When avid readers picked up 100000 copies of the novel “Oath of the Vayuputras”, each priced Rs 350, during the first week of its release in March 2013, the media celebrated the rise of a Literary Pop Star. The Shiva Trilogy written by Amish has captured their imagination and heralds a healthy appreciation of new sensibilities. Kochi Metro and the entire populace of Kerala look up to Er.E.Sreedharan to deliver their dreams. Forbes analyses the celebrity’s traits and style. T.Ravindran comes up with a well-timed Tutorial on Solar PV Installations. This subject should ideally be prescribed as a lesson for Class XI / XII for effective penetration to and acceptance by the people in the powerstarved homes of Kerala. And, it appears as though we have to turn to the Sun not only for Electricity but for wellness too! Essential vitamins provided by Sun promote good health. It is not uncommon that wild prophecies/claims accompany a new product; they often get forgotten by the appearance of an even better Technology; NFC is an interesting Technology. Gangadharan & Madhavamenon join regular contributors - Sasi, KNC, GHK and Suhair- with valuable and interesting stuff under a misleading captionTRIVIA. They are all priceless.


Received the March issue of Lineage and many thanks. The appearance and diversity of contents are impressive. Keep up the good work. Suhair Received the March issue of Lineage. Beautiful layout and useful contents. I read all the materials except 'Heart Beats', because it is quite long. I would read it later. Kollam unit conducts meeting regularly and the discussions are very interesting and beautiful. However, in communicating the minutes to Lineage, some lethargy prevents our colleagues and of course, myself. The Prayer I sent for Lineage was only garnered, and not made by me. Someone may think that I authored it. Regards,
G.H. Krishna Iyer

E Sreedharan: More Than The Metro Man
N.S. Ramnath

Delhi Metro was just one feather in E Sreedharan’s cap, albeit a large one

He faced a lot of interference from politicians in the early years, but Sreedharan put his foot down and demanded that he be given a free hand.
In 2000, following a long and ugly public spat with the Ministry of Railway, E Sreedharan wanted to quit Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC). He had wanted to use coaches of standard gauge—used globally—for the Delhi Metro, while the ministry wanted to use broad gauge, like the rest of the rail network in India. The issue went to a group of ministers, which favored the railway ministry. Sreedharan, who had

The terrain is flat. Policy makers largely viewed work on the Delhi Metro through this prism of scepticism. and live a placid life in Ponnani. he had been given six months to repair Pamban Bridge. He moved to Ponnani. it is not a tough project. took 46 days.” he said. but his retired life did not work out the way he had planned. to stay on and fight his battles. With such an exacting standard. the train lines were to run above the ground.97 percent of the time. where Arjun—looking at the gathered armies—feels despondent. no matter what. World over. and tells Krishna he will not fight. this is one minute. He wanted to retire to his ancestral village. both physically and mentally. fatal accidents and building collapses had followed underground digging. I have become a little old mentally. drops his weapons. on the coast of Kerala. which connected Rameshwaram to the mainland. He then turned to the Bhagwad Gita. more than enough to cover operational expenses and interest payments. Sreedharan. He took seven years. barely 30 at the time. it’s different. he has been reading a couple of stanzas every day and ruminating on their meaning. The cost of the project had overshot its budget 14 times. Today. it has been punctual 99. He was 65 when he had taken up the project. Delhi Metro carries 2. and very much more bodily. In the 1990s. Nearly 150 bridges and 92 tunnels had to be built. Kerala wanted Sreedharan’s help in implementing the Kochi metroproject. he has the support of the Centre and the state. instead. Sreedharan decided not to quit. people will have to put up with construction. a metro train is considered late if it is delayed by two minutes. I had felt very young then. he reflected on the central theme of the Gita. For more than 15 years. On that day in 2000. Krishna says that. found that the government did not trust his judgment.been selected on the basis of his competence. Before Delhi Metro… In 1963. TOP 3 . But all this changed when things started moving fast. There will be problems: The rails will pass through some crowded spots. a 760km stretch cutting across the Western Ghats. The memories of the Kolkata Metro—building the 17-km stretch had taken 22 years—were still very strong. For Delhi Metro. Arjun has to fulfill his duty. He saw no reason to continue with DMRC. …andAfter Sreedharan retired from DMRC in December 2011. “But. In terms of engineering.2 million people every day and earns Rs 4 crore a day. he was in charge of Konkan Railway. but.

