cultivate. could not let the matter pass without notice and he wrote and published a letter to Dr. As to the charges. the vice-chancellor. which was surely the greater two. We must now follow him to other engagements.METHODISTS EXPELLED FROM OXFORD not escape public censure. it Expelled for extempore Then was high time there were some expulsions sin of the extempore swearing. he now . to be expected that the Methodists would be against them they were also opposed by men field of equal standing in the Church with themselves. could there be in having followed a trade before entering the university? and whoever heard of its being accounted a disparagement to any great public character that he had once been a mechanic ? Why. Yes. David was a shepherd. Praise ! Well. Catholic students might ? if sing less then why not Protestants ? Ought Protestants the be Duke of Cumberland allowed his pious soldiers to sing. he replied. besides showing the students much private sympathy. White. As if with an expectation of soon dying. It 327 was . Durell.

20. doubt the parting was as painful to call parting any he had ever known ' and he was wont days execution days. and many were disposed to be riotous. and a ' minister of the devil ' by Great was their affection for him. the days of old. indebted. Too great. and spiritual children of the same age. Mrs. with an 'inflammatory fever. along with his journals.328 GEORGE WHITEFIELD to began collect his numerous letters . 1768. was in June and July. ' for there were friends of twenty- seven years' standing. ' He preached her funeral sermon from Romans viii. always a dear city to him. For by the creature was reason of made Him who hath subject to vanity. Spirit of They were seeking to after and the God seemed open . too great an honour as to be expected ! ' No . whither he must go again last would probably be the and he begged his papers in a It his friends letters. The ' congrega- tions in the orphan-house park were as large and attentive as a godly youth his enemies. but subjected the : same in hope.' Speaking of her fortitude. that and last visit to Edinburgh. A . Whitefield was seized 9. for the best story of his He felt that another voyage to America. he observed ' Do tree? you remember my preaching in those fields by the old stump of a The multitude was great. on account of Bethesda's affairs. ' be moving amongst them. and his only danger was that of ' being hugged to death . not willingly. those which he addressed when he was called by his friends. who remembered their first love . He thanked God for ordering his steps thither. and to them we are life. then checking himself.' after his return to Soon London. He often got into the to call his there. ' ' air upon what he he exclaimed was beginning fondly a king of throne and indeed he was ! men when O to die there ' ' .' and died on August 1768. that and Keen and Hardy to let him have he might revise and dispose of them he paid his fourteenth proper manner. he added.

to opened both the college and the chapel attached and on the following Sunday." My confidence returned. not easy to The fact is. was a great fault . affected/ They became still. and on the anniversary of her Trevecca House. as I stood on the table. was always with the same power of the Spirit and as we it shall not again find him among some his London and friends. and It he was not different as an old man. and was afterwards known as Trevecca College. 1792. and many were deeply He He afterwards called her death an 'unexpected breach. . rapturous Welsh. The Countess of Huntingdon had . He was well enough to preach frequently. Whitefield it . my courage began My wife was then standing behind me. We for know how neat and punctual he was in his younger days. might quickly have followed his wife to the grave. and. to a congregation of some thousands.DEATH OF first I HIS WIFE 329 near. he preached in the court before the college. South Wales. in the parish of Talgarth. think I and menaces. The college was removed to Cheshunt. but when a desperate gang drew the most ferocious and horrid imprecations to fail. The it winter of 1768-69 was spent by Whitefield in last London was the but one he lived to it see. for "George. Herts. August 24. said. 1768. play the man to the your God.' and ' said that he felt the loss of his right hand ' daily. he had been Wales. was dedicated by her to a new purpose. he had been for among fiery. looking up. and the was keep himself within bounds Moreover. Rest and quietness were enjoined upon him in until the flux it was quite stopped. may be best now to notice of his habits characteristics which have not yet been mentioned. I spoke multitude with boldness and affection. with addressed them firmly . hear her now. for within a month of her death he burst a vein by hard riding and frequent preaching. some time purposed founding such an institution birthday. I She pulled my gown. attending a significant ceremony the education of godly young —the opening of a college for men who aspired to be ministers. August 24.

' His commands were given kindly. and he would suffer no up after ten o'clock at night. and he always right. Come. One man. He said of another who had preached . . with their young men who wanted as be ministers. He or would keep them no encouragement. will ' with grief.' Whether any one or no one sat down His to table with him. gentlemen. ' suspense. exacting. fortunes. every article was paid for at once. and bursting into tears himself. and on ness. tailor. Go ' and buy old clothes and very likely rag-fair was his proper destination. and no lying rise in bed after four in the morning. To curb in he would he would place then refer them the humiliating circumstances. after being applauded. by the tears which he started this instantly touched him said. and whether he had but bread and cheese or a complete dinner. love of exactness and order was the same hand. he yet Always true to his friends in all was doomed to feel the treachery of many. and almost harsh. he I shall live to be a poor peevish old man.330 his GEORGE WHITEFIELD meals to be but a few minutes sitting late . and for small articles the money was taken but quickly in the His temper was being patient soon ruffled. and afford them little answered him that he was a to rag-fair. it is time for all good folks to be at home. who was dismissed with. He would up abruptly ' in the midst of a conversation at ten at night. forget But we ourselves. were sent upon in errands. and every one be tired of me. that account he seemed to dread outliving his useful- The same vanity. in business trans- actions . applauded when a person did It is painful to learn that in his later years his confidence in mankind was much shaken. appeased. who. experience made him to say. and say. Not enough one day to hear an explanation of a fault from some one who was studious it to please. the table must be properly spread. and saw . and to young Roman trifling orators. he gave much pain.

he would say.' like old in his use of We He have seen that he was anecdotes. and you Mr. no more here . he rose from in the chair . 'Sir. you prayed it me into a good frame. ' Who ' is it ? what is . not more . Tormented and all as he must have been with all kinds of visitors kinds of requests. at six o'clock. he wisely suffered but few to see him freely.' called That man to preach. but more solemn and towards .' He have furnished him with a proper for the He judged rightly . his business if ? ' he would demand before his door was opened Tell and the door was opened. He and a always ascended the pulpit with a pale. calm step. face. man afterwards became an inconsistent clergyman he too would have been best at rag-fair. his congregations smiling than his all weeping object. I him to come to-morrow morning after preaching . Much made him. he said to him with a frown. had he kept an open door. / or two hours. serious slow. Cole prayed me out of again. his knees and sat down when the drawler concluded. to get the truth into their hearts and heads was from His observant habits gathered . familiar with his awful themes. But he hated all unreality.' Knowing if that he it sometimes preached an hour and a hah . is later.CHARACTERISTICS in his vestry 331 from the text. as if he had a great message preaching for the expectant thousands. nor were they always without a touch of humour. perhaps five. if God had him text. or immediately if he cannot see him. shall come would . have come hither also. In the middle of an immoderately long prayer by the master of the house where he was once staying. was no more afraid of . illustrations quarters and the last book he had read was sure to colour his next sermon. ' These that have turned the world ' upside down. prepares us for long prayers also and perhaps others had prayed as well as he preached he might have borne with them.

and often said that he almost ' envied the man who could take his choice of food at an eating-house. his state at this of mind was more than usually devout .' It is said that when he wrote his pamphlets. he was weary of long before he became old. the downfall of Peter. GEORGE WHITEFIELD he sometimes entreated his friends to mention nothing to him which did not relate to eternity. and on Sunday mornings he generally had Clarke's was remarked also that time but filled Matthew Henry's Commentary. in the evening he was oratorical. difficult to believe that any preacher could successfully put a fold of his invariably did gown over his eyes to express grief. all real life from beginning to end he was himself at times and everywhere.- He seemed . Then his perfect elocution and graceful gestures were in full play. On . and Cruden's ConcorIt dance within reach. and pass unnoticed. did not love to be If known and observed wherever he it he ever was fond of popularity. although before entering he loved to have an hour or two alone Bible. and attempted by every save his art of persuasion and every and its terror of denunciation to hearers from sin punishment. Sabbath . He went. -. yet Whitefield it when he was depicting in his own vivid way and grieving over it. and would see no one until his work was . ordinarily. he shut himself up in his room.332 the close of life. the intervals of conversation were up with private ejaculations of praise and standing suppress. to have no particular time it for preparing for the pulpit. prayer. occasionally making a modest show of learning . morning his preaching it was explanatory and doctrinal in the in afternoon was more general and hortatory still. his It is uttermost acting never appearing unnatural or improper. which he did not care to His was an honest. notwith- his love of pleasantry. and the evening it was more general In the morning he was calm and conversational. indeed.

