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1st Bach End of Year Review

English Department
Cristina Merino verdu 5/1/2013

UNIT 1 Grammar Present Simple Vs Present Continuous Gerunds & Infinitives

Present simple and present continuous

Present simple We use the present simple to talk about: regular habits and routines. We usually go rollerblading at the weekend. permanent situations. David lives in Manchester. scientific facts. Water boils at 100C. states, not actions, e.g. like, believe, know. She doesnt like chorizo. Present continuous We use the present continuous to talk about: something that is happening now or around now. Theyre playing tennis at the moment. temporary situations. Hes visiting his grandparents in Ibiza. changing or developing situations. The number of car accidents every year is increasing. future arrangements. Shes going to the cinema this evening.
9 (read) a digital magazine. The girl is very beautiful. She 10 (have got) short, orange hair and yellow eyes. She 11 (wear) a green space suit. 12 I ( know) you? she asks. I 13 (not think) so, says Ben. Im Ben. Whats your name? 3 Write the questions. Use the present simple or the present continuous. Then answer the questions. 1 What / you / do / next weekend? 2 How often / you / go / to the cinema? 3 What time / you / usually / get up? 4 What / you / wear / today?

1 Complete the sentences. Use the correct form of the present simple or the present continuous. 1 At the moment Linda (work) as a motorcycle courier. 2 Tom often (not go) to the Cyber caf. 3 Excuse me. you (know) how to get to Church Street? 4 What you (listen to)? 5 Juan (work) for the Iberia airline. Hes a pilot. 6 In the summer, the sun (rise) at five oclock in the morning. 7 I (not like) my gym. I (not get) fit fast enough! 8 Tom and I (go) to the beach this weekend. 2 Complete the text. Use the correct form of the present simple or present continuous. Its the year 2100. Ben 1 (be) a computer programmer and he 2 (live) on the moon. Every day at 18.00 he 3 (finish) work at the space station and 4 (go) to the Matrix caf. Its 18.30 and Ben 5 (look out) of the caf window at the space cars flying by. Every day he 6 (watch) the same space cars, but today is different. Ben 7 (not sit) alone. There 8 (be) a girl at his table. She

Gerunds and infinitives We use gerunds after prepositions (e.g. without, before) and after certain verbs (e.g. enjoy, cant stand, afraid of). She left without saying goodbye. He enjoys going rollerblading at the weekend. We use infinitives after certain verbs (e.g. want, hope, offer). Paul offered to repair Sues bike. After some verbs (e.g. like, love, hate, prefer, start, continue) we can use either the gerund or infinitive with no change in meaning. I like playing tennis. I like to play tennis.
1 Rewrite the sentences using gerunds. Tim cycled into town. He didnt stop. Tim cycled into town without stopping. 1 Rachel lost the race. She was very angry. Rachel was angry about 2 We didnt go to the cinema, we watched a video at home. Instead of .. ... 3 Ivan passed his driving test because he practised every weekend. By .. 4 Gillian read the newspaper then she phoned her friend. Before . . 5 They left the disco and went for a coffee. After . . 6 Jake has split up with his girlfriend. Hes upset. Jake is upset about ... . . 2 Choose the correct forms. 1 Tony wants to go / going travelling before he goes to university.

2 He promised to buy / buying her a diamond ring for their anniversary. 3 Have you ever considered studying / to study abroad? 4 He agreed to buy / buying the motorbike for 2,000. 5 John has been a farmer for twenty years. Hes used to getting up / get up early. 6 Its cold today. You shouldnt go out without wearing / to wear your coat. 3 Complete the story with gerunds or infinitives. A haunted house When I was a child I used to spend my holidays at my aunt and uncles old country house. One summer I remember 1 (have) a strange experience. It was a hot afternoon, and my cousins suggested 2 (play) hide-and-seek. But instead of 3 (go) outside, we decided that we 4 (play) in the attic. After we 5 (turn off) all the lights, we all hid in different places. I managed 6 (hide) behind an old sofa. Then something odd happened. In the darkness we heard footsteps come into the room. The footsteps seemed 7 (walk) towards the sofa. I wanted 8 (move), but I couldnt. I expected something terrible 9 (happen). Then suddenly the footsteps stopped and the door slammed shut. After 10 (wait) for a few seconds, we jumped up and ran downstairs without 11 (stop). We told my aunt and uncle, but they refused 12 (believe) us. Mysteriously the house burned down a year later. The fire started in the attic.