Why would he take up responsibility that might pull him into the world of politics. for good or bad. I’ll take care of it. or when he is travelling. calculate probabilities.” The ability to take quick decisions entails a range of other skills. At the project sites of Konkan Railway and Delhi Metro. his team hit a stone wall while digging a tunnel and an additional tunnel had to be dug. and his advice doesn’t come across as pontification. wisdom and inspiration. “What do you mean when? Of course. Sreedharan sets deadlines that can be achieved “Whether we take two days or 10 days. reads the Gita. motivating—seems to fit him like wheels on a track. have a thorough knowledge of the subject. In the evenings.30 am. “Don’t worry about that. in reality we only spend just a few hours on this activity. Once during his visit. The senior officials. a senior manager asked him about dealing with changes that creep in mid-way through a project. Sreedharan told him about the Japanese. what about the budget?” Sreedharan said. start now. He is a good speaker. At one point. He walks fast. and discouraged colleagues from calling him unless it was an emergency.and the project willbe completed in three years. has a bath and breakfast. “He is never a minute late. smiles often.” The biggest problem in implementing projects is the delay in taking decisions. He always knew how to manage his time. who spend a lot of time on planning. and takes questions. Sreedharan’s day begins at 4 am. He gets in and out of a small car with the agility and speed of a young man. he set up reverse clocks to show impending deadlines. lap it up like undergraduates listening to a star professor. including the ability to quickly process information. assess risk. he takes a long walk with his wife. He wanted Sreedharan to take a look. many with greying hair. and yet sated his sense of duty by being a source of knowledge. but how. advising. but there is little sign of ageing. One should not get into a situation where changes need to be made to a plan. TOP 4 . There are meetings. and asked him to go ahead. But once the plan is finalised. they never allow any changes. Sreedharan givestalks on project management to managers and engineers all over India. Sreedharan replied.” he says. His routine was no different when he was implementing the Delhi Metro project on tight deadlines. “It’s family time.” He never took files home. and. bureaucratic turf wars and even put his reputation at some risk? To know why. and never a minute early. “When can we start?” asked Sriram. shares his experiences. who has worked with him since the 1970s. It can be done. recalls an incident during the Konkan Railway project. This role—of listening. A wrong decision can prove costly.” “But. listens to a spiritual discourse. after work. He agreed on the second tunnel. one needs to look not at what he has accomplished. His sense of humour—which sparks off a few spontaneous bursts of laughter—reveals the absurdities of corporate life. The more the work is delayed. So. and gets into his home office at 9. what about approvals. He meditates. start your work now. the more it will cost. His colleagues say he is very punctual. What Makes Him Tick Sreedharan might as well be 80. P Sriram. unless he decides to work from Kochi’s DMRC office. discussions and calls. Sreedharan could well have opted for a placid life. it’s almost like a suggestion. He speaks to them. and his eyes glisten with curiosity while discussing any engineering project.