newly awakened to a sense of the Divine spiritual desertion. we do hear of him without ' He ing's has been preferred ungospelised.' passages of Scripture. rich men.' a book of quotations from a work of Professor Rambach.HIS PRINTED WORKS done. turned catechetical which are much like questions that . A Communion fifty-nine Morn- Companion. he ' Recommendatory Preface to the Works of John it Bunyan. and persons in a storm at sea.' which would have been more appropriately called a recommendation of Puritans and Puritan Early in his ministry he began divinity . being religious . persons desiring and seeking after They were composed for the new birth. then come labourers. travellers.' which means 'an attempt to render Mr." more useful to the children of God.' which he compiled. some into ' Observations on select questions. the sick. sacramental hymns and seventeen doxologies taken from the ' several authors book was a public Whitefield also published Pious Aspirations for the use of Devout Communicants. contains not one discriminating remark on the writings of the dreamer.' evangelical garb now. for those for for those under under the displeasure of relations the cases of servants. and the petitions contained life in some are as plain an index to passing conditions of as are the peculiarities of the psalms. though We never hear of Law in this it. some of which are most appropriate are a leaf of in petition and language. but they were soon ' A more elaborate work was Law Gospelised. for those life. Law's " Serious Call. sailors. Their titles Church history. Negroes. Whitefield published several prayers. an ordinary Sunday school teacher would put to his class discontinued. wrote a 333 Besides the productions of his pen already noticed. contained extracts from Bishop Ken and Bishop Wilson and favourite. of Giessen University. and illustrating the subject more fully from the Holy Scriptures. by excluding whatever is not truly evangelical. .

Oglethorpe makes excepted. the fullest trust of our faith. he was also a friend of Goldsmith . The book. Doddridge. . Whitefield no great hymn the Church.' He drew most of hundred and seventy hymns from Watts.334 GEORGE WHITEFfELD 'Hymns for Social Worship. Toplady. John and Charles Wesley. A friend and some- . have expressed for us the humblest grief of our repentance. and the brightest expectation of our hope has given us not a verse worth retaining. more particularly in designed for use of the Tabernacle its Congregation London. passed through editions in forty-three years. which Spiritual thirty-six was quickly ' followed by Wesley's ' Hymns and Songs and a Moravian Hymn and of Book. all of either taking an active part in the movement or coming within the range of its influence. ' — a kind of link between the Club and the Tabernacle.' ' In 1753 Whitefield published a collection of hymns from the various authors. Olivers. the most competent of his contemporaries being judges. Garrick the Dunciad. was ever seen in the soul-trap. never who went to hear him. to the 'Courteous Reader. Watts. and as a preacher he was the greatest of all his brethren. but White- field Emotional.' Burke . Cennick.' It contained a preface addressed as like the author as Wesley's is is famous preface himself has left to his book 1779 to like him. of Whitefield. though the all its Methodist revival gave the English Church in the greater branches number them of its best hymns. and many from the Wesleys. principally statesmen was — Pitt and Fox among the number. like Charles Wesley. One gift in a supreme degree is enough for any man . he yet had none of that fervid poet's music. The only direct association of Whitefield's brilliant name with the names of the and gifted men of his time has already It appeared in the narrative of his preaching triumphs. and others. Hogarth disgraced his genius indecent caricatures of him Pope by abusing him in some by Not one of the celebrated Literary Club.

' For a while . to George Whitefield. and where form has become familiar Whitefield the last interview between in his journal and Wesley that Wesley records on Monday ' : (their old meeting day). February 27.' their gaiety and their sins. which he bought with the proceeds of the play that Shuter lifted into popularity. 1769. His soul appeared . Johnson was sure that of his manner.THE LAST HYMN OF THE EVANGELISTS times he and 335 Topham Temple Beauclerc would turn in of an evening ' to drink a glass of wine with Goldy. nor worldly wretches. or tree. grey-headed evangelists. Mrs. be vigorous still. They talked about him. It to frequent. which ' is sketched by Charles Wesley in I a letter to his wife : Last Friday dined with my brother at George's chapel. But their wine- when they could their comfortable suppers at the 'Turk's Head.' at his chambers in Brick Court.' this is And with a pleasant picture of the now aged. life. as they talked about every. able conversation with He says I had one more agreemy old friend and fellow-labourer. nor hardened sinners go home as gentle as lambs. Herritage was mistress. but his body was sinking apace and unless God interposes with His mighty hand. was ' chiefly owing to the peculiarity He would be followed by crowds were he were he to preach from a to wear a night-cap in the pulpit. who in their youth had fired the nation religious enthusiasm. the easy ways of many of these sons of genius. but the night-cap would not have made grasping men give of their beloved money to the orphan-house. thing and everybody they theorised about it his popularity . sipping. he must soon finish his labours. sufficiently explain how it was that in all Whitefield's career not one of them crossed his path. and provided . Middle —the chambers get it. who had been lift living only for the body and for this begin to up their abject souls to look towards the ! splendours and joys of a heavenly kingdom We is turn again with him his to the places which he had loved to us.

Harris. much resembled his first it was hindered it was made dangerous by similar high gales. Howel was indeed a all feast of love.336 the dinner. GEORGE WHITEFIELD Hearty Mr. During one month.' he said. composing sermons. ' He only wanted some- body about him with his a little more brains. His by similar delays . and pleadings his last days. shown him by both captain and passengers and all attended service. took his last farewell thirteenth voyage of his English . The peace and and happiafter tears. early Whitefield. when. and he preached the day after landing. and we seem to hear it renewed again there. to the it had cost him. Invitations crowded if upon him \ and he travelled from place to place as the vigour of his youth were renewed. Winter. accompanied by Cornelius friends. for was to minister largely comfort of His health continued better than had been and when summer approached he in started on his in old preaching circuit the north. riding and preaching during which he penned the heat of every day. 1769. They were what he the trouble called his prizes.' They were never all together again in this world. : Adams was It there . ness of the place were his daily joy all it and thus Bethesda. History of England. when sailing. and to complete our band. . The in parting solemnities were exceedingly awful. he travelled five hundred miles. How at like the language of his youth is that New York to his friend Keen : — . September. Bethesda was in a satisfactory condition. July. after all his prayers. it. of He The took to his old employment reading the letters. and writing greatest respect was . he admitted ten orphans in the spring of 1770. ' Their hymn in the in ' George's chapel carries the soul to that house heavens. for years . reception at His Charleston was very hearty. and then comforts would have been complete. My last brother and George prayed we sang an hymn up in the chapel.