UNIT 2 Grammar Past Simple Vs Past Continuous Used to / Didnt use to

3 (injure) more than 700 people. Robert Hensley 4 (hide) in his cellar when the tornado 5 (destroy) his home. I 6 (not come out) until two hours later, he said, My house was gone and I 7 (not recognize) the street. Mary Richardson 8 (have) a bath when she 9 (hear) the tornado. She quickly 10 (put on) a coat and 11 (escape) to the local high school. I 12 (run) to the school when the tornado 3 (strike) my house, she said. It 14 (be) a very frightening experience. 4 Write the questions. Use the past simple or the past continuous. 1 What / the rescue teams / do at midnight? 2 How many / homes / the storm / destroy? 3 Where / Robert Hensley / hide / when the tornado hit his home? 4 When / he / come out? 5 Who / have a bath / when the tornado arrived?

Past simple and past continuous

Past simple We use the past simple to talk about a finished action in the past. Mark went to the cinema last night. Past continuous We use the past continuous to talk about: an action which was in progress at a particular time in the past. They were watching TV at nine oclock last night. an action in the past that is interrupted by another action I was walking along the street when someone stole my bag. 1 Choose the correct tenses. It was one oclock in the morning and I 1 was lying / lay awake in bed. The wind 2 was blowing / blew outside and it 3 rained / was raining. Suddenly I 4 heard / was hearing a loud crash. It 5 came / was coming from downstairs. I 6 got up / was getting up and 7 switched on / was switching on the light. Everything was quiet and still. Only the clock in the hallway 8 was ticking / ticked. I 9 walked / was walking down the stairs when I 10 noticed / was noticing something strange. The front door was wide open. 2 Complete the sentences. Use the correct form of the past simple or the past continuous. 1 Peter (drive) home when he (see) the accident. 2 I (watch) TV when the phone (ring). 3 He (wear) sunglasses when I (meet) him. 4 She (fall) asleep while she (do) her homework. 5 The pop star (sing) when the lights (go out). 6 It (start) to rain when we (walk) on the beach. 3 Complete the text. Use the correct form of the past simple or the past continuous. At midnight last night rescue teams 1 (search) for victims after a giant tornado 2 (hit) Oklahoma and Kansas. The storm flattened more than 5,000 homes and

USED TO El uso de 'used to' en ingls Se usa used to + verbo para hablar de hbitos ya pasados y para hablar de estados pasados. Ejemplos: Hbito: I used to play the guitar. Significa que antes tocabas la guitarra pero ya no. Estado: I used to live in London. Significa que antes vivas en Londres pero ya no. Ejemplos Negativa: Hbito: I didnt use to play the guitar. CUIDADO SE OMITE LA D DE USED PORQUE EL PASADO LO LLEVA EL AUXILIAR TO BE USED TO / TO GET USED TO Ambos refieren al presente y van seguidos de un gerundio. To be used to: estar acostumbrado hacer algo. To get used to: acostumbrarse a hacer algo. To be used to - estar acostumbrado a We were used to the sunny weather of the coast. Estbamos acostumbrados al clima soleado de la costa. Joan is used to dealing with children. Joan est acostumbrada a tratar con nios. Mr. Jones wasn't used to all that luxury. El seor Jones no estaba acostumbrado a todo ese lujo. They must be used to their noisy neighbours. Deben de estar acostumbrados a sus vecinos ruidosos. I am not used to travelling by plane. No estoy acostumbrado a viajar en avin. To get used to - acostumbrarse a (si sigue verbo, es un gerundio) value="file=/audio/resources/miscelaneoustopics/be-get-used-to.02.mp3" /> </object> People get used to new technologies. La gente se acostumbra a las nuevas tecnologas. Paul never got used to living in the country. Paul nunca se acostumbr a vivir en el campo.