If someone made a mistake. I do. That. and by the time work started. rather than doing something for personal gain. he did a quick calculation of the number of lives the Kochi Metro could save.Sreedharan : 1. no questions asked. But. In Sreedharan’s sparse room at the DMRC office in Kerala. 5. others will co-operate Believe in your self. he turns everyone’s attention towards a solution. It is based on trust. finish your day early Work with honesty. Forbes India Magazine Five powerful lessons to be learnt from the exemplary life of E. 4. 3. once the cash flows are certain. he brought in AV Paulose. there were no external consultants. contractors had little incentive to cut corners. an authority on railway finance. For the first phase of Delhi Metro. He has been prepared to work any where. effective project management and use of the latest technology. DMRC had engaged consultants. let not criticism deter you. His definition of success is not just about completing a project on time. But his mind works several times faster than ours. In the first 15 years of his service. 2. And he was also prepared to quit any day.Sreedharan never had the luxury of time while planning. he was transferred 25 times. they knew enough to challenge the consultants. 20 lives can be saved in a year. and the rest within a week after the bills were scrutinised. For instance. More than Engineering For Sreedharan. It reads: Whatever to be done. and similarly. he can be ruthless when it comes to ethical lapses. to device a system where payments can be made faster. it’s the right thing to do. Even if 10 percent of the traffic moves to the Metro. Sreedharan followed the same system at DMRC. but completing it with transparent integrity. Instead. without desire for the fruits of the action. It took months to complete. It’s about saving lives. based on bills contractors submit. The detachment gave him the courage to always do what he believed was right. Sreedharan encouraged his team to strive for mastery. Sreedharan sent his team abroad to study the best metro networks. is the message of the Gita: To act. For the second phase of Delhi Metro. there is more to a metro project than engineering excellence. and affected the contractor’s cash flow. But in reality I do not do anything. But. TOP 5 . there is a plaque with a line from Yoga Vasishta Ramayan. Once. in fact. For him. Let deadlines motivate you rather than pressurize you Start your day early. at Konkan Railway he did away with paying contractors based on measurement books. He believes in creating a system where there is little incentive for fraud. believe in the impossible Let awards and accolades not affect you. 85 percent of payments were made within 24 hours. and each time he came out unscathed. His approach to ethics is both idealistic and practical. He attributes this to doing what he believed was right. By this method. and penalty for breaching it is high. The instinct to do the right thing has often landed him in trouble. and 100 grievous injuries can be avoided. for every single day’s delay in the project will result in a loss of Rs 50 lakh. It’s about serving the people. Finishing the project fast is a social responsibility as well.

as well as physical-training. The scenic beauty of the verdant village and the serene beach gave a surprising ambience to the functional areas like stadium.452 acres (9.the11okV substation at the southern tip that we reached first was not the entry point for the visitor to India’s premier Naval Academy! The commotion over the capture of Bitty Mohanthy. workshops. stables. parade ground and swimming pool.92 km2) with 7 km of beach front on the Arabian Sea. The training zone contains the main academic building complex. had not died down when we passed through Pazhayangadi at 10 am. administrative and TOP 6 . library. the large statue of Hanuman on the slopes of the Ezhimala hillock gave a breath-taking view. laboratories. The residential. The academy accepts up to 1200 cadets for officer-training each year. The church on the hillock with the jovial European priest encouraging visitors to use his binoculars. cadet's Mess and cadet's dormitories. and a 1800-capacity auditorium. Further ahead. Ezhimala is located approximately 35 km north of Kannur. auditoriums.a suspected criminal living incognito in the small town. The main academic building complex is situated on the highest point of the academy. We were shown around by a guide provided by the academy. Coordinates: 12°0′40″N 75°13′8″E Folklore has it that the seven hills are part of the ‘Rishabadri’ mountain that fell to the earth when Lord Hanuman was carrying the mountain with Mrita Sanjivani and other herbs to Lanka. No wonder there was a mix up while giving the bus driver directions . the ashram in serene surroundings and the expansive sea in the background were among their cherished memories.KANNUR UNIT MEMBERS VISIT NAVAL ACADEMY The Indian Naval Academy.a Training zone. Several members of the team had associated with some activity connected with power supply to the Naval Academy at some point of time in their service. Perhaps they were discouraged by the awe-inspiring protocols of Defence Security. The Mount Dilly Light house is in its premises. an Administration zone and an Accommodation zone. as well as interim training facilities for the Indian Coast Guard. This includes officertrainees from foreign countries. It includes the Service and Technical Training wings. aquatics and outdoor-training complexes. The INA is divided into three zones -. The academy's campus is spread over 2. But none had the opportunity to see the transformation of the ancient Ezhimala as a modern training campus. a firing range.