before my first visit. him leave their towns and through which he was still attempting to travel on his evangelistic work. Opposition silent none spoke or wrote a word against him. when they had assembled shaken to its lull.' This was not the first execution he had been present the service of the pulpit. fire. The sheriff allowed him to come and hear a sermon under an adjacent tree. There was a hush and quietness gathering round the close of his marvellous ministry. but he . many quarters. The people. Divine consolations. at. into everlasting prepared for the devil and his angels. thousands The poor criminal had sent me several letters.' It was now eventide with him . and were unwilling to villages. A very peculiar providence led ! O me lately to a place where a horse-stealer was executed . hearing I was in the country. and took my leave. He gave a short exhortation. ! ! His heart had been softened seemed full of solid. like a peal of thunder. At the close of a sermon. He pressed to all things into and was wont make even the final scenes of a criminal's career give effect to the urgency and solemnity of his appeals and warnafter ings. Solemn solemn After being by himself about an hour. prayed. both from ministers and people. Depart from Me. I then stood upon the coffin. as if they expected to see his face no more. ye cursed. But it was not always he could meet them together . attended. gave the blessing. fur the body was being 'poor efforts They were. from many. I must do must pronounce fell sentence upon you. now I to put on my the condemning cap. added. I trust. clung to let him. ' Then. An instructive walk I went up with him into the cart. for the weary and broken servant. and say. The Divine influence hath been as at the first. Invitations crowded upon me. He ! season.' terrible curse. ivith his eyes full pausing for a moment. he would almost too big for of tears and his heart words Sinner. which seemed to tell of coming was rest . a word in I walked half a mile with him to the gallows. he said. only one week of life remained. ' : I am going it.B VENTIDB ' 3l y whut a new scene of usefulness is opening in various parts of this new world All fresh work where I have been.

the Rev. He out. September 28th. as was now his way. and on the following morning started for Boston. ' and looking up. I am weary in Thy work. he preached Portsmouth. him before going out to to preach. Lord If I for Jesus.' was the he penned.' shining like the unclouded Then he tired. together. George Whitefield. of which he partook very sparingly. sun. he was and after an early supper. go bed than to preach. fields for nearly hours to a large congregation. begged Mr. It ' Less than the least last of all. dined. Jonathan Parsons. 'Sir.' the fields. have not yet finished in my course. travelling fulfil by way of Exeter and Newbury Port. he clasped his hands said. and went forward to Newbury Port with In the evening a dear old friend. at whose house he was retire to rest at have family prayer. taking his stand in the first hogshead pulpit. ' his countenance. seal Thy for a truth. slowly and with great ' then with all his wonted animation and power. at effort. at On Friday.' says a spectator. True sir then turning aside. as he was more than usually to uneasy. and well did it harmonise with one of the strongest wishes he to had ever made known God — the wish to be humble. but not of Thy work. stand strong fast ! warm heart ! to in the faith — to quit ourselves like men and be ' To the letter which contains this prayer. hall Meanwhile the pavement house and the to hear became crowded with people who wanted some . let But the people of his Exeter could not him pass without giving them a sermon . and. and. so that he might in front of the once. he sub- scribed himself. let me go and speak Thee once more die.' Whitefield remarked. in order to an engage- ment at the latter place on the Sunday. He had ridden fifteen miles that morning. to Parsons. and he yielded one remarked fit to their entreaties. you are more ' to . and come home and went preached The Lord on a two heard his request. staying.33& GEORGE WHITE FIELD for a could make to serve his Lord.

or hasten to the south to remember Bethesda and at the his dear family . and said to another . and his heart strove with him to say some- thing. and went out When his friend entered his room. he must have two or three days' riding without preaching. he to me. you must speak to these dear people I cannot say a word. turned towards them. said.' To his friend and companion. with Watts' psalms lying open before him. He halted on the staircase. his preaching the next day would make him better — his old remedy. Brother. to give him direction in the way he should to smile take. and his forthcoming services on the the Sunday . Whitefield was found reading the Bible. used to sweat through and through — would It him he his S would rather wear out than habit to rise in the night panting. After committing himself into the hands of God. to his with candle in hand. of his work as if Yet he talked many days more were left to him . . ' while his words flowed on and ceased not until the candle. on the congregations TaberEnglish nacle and Tottenham Court Chapel. Tearful eyes were lifted up to him. but in an hour he called his friend for help. Mr. with the window half-open. he thought. had long been and pray and this night. to bring more souls to Christ .' I will sit and read till you come as. till two in the morning. weary and and prayed God to bless his preach- ing on the past day. he sat up in bed rust out. and on all his friends.THE LAST NIGHT words of grace and truth from equal his lips. and slept. Richard Smith. in its socket. But there were the waiting people to be passed. a ' pulpit-sweat relieve ' —he . He lay down ' again to sleep . when an attack of asthma seized him.' which he still held. burned away. he went bedroom . and began an exhortation. or.' . . who ' slept in the same room with him. whether he should winter at Boston. My asthma — my asthma is coming on. and then he would be all right. clergyman. he went to rest. but 339 he felt himself un- to the task of addressing ' them.

and preached his sermon ness. departed at the comparatively early age of thirty-four years of exertion.' had long expressed his ardent desire to pass even beyond the stars. and spoke reproach- . The device on his it of wings outspread for and the motto bore. ' A is also cried in young man's Whitefield dead. and yet reviled him. for and after . seal. air. but could get no in his chair. He was a man of God.' And so it was. He his was in a foreign land. They seated him wrapped his cloak round him. in the fields. But the end was come. although not among last He was a field-preacher. He had expected to die silent God to enable me to bear so many testimonies for Him during my life. he said. was hard fascinated him. hope and prayer. Whitefield in heaven. flight. itself. but I I am on the road to hell. a young sail-maker named Benjamin Randall heard him. and halting at the different corners in the street. relief.' is dead I voice He died at Newbury Port the is morning at six soul. I am dying. He had feared outliving his useful- and was permitted a reviving of strength before he fifty-six. however. When he preached at Portsmouth on the previous Friday. that He will require none from me when I die. and said. and at 30. and bitter even against the man who main But about noon on the Sunday a stranger rode into the town. ( It has pleased His dying prayer that very for the salvation of souls was also answered day. cried in ! a clear but subdued voice. ' Whitefield is dead this Whitefield o'clock. Randall. greatly impressed with his words and tears. 'x Astra petamus. 1770. he At five o'clock he rose to open the window wider for more A few minutes afterwards he turned to his com' panion.' He ran to the other window.34o GEORGE WHITE EIELD said. six o'clock on Sunday morning. and did their utmost to restore him. panting for breath. September he entered heaven to his The end was conformable an evangelist and died strangers. and was. as he had often been before.

where the news of his death was received 5th. never in the judgment of the great day he shall appear as a swift witness against me. In London. Whitefield was buried. offered prayer. in front of the pulpit of Mr. of grief were The outward demonstrations The bells of Newbury sincere. in tears. six thousand nations. in the Presby- Church at Newbury Port. Daniel Rogers. all ascended the and confessed before his vast obligations to to the grave. and the ships the harbour fired their guns. but I regarded ! him not. the Rev. and as he cried out. the people mingled their tears with his. O my father. A sermon was then preached . the coffin was lowered into the . never. voices. no. according to his wish. in Totten- . in numerous and Port were tolled. and hung their flags half-mast high. and the Governor and Council led the procession which attended to hear the funeral sermon.' He yielded himself to God. magnitude of to the When the coffin was placed close mouth of the vault. the mighty host of mourners present. The London Chronicle of November 19th to says that the multitudes hear his funeral sermon by Wesley. Funeral sermons were preached in the principal In Georgia all cities of America. but weeping choked many . They tried to sing a hymn. He taught me the way to heaven. Parsons. the church at They hung Savannah in black. of Exeter. October 2nd. fitly members and ministers of many denomi- representing the catholicity of his heart and the his labours. vault still another short prayer was offered and the congregation. my father ! and stood and wept. one of his sons in the faith. ' him whose His emotion body they were about to commit conquered him. the on November which went same grief was felt and expressed. pulpit.MS FUNERAL fully of 341 him. that I could hear his voice again shall I again hear it till But ah. passed along the streets to their homes. On terian Tuesday. the black cloth in the stores was bought up for mourning by the sorrowing people.

