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Lexicon of Philippine English
Camilo M Villanueva Jr email@example.com ENG535M Foundations of Language Studies Leah E Gustilo, PhD Final Paper 13 December 2010
Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper
And the Words Become: Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English
The Philippine educational system has been plagued with the dilemma brought about by bilingual education (Bautista, 1995; Benton, 1980; Gonzalez, 1990a, 1990b; Sibayan, 1991; and in Bolton & Bautista, 2009, by Tinio, 1990; Tollefson, 1991; and, exhaustively discussed and problematized by Bernardo, 2009, in “English in Philippine education: Solution or problem?” ), which leaves learners having a hard time internalizing and applying concepts due to less than satisfactory comprehension of either of two languages that may not be their first language and therefore alienate learning more than they make learning accessible. This dilemma is captured in the apparent paradox—even a series of little ironies—in the title, specifically on how (a) Words—sound and sense, both intangible thus temporal—become; and, (b) Filipino word-formation works to expand and lead to codify the lexicon of—not Tagalog or Pilipino or some such, but—Philippine English. The first an issue of idea turning into palpable
Introduction and Review of Related Literature
Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper
reality and the second an issue of one local national(ist) language-in-progress forming another erstwhile foreign colonial(ist) language: both digression and dissent and, therefore, catalytic of change. Thus, this paper tries to problematize word-formation as it describes trends and observations that, in the end, tells us what simple words really do or effect or mean not only for us being familiar with them but knowing them and using them and finding them in print and in dictionaries of our language(s). We learn using and through words and we use words to manifest and make use of what we have learned. In using words we communicate not only what we are saying but effect what we meant and achieve what we intended. In the process, we form and fortify our identity not only as persons but as a people, not only as individuals but as a culture. This jump from one to whole is not mere rhetoric and will not be as traitorous as it is my fervent hope that you realize with me as we read on—and, hopefully, learn anew.
Theoretical Framework The issue then of pedagogy is not a simple issue of language choice, but of national language planning that entails the simultaneous cultivation of both corpus and domains of use— what Ponciano B P Pineda (1985) describes as the two macro areas in language planning and of which lexicon and education are the primary items on each list, respectively—and what I say should be grounded, most importantly, on two key elements: 1. Filipino psychology—a sensitive understanding of how Filipinos see themselves as learners and users of languages (first, second, and foreign); how Filipinos construct the
Introduction and Review of Related Literature
however.. Mercado. how Filipinos understand. William Labov’s variety concept. project. At the most basic. may be said to be informed by the propositions of Sapir (1949). and assert inner selves (loob) and empower their external selves (labas) in their spontaneous use of language with others. and teachers of language (native. Corder (1982). Catacataca. Basil Bernstein’s deficit hypothesis. 1980. These two foundations simply privilege both the individual and the social aspects of language and. Venuti (1998). and pass on knowledge by comfortably and lightheartedly using the language that first comes to mind. Conceptual Framework The search for the best language for more effective teaching. seems not quite the focus of two national directives in: Introduction and Review of Related Literature . and. however. nonnative. Matienzo. and. and foreign). and. 1984. Pragmatic sociolinguistics—a sensitive understanding of how Filipinos make sense of things by and in the way they creatively use language. Dela Peña. 1992) have so acknowledged and which we shall see more of in the following discussions. the study may be said to take its shape from Elmer Haugen’s language standardization paradigm (1966). users. and Howard Giles’ accommodation theory. Joshua Fishman (1971).g. thus. remember. 2. how Filipinos view education as an end in itself useable right after and as means towards some higher goal. as most other dissertations on the subject (e.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 4 self in relation to and in a position opposite other learners. Saussure (1915). how Filipinos create. 1981.
” (“Primer on the Filipino Language”) 2.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 5 1. and content Filipinos—and therefore the language to clear out what the use of English had so cluttered in learners’ minds. traditional. the less demanding. in. has ultimately turned off learners from seeing the real merit of being proficient in both and end up graduating without any firm hold on either language. “the bill will supersede the ‘bilingual policy’” which is in effect today. or any Philippine language for that matter. 36 S. loosely structured. Downplaying the use of Filipino. announced that “two congressional committees had approved and endorsed to the House of Representatives the report prescribing the use of English as the medium of instruction in Philippine schools. including technical and vocational courses. . global. . the Committees on Higher Education and on Basic Education agreed to consolidate related proposals into House Bill 4701. President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo issued Executive Order 210.” the report continued. parochial. (“Primer on the Filipino Language”) Sending the two languages in opposite directions as if the two are binaries. yet with effort to privilege both in the educational setting. On 29 September .” According to the report. . . and. language has sought the comfort zone of. “If enacted into law. and successful Filipinos— and therefore the language to learn (equipped for a future in diaspora as global citizens—with the view perhaps to get all learners take over the world leaving behind the archipelago’s vast agricultural lands and resources to multinational investors and developers). on the one hand.2006. [Signed 17 May 2003 and supported by DepEd Order No. —Annotation Mine] Its most important point is the establishment of “the English language as the primary medium of instruction in all public institutions of learning at the secondary level. and formal language that will ensure users of being accepted into the circle of bright. . and informal language that will ensure users of being accepted into the circle of simple. and Introduction and Review of Related Literature . Playing up the use of English as the useful. Since both are difficult and with technology intervening to make things easier. from pre-school to college. as the limited.
2. along with popular novels and entertainment or lifestyle magazines. emailing. and chatting as written di scourses for Filipinos as users and producers of language. such that even news reports—a formal TV genre—have not only Introduction and Review of Related Literature . video game. While a great majority has been lured to adopt the ease of instant messages as genre of choice. many have remained passive consumers and receivers of language in their greater preference for the visual and auditory media—although tabloids and broadsheets remain popular reading fare. Mobile and Internet communication are user-friendly functionalities based media that breaks down language to yield more sound than sense (text) or more signal than message (web design). and. Audiovisual media are audience-friendly media that breaks down the language barrier by transforming linguistic codes into visual scripts and beats and rhythms that remain communicative as they are entertaining by putting language in the background as dialogues or lyrics. and more passive. consumers instead of producers and creators—by supplying less demanding alternatives where language plays minor or lesser roles: 1. Background of the Study Media has taken to lionize the generation’s limited language abilities—ergo creating more. Facebook. their visual appeal remains the primary bait to dissimulate the reading act or the processing of language—as in the cable.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 6 unchecked “conventions” of text messaging. and iPod culture in urbanized locales with the continued mass appeal of television and radio taking decidedly linguistic twists to maintain hold of a more mobile and erratic 24/7 audience.
the educational and linguistic sectors are busy working out possible solutions by looking at upgrading language teachers (who are likewise couched in the same comfort zone). reengineering curriculum designs. Lesser need to pay attention to the fineprint or nuance of language. are actually coming full circle and. or see as larger than life or bigger than them and quite out of reach. more entertaining and better appreciated. the safer and more comfortable people are—the freer people are to imitate. translation.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 7 taken to Filipino (the informal. and. divergent at first and heading towards different directions. Standardization of Philippine English. thus. more personal language) but have also been dramatized by the anchor’s verbal voice play. watch. lobbying government cultural and educational officials. The farther detached the discourse process is from the individual. or take after those they hear. 2. While the majority of the objects of language teaching—Filipino learners and users of English and of Filipino—are comfortably couched in the language variety spawned and spread by the telecommunications and mass media industries. and institutionalizing two of the most important clearings opened for the codifying of the national language: 1. more audience. and discourse while continually propagating the lexical corpus with the most useful words to embody knowledge and establish familiarity to encourage use. Intellectualization of Filipino—through the continuous use and application of this language-in-progress in learning content areas. Less demands. These two languages. emulate. by realizing their divergent goals are actually converging: very much like a snake now trying to bite and swallow its own tail! Introduction and Review of Related Literature .
” p 25 ) What is crucial is to look at these two languages as works-in-progress. has become a permanent feature of society. settings. The transplantation has now reached full circle. Introduction and Review of Related Literature . but as a second language with specific domains and standards. and that the use of English remains so important in higher education.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 8 This “direction” has been worded a bit differently in the following o bservation in Bolton and Bautista (2009): Perhaps most interesting of all in the case of the Philippines (though it is not unique. and variances/varieties for testing in and eventual application of these languages-in-progress in embodying learning content areas by or through translation of technical knowledge and literature and discourse. 4. and genres. 2. discourse communities. and media/technological formats. and therefore only achieved by tirelessly: 1. fueling their wide and persistent use in various institutionalized and informal linguistic endeavors. as a similar situation is found in Singapore) is that a second language. and international diplomacy. much the same way as the English language grew to its mammoth proportions by taking in all the o ceans’ planktons carefully filtering but generously accepting. English. social strata. not in deterioration or return to a foreign language. applications. not in linguistic extinction. business. flexing their adoption by and adaptation in being assimilated across demographic boundaries. propagating regularly and religiously the lexical corpora of Filipino and Philippine English with the most useful words to embody Filipino knowledge and establish general familiarity to encourage use not only in spoken but also written discourse in both formal and informal settings until such time that the forking paths of the twin corpora feed each other and diverge in Filipino—the Philippine National Language. and. recording these uses. “A favorable climate. (Gonzalez. 3.
. Implications for research and the need for studies to update and follow through the seminal studies conducted in this research area: Introduction and Review of Related Literature . — Annotation mine. . Source or font of words feeding the lexicon: A close examination of the citations of the above lexical entries [referring to Bautista (2007) study presenting words from the Macquarie corpus of Asian English or ASIACORP to describe the lexicon of Philippine English. as an instrument in the development of the Philippine English lexicon. .’ (2009: 55) Dayag (2009) continues to describe in his observations some valuable clues —and. whose distinctive style of journalism rests not only on the creative utilization of local vocabulary. such as the ones that appear in . . especially print media. (p 56) 2. This seems to have been affirmed by Bolton (2005: 101). which includes not only on the source of words feeding the lexicon but also implications for research—a discussion that runs from page 55 to page 63—and which begins thus: It is widely acknowledged that along with creative literature (fiction and nonfiction). especially those of contemporary lusage. these “directions” have been worded a bit differently. and quite summarily. but on a range of other resources as well. 2009). . This suggests the potency of the Philippine media. is the Philippine English newspapers [or Philippine media. the Philippine media are a rich source of words and expressions. who argues that `perhaps the most important source for contemporary language . (p 56) 3.] reveal that most of these words and expressions were taken from news stories and columns in English-language newspapers in the Philippines. . particularly at a less formal level. This is made more meaningful if one considers the ubiquity of indigenous or Filipino-based words and expressions in the media. in Dayag’s observation of several observations in “English-language media in the Philippines” (Bolton & Bautista.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 9 Again. Processes by which these words are formed or created—and the relationship of these processes to the Filipino language: [C]oinages abound in Philippine English. . pathways—to the nature and movement for the development of a Philippine national language. in general]. for this paper. namely: 1. Perhaps this indicates lexical creativity and innovation in Philippine English. and the fact that they appear in the print media underscores the media’s invaluable contribution to the development of the Philippine English lexicon. that have become part of the Philippine English lexicon. front-page newspaper headlines .