I was getting used to working with Michael. Me estaba acostumbrando a trabajar con Michael. We had got used to having you around. Nos habamos acostumbrado a tenerte por aqu. I will never get used to getting up early. Nunca me voy a acostumbrar a levantarme temprano. 1.-Fill in the blanks with the correct tense of the verbs in brackets a.-There usednt to nineteenth century. b.-I am used to shift. c.-I used to (be) computers in the (work)on the night (work) on the night shift. (speak) in (wear) contact

d.-She had to get used to public e.-She would get used to lenses if she tried to.

f.-They couldnt get used to (live) in a flat thats why they moved to a small house in the country. g.-They used to (commute)every day but now they walk to work . h.-We used to school. i.-I am not used to j.-She used to begosantao (read)a lot of books at (wear)make-up. (bite)her nails.



Present Perfect Simple Vs Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Simple Vs Past Perfect Continuous
5 (be) in over fifteen films and he 6 (work) with stars such as Robert De Niro and Johnny Depp. Leonardo 7 (be) born in Los Angeles in 1974. After appearing in TV shows, he 8 (get) his first film role in Critters 3, then he starred in Romeo and Juliet. But it 9 (not be) until Titanic that he 10 (become) a world-famous teen idol. It was then that Leonardo 11 (begin) to appear on magazine covers around the world. Since Titanic, Leonardo 12 (be) very busy. He 13 (already / make) three more films and 14 (just / start) work on another. 4 Write questions about Leonardo. Use the present perfect simple or the past simple. 1 How old / when / first appear / on TV? 2 ever / meet / Robert De Niro? 3 How long / be / an actor? 4 famous / before Titanic? 5 How many / films / make / since Titanic? Present perfect continuous Present perfect continuous Affirmative: we use have/has + been + the -ing form of the verb. Hes been writing letters all morning. Negative: we use havent/hasnt + been + the -ing form of the verb. We havent been reading much lately. Interrogative: we put have/has before the subject + been + the -ing form of the verb. You look hot! Have you been running? 1 Complete the conversations with the correct form of the present perfect continuous. 1 How long he (play) that computer game? Since ten oclock this morning! 2 You look dirty! I (repair) my motorbike. 3 Frank has got a black eye.

Present perfect simple and past simple Present perfect simple We use the present perfect simple: to talk about an experience in somebodys life. (We dont say when it happened.) Hes had a mobile phone for a long time. with for and since to talk about an action that started in the past and continues to the present. Tims known Kate since he was ten. with just, yet and already for a past action with a result in the present. Ive just bought a new mountain bike. Past simple We use the past simple to talk about a finished action that happened at a definite time in the past. We saw John at the weekend. 1 Choose the correct words. 1 Theyve already / yet visited Venice. 2 Have you ever / never seen a ghost? 3 Has she finished work just / yet? 4 Theyve been married for / since October. 5 Lucy has worked in the circus since / for she was a child. 6 David has just / yet got back from holiday. 2 Complete the newspaper extracts. Use the correct form of the present perfect simple or the past simple. Last night a massive tidal wave 1 (hit) the coast of Mexico. Over 5,000 people 2 (already / lose) their homes. Yesterday a girl 3 (hand in) a briefcase containing 100,000 to the police. The girl found the briefcase at Euston railway station. The cost of living in Britain 4 (rise) again. Last year prices in British supermarkets 5 (increase) by more than five per cent. 3 Complete the text. Use the correct form of the present perfect simple or the past simple. 1 you (ever / dream) of being a film star? Leonardo DiCaprio was only five years old when he 2. (star) in his first TV show, and just thirteen when he 3 (appear) in his first film. Since then he 4 (not stop) working. He

he (fight) again? 4 Why is she crying? She (watch) a sad film. 5 Mary looks tired. Yes. She (revise) all night for her exams. 6 Ive been here since one oclock. What you (do)? I (look for) you! Present perfect simple We use the present perfect simple to emphasize: the result of an activity (not the activity itself). Weve written ten letters today. how many times an activity happens. Ive read this book three times. Present perfect continuous We use the present perfect continuous to emphasize: the process of an activity. Weve been writing letters since breakfast. how long an activity continues. Ive been reading all morning. 2 Choose the correct tenses. 1 Steven Spielberg has directed / has been directing over twenty films since 1980. 2 He has worked on / has been working on a new film since January. 3 John Galliano has designed / has been designing clothes for a long time. 4 He has designed / has been designing two new collections since last summer. 5 Lonely Planet have published / have been publishing two new travel guides this month. 6 They have published / have been publishing travel guides for years. 3 Complete the text. Use the correct form of the present perfect simple or the present perfect continuous. Ever since he was a teenager Alex Whitestone 1 (want) to travel. This year he decided to do it. Alex gave up his job as a journalist in July, and since then he 2 (travel) around the world. So far he 3 (visit) four different countries. At the moment Alex is in Bangkok, in Thailand. He 4 (already / be) there for five days. I 5 (never / be) to Asia before, so it was my first stop, he explains. So 6 he (buy) any souvenirs yet? Not yet, says Alex. And what about the food? Its great! I 7 (eat) a lot of rice and fish, he says. During his travels Alex 8 (meet) many other tourists. I 9 (made) some new friends, he says, and we 10 (exchange) advice about where to go and what to see. I 11