K. (courtesy: A. till the bus driver reminded about the scheduled time of departure. One who is neutral in good. Those who treat everyone with equality are self.Padmanabhan had thoughtfully carried tea and home-made snacks all the way from Payyanur. bad times remains unaffected by present situation. Inclusion of family members in such outings in future was a suggestion worthy of consideration. reasonably priced." she replied. "Well. The few who missed it really suffered a loss. By the time we arrived at Payyanur. Mom." Two elderly couples were walking down the street. KATHOLIL Contributed by Madhava Menon. "They're for the funeral. Thus they are one with GOD.realised and have conquered the cycle of birth and death. "Well. so he dragged himself out of bed. animals or others. there's a flower that smells great and has thorns on the stem?" "That would be a rose. Something worthy of National Pride! Er. M. Mohanan Nambiar and his team cannot run out of ideas! NAYANAR GITAMRUTHAM An enlightened man treats every one equally. The steam cooked. There was a lively discussion on the 1kWp solar PV system GOK was offering to 10000 homes with subsidy. crawled to the kitchen and was just reaching up to take a cookie off the plate when his wife slapped his hand with a spatula.V. Such a person is in transcendence. They were his very favourite. "Don't touch!" she commanded." Most of the cooking in our house is done by my husband. Then he shouted to his wife: "Hey. One day it dawned on me that our four-year-old daughter was willing to help mein the kitchen but not her father. I'll need your help on this. "Dad seems to know what he's doing. Chandran) LAUGH READERS’ DIGEST Lying on his deathbed. M. The debate kept us awake. high praise was liberal. but occasionally I get to make dinner. He sees no difference between a learned. I asked her why. plantain leaf-wrapped adas tasted heavenly."That's it!" the man replied. The feed back on the day’s adventure was enthusiastic. a loving husband was wavering between life and death when he thought he smelled chocolate chip cookies baking." his friend responded. the women a couple of metres ahead of the men. His friend asked for the name of the restaurant. denying the pleasure of a well-earned siesta! It went on and on. a brahmin. seemed endless. every one was hungry and tired.academic buildings blend perfectly with the scenic splendor. One man told the other that they'd had a wonderful meal the night before-great food. Let's see. after spending two hours at Ezhimala under merciless scorching sun. After lunch the formal Unit meeting was held. Rose! What's the name of the restaurant we ate at last night?" TOP 7 .