. Characterization of Philippine English words “currently” codified in legitimate dictionaries of International and/or Philippine Englishes: Indeed. . The corpus. dao. (p 57) Happily. . salak) and fauna (e. 2000). dating from the 1910s and 1920s. a crucial step in the process of codifying Philippine English. unless Filipinos live in places where these plants and animals exist or unless they have encountered members of communities. mural). These and other words from the newspapers included in the ACCENT database attest to the lexical creativity and innovationa that may underline the `Filipino-ness’ of Philippine English. After all. anonang. and current. a corpus and a dictionary were evolved in the early years of the twenty-first century. which contains a fairly large number of Philippine English words. `the vocabulary . adequate. and that. which lists words taken presumably from written Introduction and Review of Related Literature . dictionary-making is a dynamic process. `but also totally inadequate to capture the vibrant creativity of a hybrid and irreverent tropical English in full flight’ (Bolton and Butler. given that its Philippine English entries are not only date. (p 56) It is the ACCENT Corpus and the Anvil–Macquarie Dictionary that reflect Philippine culture. and topnotcher (`high achiever’). 2004: 99). cacique (a powerful landowner) . . the Webster’s dictionary may not be a reliable dictionary. represents an archaic and petrified version of Philippine vocabulary. 4. One such dictionary is the Webster’s Third New International Dictionary. Filipinos can hardly relate to them because they are simply not part of their reality. By the same token.’ . aims `to investigate the English-language press in Asia’ (Bolton and Butler. are no longer part of the lexicon of the average Filipino.g. economic plunder (`a large-scale embezzlement of public funds’).Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 10 And while the ASIACORP used data more than a decade ago. . Hantik. Move towards standardization. kabaragoya. Another observation that can be made about the list of Philippine words in the Webster’s dictionary is that most of them have Philippine flora (e. the Anvil–Macquarie Dictionary of Philippine English for High School (Bautista and Butler.g.] dictionary. titled the Asian Corpus of Computerized English Newspaper Texts (the ACCENT Corpus). more attempts should be made by scholars to publish national dictionaries that are authentic. the evolution of the lexicon of Philippine English is a continuing process. .g. (p 57) 5. Bangon) as referents. languages evolve. Yakan. Kulaman. developed in Hong Kong. fails to capture Philippine English vocabulary used in this contemporary era because. and cultural communities (e. as Bolton and Butler (2004: 98) put it. perhaps with the exception of Filipinos who belong to the older generation. and as such. anahau. if one goes by the criterion set by Quirk (1990) (cited by Bolton and Butler 2004: 92). into lexical legitimacy: Many of these words that appear in English-language newspapers and magazines in the Philippines have entered dictionaries and even corpora. .—Annotation mine. however. . 2004: 99). lexical items such as . maya. (p 56) This [WTNID. making Philippine English a truyly indigenized variety of world Englishes. (p 57) Lexical items from the Philippine English newspapers include ambush interview (`a surprise interview’). see below. And while they may have been instrumental in codifying this institutionalized English variety. making it an institutionalized and legitimate variety of world Englishes.
Review of Related Literature The foundations. a record of the nation’s living history. and use–study with each coupling embodying a different set of key concepts crucial to understanding the larger and deeper dynamics of our word search. . that: 1. production–reception. of this short empirical study are the triumvirate language pairs of learning–teaching. namely. Language Entry Point Learning– Teaching Premise Significance Goal Variable Framework Research Area negotiating identity & culture formation // Filipino psychology // new familiar standardization spoken of Phil English words may as Filipino / help ease expansion of content standard learning & Filipino Introduction and Review of Related Literature identify Filipino meaning codes & draw assertions-- register & acceptance Discourse analysis // sociolinguistics // standard World English . and 3. `Filipino) perspective (Bolton and Butler 2004: 93). Filipino is growing and it is contributing not only to the lexicon of Filipino but more importantly to the lexicon of Philippine English. Words are cultural artifacts that not only create individual vocabularies but a national cultural identity. is regarded as a truly Filipino dictionary in that it `has consciously attempted to adopt an explicitly Pinoy (i. we are brought back to terra firma standing on three soft spots. (pp 57–58) With that vision. Word-formation is one way by which Filipinos make meaning and sense of things. 2. and a mirror of society’s changing times. . therefore.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 11 texts such as newspapers and magazines.e. . ambitious only without concerted effort of concerned agencies and perhaps in the absence of a political will but not altogether far-fetched to be viewed a dream.
2. & variance features of Phil English (Gonzalez. and with whose body of knowledge the study will be informed and contributing to. and with whose limitations the study will be guided and benchmarked. linguistic areas within which the study will fall into and take off from. and. fun. Concept Matrix of Related Literature Review The key concepts outlined in Table 1 will be defined in the review of literature along with the terms most crucial to our understanding 1. despite the breadth of factors influential to and affecting the issue of present trends in word-formation processes towards the codification of Filipino towards expanding the Introduction and Review of Related Literature . 3. function. frameworks within which the study will be read and explained. However. parameters within which the study will revolve and expand. easy to use.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 12 writing academic register & expand standard Filipino identify productive meaning making process--& draw patterns for standard Phil English identify the kinds–uses of new words--& see new features of Phil Eng usability & potential for meaningmaking Filipino psychology // standard Phil English SLL/SLA Production– Reception new words spoken are easy to create. 1996) // standard Englishes new words & their L–G features // lexicography Table 1. hopefully. reveal new facts and validate or debunk the old. & easily accepted & passed on codification of Filipino into standard Phil English word formation & meaningmaking // sociolinguistics Use–Study new words spoken– written by subgroups get into mainstream spoken expansion of Filipino & Phil English lexicons form. and with whose criteria the study will.1.
in our excursion into Philippine word formation. however. the word formation needs to be put in the context of the gamut of topics that have been discussed earlier. To start off. Hence. to paraphrase from Yule (2009). Surian ng Wikang Pambansa’s typology of language planning (p 255 )—which I took the liberty to synthesize as Table 2 to show a comparative–developmental picture of the end process’s source and evolution. it will be helpful for us to borrow three diagrams from Ponciano B P Pineda’s “Pagpaplano ng wika ukol sa pambansang pagsulong” (1985 . Words—and how they are formed—represent the complex historic-cultural developments that necessitated their present form and are. The first two gives us a bird’s eye view of the topography while the third zooms in on elements population this terrain. I daresay.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 13 lexicon of Philippine English I will try to restrain myself from going any deeper or broader than the more immediate issues. Before we see that larger picture. Language planning. therefore. in the vast field of linguistics. 1. that is. nothing accidental or even incidental. as part of larger design though smaller (or more specific) is nonetheless vital and. pp 254– 268) to serve as our maps—to show us precisely where we are. as dynamic and changing as the socio-cultural conditions that sustain its existence. so from the all-encompassing concept matrix I have laid out—which I hope have already established the scope and importance behind the seemingly trivial matter of how words are formed and what new words are formed thereby—I shall focus my review discussion only on word-formation in the Philippines and give readers a survey of what has been done and achieved in this area. Introduction and Review of Related Literature .
3. 184 Preparation SWP’s Typology of Language Planning Jernudd’s Typology of Language Planning (1971) Determination Paghahanda 2. Initiation Selection of Norm Elaboration of Function 2. so to speak.3. 3. This last item is the case of Pineda (1985. Introduction and Review of Related Literature . Necessity of a national language Official support Finding a dialect which is sufficiently developed and which will satisfy the exigencies of a national tongue Three Steps in the National Language Act No. Comparative Development of SWP’s Typology of Language Planning 2. p 255)—whose quadrants present the very steps involved and taken by a language in its move towards national status. Development Supervision Paglilinang/Pagpapaunlad Pamamanihala Development Implementation Table 1. Haugen’s Typology (1966) These steps will help us understand better what happens to language—more specifically to a word—when it becomes. Implementation Codification of Norm Acceptance by Intended Population Table 1.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 14 Factors that Necessitate Forming a National Language 1. more than itself yet more basic: for instance. Linguistic Area Form Function 1. as in Table 3.2. 4. Pineda identified the counterparts of these four steps in the SWP’s three steps (represented in the tables as matching colored cells) . Haugen’s typology of language planning (1966. when it becomes a building block of a national(ist) cultural construct or identity or a symptom of a national educational malaise wanting to be diagnosed and prescribed a cure or a tool for identifying the best language to adopt for optimum mass proficiency.
except for math and the sciences which should be taught using Model 5. but borrows from local and foreign streams. whose highlights I am sharing with you below. Loan words are spelled following Pilipino orthography. Vocabulary. 1. & Word Formation • It uses the core vocabulary of the Pilipino lexicon. Model 1 should be used in teaching all other subjects. • 2. formal/informal)? Model 1is ideal for all forms of communication. What model Pilipino is ideal for all forms of communication (written/oral. Curriculum materials should be written and published using Model 1 as used in various communicative situations and in teaching different subjects and courses. What model Pilipino is being used now by people in communicating? Model 1 is most desirable. whose core vocabulary and form is Pilipino. Research Sub-Question Findings Implications to Language Policy Cultivation of National Language should start from Model 1 nucleus.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 15 pp 262–263) in the SWP’s search for the best model Wikang Pilipino for Filipino. • Privileges native lexicon. Which model Pilipino is Expanding/moderni Expanding and enriching Introduction and Review of Related Literature . Lexicon. Model 1 should be used in preparing curriculum materials for teaching math and the sciences. Borrowing from 3.
phrases.4. Model 1 Isang elektronik gadyet na inimbento ng isang Pilipino na magsasaayos sa pagtulog ng mga taong hindi mapagkatulog ang malapit nang ipakilala sa publiko. and conclusions but also foreground our appreciation of the third typology. Introduction and Review of Related Literature Ipinakikita ng clinical findings ng `Dormitron 922’ na ang insomnia. This will be more apparent in the actual paragraphs used for Models 1 and 5 in . English capitalizes on words. and idioms readily understandable. hysteria. of the foregoing sections of this chapter—that may well be keys that at this point in time (or farther back to school year 1978–1979 when the descriptive study was done) have already revealed to us quite uncannily glimpses of the future. . obsessional neurosis. Table 1. hence. Ang electronic gardget known as `Dormitron 922’ ay patented na ng government. Ipinakikita sa mga pagsusuring klinikal ng `Dormitron 922’ na ang mga karamdamang insomiya. results. SWP’s Search for Model Pilipino for Filipino ( SY1978–1979) Result Highlights I am mentioning these because I want to call your attention to a couple of the SWP study’s fascinating results—that not only would later shed light on aspects of our analysis. Model 5 Isang Filipino-invented electronic gadget na magno-normalize sa sleeping pattern ng mga taong suffering from sleep disorders and malapit nang iintroduce sa public. Ang elektronik gadyet na nginalanang `Dormitron 922’ ay may patente ng pamahalaan.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 16 the best method/step to enrich and modernize the language? zation will be optimal by combining Method 3 (Borrowing from influencing foreign language) and Method 1 (Rigorous selection of lexical elements from local or indigenous languages) Pilipino should be by combined Methods 3 and 1.
phrases. This last item spells out that cultivation can only happen given a living language that while it is its society’s tool for change and progress is necessarily incomplete or imperfect.” that uses more linguistic elements in English than in Pilipino. to which Pineda added a third. at hika ay mabisang tinatalaban ng elektronik terapi. and Word Formation Features of the Losing Models) After consolidating the results and the implications to language policy. Coinages and resurrection of archaic terms. idioms. hindi mapalagay dahil sa labis na pag-iisip. Language as an amalgam of the indigenous and foreign as well as of various registers and processes. SWP’s Model Pilipino for Filipino Model Search Winners (With the Vocabulary. altapresyon. popularly known as “Enggalog. Table 1. hypertension. p 263)—which as in Table 6 specifies now the elements that undergo planning and the implementing agents in the nurturing process simultaneously work on two major levels: (a) the Corpus or the Language itself and (b) the Domains or the Areas of Language Use. and allusions from different languages as the user deems fit. though not beyond the dynamics of cultivation the SWP did not pencil in. SWP came up with a third diagram that lays down what Pineda calls the “Macro Plan. SWP’s typology for the cultivation of a national language (1966. Model 2 Rejects and strips language of foreign elements in favor of the local and indigenous. cardiac instability and asthma ay nagrerespond well sa electronic therapy. pabagu-bagong tibok ng puso. higher and overarching level that.” 3. Lexicon. (pp 264–266) Introduction and Review of Related Literature . constantly needing improvement and trying to fill in its own as well as its users’ inadequacies.5. Model 5 This English-based model. which is (c) Rhetoric or Language in Use.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 17 histirya. Model 4 Freely uses words. links the two.
use. and effect in the choice. second.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 18 I. specifically on the psychology of teacher–audience–user continuum. Domain of Use Education Culture Public Administration Sciences Technology Lawmaking Judiciary Society Media Table 1. enter. influence. Virgilio Enriquez in his essay “Pagbubuo ng terminolohiya sa sikolohiyang Pilipino” (1985. Introduction and Review of Related Literature National Language . in Bautista. 1990) cleared two important grounds on which the present study has privileged to stand on: first. understanding. Word formation. and. on Philippine sociolinguistics. A Corpus B C Lexicon Grammar Orthography Literature Translation II. and come in to become part of all the others following it: the Lexicon. on word formation as an essential function and process in the institutionalization of a national language. as motive. SWP’s Typology of National Language Cultivation The arrow points to where we are at right now—to an area of the Philippine linguistic corpus that best captures the wild and unbridled dynamism of the language as it is currently used and is known and to which new manifestations of reality fall.6. and learning of language.
Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 19 Higit pa sa pagpaplano ng wika. learning. sequencing the processes in their preferred order of use in choosing or finding the best term to use—in any case. (p 269) Enriquez. thus. which have no or have very remote foreign counterparts—with the overarching view of being understood and. ang aktibong paggamit ng wika ang pinakamabisang paraan sa pagbuo ng terminolohiya. who refers here to Filipino. higit pa sa pagtatalu-talo ng mga dalubahasa. Enriquez identified and discussed the nine ways (p 270) by which words are formed or should be formed—at least in the search for new terminologies to capture and name the complexities of concepts in Filipino psychology. Ang gumagamit ng wika ang magpapasiya. After all. higit pa sa pagbuo ng mga teoryang pangwika. reaksiyon ng mga tagapakinig ang gabay. unassumingly refers us back to Pineda’s two macro areas of lexicon and education (1985) as start off points in the effort to plan and create a national language. Enriquez’s list is significant here because it goes with a diagram. Enriquez underscores for us the organic relationship between language use and learning a language as they are both rooted in words that are in already in use and familiar or understandable. to represent an Introduction and Review of Related Literature . simultaneously: to come up with a workable language of the people means entails building up the language’s lexicon and using these newly formed words in learning the language and in understanding learning areas using the language. effecting optimum comprehension and. and here I translate Enriquez’s thesis: Use is key in forming a vocabulary. consequently. Working up one side means working up the other. p 269 in Bautista 1996) More than solid theoretical groundwork. which he is moving to intellectualize via the field of Filipino psychology. (1985. the user of the language decides. experience teaches and the reactions of audiences guide. which I took the liberty to recast in tabular form for understandability in Table 7. Karanasan ang magtuturo.
Thus. the term most accessible to the widest audience. understood. German. usually from general to specific. and Spanish. This term is one that readily can be recognized. adopted. sikolohiya Spelling and Pronunciation Introduction and Review of Related Literature . iskima. and I would like to reiterate—that means. said. I will detail these processes in the table because they will provide us a very useful understanding of how words are formed in the context of coming up with a standard term using a particular standard procedure in a standard language of learning and use. French. A word has minimal or no change in spelling from Latin. and learned —and to which I hasten to add—used: meaning repeated. as well as written out. katarsis. A borrowed word is signaled by an asterisk or an underline or printed in italics. eventually. Greek.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 20 idea or concept. Adoption WordFormation Process Characteristic Use Example Change 1. Saling Angkat (Tahasang Panghihiram) Pagsasaling-Wika (Paglilipat-Wika) A word/idea from a different culture and language is used without change in its visual form and meaning. encounter group persepsyon. in a change in meaning. A word does not change in spelling from English. A word remains evidently foreign yet undeniably borrowed with the change in psychological and cultural contexts resulting. gestalt. it would not be unfair to say that these procedures are somehow reflected or subsumed in the current primer to Filipino orthography published by the Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino. home for the aged.
A word is spelled according to how a user says it. Salitang Likha (SariGawa) (Paglikha at Pagbuo ng Inventing new words or searching for a local counterpart is not often pagtatalik o sekswal na pagtatalik Written Form Introduction and Review of Related Literature . A word/idea from a different culture and language is given or provided a new local counterpart. A word/idea from a different culture and language changes in visual form— adopting the grammar of the user’s language—but not in meaning.sosyal na interaksyon. A word/idea from a different culture and language changes in form—as a translation in the user’s language—but not in meaning. takes either a literal or metaphorical translation. This process often results in multiple variants in both spelling and pronunciation.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 21 2. Saling Paimbabaw (Paimbabaw na Pagaankin ng Bigkas at Baybay) A word/idea from a different culture and language changes in visual form— adopting the spelling of how it is pronounced by a user—but not in meaning. which often takes time to be accepted in use. The new word. Often. Saling Panggramatik a (Pagsunod sa Sintaktikang Filipino) A word is spelled and said quite arbitrarily. sosyal interaksyon. mekanismong pananggalan g. bakas ng gunita. the mutated form of the word is visually exotic yet aurally familiar. inter-aksyong sosyal 4. reimporsment 3. kaalamang nasa dulo ng dila 5. pakikidigman g sikolohikal. Saling Hiram (Pagsasalin ng Hiram na Salita) Translating a word is often the best way to find the most appropriate term.
This process privileges the original in looking for the best translation of the word. the vocabulary of the Cebuano malhay and walho. The existing. Salitang Taal (Katutubong Konsepto) (Pagdukal sa Wikang Pagsasalinan) Encouraged to find. Ilokano nakem. pakikilahok. A word/idea from a different Philippine culture and language is used without change—even despite variations in pronunciations—in spelling or in Recommended way of finding the best term. Salitang Sanib (Pagpapalaga nap sa mga Salitang mula sa Iba’t Ibang Wika sa A word/concept that has been studied or researched becomes part of the corpus for research.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 22 Bagong Salita) The new word counterpart often also takes some time to be accepted in use. A word/idea from the user’s culture and language is used—instead of a word/idea that is only similar or related in meaning. pakikisangkot . pakikisalamu ha. Surigao nagsinabtana y. (pp 274–285) Popular for shortening a term in English. being unfamiliar. kapwa > pakikitungo. but rarely in Filipino—the term KSP is unique. pakikipagpala gayang-loob. pakikibagay. at least not in the field of psychology. thus. resorted to by Filipinos. PJP (Philippine Journal of Psychology) pakikisalamu ha for social interaction 6. pakikisama. Salitang Daglat (Pagpapaikli sa Orihinal) 7. define. Maranao Introduction and Review of Related Literature . Salitang Tapat (Pagtugaygay sa Orihinal o Pinaghiraman g Wika at Kultura) A word/idea from a different culture and language is matched with the most precise counterpart available. develop. STM (shortterm memory). pakikiisa 9. and study indigenous concepts and values—as opposed to adherence to and reliance on foreign paradigms and their translation. reflecting cultural values and identity. A word/idea from a different culture and language takes a shorter form—using initials of the term. more precise word is often more delicately nuanced in terms of related terms. 8.
Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 23 Pilipinas) meaning. area of study. simply put. How language is created by those who use it— “from a variety of in-group ways of speaking like that of students. Hiligaynon hatag-gusto Table 1. maratabat. military personnel and Introduction and Review of Related Literature . from the bottom up: (a) a word is an artifact of culture—reality. Taking off from Enriquez’s privileging of the common people as users and learners of language—and therefore as a determining sector in the ultimate success of language use and learning—R David Zorc (1993) leads us into this vital area of the discourse by studying Tagalog slang and in so doing shows us two important leads that informed the present study and cues to where hope could possibly lie (p 102): 1. and (c) word formation is an assertion of reality—meaning. and the lexicon of the language. movie stars. (b) word use is a marker of identity—relationship or position. we may glean three vital streams from this complex dynamism. gets its cornucopia of words—with a wildcard of different types of borrowings from English used in essays in Filipino (Reyes–Otero 2002). and gayspeak (KWF 2004) grows and acquires popular usage—or. Let us explore these streams further but this time from the opposite end of the academic register. entertainment article Filipino (Abello 2002). Tagalog Slang. From the formal and standard to the informal and colloquial we push further to the extreme and see how the lexicon of Tagalog slang (Zorc 1993). exclusively and simply to communicate. Virgilio Enriquez’s Word-Formation Hierarchy (1985) In sum.7. What seemed arbitrary and superficial becomes conscious and motivated—always with and for a reason that is not always. jeepney drivers.
which is interestingly at #2 if we think of Tagalog as another language to loan Introduction and Review of Related Literature . Reduction (9%). 0. 2. The Numbers Game (0. Zorc’s study is also important for identifying two very important stages or processes in the dynamic life of words. and “how words get re-shaped” (pp 106–109): 1. Word Play (31%). 2.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 24 gays”—hence. in: 1. Loanwords—38% English. 2% Bisayan. expanding our views that creators are not necessarily academics or authors and confined in universities but in most places if not everywhere. 2. Abbreviations (5%).6% Chinese. Tagalog Words with New Meanings (15%). and 0. 3. 0. 17% Spanish. we see and sense in Zorc the wisdom that is the undercurrent of Enriquez’s nine-banded spectrum of word-formation processes.5% Japanese. And Mix-Mix (5%). Coinages (0.1% Kapampangan. 4. specifically. and. expanding again our views that institutionalization does not only mean being read in textbooks and entered in dictionaries and used in formal writing but in most popular media too which again is found in most places if not everywhere. Metathesis (10%)—including Syllable Switching and Full Reversal. and. “where slang words come from” (pp 102–106): 1.5%). in fact. 5.5%). namely. 0. 3. These two actually mean more than just the statistics. The choice of Borrowing—but with the twist of imbuing borrowed words with new meaning.1% Ilokano. How the language used by people becomes or is institutionalized—and make “their way to articles in the daily press”—hence. 4.
The light and casual attitude with which users create and use language—revealing an oft overlooked key to linguistic proficiency that underscores the irony of being more productive when one does not mean to or being more receptive and responsive when one is least serious about things. p 130–134) and by which she categorized showbiz Filipino language: 1. Entertainment article Filipino. and with a degree of witty eloquence and even fluency. and poetry. How words are shaped and take on meaning also interested Larcy C Abello (2002) but this time surveying a different variety of Filipino—those in showbiz magazine articles. including shortening and acronym (AC). 2. Importations (I).Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 25 words from given a change in positioning—being the easiest and more readily accessible both in terms of facility in use and comprehension. 2. which are perhaps innate cultural traits that thrive in fun. 3. and. Novel assignments of meaning (NAM). facility. Abello identified four of this processes by which language takes on a different variation (in Minanga. Artificial coinage. Introduction and Review of Related Literature . Attempts at verbal humor (AVH). The influences that go into new words—which in another sense is reveling the well of vocabulary that is an eclectic gamut from both the regions and the world attesting to a widening of mass cultural consciousness and from which users dip into for words to name and express themselves with ease. and. 3. 4. play.