(also /write) a travel guide, but I 12 (not finish) it

UNIT 4 Grammar Relative Clauses

We use defining relative clauses to give essential information about the person or thing in the mainclause. It tells us which person or thing we are talking about. This is the CD which everyone is talking about. Form There are no commas in defining relative clauses. We can replace who or which with that in defining relative clauses. Shes the woman that works with my mother. This is the book that I told you about. Who, which, that and when can be omitted when they are the object of the verb in the second clause, e.g. Theres the man that the police have been looking for. Whose and where cant be omitted. 2 Combine the sentences. Use who, which, that, where or when. Thats the school. I used to go to it. Thats the school that I used to go to. 1 Theres the girl. I was telling you about her. 2 That was the day. They got married then. 3 Shes the girl. Her brother plays in the football team. 4 Thats the caf. I meet my friends there. 5 This is the film. Ive been waiting to see it for ages. 6 Have you met the girl? Shes going out with Ted. 7 These are the trainers. I bought them yesterday.

Relative clauses
Non-defining relative clauses Use We use non-defining relative clauses to give extra information about the person or thing in the main clause. The extra information is not essential. Robbie Williams Millennium, which is one of his most successful singles, was released in 1999. Form In non-defining relative clauses we put a comma before and after the main clause. We use the relative pronouns who, which, whose, where and when in non-defining relative clauses. The relative pronoun cannot be omitted. Mark Smith, who lives next door to us, plays in a band. 1 Combine the sentences. Use who, which, whose, where or when. Ivan is very good-looking. (Hes Helens brother.) Ivan, who is Helens brother, is very goodlooking. 1 The book is about a murder on the Nile. (It was written by Agatha Christie.) 2 The diamond necklace has been found by the police. (It was stolen last week.) 3 Steven Spielberg lives in Hollywood. (He is a famous film director.) 4 My friend Isabel wants to do media studies. (Her father is a TV presenter.) 5 The new club plays great music. (Jamie works there.) 6 My holiday in Ibiza was wonderful. (I first met Jenny then.) 7 The new band is very good. (It was formed last year.) Defining relative clauses Use

UNIT 5 Grammar Conditionals

4 If Andrews mother doesnt pay, she (have to) go to prison. 5 Andrew (not get) into trouble if he hadnt used his parents password. 6 If I (be) Andrews mother, Id sell his computer. 7 If teenagers (have) a computer, theyll want to surf the Internet. 3 Rewrite the sentences in the first, second or third conditional. He cant find his wallet so hes angry. (second conditional) If he could find his wallet, he wouldnt be angry. 1 In order to lose weight you need to exercise more. (first conditional) If you want . 2 He may be late, but he can meet us at the Blue Note caf. (first conditional) If hes . 3 An old woman saw him burgle the house. Thats why hes in prison. (third conditional) If she hadnt ... 4 He wants to be rich and famous. Then hell be happy. (second conditional) If he was . . 5 Dave fell asleep so he missed the end of the film. (third conditional) If he hadnt .....