k]p¡ Rrv|O. joO¨V yOkq]\]fjLp. WOwLNYmOÈ]. pO–a|PmV.– w]v RRNaSsL^-] p]sPRa. fOa°] .. CRfLqO a~]yV ãcV RapV ¤ BReÐf]¤ yUwpo]sæ. vLpj¨L¡ KqO kOñW¾]jO Svº] AaO¾ WLsR¾LÐOU CNf BSvwU WLŸ]pfLp] KL¡Úp]sæ. Nl}–cT¦SsLcV. zLq] SkLŸrOU SsL¡cV KLlV h r]‚VyOU yo}kWLs DhLzqeU. ƒ]NkSWLk]. o|Oy]WV B¤mU. If]q]sæL¾ jLa| \NWv¡¾]. qL^-qLS^-w~q¢.. RI RI IÚ]¤ Rv\ÿOU kf] jLsV RWLsæU l]jL¢yV oLSj^-qLpOU y~Lp¾oL¨]p fNÍ°¥ oOuOv¢ Ao]xV NkSpLY]\ÿO. NAYANAR TOP 8 . Ao]fLi]WLqU WáLtO SÒLtOU Au]of]¨V Af}f¢. qºV RWLsæU k¾O sƒU SWLÕ] vL°L¢ Av¡ R\sv]ŸfO 22 SWLa] W. f]-Ó Rp jw]Õ]¨L¢ Avfq]\ÿv¢. WOŸ]WRt vLpj¨L qL¨L¢ Svº RkLa]RR¨W¥ Cvp]¤ yOsnoLp]q]¨OU. fNÍ wLs].! w]v¢ fRÐpLeV j]r´O j]¤¨OÐ WgLkLNfU. f]-ÓRp j-Ó W}ua¨OÐ BX|Lj°¥ joOR¨sæLU CìoLeV. Cf]R¢r oPÐLU nLYU oL¡\ÿ]¤ kOr¾]r°]. ozLShv¢. KÐOU qºOU nLY°¥ 2010–sOU 2011–sOU Nky]È}Wq]¨RÕŸ]qOÐO. yOyÚfjLp CT kOqLe WgLjLpW¢ SWvsU nLvjLyQì] oLNfoLSeL? SWŸOSW¥v]Wt]sPRa Nk\q]\ÿ WgW¥ v]w~Ly oLp] kq]eo]\ÿfLp]¨PRa?oLUyvOU o²pOoOç ojOx|¢ y~W¡ÚLjOìLj¾]sPRa RRhvfOs|jLp] IÐfOU yUnv|oSsæ? \q]NfvOU kOqLevOU ff~\]ÍpOU l]ƒjOU WPŸ]¨s¡¾] Ao}xV Wg IuOfO SÒL¥ Af]jV AyLoLj| vw|fpOU BW¡xe}pfpOU DºV. ANkf]SqLi|jLp SkLqLt]. CÐV oPv] RNkLc|Py¡oLqOU NkyLiWqOU Ac~L¢yV j¤WL¢ W|P j]¤ ¨OÐO. a~]ã¡. Wq]yVopOç SjfLvV. CìShvRj Avfq]Õ]¨OSÒL¥ Ao}xV BhqvOU BqLijpOU RRWRva]pOÐO o]sæ. jL¤ÕSfLtU oO¢j]q NkyLiW¡ f]qØq]\ÿ kOñWU y~ÍoLp] A\ÿa]\ÿV kOr¾]r¨L¢ SlyVmO¨V.Books: SHIVA TRILOGY Amish Tripathi CÍ|¢ kOñWSsLW¾V AhVnOfU yQì]\ÿ] q]¨OWpLeV 38–WLqjLp Ao}xV Nf]kLb] IÐ IuO¾OWLq¢. kLxSjã V sv¡. SkæLŸ]sOU Na}ã VRo¢ã]sOU nLxp]sOU BiOj}WfpOºV.

) Contributed by Gangadharan Courtesy T. Think about them a bit longer and they begin to hurt. Painite costs 9000 dollars per gm (1800/carat) (A rare borate mineral named after a gem dealer) 7." It’s important to remember to let go of your stresses. Diamonds 4.asuhair A psychologist walked around a room while teaching stress management to an audience. Antimatter costs 62.) 3. "The absolute weight doesn't matter. It depends on how long I hold it. costs 27 million dollars per gm (A Transuranic radioactive material element produced artificially from Curium .Remember to put the glass down . Instead. "The stresses and worries in life are like that glass of water.5 trillion dollars per gm (Antimatter is composed of solely of antiparticles (sub atom particles having the mass as a given particle but opposite electric or magnetic properties. the heavier it becomes. everyone expected they'd be asked the "half empty or half full" question. with a smile on her face. Think about them for a while and nothing happens. to 20 oz. but found too expensive. of course a gm of antiparticle will explode with intensity of three Hiroshima. And if you think about them all day long.I. If I hold it for a minute. TOP 9 ." She continued.) 2. Plutonium costs 4000 dollars per gm (It is called the big bang of nuclear energy. Taaffeite costs 30000 dollars per gm (4000/carat) It is one of rarest gemstone in the world 6. In each case. the weight of the glass doesn't change. If I hold it for an hour. As early in the evening as you can. If I hold it for a day. my arm will feel numb and paralyzed. it's not a problem. She replied. you will feel paralyzed – incapable of doing anything. Tritum costs 55000 dollars per gm costs 30000 dollars per gm (A hydrogen isotope used in watches) 5. but the longer I hold it. she inquired: "How heavy is this glass of water?" Answers called out ranged from 8 oz. put all your burdens down. I'll have an ache in my arm. Californium 252. US military considered making pocket size nukes using this. Remember to put the glass down! Seven Most Expensive Materials 1.O. Don't carry them through the evening and into the night. As she raised a glass of water.