Gayspeak.12% (pp xi–xiv) Essays in Filipino. Loan blend. which shall be the meat of the chapter on Methodology. Neolohismo.16% Pag-aankop. and Coinage (p 149). Let us meantime defer looking more closely into each of these processes. 1. 7. Marietta Reyes–Otero (2002) identified three types of Borrowings from English by Filipino essay writers. 241 salita o 15. 4. namely: 1. Meanwhile. 17 salita o 1. 193 salita o 12. which did not specify the body of works used in the study is limited.94% Pagpapalit.67% Pag-uugnay. Introduction and Review of Related Literature . 101 salita o 6.56% Metatesis. 3. and jump into some sort of bird’s eye view of what had just been presented.90% Paghahalu-halo. 5. 679 salita o 44.38% Pagdadaglat. Thus. 59 salita o 3. takes on a deeper meaning when viewed against the word-formation repertoire of gayspeak on which showbiz register is largely based. 69 salita o 4. 2. 8. Loan words. what Abello’s descriptive categorizations lack the Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino makes up in its Mga Salitang Homosekswal: “Isang Pagsusuri” by coming up with 10 classifications based on Zorc and San Miguel (1993) with their corresponding frequency in the corpus. 54 salita o 3.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 26 Abello’s study. 10. and 3. 2. 78 salita o 5.57% Reduksyon o pagkakaltas. 21 salita o 1. Loan shift—including Semantic loans. though perhaps only in the anthologized version of the research. 9.91% Panghihiram. Loan translations or calques. 6.76% Pagdaragdag.
wrangler New Word Attempt at Verbal Humor T1 & T2 (Abello) Neolohismo. baklesh. 6-6-6 kakuyangyangan. 1-4-3. tsugi o tsugihin. nenok. adarit. orocan. atik. 10-0. San. joyad. tweak a bit and reclassify. Adoption # 1. Saling Angkat (Tahasang Panghihiram) 1. wetpaks. and Pag-uugnay (KWF) Introduction and Review of Related Literature .anda. mudras. astig. harurot. & KWF’s Word-Formation Processes Coinage Coinage. then . Aling Pining. Pagpapalit. Word Play. echos lang 48 years. ABELLO. sitak. and. toyi. # ZORC. etits. Dakota Harrison. Metathesis. Alvarado. afam.Y. karakas. M. bokal.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 27 Indulge me a bit in asking you to recall Yule’s (2009) nine word -formation processes— with the tenth process being a combination from among these nine processes —and superimpose them on Enriquez’s (1985) nine ways to form Filipino terminologies. Change ENRIQUEZ’s Word-Formation Processes # YULE’s WordFormation Processes Coinage Eponym 1. and Numbers Game (Zorc) Examples 148% Pagsasaling-Wika (Paglilipat-Wika) azucara de papa. eklat. kakulakadidang. Metathesis.
pumapel. careless whisper. hubadera. mahogany. yesterday once more. ala. hirit. jinggel. hataw. dako. malaking tsek. chicahan. walang kiyeme. Attempt at verbal humor T3. tabo-tabo sa takilya Importation. bakya. utol. idenay. espadaham. dedma. and Coinage (Reyes–Otero) Panghihiram and Pag-uugnay (KWF) bet. zonrox Introduction and Review of Related Literature . anaconda. tsitsa. and Novel assignment of new meaning (Abello) Imported Loan Words. na-award. coffee party. taksan-taksan. yugyugan. flawless. erase. mayarrive. 93. buwisit. Borrowing Loan translati on or calque 2. Saling Paimbabaw (Paimbabaw na Pag-aankin ng Bigkas at Baybay) 2. nota. sibat. bionic. Loan Translations. kati. boldie. pisot. tong. damo. dorobo. pagoda. bayot. ikura. de kahon. and Loan Shift—including Semantic Loans. walkathon. sagu-sago. toxic. bastedin. sisid. plastik. flopsina pa-epek. ticol. two ham.7% Borrowing Loan Words and Tagalog words with new meanings (Zorc) du. fifty. papa. awanti. baset. emote. yabang. mag-on. variables. Loan Blends. walang tienes. vacuum. bagets. gurang.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 28 2. salbij. sey.
. l. kuningkuning Artificial Coinage. h. including Shortening and Acronym (Abello) Reduksyon o Pagkakaltas (KWF) Acronym Abbreviation (Zorc) Combined bog.w. kebs. yosi bading. p. Blending 4. makipageyeball.b. jelling.n.1% b.p. 8.y. el.t.g.. wa appearance.eching..g. pa-epek. opm. Saling Hiram (Pagsasalin ng Hiram na Salita) 4. lonta. bakal boy. look sa sky. g. pamhen. PMA Acronym (Abello) Pagdadaglat (KWF) Multiple Processes Mix-Mix (Zorc) 5.g. syano. bongga ang fez. ebak. lala 4. Clipping Hypocor ysms 5. wanakosey. b. Salitang Likha (Sari-Gawa) (Paglikha at Pagbuo ng Bagong Salita) 5. imbs. baw lang. wa pay.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 29 3.. wa knowing Shortened Halo-Halo (KWF) Introduction and Review of Related Literature . baby bubot.. Compounding 3. kyems. pk. labnat. elibs. k.s. 26. fly na. Munti. dkny. keri lang. care mo ba.u. nakaka-elyang eksena. nanghahala BIR.5% akinse’t katapusan.. 30. salitang kanto ang haba ng hair.. Saling Panggramatika (Pagsunod sa Sintaktikang Filipino) 3. u. ese kola. transpo.4% Reduction Reduction (Zorc) Amboy.anong sey mo. pg.t. boljak. bj.
9. 2011) In laying down side by side Enriquez’s hierarchy on creating new Filipino words. KWF. Salitang Daglat (Pagpapaikli sa Orihinal) 6. 2002. Abello. Reyes–Otero. Results. I hope to bring to fore Villanueva’s (2010) initial proposition of the six most popular word-formation processes being used or resorted to by Filipinos. 0% 8. dilis. Backformatio n 6. 0% 9. by Frequency (Villanueva. wasakiki. Six Most Popular Word-Formation Processes Used or Resorted to by Filipinos. and Conclusions as a helpful grid in identifying how the newest words that entered the standard lexicon of Filipino are or have been formed. Yule’s major types of word-formation processes. New Use Conversion— also known as Category Change or Functional Shift Derivation 8. zing n danz 7. 0% Table 1. Introduction and Review of Related Literature . 9. and the merged classifications identified in three seminal researches on word-formation in Filipino (Zorc.6% Blending Pag-aangkop (KWF) burnik.8. 2004). kaplog. maila. 2002. 8. We shall refer again to this table in the succeeding chapters on Methodology. Acronyms 7. 1996. 4.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 30 6. Salitang Tapat (Pagtugaygay sa Orihinal o Pinaghiramang Wika at Kultura) Salitang Taal (Katutubong Konsepto) (Pagdukal sa Wikang Pagsasalinan) Salitang Sanib (Pagpapalagana p sa mga Salitang mula sa Iba’t Ibang Wika sa Pilipinas) 7.
assuring maximum exposre by mass media and optimum adoption by repeated use. allow me to make the following observations. and Derivation. It is most apparent that while there are multiple variants in most of the more often used word-formation processes. Enriquez. not fun—ways for people to create new words or (b) Do not come up with many words that are fun enough to be created firstly and used again and again secondly. and for the growing legion of Filipino gay men—whose commonality is that they are all in positions privileged to be heard–read –imitated. First. for the user–creators of Tagalog slang terms. that the use and creation of words in Filipino are results of having popular models and endorsers. so to speak. using a language most accessible to their audiences as they speak and write from their positions of privilege. The preference for or popularity of these word-formation processes holds true. Introduction and Review of Related Literature . at least. four did not merit their own categories. 3.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 31 Before we go on. Backformation. even two preliminary conclusions. and Zorc– Abello–KWF. namely: Compounding. for the writers of showbiz magazine articles. 1. This does not mean that these processes do not exist or are not used in current. Conversion. 2. however. popular Filipino word-formation only that they (a) Do not seem to be popular— therefore. that surfaced in the juxtapositioning of Yule.
which shall be discussed at the tail-end of this chapter. the resulting six highly favored word-formation processes involve forms of (a) shortening a term or phrase. and varieties of hypocorisms. as manifest in the penchant for reduction. 4. 5. the more likely it is for a word to become part of everyday vocabulary. A classic example for this latter assertion is in having all the reasons to pick the borrowed word Introduction and Review of Related Literature . and with all kinds of people. gives shorter words more chances of being used by more people more often —at work in Filipino word-formation. Thus. in fact. and. (b) combining two or more terms.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 32 Second.” the less letters there are to pronounce. and agglutinazions. abbreviations and acronyms. for most needs. 6. and in Filipino mass consciousness. As what Racquel Llagas (1987) revealed in “Isang Sulyap sa Wika ng mga Progresibo. simply put. in general. as manifest in the penchant for coinages. Borrowing. Convenience. as in most areas of modern life. is key even in choosing which words to use. The more handy and the more multipurpose a term is the more likely it would be used by people. who have grown accustomed to such concepts as instant and all-inone. novel word–meaning associations. that the short-list of word-formation processes favoring shortening over lengthening of terms seem to prove Zipf’s law—which. the top choice in Filipino word-formation. unabashedly manifests a bias for both convenience—in having the word all ready with its arsenal of meanings and associations ready for instant use—and brevity—in having the shorter everyday word all ready with the same arsenal of meanings and associations ready for use in most situations. in particular.
7. variables. had touched sociolinguistic heartstrings and elicited significant observations: 1. delve into in the chapters on Discussions and Conclusions. not without their historical impetus and cultural foundation. Introduction and Review of Related Literature . Tan benchmarks this field’s domain of study with a quick sweep from Zorc’s (1993) seminal study on Tagalog slang expressions—resulting in the landmark lexicographic work Tagalog Slang Dictionary (1993/2000) by Zorc et al—to Aguas’s Pinoy dyok-siyo-nar-ry which. and parameters to further deepen and more solidly ground our preliminary findings towards a more critical discussion of Results—let me digress a bit by sharing with you about a column written by Mike Tan (2009) on a recent Filipino word-formation trend. which may as well be the Philippines’ counterpart to Yule’s more generic Compounding. despite being neither strictly lexicographic nor empirical and in spite of being largely humor than reference. and options are.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 33 love or its even shorter variant luv over the kilometric. fashion it—and brazenly flaunt their wordwise wit via the word-formation process known as agglutination. glimpses of which we shall glean in the chapter on Results and. and mushy Filipino terms pagmamahal or pag-ibig. As we ready to look more closely into the particulars of our study in the next chapter on Methodology—wherein we lay down our corpus. of course. archaic-sounding. These complex of preferences. Filipinos know how to use words and wield it—in fact. choices. if resources permit.
5. Language is indeed dynamic and shows much about Filipino culture—and that Filipino is “evolving at a much faster rate than ever before” attesting to an equally dynamic people that feed this growth with usage and innovation. which often start in jest or jokingly in casual situations and occasions resulting in the formation of colloquialisms. (c) clipping a Filipino phrasal term in karug for the hair that crawls down the male navel down to the pubes. 4.g. kindergarten) and one that is embodied by many Filipino words (e.g. for instance. 6. Agglutination itself involves variations—combining. 3.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 34 2. Filipinos enrich their language by their creative use of it—a case in point is how people come up with new words to name erstwhile nameless things and phenomena. and (d) Introduction and Review of Related Literature . erap) to the point of conducting conversation using transposed syllables in what Tan described as a “linguistic counter -culture that literally turned languages in their heads” to “the less daring” process called agglutination that is characteristic word-formation for Germans (e. and. (b) standard Filipino word + standard Filipino word in puhok for the short hair around the whorl of the head. Tagalog slang word-formation evolves—citing specifically the 1970s tendency to invert words (e. bahaghari) and is now gaining ground as a process popularly used to spawn interesting new words. Slang terms either fall into disuse or persist—defying the years by surviving through generations and defying conventions by eventually becoming part of the mainstream Tagalog and Filipino lexicon. (a) inverted slang word + borrowed word in yostik for the stick with cigarette butt tied at one end for lighting firecrackers.g.
Introduction and Review of Related Literature . perhaps. and streets) and of decidedly academic or learning-objected occasions to more personal. I will try to answer that riddle—and. English. hopefully. At this point it will be timely to ask whether the mass and ubiquitous option being fed us is Filipino. malls. you will be convinced of the process by which I will lay down proofs and of the explanation that I will essay to tie up the pieces—but first help me find the answers to a series of simple questions. and uncalled for opportunities for dialogue with no expectations or preset goals or impositions towards a simmering milieu of interactions that broadly and deeply institute in informal learners and casual users and accidental audiences not a language per se but a playful range of options for expression of the self and comprehension of others and the world. These studies boil down to the fact that language grows faster and bigger if people feed it in every way and instance possible and how this is done i s through the Filipinos’ freely using both the Filipino and English languages that surround them —visually and aurally—steering clear of formal institutions to the media and social arenas of constant and diverse interactions (e.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 35 standard English word + standard Filipino word in the punning newnal for a new mole and dumidorant for the deodorant residues left in the armpit. is to ask—and quite corollary to the issue—if we can still identify a word as English or Filipino at a glance (discounting both as an option will provide us a clue here) and how identification can or was made possible and certain. casual . or both? To make answering this riddle easier. market places.g.