but chose an Arminian to preach his funeral sermon. he was weak. — the love of Christ all — and one aim —the of Nor through his distractions did he ever turn aside for a moment from his great work. the the bitterness of controversy. he were a giant . unvarying consistency. he was a clergyman of the Church of England. he was the favourite preacher of colliers and London roughs. and beneath his apparent his inconsistencies and behind ever-changing life there was a true unity. churches and chapels of orders there were similar commemorations of him. all ham Court Chapel and and in exceeded all belief. at his own request. he was liberalising influences one of the most of his age. and lovers of or apparent contradictions. in buried in a Presbyterian church he was a Calvinist doctrine. fifty maintain his orphans. Two questions are almost sure to be upon the reader's . really Nominally narrow and exclusive. but was an . but proclaimed the love of all feel God for tenderness which made that Christ had died them . all failed to make any impression upon his resolution to preach Christ to every soul that he could reach. He loved privacy. things. equal favourite of peers and scholars he believed in a limited with a atonement for sin. real may measure him by the room he but had for diverse . opposition of the clergy and bishops.342 GEORGE WHITEFIELD the Tabernacle. From his first sermon to his last he had one salvation of motive souls. The hostility of mobs. but worked life and crowded a long into a short one . but occasionally stormed in his preaching as last. the unfaithfulness friends. but. and also practically lies an Independent minister. and bequeathed in his will to Lady Huntingdon in trust for the same to the he was slim if in person. Lovers of absolute. . but always lived his time. in public he was the foremost philanthropist of slaves to owned them use . the seductions of popularity and the praise of the titled.

It was burnt down about two years after the death of rebuilt. Other changes of fortune happened to one of which was the as a trustee. which on its St. poem. Mr.' he says 'Alas for the preacher's cherished schemes Mission and church are ! now but dreams . and S. sent from became also a home. because he was an honest man. Mr. the ceremony was duly performed. where are the answered. . site. was to the Countess of Huntingdon. He consented. 343 ? what became of the orphan-house preaching ? Secondly. on mission work accidentally Whitefield.RESULTS OF HIS WORK tongue. First. Three members. and an Israelite. were St.' who all apparently prisoners of constituted the whole board at that time. appointment of Franklin. George's Day. ' its early opponent. Arrangements had been on an academy along made aries. In 1870 a new building was begun. left with everything connected with it. This provision might once have sealed 'a Protestant. of the George's Day came Remembering tree in the charter. war on board a British man-of-war when round. whence missionstarted England by Lady Huntingdon. in repurchasing the old site. in Whitefield's lifetime for carrying It with the orphanage. they begged permission captain to go ashore and celebrate the anniversary under an oak Tunbury. Habersham to act in her absence from America. Whittier 1 falls into a strange mistake when.' its Its original charter appointed continuance as long as there were three members to celefalls brate the anniversary. a Catholic. results of his These shall now be The orphan-house. among the Indians and the settlers. I. and placing the orphanage upon brick of Bethesda with his it again. in his fine The Preacher. Georgia. during the time he was president of the institution. making the fourth since Whitefield laid the first own hand. Joseph Fay succeeded. fate. and but not upon the original it.

by the Philadelphia Thus Calvinism became once often more the stone of stumbling on which tyranny has so been broken. the beginnings of the War of Independence. and fulfils nobler forms our purposes and prayers. The results direct. but there can be no doubt which side his converts were on and which part they played. of Whitefield's work Little may be life. Whether he . visited the reproachful bondman only is gone and had the liberal-minded Quaker known and realised all the facts. Lady Huntingdon's while among of its the people Whitefield saved to the nation thousands finest men and women. and sympathised with the feelings of the colonists. he would have penned a glowing tribute love. during his last visit. later which was copied only one year Declaration of Independence. for perse- . his labours remain in every place he .' Hallowed traces of . and Fox were not uninfluenced action by the words they heard at their political . greatly influenced is One of the men whom he was the Rev. i. In America he saw. Among indirect results must be placed the impetus which His preaching to he undoubtedly gave to philanthropic work. would ultimately have sided with them no one can say he was spared the pain of the strife. Chatham. his labours no trace remains lifting his Save the bondman hands in chains.344 GEORGE WHITEFIELD Nor prayer nor fasting availed the plan To honour God Of all through the wrong of man. in to Christ's abounding for us which forgives our sins and mistakes. II. classed as indirect and can be affirmed positively of the bearing of his work upon political and social but it must have corresponded to the religious effect. and he again Presbyterian patriots said to have aroused the who framed the Mecklenburg Declaration. Alex- ander Craighead. Men in like Pulteney. prisoners and his constant pleadings for orphans.

God through our Lord Jesus Christ and the clearly pointed good works was repeatedly and was the introduction Justification to feeding the hungry.RESULTS OF HIS WORK persons. He created. and its first the history of work just completed would have been a book exactly Again. under to his leadership. the feeling in its active upon which philanthropy forms must live. It is and housing the orphan. The benevolent objects of present religious work received recognition in every city and village. that equally of significant the great closely missionary move- ments our time . but largely. followed upon the Methodist reformation and in that reformation who was there among the hosts of preachers and evangelists to be compared with Whitefield for over so wide a circuit enterprise ? Whose foot ranged Whose sympathies were enlisted for If he did not go to the heathen who so many objects ? worship idols of wood and stone. and when. Church had conducted them a holy life and pure enjoy- ments. he went to those who were missionary ? debased by the lowest vices the . The Church and Venn Missionary Society. when the connection between acceptance with necessity for out. Thornton. needs but a simple statement of facts to show that Whitefield's preaching and his catholic spirit (the latter more . her attention was next directed to the heathen beyond. If his collections be taken in present equivalent. it after Whitefield's heart. and for other distressed classes of people to kindly thoughts and generous deeds for the wretched and the forlorn. clothing the naked. accustomed all 345 cuted Protestants on the Continent. Whitefield accustomed the Church to the idea of aggression upon the kingdom of darkness he taught her that all lost and forgotten people are the inheritance of her Lord. century's Scott. the strongest foreign missionary society in the world. not altogether. they will appear enormous. the child of the evangelical fervour of the followers of Whitefield is — Newton.

freedom and an honest reverence his labours In among all denominations he affected no conAll were equally. an which to day thrills evangelical Christendom. His conduct with regard to Bethesda College proves indisputably that he believed in religious equality. a true love of spiritual for religious equality. and left them the this He was a breath. Churches may be field cemeteries of the dead railed off from the living. this be said. ' Olivers. The answer is : (i) That his converts were to be found wherever he had travelled. What did he accomplish ? is the question asked. Whitelatter. inspiration. and either con. Still. even beyond that extensive range. he truly brethren. Neither to benefit himself. as they did in America. then Whitefield has life since the power of a consists not so as in much and in the formation of parties and sects and schools the anticipation of the truest and in the preparation of the holiest things of future days. one of Wesley's best . never played the patron. the demand is sure to be made for facts and figures. Could nothing more than not lived in vain .346 GEORGE WHITEFIELD first than the former) have tended in no small measure to produce in England. nay. 2. author of the hymn The God Abraham ginia. quering them or else rousing their active opposition neutrality was not easy in his presence. Among ' his converts of were Thomas praise . world for their advent. the famous Baptist minister of . of the Presbyterian Church in VirThomas Rankin. would he place one denomination before another. His preaching was remark- able for challenging the strongest characters. helpers Robert Robinson. and would not support or countenance anything else. and were to be counted by tens of thousands. or loving messengers of Christ going about doing good. found them generally the former. of Dunbar. descension. Samuel Davies. nor to forward any of his plans.