ssI¡qen¡v ImcW¡mc³ sImSp¡p¶hs\m AsXm hm§p¶hs\m? c−pt]cpw ]ckv]cw ]gn Nmcpw. kaql¯n\v tZmjw hcp¯p¶ Hcp {]hÀ¯nbpw sN¿mXncn¡pI. hm§nbh\v t\«ambXv sIm−v kt´mjw. sN¿p¶ sXÁnsâ `hnjy¯ns\¡pdn¨v ChtcmÀ¡p¶nÃ. F¦n GXv A[À½¯ns\Xntcbpw {]XnIcn¡mw. kz´w Igp¯n \n¶mWv \mÁw hcp¶sX¶ Xncn¨dnhv \mb¡nÃ. Cu ØnXnhntij¯n\v Xm\pw D¯chmZnbmsW¶v Ahsâ a\Êv ]dbpw. kz´w apJ¯mIpw. sImSp¯h\v AgnaXns¡Xnsc {]XnIcn¡Wsa¶p−v F¶m km[yaÃ. kz´w apJ¯mInÃ. Xsâ sNbvXnbmWv X\n¡v NpÁpw ImWp¶ Zpjn¨ AhØIÄ¡v ImcWsa¶v Xncn¨dnbm¯ a\pjys\ t]mse. ImcWw \mbbpsS Ipc AbÂhmknIÄ¡v iÃyambm AhÀ \mbbpsS DSaØs\Xnsc t]menkn ]cmXn \ÂIpw. iin[c³ (9447236631) (17. A\yÀ¡v tZmjw hcp¶ GsX¦nepw {]hÀ¯n sN¿pItbm AXn\v Iq«p\n¡pItbm Csö Xocpam\t¯msS Cu \à Zn\w Bcw`n¡mw. tXmÂhnbpsS ImcWw A²ym]Icnepw kz´w c£nXm¡fnepw Nnet¸mÄ `cWm[nImcnIfn t]mepw Btcm]n¡p¶p. Ipc \nÀ¯n \mb ZpÀKÔ¯nsâ DdhnSw tXSn Aebpw. F¦n temI¯nse Hcp hnUvVnbpsS F®sa¦nepw Ipd¡m³ km[n¨p F¶v \n\¡v kam[m\n¡mw. {]XnIcn¡Wsa¶p−v. i_vZap−mbm ssas{Imt^m¬ {]hÀ¯n¡pIbpw ]m{X¯nsâ AS¸v Xpd¡pIbpw sN¿pw. H¯p h¶ Ahkc§sfm¶pw Ah³ ]mgm¡nÃ. kv{Xo[\ k{¼Zmbw F{X IpSpw_§sf I®ocnemgv¯n. kzIÀ½w sIm−v kaql¯n\p−mIp¶ tZmjs¯¡pdn¨v t_m[hm\Ãm¯XmWnXn\v ImcWw. kz´w Imcyw Ignªm amdn \n¶v kv{Xo[¯nsXnsc hymIpe\mIp¶p. hnc X\ns¡Xnsc Nq−nÃ. AXn Hcp ssas{Imt^m¬ LSn¸n¡pw. bmYmÀ°yw Adnbmhp¶hÀ t]mepw Cu ss]imNnI k{¼Zmb¯n\ncbmIp¶p. F{X iàambn Ipc¨psIm−ncn¡p¶ ]«nbmsW¦nepw ITn\amb aWw A\p`hs¸«m Ipc \nÀ¯n aW¯nsâ t{imXÊv tXSn Aebpw. km[n¡p¶nÃ. \mw A\p`hn¡p¶ ZpcnX§Ä¡v BcmWv D¯chmZn? ]gn ]ecnepw Nmcn kzbw Hgnªp amdmw. BÀs¡¦nepw FXnsc Hcp hnc Nq−pt¼mÄ Xsâ aq¶v hnc X\ns¡Xnsc Nq−pw. ]«nbpsS Ipc \nÀ¯m³ Hcp D]IcWw AhÀ I−p]nSn¨p. D]IcW¯nsâ {]hÀ¯\ coXnbnXmWv. CXv s_ÂÁn LSn¸n¡p¶p. CXn\v ]cnlmcw ImWm³ {_n«\nse I¼\okv Hm^v B\naÂkv Xocpam\n¨p. ]«nbpsS Cu khntij kz`mhs¯ apXseSp¯mWv I¼\okv Hm^v B\naÂkv D]IcW¯n\v cq] Iev]\ sNbvXXv. {ItaW AXv ioeamIp¶p. Cu s_ÂÁv Igp¯neWnbp¶ ]«n H¶v Ipc¨m ]m{X¯nsâ AS¸v Xpd¶v {ZmhIw \mbbpsS aq¡nte¡v NoÁpw. \o \ns¶ Xs¶ \¶m¡pI. Xm³ ]Tn¡m¯Xv sIm−mWv tXmÁsX¶h³ Hcn¡epw k½Xn¡nÃ. kzman hnthIm\µsâ hm¡pIfmWv. AXpsIm−mWv C¶ hnjb¯n s]m«n Asæn C¶ hnjbw In«nbnà Fs¶ms¡ Ah³ ]dbp¶Xv. ITn\ aWw han¡p¶ {]tXyI {ZmhIw IqSnb aÀ±¯n Hcp sNdp ]m{X¯nem¡p¶p. ]co£bn tXmÁ hnZymÀ°n.2013\v I®qÀ BImihmWn {]t£]Ww sNbvX kp`mjnXw) TOP 10 . {_n«\n ]«n hfÀ¯Â ZpjvIcambncp¶p.1. ]«nsb hfÀ¯n P\§Ä¡v iÃyap−m¡nbXn\v ]«nbpsS DSaس in£ A\p`hnt¡−n hcnIbpw sN¿pw. kt´mjt¯msS X¶Xv sIm−v hm§nsb¶v hm§nbh\pw Imcyw Ffp¸¯n km[n¡m³ thsd hgnbnÃm¯Xn\m Cãansænepw sImSp¡m³ X¿mdmbXmsW¶v sImSp¯h\pw kzbw \ymboIcn¡pw. ]ns¶ tImg In«nbnsæn H¶pw sN¿nà F¶ ØnXnbnse¯p¶p. sI.Bß]cntim[\ ‘Cu temIw ImWpt¶c tam¡m\w hcp¶ps−¦nepw OÀ±n¡m³ h¿ Fsâ apJ¯mIpw Ipªp®nsb¶ henb Ihn temIt¯mSv Dds¡ ]mSnbXmWnXv. temIw \¶mIm\pÅ hgn kzbw \¶mhpI F¶XmWv.