Which word-formation processes created the most number of new words? ii. What are the winning words in Sawikaan’s five -year Salita ng Taon search? i. Which of these winning words are new entries or old entries with new meanings in the latest edition of the UP Diksiyunaryo ng Filipino (2010)? ii. What are the most significant new words added to the lexicon of Philippine English? a. Which of these winning words are new entries or old entries with new meanings in the Oxford American English Dictionary (2nd ed. What word-formation processes resulted in the creation of these new words? a. What are the most popular features of these new words? ii. What are the similarities and differences among the new words? 2. Which of these word-formation processes produced the most number of new entries? i. Which word-formation processes created the most number of new meanings? Introduction and Review of Related Literature .Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 36 Research Questions 1. What are the features of these new words added to the lexicon of standard Philippine English? i. 2006) and/or the MSN Encarta World English Dictionary (2009)? b. Which of these winning words are new entries or old entries with new meanings in the latest edition of the Anvil–Macquarie Dictionary of Philippine English for High School (2000)? iii.
the introduction of new steps? 3. How did the application of the most productive word-formation processes change through time? i.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 37 b. premises. What political stance does the Filipino take in these representations? b. in the ways affixes were used or words were clipped? ii. classification. What cultural character is empowered by these representations? ii. What national values do the new words and word-formation processes edify? i. behind. Introduction and Review of Related Literature . codifying also the lexicon of Philippine English. for example. What are the most remarkable stylistic innovations. How is the Filipino reconstituted in the canon of World English by these words and word-formation processes? a. and definition of newly added words in the Filipino lexicon with the view of expanding and. and frameworks. What historical identity is taken by these representations? ii. What are the most remarkable technical changes. and around this study’s identification. it is my hope as researcher that we will be able to see more and understand better the meanings in. for example. What individual values do these words and word-formation processes edify? i. What historical path is carved by these representations? Given the foregoing investigative prompts. consequently.
discourse.And the Words Become: Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Methodology Words are studied in many different ways. from retrieval and documentation—such as archiving obsolete words to organizing the words of a living and continually evolving language to collecting words and how they are used in speech and writing to form a corpora—to analyzing a words at various levels to extract implications to language. lexical. zooming in on particular aspects of words and how these aspects relate both to the words to other aspects. learning. methods. semantic. from the most physical and technology-based to the most analytical and theoryoriented: that is. and culture. on the orthographical. each method approaching words from a specific standpoint or perspective or subject position. . and levels depending on their goal. and exploring words against or in relation to each other up to a certain depth or breadth and linguistic level—that is. A study may take on one or a combination of foci. phonological. and/or morphological levels.
In many cases new formations are created by hybridization. It shows that English in the Philippines and Singapore. Furthermore. but we encounter variety-specific nonhybrid formations. dictionary making. On a qualitative level. it will be helpful if we acquire at least a cursory view of what kinds of studies have been done in the area—which takes us from words.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 39 Quick Look at Related Studies For us to see the implications as well as limitations of the present study. and it analyses frequencies obtained by carefully devised test methods. researches herein presented in no particular order as to their approaches to studying words and their implications to the growing lexicons in Filipino and Philippine English. my study argues that the current lexical trends indicate independent developments in New Englishes. used as a kind of measuring stick. which attests to the process of structural nativization. Methodology . it documents the varieties’ enormous productive potential. In the second part the findings drawn from eight sub-corpora of the International Corpus of English (ICE) are presented and analyzed. This study deals with selected word-formation categories. Word Formation in the New Englishes. Vital to the present study in many ways is Thomas Biemeier’s “Word formation in New Englishes—A corpus-based analysis” (2008) for updating the field with “the first systematic investigation of word formation in the new varieties of English around the globe”. providing not only methods and measure s but also results that give solid foundation for comparison and verification of present findings. hence. The first part deals with theoretical questions and provides useful methodology. to lexical databases—and find out what opportunities and insights are offered by these different. and the text types are important parameters for an indepth analysis of individual word-formation categories. such as compounding and affixation. yet related. often exceed British English. the number of new coinages. the wide range of variants to mark gender is presented. word formation processes. Finally. too. The extent of use of the words examined. in terms of type and token frequencies. for instance.
Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 40 This study. works. or register—an example would be the classic correlation between borrowing and code-switching. standardization. from there. usually an exploration of or exposition on a sociolinguistic issue or phenomenon —for instance.” is best read along with Biermeier’s “Word formation in New Englishes: Properties and trends” (2009) in Lucia Siebers and Thomas Hoffmann‘s World Englishes: Problems—Properties—Prospects as well as with “Lexical trends in Philippine English” in Ma Lourdes S Bautista’s Studies of Philippine English (2011). “of key interest to lexicologists and dialectologists. word formation only as emerging part or characteristic feature of a larger design. either dealing with 1. only one type of word-formation process as it applies. or manifests often in relation to or contrast with some other feature of a language. 2. Biemeier’s studies. perhaps. in touching on most—if not all—of our current areas of concern becomes both seminal and exemplar given the gamut of studies done on word-formation processes are often only tangentially related to our present study. this study provides a comprehensive examination of word-formation in New Englishes from a qualitative and quantitative perspective. dialect. gay speak and Tagalog slang or the variances and registers of Filipino—in relation to another linguistic feature. both features of Philippine English as well as the various studies on the characteristics of the existing and continually emerging variants and registers of Filipino in its process of intellectualization and. such as many of Ma Lourdes S Bautista’s studies in Philippine English as well as in Paul S Henson and Kathrine G Methodology .
Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper
Tan’s Humanities thesis “Movie magazine speak: A sociolinguistic study of slang words, borrowing, and code-switching” (1998); or,
This is a study on three sociolinguistic concerns, namely slang words, borrowing, and code-switching. In studying these, the domain of movie magazines was used as source of samples and as subject of analysis. In the analysis of slang, this study paid particular interest on the derivation processes of slang words and their denotations or semantic fields. Zorc and San Miguel's (1993) theories on the derivation processes of slang words were applied in the analysis. In addition, the slang corpus of this study was compared with the comprehensive database of slang words of Zorc and San Miguel in order to gain insights on the changes, transformation, and evolution of slang. The output for slang included a compilation of the slang words in this study's corpus which followed a dictionary format, as well as frequencies on the derivation processes, denotations and words particular to this study and those already included in Zorc and San Miguel's database. In the analysis of borrowing and code-switching, this study paid particular interest on their functions. Bautista's (1997) functions of borrowing and Gumperz's (1976, 1982) functions of code-switching were used as anchors for analysis. Significant outputs in this section were the new functions of borrowing and code-switching which were devised by the researchers after discovering a great number of samples whose functions could not be fitted under the prescribed framework. Due to the extensive list of micro-functions arrived at by the researchers, general functions were devised to configure the data to an efficient level. (Excerpt from Abstract)
3. a specific linguistic enterprise at work or as applied to a language that word formation becomes more of an accidental sidelight instead of a defining feature—examples of these are the lexico-cultural or psycholinguistic studies on the lexicons of specific cultural/ethnographic groups, sometimes narrowed down further to a particular domain, and the various studies under the nascent field of Filipinology that aim to explore and define concepts in Filipino psychology and/or culture.
Filipino Concepts and Meaning Making. In this regard, Susan Cipres–Ortega’s “Ang larangang leksikal: Kalakaran at paraan” (200 3) is important not only for scrutinizing 64 studies that exhaustively problematize a concept, from such diverse vantage points as psycholinguistics, humanities, social psychology, and even psychopathology, to find out trends and practices in Philippine concept making; but also for proposing two alternative ways to better do a lexical
study of concepts—namely, by combined Q-sort technique and K–J method or by mutltidimensional scaling technique—from a Filipino perspective. The studies were on concepts characterized either as (a) “malapit sa karanasan ng mga Pilipino o katutubo” or (2) “umiiral, palasak, o `in’ noong panahong ginawa ang mga pag -aaral” (p 104).
Concept alembong pambobola malambing sikat buang
Proponent Cabanero, del Corro, & Ungson Cayetano Arranz & Caro Diaz & Ramilo Cariaso, Polotan, & Segura
Tobia Alampay & Sison
burgis brad, pare, at iba pa
hiya matipid pangangatiyaw basag-ulo lamangan pakipot loob pagjujuramentado paninilip torpe pakialamera hambog mataray inutil hiya basag-ulo
Canseco, Dizon, & Tiglao Jacinto Angeles, Montano, & Pagtanac Espiritu & Ann Alas, Mojica, & Sotelo Jovellanos Zerrudo Masalunga Dabid Sumayo Ligeralde Meneses Pastor Eleosida Salazar Espiritu & Ann Popular, In, or Prevalent During the Period
Altobar & Cacnio Licad Lim & Quilang Sanchez & Vitug Felipe Silao
superstar marijuana bomba baduy labis na kamunduhan sadista
Closer to Filipino Experience & Native to Culture
Table 2.1. Studies on Filipino Concepts, by Category and Year, 1972–1981
What is interesting about these concepts, particularly that those words which had been popular during the time, is that they reverberate gleanings of what would be Sawikaan’s Word of the Year selections that are, in fact, mini-studies of particular concepts but this time extended to the level of being important not just in timeliness but in their relevance to and capacity to embody Filipino culture and values—and, of course, to the task of lexicography, which brings us to the next point. 4. Or, to a larger more ambitious but rarer extent, the recovery or codification of a language, such as in the various efforts to compile, create, and standardize its vocabulary, grammar, and usage through the making of a dictionary. While the UP Diksiyunaryo ng Filipino is the Philippine benchmark for this effort, a study that shows the general characteristics of studies related to words is Ruthmita H Rozul’s “Developing a monolingual dictionary of obsolescent Tagalog words in Tagaytay City, Amadeo, and Indang, Cavite” (2004).
The study attempts to collect in a dictionary form obsolescent Tagalog words in these three areas of study. The research is pioneering in the field of lexicography on the obsolescence of Upland Cavite Tagalog. The work is called a “monolingual” dictionary. The word “monolingual” typically uses the same speech variety for the headword as it does for the explanatory text. However, this dictionary in fact cites Obsolescent Cavite Tagalog headwords, and uses Modern Cavite Tagalog to explain them. As such, this work falls in the middle ground between a truly monolingual dictionary and a fully bilingual/multilingual dictionary in which the headwords and the explanatory text are typically distinct languages. Specifically, the study aims to 1) apply a theory on language death in the development of a monolingual dictionary of obsolescent Tagalog words; 2) identify the problems and apply solutions in the process of developing a monolingual dictionary; and 3) validate the dictionary and make revisions based on the results of the validation. The researcher then analyzed the remaining entries based on Zorc and San Miguel: 1) the headword in Obsolete Tagalog; 2) the pronunciation, which the members suggested Tagalog (OCT) words. The researcher found obsolescent Cavite Tagalog uses phonemic transcription; 3) the parts of speech; 4) the levels of words; 5) the scientific name of the entry; 6) the definition of the word expressed in Modern Cavite Tagalog, and where possible, a synonym of the MCT; 7) background information on the origin or derivation of the word; 8) a sentence example giving the form in an appropriate Tagalog context; 9) a picture or a drawing of the obsolescent word. After the lexical entries were analyzed, and pictures and drawings were included, the collection, in the form of a dictionary, was presented to the members of the younger generation for feedback. Words not obsolescent were Methodology
and Judith Knapp’s “Word formation in an Electronic Learners’ Dictionary: ELDIT” (2006) is pioneering. and for the creation of a tighter network structure in the mental lexicon. as Kingsley Bolton and Susan Butler (2008) laments that there is “no comprehensive dictionary of Philippine English has been compiled” the effort I think should be towards that of the monolingual dictionary. The implementation of word formation is based on collaboration with Word Manager. For this task. In second language acquisition. takes up the challenge of representing word formation in such a way that its potential for the second language learner can be fully exploited. Essential to the task of codifying and standardizing languages is the making of dictionaries that reflect not only the dynamism of the language by featuring new words and concepts but also the expected and real needs of learners who will benefit most from using the dictionary. an electronic German and Italian learners' dictionary of a non-traditional type. Andrea Abel. which facilitates vocabulary acquisition. New Words and Making A Learner’s Dictionary. Word formation is one of the major mechanisms for the expansion of the vocabulary. ELDIT. This is a novel aspect of the research. a system for morphological dictionaries. (Abstract) Since. word formation is important for the decoding of words the learner does not know. which defines words using the language of the Methodology .Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 44 dropped from the list. (Excerpt from Abstract) In both cases—numbers 3 and 4—the process of word formation has been subsumed in the culture’s meaning making and in the lexicographic requirements of the genre—of particular interest to us now in the field of lexicography is the formation of a monolingual dictionary in the light of a bilingual educational system that calls for a unifying vocabulary to bridge the yawning gap in comprehension and proficiency. New words are formed when new concepts need to be named. In existing learners' dictionaries. Optimizing the support of the acquisition of word formation in electronic learners' dictionaries requires a reconceptualization of the task of the dictionary. the treatment of word formation does not support the acquisition of word formation rules in a way that would exploit these possible advantages. Local literature has not shown any study with members of the younger generation validating the obsolescence of words of the older generation. for the production of regular new words when the learner has not acquired the standard word. Pius ten Hacken.