First, second and third conditionals First conditional We use the first conditional to talk about situations that are possible or likely to happen. If he finishes his homework, hell go to the cinema. Second conditional We use the second conditional to talk about situations which are imaginary or unlikely to happen. If I met Leonardo DiCaprio, Id ask him for his autograph. Third conditional We use the third conditional to talk about imaginary or hypothetical situations in the past. If she had got up earlier, she wouldnt have missed the train. 1 Match the two parts of the sentences. 1 If she had more time, 2 If she has the new Star Wars game, 3 If I was rich, 4 He would have phoned the police 5 If he had a motorbike, 6 If she had watched the tennis match, 7 If I find the letter, a hed ride it to school. b shell let you play it. c Id buy a sports car. d she would have known the result. e Ill tell you. f shed learn another language. g if hed seen the robbery. 2 Read the text. Then complete the sentences in the first, second or third conditional. Use the correct form of the verbs. Andrew Chances mother was horrified when she received her sons Internet shopping bill. Thirteenyear-old Andrew had spent nearly 1 million on eMall, an American Internet shopping site. Andrew used his parents password to get into the site. He then bought a Rolls Royce, a Van Gogh painting and an antique bed. Im in big trouble, the worried teenager said yesterday. 1 If Andrews parents (not buy) him the computer, he wouldnt have shopped on the Internet. 2 Andrew would make more friends if he (spend) less time on the Internet. 3 If his parents (find out) earlier, Andrew would have spent less money.

UNIT 6 Grammar The Passive

1 The leather jacket (design) by a famous designer. It cost 3,500. 2 The new Boyzone album (not release) until September. 3 A lot of computer games (make) in Taiwan these days. Most of the games (export) to America and Europe. 4 Madonna is a very popular singer. Every week millions of her CDs (sell) around the world. 5 Romeo and Juliet (perform) at the Globe Theatre next Saturday.

The passive
The passive (present simple, past simple and will)
Use We use the passive when we dont know who or what does the action, or when it isnt important. After the car accident, Peter was arrested. The space shuttle will be launched on 4th July. We use the active when we know who or what does the action, and its important. After the car accident, the police arrested Peter. NASA will launch the space shuttle on 4th July. Form We use the correct tense of the verb be + past participle. These computers are made in Japan. The telephone was invented by Alexander Bell. The crime will be investigated by the police.

3 Complete the article with the correct form of the passive.

Stunts Nowadays, action films are getting more and more spectacular. Many special effects are added (add) to make the action more realistic. Its impossible to control the weather during filming. As a result, weather effects 1 often (create) for the film. For example, the winter scenes in Young Sherlock Holmes 2 (not film) in winter, but in the middle of summer. The snow 3 (make) from polystyrene! Car chases, high-speed crashes, or falls from high buildings 4 (not play) by the stars themselves they 5 (do) by stuntmen. In Volcano, stuntmen 6 (set on fire). However, the actors 7 (protect) by several layers of special clothing, so nobody 8 (injure). In the future, many stunts 9 (not need). Most effects 10 (generate) by computer, so action films should be safer and easier to make.

1 Underline the passive verbs. Then rewrite the sentences in the active.
A valuable painting was stolen from the Louvre last night. Someone stole a valuable painting from the Louvre last night. 1 The World Cup is watched by millions of football fans. Millions of football fans 2 The film premiere will be attended by lots of stars. Lots of stars 3 The first movie camera was invented by William Dickson in 1891. William Dickson 4 The new Virgin Megastore will be opened by Robbie Williams. Robbie Williams

2 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the passive.




Reported Speech

Change the following sentences into reported speech: 1.It isnt so foggy today as it was yesterday, I remarked. 2. Nothing grows in my garden. It never gets any sun, she said. 3. Im going away tomorrow, mother, he said. 4. Ive been in London for a month but so far I havent had time to visit he Tower, said Tim 5. We have moved into our new flat. We dont like it nearly so much as our last one, said my aunt. 6. If I press my ear against the wall, I can hear what the people in the next flat are saying, he said. 7. The advertisement said, If you answer the questions correctly you may win 100. 8. My new house is supposed to be haunted, but so far I havent seen any ghosts, she said. 9. I dont think your father likes me, said the young wife. 10. If you saw my father, youd recognize him at once, she said to me. 11. What happened to one of the men?, said Mr. Budd. 12. Who is going to buy his racehorses?, asked someone. 13. How much does a return ticket to Bath cost?, Mrs. Jones asked. 14. When has the timetable changed?, I asked. 15.Is a return ticket cheaper than two singles?, said my aunt. 16. Do puppies travel free?, said a dog owner. 17. Can I bring my dog into the compartment with me?, she asked. 18. Did you play for your school team?, said Bill. 19. Would you like to join our drama group?, Ann said. 20. Were you interested in acting? she went on.