a binds ' Yorkshire preacher. shire at least it is His own chapels belong affirmed. Thou Fount of every ' . have imbibed his spirit of zeal and love. Church of England and had they formed a separate This instead of a party in a church. and in Yorkall on competent authority. the Dissenters. Scotland. the faithful fearless witness. that the . parties. (2) That a great number of his properly trained for their ministerial work. author of ' Blest is ' the . was James Hervey. e.' a mighty preacher of the Word . Some of the ministers spiritual history not less wonderful than his own. one of the most popular converts were ministers preachers in America. is the party which holds the letter Whitefield's legacy to mankind Other strictly in — sometimes faith not more than practice he that. the able minister. That he was the . and Ireland ' John Fawcett. Andrew Kinsman. The wholefirst Church of England has been moved by the wave which lifted on its breast only a small section of her people. the spiritual father . no one would have asked what are the results of his labours. John Edwards. dismiss us with Thy blessing Thomas Adams.RESULTS OF HIS WORK Cambridge. of Dublin. Such. parties (4) have drifted That he helped to revive and increase the Churches of to them. the friend . tie that Lord. who preached . In the neighbourhood of Boston in at America alone there were one time twenty ministers who owned him had a (3) as their spiritual father. Whitefield's dear Timothy. a useful preacher at in Exeter parts .g. Cornelius Winter. though in different directions. truth who handed the down to children's children. and and closely resemble him in all that makes his character lofty his life beautiful. Samuel Cooper. to whose and would have taken serious exception. again. of William Jay.. Minchin Hampton. many and of of England. the once popular author. and author of ing ' ' 347 bless- Come. of Bath Henry Tanner. first of the evangelical clergy in the sect.

while possibly differing as to the nature of . without His power upon preacher and But they say little hearer no spiritual good can be done. and by his impassioned appeals to the slumbering and the dead. have declined or become supplied Whitefield's lay-preachers many of their In many favourite if Nonconformist preachers. 993 in . the atonement spirit they insist upon a personal and vital union of . but the following comparative table was carefully prepared by Dr. the solemn warning. received a remarkable impetus from Methodism. Scotch journeys were nearly always an unmixed joy to Whitefield because of the good he did . and published in his volume on Nonconformity in Wales. of all denominations. Nonconformist ministers proclaim our Lord's atonement for sin. not difficult to trace the influence of his popular oratory — the doctrinal solidity. first to join hands with the earnest men of the Princi- The early representations of the Methodists as to the religious condition of the country cannot be relied upon. it is even to a generation ago. while such as rejected extinct. down not now. 171 in Wales as no in 1775. and that Whitefield was the pality. sixty years ago. pulpits. and it is noticeable that. about predestination.348 GEORGE WHITEFIELD this chapels in which his preaching and that of other evangelicals was welcomed continue to day to be centres of it spiritual influence. the foremost ministers and the great bulk of the members of the Scotch Dissenters. the pungent application. (5) at all about Christ's having That the Church of Scotland was made visits to alive again by his numerous Scotland. Rees. with Jesus Christ feeling that they invoke the help of the Holy Ghost. 105 in 1742. and nothing died for an elect world.' That the Church in Wales. the tender and passionate appeal. in It gave the number of Nonconformist congregations 1716. Church assumed the position of the English and made (6) of themselves 'a Free Church.

What did Whitefield accomplish ? It is true that he did not will organise his converts into a new denomination. He gave a welcome in to 1769 to two of Wesley's preachers who were sent Richard Boardman and Joseph Pilmoor America preaching —and in his prepared the way for the formation of the Methodist Episcopal Church. which we have seen to have Dartmouth College. which took place to in 1 . and to bring into existence less and fifty Congregational Churches in than twenty years. but some them beliefs think that he did a nobler service by encouraging to join any existing Church to which their and sympathies . Broadly stated. crowned with the blessing of God. been produced life in Scotland. besides the congrega- connected with 91 Wesleyan Methodist. circuits. convictions in spite of Churchmen into who adhere to their much persecution and disadvantage. 2.456. Whitefield neither desired nor sought the Nonconformity. 1 The great increase between 1775 and 181 81 6 was owing to the separation of the Calvinistic Metho- dists from the Established Church. (7) That in America he founded the Presbyterian Church to triple of Virginia.RESULTS OF HIS WORK 1816. His labours materially aided the building of Princeton College and They also produced the same effect upon Church government in America. and 32 Primitive Methodist. The spiritual would not be fettered and the union between Church and State was broken. and from 1816 1899 the increase is the result of the zeal and labours of the Churches. England. as in the case of Scotland. and helped more than any man the ministers of the New York Synod a hundred within seven years. and Wales. irreligious a nation of conscientious Nonconformists. . the result of Methodism in Wales has been the changing of a nation of ignorant. but.927 in 1861. tions It is 349 now 3. an intense religious life would have freedom of action. one of the strongest churches the world.

the Episcopal. The catholic spirit of the itself. his death sealed the holy impressions as with the shortly afterwards mark of God in the .350 GEORGE U'MTEFIELD He . and especially for the sake of Him who came bringing grace and truth with last Him. and now nearly one hundred thousand members strong. work is perhaps more than the work He also founded churches and inauguHis last rated religious revolutions by a sermon. the Independent. and that young man United States the Free-will Baptist Church. we have seen. Baptist Churches and the even the Society of Friends was quickened he frequently by his labours. Only this year (1900) the pastor of Tottenham Court Road Chapel received a donation towards the cost of rebuilding that structure from a gentleman that colony in Australia who had been converted to this record of his ! in by reading one of Whitefield's sermons. was chiefly the means of rejuvenating the Presbyterian. . touched the heart of a young all man named founded Randall. and preached for Wesley's societies. his it hand add one word would be this — life ! and For ' Grace Grace ! Grace ' his sake. then. a Church always opposed to slavery. it shall be inscribed as the word here — GRACE. might draw them. Could its fruits. His works do follow him. as sermons.

Mr. Thomas. W.S.INDEX. 103-6 Bath. the views W. 249 the death of. 303 300 note.. Rev.. W. 236 . 217-219. appointed one Superintendents of of the Bohler. 33 1 . Bonar. 246. 125. 305-9. the. 155 Benson. 201 Barry. 192 264. 235.'s preaching.. W. 263. note. 127.. ordains with. 21.. receives W. 177-8 Acting. note. note. ill-used at. 149 . and Wesley W. Bath.'s opinion concerning. Rev.. Jonathan. preaches at. of..'s preaching at. Lord. Beauclerk.. Earl Bedford.. about joinangry with W. Actors. 323 Boston (U.'s preaching. W. the Duke of. 12 Adams. Lord Sidney.. invited to preach Bibliomancy. 173-6 . 311— . further relations . their opinion of W. 99 Rev. 218-20 Rev. 149. preaches against condemns the Cambuslang revival. 347 Anecdotes.. 103 Huntingdon. 172 185 confers with ing them. W. hears W. Bethlehem Hospital. preaches for. first negotiations of with W. 207.). at. 171 Bolingbroke. 2S5 Bermondsey. and Bethesda. 253.. 233. 288 Barber. his story of W. sends for W. W. 194 W. Mr.'s first visit to. Boston. 71. 201 W. 268 Berridge. 2. and Lady38. Bisset. W. at Cambuslang. 126. 16S. 127 . D. W. 276. 27 . at. assail W. 166. caricature W. 142 179. 253 Basingstoke. 242 . answered by W. . 251 Bolton. 28. Peter. 84 W. teaching the W. 95 Bexley. Aberdeen. 312 317of. offers to defend Calvinism. 71 Bermudas. 160... Dr. denied the church at. to W. 45. Mr. Rev. preaches at. 268 169-70 . for. 119-20. 5 Belcher. 272. effects of W. 251 234-6 Brainerd. bids farewell to W.. . Mr. John. 336. 100 Birstall. 192 W. at. Mr.. Bishops. Blair. 178 Blackheath. 212. 306-7..2 Associate Presbytery. 97 converts of. and the Bethesda accounts.