“Considered and regarded: Indicators of belief and doubt in dictionary definitions. Joseph. (2007). Lew. Translation and Meaning. Establishing criteria for dictionary criticism: A checklist for reviewers of monolingual English Learners’ Dictionaries . “A new type of folk-inspired definition in English monolingual learners' dictionaries and its usefulness for conveying syntactic information. University of Exeter. A handbook of lexicography. Unpublished MA thesis. Other essential guides that would shed light to the creation and improvement of the craft of dictionary making—with particular attention to the nuances inherent in definitions—are the following resources. Filipino words defined using Filipino is the best for the purpose of a language of and in convergence. Proceedings of the Łodz Session of the International Duo Colloquium on “Translation and Meaning. Exeter.). Maastricht: Rijkshogeschool Maatricht [46 papers by 46 authors.” International Journal of Lexicography 19: 225–242. Part 2 (1992). Robert. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press.).Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 45 words. Picket. (2006). Kyohei. on top of this monolingual dictionary would be even better in its inclusion of helpful information for the users of the language since Filipino—along with all the languages it borrows or derives from—is in all likelihood of being new is also evolving and wanting in some form of manual of style and usage for its users.” Łodz 1990. Canberra: Australian National University Humanities Research Centre [13 papers by 16 authors]. Canberra 1995]. however. Iain (Ed. National biographies and national identity. The theory and practice of dictionary-making. A learner’s dictionary. (1996). a vital consideration not only in word-formation and dictionary making is the concept of mental lexicon. Before moving on. Nakamoto. 48–67. Hence. (1994). (2009). A critical approach to theory and editorial practice [Conference.” Dictionaries— Journal of the Dictionary Society of North America. Bo. In B Lewandowska–Tomaszyk & M Telen (Eds. 5 on lexicographic topics]. the consciousness from which everything we have Methodology . Svensén. & Anna Dziemianko. McCalman.
and application of a culture’s corpus of most useful and important lexicon. learning. Each stage is made up of two substages (and subquestions) each with three subsubstages (or subsubquestions) that the researcher may address at a minimum of one substage and subquestion at a time to a maximum of all sub. Words in the Mind. Oxford: B. An Introduction to the Mental Lexicon.1. comprehension. quantitative and qualitative criteria. and analyzable results that make each phase of a phase a mini study framed again within a minimum–maximum target. Methodology .to subsubstages and their corresponding questions before proceeding to the next stage.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 46 discussed end up in and are retrieved from. and. Table 2. Project Design and Procedure The study follows a three-stage process that corresponds to the three main research questions posed in the Introduction. 3. Jean. hence. (1987/2003). Blackwell. Aitchison. Data Gathering 1. Interpretation of Results 3. Stage 1. Each substage has a separate set of goals. 3rd ed. Data Analysis 2. the key to retention. Stages in the Methodology These stages have been designed with a minimum–maximum option for researchers such that progress may be achieved in increments. Main Research Question What are the most significant new words added to the lexicon of Philippine English? What word-formation processes resulted in the creation of these new words? How is the Filipino reconstituted in the canon of World English by these words and word-formation processes? Reference 2.
1—What are the winning words in Sawikaan’s five-year Salita ng Taon search? Subsubstage Criteria 2 I.3—Which of these winning words are new entries Methodology Result Criteria 3 number of significant new standard Flipino words added to lexicon Values /16 Preliminary Conclusions I—What are the most significant new words added to the Filipino lexicon? number of significant new standard Flipino words already in standard Philippine high school English lexicon number of significant new standard Flipino words .1—Which of these winning words are new entries or old entries with new meanings in the latest edition of the UP Diksiyunaryo ng Filipino (2010)? I. the landmark first monolingual dictionary in Filipino—and at the maximum identify too the most prevalent features of these new words.1. (2010).1. entered in the expanded UP Diksiyonaryong Filipino.2—Which of these winning words are new entries or old entries with new meanings in the latest edition of the Anvil– Macquarie Dictionary of Philippine English for High School (2000)? I.1. 2nd ed. Word Search Stage—RQ Substage Criteria 1 I.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 47 Data Gathering The Data Gathering stage seeks at the minimum to identify the most significant new words added to the Filipino lexicon—that is.
Leuterio Nicolas.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 48 or old entries with new meanings in the Oxford American English Dictionary (2nd ed. political. Vim Nadera. how widely used. . 2010) It would be worthwhile to compare this qualifier with that of the Webster’s New College Dictionary which Mike Agnes. 2006. explains: . and other aspects of Filipino life during the year. The study made us of the year’s top three words—a total of 16 words—chosen by the Filipinas Institute of Translation’s Sawikaan annual word search selection committee for the years 2004. FIT describes these words—which need not be new but whose meaning has acquired a new dimension and renewed relevance over time—as the most significant old or new words [which have] impacted on the sociocultural. Jr. is marked by—among other things—how often. economic. FIT is composed of Romulo P Baquiran. therefore. P T Martin. Roberto Añonuevo. Stage 1—Data Gathering Significant New Words in Filipino. The word of the year is a significant addition to Filipino vocabulary and a welcome dictionary entry. These could be borrowed from a foreign or a local language. . 2007.thefreelibrary. editor in chief. (Nadera. or an old one that has acquired a new meaning. (www. social. 2006)? already in standard American/ World English lexicon Table 2. and 2010. and whether they show themselves as well established over time. and how widely useful a word is: things which have been shown and proven in Methodology . 2005.2. Galileo S Zafra. [N]ew words and meanings find their way into the dictionary based primarily on their frequency and breadth of use. Mario I Miclat. and Michael Coroza. with National Artist for Literature Virgilio S Almario as adviser. That last part is the key.com) The significance of a word.
English. to highlight points—from Isagani R Cruz’s “Split-Level Americanization: A Case Study of McDonaldized Philippines” (2006). In reality. The next stage. that “Filipino has arrived”. however. the presidential order. or a lingua franca. Cruz of DLSU who states that for him Filipino is the English–Tagalog code switch. that Philippine En glish is moving towards a convergence. (http://criticplaywright. and vernacular languages of various regions. defines the official language Filipino as whatever language is spoken in the urban centers. The few academic sources on Filipino.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 49 the proposals or competition spiels that Sawikaan word proponents presented to the FTI panel and which is the content of the Sawikaan series published by the University of the Philippines Press." Flores(1996) points out that Filipino is the language of the "kulturang popular na nagmula sa Metro Manila at pinapalaganap sa buong kapuluan. and Metro Davao (in the South). featuring a still-unsystematized mixture of Tagalog." Another view is that of Isagani R. 1. second. there is only one language of instruction in practically all classrooms in the country. It is Taglish.blogspot. such as the Filipino dictionary (UP Diksiyonaryong Filipino. 2001) prepared by the University of the Philippines (the first of only four Philippine universities listed in the latest world university rankings).html) Methodology . strengthen the impression that Filipino is really Taglish. needs to be presaged properly for further grounding with two reassertions—first. despite the Constitution. and the Department orders.com/2006/12/split-level-americanization-case-study. a non-language that is variously labeled as code-switching. is a passage—the paragraph divisions are mine. pidgin. which is also an assertion as well as a characterization of the language. Let us look at this arrival of Filipino as a language-in-progress but already very real and in use from the following clips that underscore my observations from Jessie Grace U Rubrico’s “Towards a Theory of Filipino” (2004). where the first reassertion was made. however. Definition of Filipino Atienza (1996) describes it as "isang wikang kompromiso. o lingua franca. the Commission on Philippine Languages. The government’s own language body. and. especially Metro Manila (in the North). To further clarify the last definition. Metro Cebu (in the middle of the archipelago).
. Trends in the Evolution of Filipino a. It is the language through which a prominent Filipino linguist communicates (Exhibit D). showbiz personalities —it would appear that his theory is closest to reality. Waray. Kapampangan. and so on. Filipino writers and some academicians. however.Bikol. more often than not. But considering the rapid linguistic development of both Cebuano and the Metro Manila Filipino. through intellectual discussions among academicians. like Tagalog. as well as the medium of expression among academicians (Exhibit A). (2) has a different system of ortography. Gradual Convergence with Philippine Languages Even the leading Cebuano weekly. Constantino cites the differences between Pilipino and Filipino. retain their original spelling despite their being subjected to the Cebuano rules of grammar. the writers and editors in the Sentro ng Wikang Filipino(Exhibit B). And this is manifested in the perceived convergence of Pilipino and Cebuano through their respective borrowings from English.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 50 2. 3. there seems to be hope for Filipino. etc. . there isn't much borrowing from other Philippine languages. not only for Pilipino and Cebuano but likewise for other Philippine languages like Hiligaynon. through the songs that the local bands sing. Right now the Cebuanos adopt two alternate forms —the original spelling and the modified. . namely. One is confident that the converging process will continue. (3) manifests a heavy borrowing from English. by theory of simplification as embodied in the universals of language. to wit: Filipino (1) has more phonemes. Based on the trend of development of Filipino as manifested in the data presented in this study. One can safely say that Cebuano. Characteristics of Filipino Is the Tagalog-based Pilipino really Filipino? Dr. A few examples are given below: English Terms abroad advertisement announcer category effect Pilipino Form abroad adbertisment anawnser kategorya epekto Cebuano Form abroad adbertisment anawonser kategorya epekto Filipino (convergence) abroad adbertisment anawnser kategorya epekto Methodology . is undergoing linguistic change through lexical borrowing from English. among the academicians above that Filipino is the lingua franca in Metro Manila which is inexorably pervading the regional centers through the print and broadcast media. Soon only one form will be retained. Language change is. Ilokano. Spread and Use of Filipino There is a consensus. Bisaya (which has been around for the past 68 years) has now printed in its pages loan words from English which. (4) has a different grammatical construction. Unfortunately. What is apparent for now is that the convergence is already taking place. and of the "caretakers" or "authority" of national language development in the University of the Philippines System. 4. gradual and it will probably take several years before a substantive convergence can occur. however. as well as the actual usage by the linguistic trendsetters in Philippine society— newscasters (both in radio and television).
Meanwhile. What does one make out of this assertion? Are we now to believe that the process of borrowing from other Philippine and foreign languages is now a linguistic reality? Judging from the data gathered and presented here. More so because the urbanized Filipino is constantly exposed to the trappings —high technology.com/2004/01/metamorphosis-of-filipino-asnational. Perhaps one indication why there is a lot of borrowing from English compared to other Philippine languages is the facility and appropriateness or applicability of English terms to modern day-to-day living of the average urban Filipino. perhaps this is only partially true. Almario (1997. That is. Word Descriptions Stage—RQ Substage Criteria 1 I. borrowing is almost exclusively from the English language. p. the national language. and technology the trend will continue." "megabytes. (http://coconuter.1—What are the most popular Philippine English Result Criteria 3 number and frequency of most popular features of Philippine Values /N Preliminary Conclusions ."laum" at "magayon" ng Bikol at kahit sa "buntian" ng Butanon at "suyad" ng Manobo." "odd-even. But will this trend continue? Language is dynamic. As for Filipinos living in rural communities. given the limited scope of this study." "shabu. and education. it is very clear that English borrowing has a dominant and pervading influence in the shaping of the lingua franca which is the penultimate form of Filipino. The first part of seeks at the minimum to identify the most popular—or oft occuring— features of the new words added to the Filipino lexicon and at the maximum identify too the most prevalent features of these new words. And why is this so? It is difficult to give a substantive answer to this particular question. media. science. Samantalay hindi ito hadlang sa madaliang pagpasok ng "shawarma" "shashimi.2—What are the features of these new words added to the lexicon of Methodology Subsubstage Criteria 2 I." "perestroika. sa "santing" ng Kapampangan. etc.2.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 51 b. the far-reaching radio and television broadcasts bring to them the linguistic trend emanating from the urban centers. commerce." "glasnost.html) Data Analysis The Data Analysis is a two-part stage that looks into the features of and word-formation processes that created the new words added to the Filipino lexicon. Heavy Reliance on English At the moment.—of modern society which adopts English as its medium of communication.blogspot. This researcher is of the opinion that as long as English remains the official language of commerce.9) gives an update on Filipino: Nasa kalooban ngayon ng Filipino ang paglinang sa "sanyata" at "ranggay" ng Iloko sa "uswag" at "bihud" ng Bisaya." at iba ang idadagsa ng satelayt at FAX sa globalisasyon.