Only the exposed parts of the skin help in manufacturing vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency is emerging as a more common menace than we thought. Why do we need to be in good D company? Most Indians are at a genetic disadvantage with regard to vitamin D. Keep moving while out in the sun. cloud coverage and the environment. UV-B levels are most intense during the mid-day. cardiovascular health. season. with its melanin pigments.Soak up some sun BY SANGEETHA DEVI DUNDOO The Hindu Take up an outdoor activity. Being stationary will make you prone to sunburns. Fair-skinned individuals require only 20 minute exposure to direct sunlight three to four times a week for the skin to make adequate vitamin D. We spend the best part of the day in enclosed spaces both at home and work. TOP 11 . obesity and diabetes. UV radiation levels vary depending on location. outdoors. Nearly every tissue or organ in the body has receptors for vitamin D: immunity. Darker-skinned individuals with more melanin pigments require 30 to 40 minute exposure three to four times a week. time of day. Besides fitness. Our ancestors started the day with prayers and suryanamaskars facing the sun. prevents sunlight and UV light from converting pro-vitamin D to vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) in the skin. leading to deformed bones in children and increased risk of fractures among the elderly. Research has also shown link between vitamin D and low immunity levels. Lack of vitamin D manifests itself through acute pain in the feet. Dark skin. neck and joints in some individuals. The best source of vitamin D is UV-B radiation from the sun. diabetes prevention and cancer prevention are some of the potential areas of benefit. you'll enjoy an increase in your vitamin D levels. depression. shoulders. but longer exposures in early morning or late evening can be adequate. Spend a few minutes in the sun without applying sunscreen. Vitamin D deficiency can cause rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults.