Wales. 192-3 .S. 135. 59. 272 Church. at. 203 Ecclesiastical. W. 80. Mr. Mr. Methodists. at the Tabernacle. W. . Thomas. Countess. 149. 314. 148 Coward's Trustees.. the Duke of. the. . 252-3 Dissenters. 195 Cameronians. stoned Chesterfield. 295 at.. 246. W. defends. celebration of the Lord's Supper at. and the boy his love of anecdotes. 213 Delamotte. entertained at. 344 Cambridge (U. for . the Declaration.. INDEX W.. preaches 172 51 . Dissenters. in Georgia. changes 130 at. 282 Spiritual Combat. 85-6 . assail the work W. and W. 289. . 289 Brockden. 180 W. of the. W.. 81 51 . Charleston. Mr. -298-9. Wesley 73-4 preaches in the open air at. practically one 205 of. beloved by the poor. some of. 87 . 201 of.. the death 285 Dublin. 214-17 coun- his death. 35-6 Dunfermline. . the second 137 Delitz. 146 and Dr. Rev. pulpits the clergyman at. the. hostile to W. 38-9 W. Carolina. 202 Bunyan. Thomas. . 11516. position of W.. friendly with. 3 U 4 5 .. becomes an active 194-5 . the tabernacle at. Wesley denounces. 298 at. W. 152 Chesterfield.' 18 304-5 301-4 . Clergy. 213-17 W. 66 at.. 186-92 a day of humiliation for . tries to retain W.. 195 Cardiff. 158-9 Brought on. 160. 58 .352 Bristol. 167 . invites W. as preacher at Newgate..2. 97 . W. slavery in. at. 152 Cambuslang. cited before Mr. 151. 305 Lady. the conversion Colman. Earl of. joins the Moravians. 207 conduct of some Cole. brings many to Carmarthen. 37 welcomes W. Methodist students.. at. to Savannah.. John. Deal. prosecutes six Rev. seeks his sister in marriage. Dr. 333 Dagge. and Wesley at.. and meet Durell. the revival at.'s curate. work of Doddridge amongst. 87 his death. 215-16 Cumberland. 12 Buckingham. 161-2. 240 . the. 64 W. . Mr. assailed tenancing W. denied the use of the churches at.'s early preaching at. Rev. Doddridge. 53 Deism. their treatment of Dr. 81 and Calvinism.). Garden Warburton. in Causton. 174-5. to New England. aids W. 65 Cennick. the Duchess of. persecute . his ' tump ' at (^uarhouse. Methodists become. . . W. Mr.. 2 . W. John.. Dr. the Cameronians ' Methodist.. . its power. 161. 327 signs himself W. W. as held by W. the great revival at. 220 Clap. Castaniza's ' W. of. Rev. the Associate Presbytery assails the of. against the. Mr.' &c. 1. close their W. Savage the poet. 348-9 Doddridge. honoured church. 309 acts as Dummer. 2 1 9-20 173-4 Dr. .

119 yields to W. becomes opposed to W. Gibson. 347 Exeter. wonders at the effects of W. Presbytery. . controversy between W.. 257-60 . 155. 306-7 127 . appointed . appointed a trustee of Bethesda. . . 173. in. 264-5 . Samuel. 36 formation of the colony of.. and Wesley respecting. 306. 140 is .'s last W.1 Enthusiasm.' the. Captain. . entertains YV. 148.. 173 172 excitement about W. 25-9 W.'s love negotiations entreats for. W. on W. writes against so. W.. 162 nearness of the Thomas Whitefield. Eetter Lane. 160-165 Eliot.. 142 preach. 70 Earl.' 13.'s preaching. comedy of the the.. 144. notices W.' Bishop Gibson's pastoral letter on. 210-1 Goldsmith. W. 185-6. preaches his first sermon at. 1 a Methodist Society formed at.. Edwards. in the Associate towards W. to replies again W. 186 and Seceders W. Dr. death of. 286 173 Evangelical School. . stoned at. appoint a day of humiliation for W. and the doctrine of. Erskine. his ' The Fear orphan-house. the apostle of the Indians. 40-1 W.INDEX Edinburgh. W. 160. informs W.'s first sermon in. on of Man. Benjamin. W. . 45. Dr. success. Associate Presbytery. W. unfriendly grieves for Adam. scribes the religious state of Scot- chaplain to. and W. Gloucester.'s work. 97 . Professor. Minor ' by. W. 167 Francke. Ferrers. W. 200 . W. Dr. . to join Gladman. . on. tears W. 215 Bishop of Lichfield on. 172 . Fog's Manor. William Lloyd. Wesley . writes against W. the 108-10 1 12-13 born at. the Wesleys in. the Secession. David. 22-3 W. 176. 343 Garden. 126. 1 07. 185 the loss of. his Ebenezer. at.'s power. 161 24 . tries to W. 133-4. . death of.. 65 W. hears . 174 . Methodist meetings ' Grace. 280-2 Georgia. 47-8 W. Franklin.'s sermons. Commissary. preaches in front of his shop. 119-20. Oliver. slavery in. 139 scene in the shop of. 313 in. into 2S0-2 Gib. repents of doing 193 Gibraltar. 198 Election. . 41 . 152 ' Enthusiasm and Eukewarmness. 116. 231 . 312 Garrison. of of.'s child dies at. 55-7 127 .' Wesk-y"s sermon on. 116 Edwards. 133. 254. 192 . dedraw . Jonathan. ' .. Secessionists. 170. excitement Foote. W. land. Ralph. in his newspaper. invited to go to. Free. replies to. 328 Elizabeth. 69. 353 at. ' 305-6 Foundry. 311-12 visit to. Bishop Lavington on. ordained at.'s Edwards..'s first arrival at. 286 Erskine. 170. 130 Garrick. between. Tabernacle to. marries I letter at. Doddridge on. . W. description 127 the W. 33 W. 30 W.'s love for. on joining 170 . and W. 311.

's house. 109-10. preaches in the church- W. W. . . appoints .. 15 the. follows the example of. Earl of.554 INDEX . 12. his opinion of W. 250-4. sings a hymn W. on. 271. . W.'s chapels. . Habersham. 265 Henry.' Holy Ghost. 34 Haworth. 70 W. yard of. 314 Harvard College. Howel. 329 Dissent. 294 272 . 200 letters from the Duchess of Marlborough to. 71 teaching upon the colliers of. founds Trevecca College.. David. a convert of W.'s preaching. Charles.' Impressions. 89 Methodist ministers at. > Hyde Park. character and work. uses his friendship. 101 . Lady W. on. "]"]. 277 Hume. 246 .' 312. 202 invites . 236 68 283. to. the. 245 letter from 263 lives in W. Indians. 74. . 92. one of the first Methodists. James. Matthew. preaches in. Grimshaw. Robert. 76. John. 228-30 Hinchinbroke. William. . 314-15 Kennington Common. the relation of. attends the Tabernacle. life. 323.'s prayer for. 105 letter of W. 303. illness of. 203 Holy Club. Keen. 309 to. 1 Edwards 55-6 . cautions 7 Jonathan against. 234 Harris. Bishop Warburton Scholars. 78-9 Justification. 201-2 letter from the Duchess of Buckingham to. orphan-house. 12. Rev. site chooses the 131 . evidences of W. 266 death of. with W. Mr. 11. 20 . W. and the commentary of. 273 'Imitation of Christ. a trustee of W. 82 W.'s . W. 278 . (Minchin). an author. Huntingdon. 73 W. character and labours of. W. operations of. 338 99 collections at. his work in 277 Hervey. Hotham. Countess of. preaches to the colliers of. on. 147.' 5 on. 93 Kingswood. 114. Lord. 317-19 Huntingdon. . .. W. 151. of the her religious 248-50 . Benjamin. appointed a manager 160 . 279 life at Ashby. Ingham. Jones. 335 Griffith. 3 I 7 _I 9 Haime. W. ' the. 247 Humility. 66. Johnson. to . 32 Hervey. Hampton 8. W. a trustee of 108-10 .'s chapels. Mr. 210 336 Hastings.'s. W. 311.'s visits Islington. riots 207- 212 74> 85 Hannam Mount. W. Hardy. 279 Wales. President of the appointed services at the house of. visits. 266-7. sees his mistakes about. Ireland. at midnight. W. 86 effects of W. 316-17. of the orphan-house. and the 'Minor. to. James. Betty. 247 to preach at her house. her chapel at Bath. one of her chaplains. Miss. 79 W. 314 Ken's Manual for ' Winchester 231. of Assembly. W. Dr. . . Lady. condition of. Rev. 17 . at. 201 W. Commons House at. the Hon. lays the foundation of a school at.