(2006) for being the most complete and up-to-date lexicon of American English—vis-à-vis the most recent The Oxford Dictionary of English (ODE.2—What are the similarities and differences among the new words? English in the new words frequency ranking and deviation of similarities and differences in how the features of Philippine English are exhibited by the new words Table 2. 1. These new entries are usually standard English words— unless. The 16 significant new words in Filipino—which are all in UP’s monumental monolingual Filipino dictionary—will be further qualified by cross-checking against two other lexical benchmarks: Anvil–Macquarie Dictionary of Philippine English for High School (2000) for pioneering the lexicalization of Philippine English and The New Oxford American Dictionary 2nd ed. for instance—and the standard nowadays has expanded to include the various incarnations of World English as they are most widely used by the peoples of English-speaking nations. It will be interesting to know at this point how the ODE (FAQs 2010) decides on which words to enter and which to leave out.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 52 [standard Philippine English]? features (Gonzalez. Stage 2—Data Analysis (Word Descriptions) Standard English Words. as an additional resource. labeled as colloquial or slang. otherwise. 1996) of these new words? I. the online MSN Encarta World English Dictionary (2009).3a.2. 2010)— and. Significant and Will Stand the Test of Time Methodology .
(2010) Crosschecking the inclusion of these significant new Filipino words in these dictionaries of World English will be hitting two birds with one stone: first. or hobbit. quark. spoof. and people expect to find these new 'high-profile' words in their dictionaries. Recorded in a Print or Online Source In previous centuries there were dictionaries in which writers listed words which they thought might be useful. These are: Methodology . The words will then be compared as to their inclusion in none or all of the lexicons mentioned—those that pass this stage will go to the next substage and be analyzed for features of Philippine English words. This presents an additional challenge to lexicographers trying to assess whether a term is ephemeral or whether it will become a permanent feature of the language. Examples of this type of invented word include wiki. Philippine English. In today's digital age. even if they did not have any evidence that anyone had ever actually used them. 2. the situation has changed. in confirming the words’ status as a standard Philippine English word. in qualifying the words’ “frequency and breadth of use and being well established over time” as a Filipino word accepted in the standard English lexicon. and. 3. New terms have to be recorded in a print or online source before they can be considered: it's not enough just to hear them in conversation or on television. This is not the case today. although we do analyse material from Internet message boards and TV scripts. For every new dictionary or online update we assess all the most recent terms that have emerged and select those which we judge to be the most significant or important and those which we think are likely to stand the test of time.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 53 [W]hen we have evidence of a new term being used in a variety of different sources (not just by one writer) it becomes a candidate for inclusion in one of our dictionaries. second. There are two vital resources to which the present study point back to and take off from as they inform the methodology with vital parameters. Inventions that Name Something New [S]ome invented words do catch on and become an established part of English. New terms can achieve enormous currency with a wide audience in a much shorter space of time. either because they fill a gap or because they are describing something new. More than 3-Year Usage or New High-Use Terms of Enormous Currency It used to be the case that a new term had to be used over a period of two or three years before we could consider adding it to a print dictionary. 4.
—Proponent] 2.” is described by Bautista as follows: Philippine English is not English that falls short of the norms of Standard American English. . which has been commended by D V S Manarpaac (2008) as a “successful process of language appropriation. can be called Standard Philippine English. Methodology . . . its distinctive features are not errors committed by users who have not mastered the American standard. . Interestingly. Philippine English has an informal variety. it is not badly learned English as a second language. this divide will tend to be blurred as we shall see in later in the Results. Kingsley Bolton and Susan Butler’s “Lexicography and the Description of Phili ppine English Vocabulary” (2008). through time. Instead. has metamorphosed in stratification both “temporally and socially” (p 178)—reflecting a divide that bespeaks of particular periods in history and of particular ethno-cultural groups that have been active participants or movers during those periods. (p 21) [Paragraphing mine. especially in the spoken mode. when used by educated speakers and found acceptable in educated Filipino circles.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 54 1. and because of a restructuring of some grammar rules (manifested in the grammar) . and it has a formal variety which.] but occasionally in grammar). it is a nativized variety of English that has features which differentiate it from Standard American English because of the influence of the first language (specifically in pronunciation [. . for macadamizing the road paved by Llamzon. Philippine English. which may include a lot of borrowing and code-mixing. and others to codify the language that has been evolving with and from the national-language-to-be that is Filipino. because of the different culture—in which the language is embedded (expressed in lexicon and in discourse conventions). but also for describing the lexico-historical innovations in the language that. not only for identifying the need to codify the Philippine English lexicon and the organic role of the dictionary in this task of codification as the legitimizing tool for world Englishes. Gonzalez. Ma Lourdes S Bautista’s Defining Standards of Philippine English: Its Status and Grammatical Features (2000).
Borrowing of words from local languages (e. and barrio life). pili. Sp abaca. 7 Bicol. barrio road. 2. (p 177–178. Borrowing from other Englishes (e. the groundwork from which succeeding wordformation processes will be set against—as Bolton and Butler (2008) averred true for all colonized nations: 1. barrio folk. in Philippine English: Linguistic and Literary Perspectives) These intercultural processes via language contact necessitated what we now know as the Glossary such as the “List of Spanish and Philippine Terms” that Thomasite William B Freer included among the back matter of his important cultural artifact. The Philippine Experiences of an American Teacher (1906). Methodology . 3. Tag anting-anting. solon). and tuba.. and fiesta). and 1 Igorot—107 or 57. barrio elder. Bolton and Butler (2008) discovered that of the 187 “early borrowed” words on the list—153 were from Spanish.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 55 Beginnings of Philippine English. Formation of new words and new compounds in English (e. barrio.. 2 Gaddang.. anito.g. 19 from Tagalog.g. Word Formation The second part of the Data Analysis seeks at the minimum to identify the most productive—hence. The creation of a new vocabulary for a nation in interaction with and under the control of a foreign power has resulted in the creation of new words through four basic processes—thence. 4. and Adaptation of the lexicon brought from the British and American homeland. when the two searched the Macquarie database of Asian Englishes called Asiacorp.g. 4 Moro.2% are still in everyday usage or found as “relic items” in literary works as of 2001. also popular and most oft used—word formation process that created the most number of new words added to the Filipino lexicon and at the maximum identify too the trend in changes that these processes exhibit in creating and/or innovating words through time.
2.2. namely: Methodology . in the ways affixes were used or words were clipped? II.3b.2— What are the most remarkable stylistic innovations.1—What are the most remarkable technical changes.1—Which word-formation processes created the most number of new words? Result Criteria 3 Values Preliminary Conclusions II—What word-formation processes resulted in the creation of these new words? II.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 56 Word Creation Stage—RQ Substage Criteria 1 II. the introduction of new steps? Table 2.1. It will be interesting to compare the characteristics of early Philippine English with the four characteristics that Bautista came up with after comparing Philippine data with Australian data from the Asian English Corpus of the Macquarie Dictionary. for example.2—Which word-formation processes created the most number of new meanings? II.1.1—Which of these wordformation processes produced the most number of new entries? Subsubstage Criteria 2 II.2—How did the application of the most productive wordformation processes change through time? II. for example. Stage 2—Data Analysis (Word Formation) Characteristics and Features of Philippine English.
4. Ambiguous expressions..g. 5. Preservation of archaic or receding elements of genetically native Englishes. namely: 1. and viand). Normal expansion.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 57 1. and Borrowings. (academia. Methodology . Preservation of items which have been lost or become infrequent in other varieties. Normal expansions. Substitutions or paraphrases. don.com—to describe the vocabulary and idioms of Philippine English.g. and joke only). captain ball. carnap..g. cope up. 7.edu) The nature and characteristics of the vocabulary and lexicon of Philippine English will no longer be surprising now after having seen that at the most informal level Filipinos create words through—and in this order of preference and frequency—Coinage. and Insertion of redundant particles. boondocks and carabao). Borrowing. Loan words from Spanish (e. Borrowings. Analogical constructions. as alto. 3.. 3. 4. estafa. (academia. in Bautista pp 89–90) In recognition of the field’s expanding horizon—and as follows the growing popularity of corpus linguistics. 3. Loan translations from local usages (e. Coinages. doña. open the light). and Local neologisms (e. Reduction.. 4. (1992.g.edu) and with the characteristics identified by Gonzalez—and which Tom McArthur repeats in the Oxford Companion to the English Language in Encyclopedia. English compounds. the Philippine component of which is still continuously being populated —and the language’s dynamic nature Ariane Macalinga Borlongan (2007) brings us further forward by showing seven characteristic innovations that mark standard Philippine English based on her analysis of 150 printed texts from the Philippine component of the International Corpus of English (ICE–PH): 1. 6. 8. jeepney. Loan words from Tagalog (e. 2. holdupper. 2. 2.
even barometer. then systematically and formally separated and delineated as national languages in conflict yet coexisting and familiar though alien and also stratified. and tainted with English for the most part and by other languages. the roots of Filipino identity dynamically changing with history (and colonial masters) and with time (and technological developments) and the manifestation of the hegemonic power at work. too. that seeks to unravel the Filipino—as people and Nation—in the new words added to the Filipino lexicon. of inventions and innovations introduced into the present speaking vocabulary coming from. More than this is the prevalence. back to convergence now in the interesting phenomena characterizing the twinning of Filipino– Philippine English in what is a clear mirror. say ubiquity. influenced by. This early we already see recurrent patterns and trends in the common processes shared by both Filipino word formation and Philippine English characteristic features—leading us to see. higher level type of analysis of results.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 58 Acronym. Interpretation of Results The Interpretation of Results is an optional. At the minimum. What we see then as linguistic movements—or changes—in the convergence of two languages in contact at first. and Blending. and. at the maximum identify too the national identity and values as well as Methodology . Interpretation of Results seeks to identify the individual identity and values as well as their implications to a people’s culture and political stance as negotiated by these new words. Mixing. of Philippine historico-cultural character—and future—not simply as individual but as Nation.
Stage 3—Interpretation of Results Methodology .2.2—What national values do the new words and wordformation processes edify? III.1.1—What cultural character is empowered by these representations? Result Criteria 3 Values Preliminary Conclusions III—How is the Filipino reconstituted in the canon of World English by these words and wordformation processes? III.4.2.2—What political stand does the Filipino take in these representations? III.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 59 their implications to a nation’s historical image and future as negotiated by these very same words that just entered the Filipino lexicon.2—What historical path is carved by these representations? Table 2.1—What individual values do these words and wordformation processes edify? Subsubstage Criteria 2 III.1.1—What historical identity is taken by these representations? III. Identity Formation Stage—RQ Substage Criteria 1 III.