Virginia. 157 122 Methodists. 203 130. W.). 264-5 tne bad state of .'s remembrance of the.). 265 note drawing away 255 Law. 311-12 General. . preaches . at Oxford. Birth. McCulloch. and the. the. Andrew. Alexander. Rev. 12. 62 and the literary world.'s adventures among. 40 founds the Georgian receives W. dition of religion in. the Tabernacle built in. England. Mary-le-Bone in. 201-2 W. 233 W. 97 Nottingham (U. Ludgate prison. William. 14 preached in Scotland. ' W. Lisbon. 301-4 Ministers. 184 gospelised his ' Virginian Church. 307. . his work Cambuslang. some in W. W. 153. on the connexion between religion and. Lisburne. 12 living. W. W. first visit to. W. the. 173 Moody. > W. the love of to. 295-9 London. befriends Moncrieff. visits. 186 New in. his accuses. Rev.'s . YY. preaches mudas. W. suntide. 264 stoned. Moravians. 215-16 Negroes. 167 . 205 . of. plan an orphana link between W. 12 Morality. W. 90-2 of . 242 at. are . OGILVIE. Mr. Bishop. 194 joined by W. founds the his estimate Ourania. W.. W.S. 170. . in. Mr. 179 Marlborough. 3 ^ \ . 93 . 291-3 his letters to Dr..'s influence ration Act.. 69 33 135 . at Whitat. fields. riots at. Rev. Doddridge. Bishop 231 Neal. under the Tole- Northampton racecourse. 196-7 184 at New York. 137. by W. 128 W.'s early efforts in. W. 181 the collections 205 LAVINGTON. Moorfields. his Serious Call and 'Christian Perfection. his diocese. Mr . Samuel. 32. Lady. Samuel. 177 Oglethorpe. 347 Kirk of Scotland. Mr. friends. Lord.. . slavery 135 147-57 preaches letters upon the conto. . Wesley and. house. the Duchess New of. the.'s preaching. Ber- in. arduous labours ful effects 140 wonderof W. 347 Minor. W. his for W. 243 Lichfield. the love the conrrretrations at. . 236-7 . extraordinary effects of W. passes through. 172 98..'s. of . for their Maryland.' 11.'s preaching at. preaches 146. sees W. 41 colony. W. Maryland. Rev. 122 . . Newark (U.. • 141 among. Nathanael. answers. 49 Lonsdale.' the. and lina. prisoners. 46-7 Morgan. writes against 257-60. W. 288 Morris. Thomas.S.'s first sermon in. . Carofor the religious societies of. Rev. exposes their faults. Noble.INDEX Kinsman. their rules of 15 . rebukes their owners miserable condition in Long Acre Chapel.. 40-1 C. 201 . Thompson.'s preaching 157 Marriage. W.' 35 of human nature. 1S6-91. W. 14. W. second. threatens the Rev. invited in.

. Rev. Quakers and W. INDEX Oxford. W.. 60. the . scheme adopted by W. Sir John. W. glories in. its company.'s leaves. justifies. W. Rolingbroke's.. 184. 113. extemporaneous. 336 W. W. of. is taken from Bethlehem Hospital by W. 93 . 141. by 87 . from magistrates. concerning W. lege to the house.'s estimate of. . and from the Spaniards. 175 Periam. in. 203 301 . the foundation- a hall 138-9 158.'s death. lays . W. the Earl of. 203 in America. colsite money . W. 194 Queensbury.'s adventures 221-4 Prayer. 89 W. 126. Mr. 99 W. the doctrine defends. its history last visit to.. first thinks W. prays for help for. W. Philadelphia. in danger of. children life at. 126 . Pearce. and. begins. labours in. Joseph. 31.'s Races. audited. Z.'s threatened cellor of. 25-9. begins in London. 63. W.'s.'s. 63 influence upon W. Penn. 90. Dr. purposes to add a col- W. W. 313 W. W. preaches 103-6 of. . 142. his annuity to 236 W. from debts. . exhorts others 71 . 343 Ottery church bells rung against W. relinquishes.'s.'s plan. sends for a vited to become a minister in. 140 of. . 161 doctrine 134.'s plan of paying the officials. Hume's estimate of W. troubles Prisons. . of. 160. Lord Chesterfield's. W. work before the opening. son the 157 140 of. writes an the 148-51 Puritan theology. 96 visit Orphan-house. W.. brick 133 manager. 74 W. at. . 331-2 247 note . 199. 169 . opened. 160. 167 W. 293 W. 85. with origin. 15S-9 W. 321-2. 19 at. loved by the Philips. . W.. 115 account 199 congregations and. 124 meeting-house to. after Reprobation. 167. of. Wm.. 171 . W. 150-51. 324-6. 74. 131 131 . from managers. first to. 289 Perfection. in the characteristics of W. W. . at. and the Long Acre disturbances. W. 106. . . 45.. its 62 . induces Wesley to adopt. Puritans and Puritanism in America. 236-8 resumed in England by W. W.'s tender interest in the children. in . 326 Oxford. 44. built for. W. 169. is Vice-Chanof expulsion Methodist students from. of. . preaches of. . 198. 292 to use. accounts W. of arrest for the debts 166 W. of.'s 238 knowledge of the working. .356 Open-air preaching. 102. 150. his change of view. the 10-24. 2195 W. 81 W. life W. the conversion of the recorder of. 241 . to Georgia.. W. the Duchess Quietism. . lects its 117.. 172. for the. W. 95 sails . its happy influence upon W. first 69 subscribers to. W.'s apology . 28 Plymouth. amid a great the excitement . 18. 208 . uses. 328 Oratory. W. Moorfields' 206 . 296 Pemberton. W. 246 Ordination. 33.

78-81. Savannah. 100 Charles Wesley opposed 269. 277 . his practised first. 349 52 second. 1 Wales. slavery in. Scotland. 274 Suffolk.'s spiritual triumph at. Rev. his house and college. 40.'s. eleventh. visits Philadelphia. W. W. 280-2 Smith. 40 its . 140. 65 life 167 in. Lady. 282-3 .. Gloucester. 2S7 191.. 112. Doddridge preaches at.'s work 34S 200-3.'s unsatisviews on. Tottenham 301 . as school 4 . of Charleston. 307 his religious indecision. 306. 115-16 St. Lady Fanny. seventh.INDEX Rhode Rogers.. Rev. 251 291 . . the Presbyterian church Voyages. 146 Sortilegium is 135 . 125 Tennent.'s a permanent building. attended is built for W. Saltzburgers. factory 135. Charles. 211-12. Gilbert. W. labours 42 201. 230. built.). 301-4 Court Chapel at. 210 . fifth..'s second visit to. 252 Shuter. his love for Sheffield. 4 . 90-2. the Win. 264. 322 . W. 97 Stonehouse. 254-5 is introduced. of Ipswich (U. third. W. 208. 305 registered as an Independent Chapel. Rev. Scougal. 204. unwise zeal. fourth. the. 341-2 visits Tennent. Henry. John. forbidden in Georgia. to America. thirteenth. 133-4 Sovereignty.. 214 Wesley preaches at. W. . 135-6 W.'s pastoral W. at. 284 Gennis. Mary de Crypt. made W. 196-7 Tewkesbury. 131 in.. 228-9 . lives . 30. sails with W. his manner . funeral sermon Rev. sixth. 270 Shirley. 50 Slonehouse. 149 3=7 Rev. twelfth. 128 letters concerning his work and W. 319. St. Countess of. tenth. . a boy. W. 65. Dr. 336 St. Lord. 251 Trevecca College. Mr. Thompson. Island. W. 122. 275 Toleration Act. at the house adjoining. 252 Tabernacle. 294. 304-5 Tower Chapel. 225-32 . effects. at. 117. 284 ninth. Mr. 162. the.. . .. 58—65 . Mr. 264. of preaching.. Rev. 53-4. his death and its consequences to W. W. result of W. of Bedford. by Wesley. Rev.S. 274 Thorpe. the. of. W. by the nobility. in. preaches in meeting-house of. 112-17. . 153 Seward. Mr. 274 John. 272 W. S9 Stonehouse. 329 Virginia. Mr. and the Methodists. Sewal. in. America. Prince of.. his York. 153 Rogers. 27 Sermons by W. 14 Selwyn. . W. Rev. in. 262. Josiah. William. 166 112. Dr. conducts to W.'s son is baptized at. New . preaches his first sermon at. 139-40. in. 123 views on the Scotch Seceders. Slavery. 243-4 J eighth. Lady. into Townshend. Georgia. Rev. Methodism 348 Wales. the Divine. 32 congregations pleads for its introduction .'s in . 118 his character. .

300. preaches W. to 13. 214. Savannah. 46-7 2 3^> . . on morality and religion. 96. 152-4. 323 last meeting with W. sails for Wesley. . his new birth.. through in the Bell Inn. 248. . 336. 85. on the work of the Holy Spirit. 77-8. 179. 274. 310. 84-6. America. 204-5 . Bishop. 12-19 ! m Georgia. 36. . 18 teristics his charac- and habits. 67 extemporaneous 329. . school . 84 learns from W. 80. Georgia. Wellington. 6 enters Oxford. house. Dr. Isaac. 232-3. 5 . . 72. 71. thinks Georgia. 160-1 . 261-2. 255 Webster. 314-17 Watts. f^St excitement in 35° London. 137. 253 Warburton. 162. his courtship. 256. 41. 154. 299 323 ing. . 198 there. 263 Wesley. and W. 57. breach with Wesley. . 341 Whitefield.. love of act5 .. 5 Harris. first 279. . 64. (see his relation to the Quakers School. at races. early faults. childhood. 114. 137 marriage. . Wesley). George. adopts Quietism. . 14.558 INDEX 10. 239. Horace. 89. his theology. 5865 sails for England. 313. W.. preaches for W. visits London. . . 41 appointed . . to preach in sermon the open air. .. breach with W. 2. great success at Bristol. an d Howel yS. 95 . 268. visit to 284. is from marrying Mrs. Quakers) of . ministers. . 97. . lays the foundation Kings wood 86 preaches in Islington churchyard in Moorfields. 33. 103 and Dr. brother and castle. 140-2. his domestic his life. 347 the physical . prayer. 32 36 . Grace Murray. ordained priest. 28 first sermon. 123. 49 breaks with the clergy. 213-17. 148. at Oxford. 68 joins W. 108. 160-5. on W.'s funeral ser335 mon. 99 on 'Free-Grace. at New. 71. at the close of . 69 . 64 meets W. serious illness of. and Joseph Periam. . ordained deacon. 206. his 5 printed sermons. of Edinburgh. 335 . 48. 3 4. 65 arrives in London. his connexion with the Erskines (see Ebenezer and and Ralph Erskine) 103 son. 51 and Dissenters. John . 269 and the last meeting with W. 134 134. from sailing to 55-7 146. 67. air. 194. . 278. Charles. 1 his appearance as a child. seeks to prevent W. prevent breach 278 strives between his . 53 his conversion. 3. 16. 79. . 142. is refused the churches. 41 12-19. Rev. 1 IVhitefield. Andrew. life. preaches in the open 74 his described. . . occasions a his breach between W. 105. labours at Stone- on W. John. 337 82. at Gibraltar. 36. 241. 329-332. at Oxford. Georgia. (see . and. 2 as a young man. Alex. . 269. assists 293 . at Bristol. life. 87. . persecutions. 193. sermon : . . 43-6 . Gib115. 52 . 140. at Basingstoke. his verses of an orphanage.'s disposition. 144-45. 62 277-8. 304-5. hindered emotion while preaching. . 30-1 to . 91 in middle life. 42. 51.'s appearance. 272. 295-9.' 133. 11-22. 311. 289 on W. 30S. visits Wales. . invited to m . his life Walpole. 60. 269 dangers at Sheffield. 55. and his brother's his intended marriage. his illnesses. Georgia. 14S-151. his influence . .

172 . assailed by the Cameand the nobility. George. 336 Wishart. 147 . 305 stoned in Ireland. 181-5 at- 106. 209 is assailed by the bishops. Whitefield. describes W. 339-40 his funeral. 305. at 242 . 285 Whitefield. Woodward.). 341 . ecclesiastical . 157 Scotland. 217-21 . 324-6 . 337 his last journey and sermon. 323 and his proposed . burton. Dr. is mimicked on the Earl Ferrers. reverses. . stage. 169 his . 1 Willison. 314. sails with his last voyage.'s on 268 . confesses his mistakes. 273 on the north road. bishop of Lichfield. loses his popularity. her farewell to W. Mrs. 1 answers the bishop. 186-92. 241 Bermudas. life. in England. at ranges the . preaching in America. 207 good effects of his preaching. 343-50 Whitefield. 227 . Zinzendorf. 192 Winter. defends the students of St. 4 to go to Oxford.. 259 assaulted visits Haworth. 246. 272. . 301-5 in Moorfields fields. Mr. emotions. view of the answers the 231 . . 314. 327 death of his wife. 295 . 124. writes to . for. visits 313. 221-4 bishops. 209. to. 184. 270-1 his success at Sheffield. her treatment of W.. in Ireland. 78 .INDEX effects of his . . 228 . Grace Murray. Thomas. . from W. 334. 2 98-9. appoints trustees to his chapels. . 5 answers his the . birth and 212 . 246-7 Bishop Lavington writes against. 1-2 S . 272 in Hyde Park. 317-19. 198. at Leeds. mother). New built England. Count. 1 (W. first visit to Count Lisbon. Mr. opens a chapel at Bath. warning 185 . 257-60. 301 is heard by actors. for the last time. 283. . . his last 200-3. 243. position. Longden. 7. 288 visits 291 . 336 . attends an execu- tion. 234 woods.. meeting with the Wesleys. . mouth. 5. . in 141-3. 333 and literary men. 250-3. 78 . Cornelius. Long Acre . Zinzendorf. 274-7 > feres . at Ply. 276. Methodists. 335 . at Ottery. 168 invited to Scotland. Rev.S. . at Newcastle. defends the Hampton . history of his orphan-house. 38. 338 his death. Hall. 166-7. . builds Tottenham Court Chapel.. 186-95 ronians. at Cambuslang. marries wishes W.'s . Adam > against. Rev. at Bethesda. 359 309 at . 175. her character. resigned under Chapel. 328 opens Trevecca College. at Exeter. 235-9. . college. 259-60 appointed chaplain to the Countess of Huntingdon. the . and Wedgbury. Edmund . Boston (U. at at Hampton. the Tabernacle 167 . . last death of his son. . and . 329 his writings. 195 Gib's . inter- between Wesley and Mrs. Rev. assailed by Bishop War- Mary-le-Bone tempts on his 296-7 . . her marriage. 245 her death. 8 . first visit 309 311. 269 his Christian graces. 226-7 atonement. letters . 236. 269-70 preaches for Wesley. 264 266-8. 264. sails from England . 196 W. . Samuel. 268 . to Scotland. 343 the results of his work. 228 .

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