For something created words are not only above and beyond all of humanity’s other creations but also something that is so wondrous and sinister that those who used them at Babel were dispersed confused for brazenly flaunting the insidious power of words. therefore. For something that is not even physical—and. Words are powerful: A word is power.And the Words Become: Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Results and Conclusions Words are living entities as well as collective embodiments of culture and consciousness. We have seen it become the converging point not only of two languages but of two cultures—even more considering the long and rich history of English and the troubled and unsure infancy of Filipino—and. of two peoples—likewise maybe more than two considering the many peoples that may have infused a word with their identity in the word’s evolution and transformations. so fragile and small and inconsequential and fleeting—a word means much and can contain more than anyone can ever imagine holding in the biggest hands. especially when alone. Results and Discussions .
let us look closer at some of the newest words to become incorporated in the Filipino lexicon—and. What were the characteristic innovations or changes in the way these Philippine word-formation processes created or changed words through time? 5. are also Standard English words? 2. enriching the vocabulary of Philippine English—and find out: 1. and 5 third runners up. Which of these new words in the lexicon of Filipino–Philippine English have entered also the lexicon of World Englishes and. therefore. to 2010 to come up with a total of 16 winning words: 5 words of the year. Results and Conclusions . Which of the characteristic Philippine word-formation processes have been most productive in enriching the Filipino–Philippine English lexicon? 4. 5 second runners up.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 61 In this chapter. Which of the words’ common lexical features identify them coming from the Filipino–Philippine English vocabulary? 3. in the process. skipping 2008 and 2009 when no word was deemed to have made any significant impact on society. 1 first runner up. What individual and national identities of the Filipino are put forward by these new words–word formation processes in the global context? Results of Data Gathering The Sawikaan Corpus of 16 Words The five-year brainchild of the Filipinas Institute of Translation Sawikaan: Mga Salita ng Tao—a word search. and book—had consistently selected the most significant new words in Filipino from 2004. conference.
2004–2010 Notes and Observations. Before we go into a discussion of the words. a careful scrutiny of Sawikaan’s winning words and finalists in Table 3. A cursory scan of the table resulted in the following preliminary observations on. only two runners follow the Word of the Year. Rank 2004 Year W 1st 2nd 3rd canvass ukay-ukay tsika tsugi effect 2005 huweteng pasaway tibak / tback Tsunami 2006 lobat Botox toxic birdflu 2007 miskol roro friendster sutokil (sugba. tola.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 62 These 16 words form the corpus of our present on Filipino–Philippine English word formation. making a total of three winners only. among others. Sawikaan’s Top Three Words of the Year. number of finalists. The Word of the Year in 2004 is followed by three runners ups. Results and Conclusions . or kilaw) abrodista extrajudicial killings makeover oragon party-list safety telenobela videoke 2008/2009 2010 jejemon Ondoy korkor Ampatuan tapsilog kinse anyos jologs salbakuta dagdagbawas fashionista terorista / terorismo text otso-otso networking blog wiretapping e-vat call center Caregiver Coño Gandara cha-cha Karir mall meningo Orocan payreted Spa kudkod unli load tarpo solb emo namumutbol Spam Table 3. resulting in four winners. and inclusion of finalists from the regions: 1. however.1. ranking of winners. after all only the 16 top words will be discussed in detail. in the succeeding years.1 will help reveal initial trends and patterns that may shed light on parts or aspects of the results later or support findings by extrapolation from that data presented. This ranking became the standard lineup.
and verify these interpolations at some later time. tola. merits. It may safely be assumed that most of them are from the University of the Philippines community. predict trending values for the rest of the words based on these findings. There are a total of 61 new words—5 words of the year. in 2006 with kudkod from the Visayas.5 significant new words. The table may not reflect this.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 63 2. too. where the conference is usually held and where the core group of the FIT are based. The inclusion of a word from the regions only happened thrice. with isolated cases of presenters flying in from provinces to lobby their choices. and 45 finalists—in the search’s five years for an annual average of 12. and twice in 2007 with sutokil (sugba. 5 third runners up. Assumption: Sawikaan Word Constant. or kilaw) from the Visayas and with oragon from Bicol.5 winners and 9 finalists yearly. it would seem worthwhile too to extend the analysis and observations to the rest of the finalists for a more complete profile. or four times: in 2004 with salbakuta from Bicol. or 3. A proponent would discuss the etymology. 3. It may be interesting to see also the demographics of the 61 nominators and find connections perhaps these statistics and the word being nominated. After considering nomination–nominator correspondence. but limitations focus us on the 16 winners first then outline findings. 5 second runners up. but it is interesting to note. at this point that for a word to qualify a proponent must pass and then later present a position paper to be defended in the Sawikaan Conference. 1 first runner up. Results and Conclusions . as well as exemplified the extent and variety of usage and meanings of the word being nominated.
Sawikaan consultant–contributor to and actual checking of the 2010 U. serve as a determiner or constant in future research. the Sawikaan Conference is considered one of these consultant– contributors to enriching and expanding the Filipino lexicon. I am likewise theoretically assuming that the same holds true for the trends in the frequency of morphological/lexical as well as grammatical features of new lexical items—falling safely within the expected range or on predictable grounds—and could. would not result in a a big difference given the homogenizing characteristics that we have gleaned from the nature of Filipino–Philippine English languages and word-formation processes. These 21 new words may be categorized further into those coming from: Results and Conclusions . New Words from Sawikaan. Jr. Diksiyonaryong Filipino revealed the following: 1. New words that have been added to the U.P. Sawikaan as Source of New Words. 2. therefore. There are 24 new words added to the 2010 UP Filipino Diksiyonaryo which came from the Sawikaan corpus.P.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 64 The resulting trending values. Hence. Filipino corpus—such as botsa from mass media and arowana from zoology and literature—have been contributed by consultants from various fields of knowledge. Interestingly. New Words Added to the Filipino Lexicon Results gathered from email (dated 24 December 2010) with Romulo Baquiran. I assume.
9 (i. Of the 12 words left out.e. ukay-ukay. and toxic) are already in the UP Diksiyunaryong Filipino corpus. orocan. be considered as nonwords most due probably to their being recent neologisms and.. blog. 4 (i. tarpaulin. jejemon. chacha. Of the 12 words left out. ii. korkor. meningococcemia. Note though the following morphological changes between the form entered and the form nominated: two have been included in the dictionary in their full. spa. chacha was entered without the hyphen in the nominated cha-cha. Sawikaan’s Top 16 Words. Of the 24 new words. miskol.. Old Entries. call center. tsunami. Sawikaan’s 45 Finalists. Results and Conclusions . karir. and. botox. dagdag-bawas.e. remain nonStandard Filipino waiting for their legitimization.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 65 a. tsika. and Ondoy) have not yet entered the Filipino lexicon. canvass. load. Of the 24 new words. tapsilog. caregiver. b. mall. thus. spelled out forms despite being nominated to the Sawikaan in their clipped forms. and wiretapping) came from the 45 finalists.e. pasaway. tibak/t-back. namely meningococcemia for meningo and tarpaulin for tarpo. 3 (i. solb. roro. lobat. friendster.. and tsugi) came from the 16 winning words. jolog. These may. jolog was entered in the uninflected for despite the nominated jologs. therefore. sutukil.e. The 12 words left out of the 16 winners may be further categorized as follows: i. Nonwords. networking. huweteng. 20 (i.. e-vat.
therefore. and videoke) have not yet entered the Filipino lexicon and are yet to be legitimized as Standard Filipino. abrodista.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 66 The rest of the 25 words left out on the list of finalists may be further categorized as follows: i. 13.5 (i. otso-otso. makeover. and text) are already in the UP Diksiyunaryong Filipino corpus. emo. t-back. gandara. however.e. terorista is not included yet its pair terorismo is. oragon. telenobela. 1. pirate is included but not payreted. Old Entries. namumutbol. ro-ro. extrajudicial killing. and toxic are listed as legitimate English words— Results and Conclusions . Ampatuan. and that several compounds with video are included but not videoke. ii. safety. Note.com). 11.. Which of these new words in the lexicon of Filipino–Philippine English have entered also the lexicon of World Englishes and. salbakuta. we see that only botox. canvass. party-list. effect. coño. unli. kinse anyos.e. terorista. Nonwords..5 (i. fashionista. Of the 28 words left out. these morphological observations in the entries versus the non-entries: party is included but not party-list. spam. Of the 28 words left out. birdflu. using the Sawikaan 16:45 word base but this time checking the 2010 online version of the Oxford English Dictionary of World English (http://oxforddictionaries. are also Standard English words? Filipino Words in the 2010 OED Online Again. terorismo. payreted.
Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 67 being entered with the Philippine meaning of the word.2 will show a summary of these two —minus the data on the finalists though—including their functions. however. Table 3. miscall No No Yes but. Sawikaan 16 botox (b2006) canvass (w2004) friendster (c2007) huweteng (w2005) jejemon (w2010) korkor (c2010) lobat (w2006) miskol (w2007) Ondoy (b2010) pasaway (b2005) roro (b2007) tibak/t-back (c2006) toxic (c2006) tsika (b2004) tsugi (c2004) ukay-ukay (a2004) UP Filipino (2010) No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Function OED Online (2010) Yes Yes No Function noun verb verb noun adjective / noun noun adjective verb / noun No No No No No but. Status of Sawikaan’s Top 16 as Filipino and English Words Results and Conclusions . or 5 words from the 16 winning words and 27 words from the 45 Sawikaan finalists. ro-ro No/Yes Yes No No No adjective noun adjective adjective / noun noun adjective / noun adjective noun / verb verb / adjective noun / adjective Table 3. is beside the point at this junction—turning out a ration of 5:27.2.
normal expansion Word Formation (Villanueva. normal expansion Borrowing. borrowing. acronym Borrowing toxic (c2006) adj. blending > multiple processes roro (b2007) tibak/t-back (c2006) n. adj. borrowing. normal expansion Borrowing.3. loan word from Br English Normal expansion. coinage.Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 68 From the table. let us move forward to analyze only the words highligted in purple or the words which appeared both in the Filipino and English lexicons. 1992) Normal expansion. normal expansion. normal expansion. local neologism. including two words appearing only in the Filipino lexicon but could have appeared in the English lexicon given the English source words that formed the Filipino compound. loan words from English Borrowing. borrowing. / n. local neologism. loan translation Normal expansion. blending > multiple processes miskol (w2007) v. Normal expansion. coinage. loan words from English Innovations in PH English (Borlongan. loan word from English Borrowing. borrowing. loan word from English Borrowing Table 3. English compound. English compound. coinage. Nature of Words in Both Filipino and English Lexicons Results and Conclusions . coinage. ambiguous expression Borrowing. 2007) Borrowing. ambiguous expression Borrowing. Normal expansion. ambiguous expression Borrowing. coinage. borrowing. normal expansion. adj. Normal expansion. Results of Data Analysis Characteristics and Features of New Words in the Lexicon Filipino–PH English Words Function Features of PH English (Baustista & Gonzalez. borrowing. / n. 2011) Borrowing canvass (w2004) lobat (w2006) v. Borrowing.
The innovations in Philippine English: a. English compounds (2/6). The characteristics of Philippine English: a. c. Borrowing (6/6).3 reveals the following recurrent characteristics that may define the nature of words that are both a part of the Filipino and English lexicons based on three markers. Which of the words’ common lexical features identify them coming from the Filipino– Philippine English vocabulary? 3. Blending (2/6).Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 69 2. and. The Filipino word-formation processes: a. b. Local neologism (2/6). Results and Conclusions . 3. Loan translation (1/6).. Borrowing (6/6). Ambiguous expression (2/6). Coinage (2/6). Which of the characteristic Philippine word-formation processes have been most productive in enriching the Filipino–Philippine English lexicon? Table 3. e. Coinage (3/6). d. 2. c. and f. Normal expansion (6/6). b. Loan word from English (5/6). namely: 1. b. c. Borrowing (6/6). and d. Normal expansion (6/6).
Source of New Words * Borrowing * Loan Words from English * Normal Expansion * Borrowing * Coinage * Local Neologism * Loan Translation 3. Multiple process (2/6).Sawikaan’s Mga Salita ng Taon—Filipino Word-Formation towards Expanding and Codifying the Lexicon of Philippine English Foundations of Language Studies—Final Paper 70 d. 5. By Feature and Frequency Results and Conclusions . too.4. of the standard English lexicon. Meaning Making Word Formation Process Innovations 4. Function 6 5 4 3 * Adjective * Noun * Verb 2 1 2. we will get the following general characteristics of new words in the lexicon which are both Filipino—being part of the standard Filipino vocabulary—and English—being part. and e. * Borrowing * Normal Expansion * Coinage * Blending * Multiple Processes * English compounds * Ambiguous Expressions * Acronym Table 3. Features of New English Words Both Filipino and English Lexicons. Feature and Their Frequency 1. Conclusion: General Features of Filipino–Philippin English Words If we were to list these items according to the most common features. Acronym (1/6).
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