D. (He doesn't have another eye.. This 1000 watts solar panel will be almost 50% subdised by Govt. Er N . Er Chandrahasan explained the position of DCRG arrear and interest. Rose bouquet was presented to Er. Section and Kozhikode T C Division Being a bus strike day.E. I hit ONLY him in the eye yesterday.30 pm after lunch Ramachandran SENIOR ENGINEERS.Chandran.) 8. The total cost will be just below 2 Lakhs at present The solar energy generation in Kerala is at present of the order of Kilowatts and the immediate aim is to bring it in MW levels Er Krishnanunni then read out Lineage March. I hit him in the ONLY eye yesterday. Er T." 1.) 3.) 7.H. Nadakkave Ele.C. ONLY I hit him in the eye yesterday. May her Soul Rest In Peace.) 6.) G. I ONLY hit him in the eye yesterday. After silent prayer Er.Mohanan Nambiar presented the minutes of the last meeting and reported the follow up actions taken and was passed as such. Govt of India.K. followed by a discussion on it. Er V. I hit him in the eye yesterday ONLY. Karthyayani M/o M. Sri Balan had worked at Kakkayam PH.Balan Asst Executive Engineer. (Did not slap him.E. (Did not wait for today. In the presidential speech Er. Er.Ravindran. I hit him in ONLY the eye yesterday.) 2. (I did not hit others.ENGLISH . the attendance was poor.Damodaran Nayanar in chair. (No one else did. Payyannur on 09-03-13 with Er.Ravindran presided the meeting in the absence of Er A.A. (Not today.V. 35 Engineers attended the meeting. KANNUR The meeting commenced at 02.A POWERFUL LANGUAGE Professor Ernest Brennecke of Columbia University is credited with inventing a sentence that can be made to have eight different meanings by placing ONE WORD in all possible positions in the sentence: "I hit him in the eye yesterday.Nayanar high lighted the need of get together and the pleasant trip performed. I hit him in the eye ONLY yesterday. One minute silent prayer was observed in memory of Late Sri T. 10:30 am at Calicut Towers. The meeting ended at 2..Velayudhan Nayanar. who has TOP 12 .Ravindran welcomed the gathering. (Not other organs.Ramachandran then explained the 10000 roof top Solar Electric panels promoted by Anert and M N R E.V.) 4.30pm after the visit to Ezhimala Naval accademy and lunch at the Auditorium of Hotel Top Most.Reghusudhan who expired on the 24th of February 2013. In his presidential remarks Er Ravindran informed the developments during the last one month.) 5. Madhavamenon and Er Sudhakaran participated in the discussion. One minute silence was observedas a mark of respect to the memory of Smt.03.2013. I hit him ONLY in the eye yesterday.P.(Rtd).K. Krishna Iyer UNIT PULSE Senior Engineers Kozhikode The monthly meeting of Senior Engineers Kozhikode was held on 09. (I did not hit outside the eye.E.

C. K.V. Er. C.Damodaran Nayanar.Chandran took part in the discussions. paper ticket and pocket have all gone digital and together live solely on your phone. to a computer.Loyalty and coupons Payments . and our bank account. but of the future – a future where the wallet. Those dog-eared loyalty cards for high street coffee shops: binned. purse. The secretary proposed vote of thanks to all and the meeting came to a close by 4pm. T.mainly on the Solar Power Generation.K.celebrated his Seventieth birth day since last meeting.Mohanan Nambiar / Secretay LIFE LESSON A FROG HOMILY A scientist conducted some experiments on frogs a long time ago. The technology is simple.V.Ers. Wi-Fi-lite style tech that could already be in your smartphone. P. A standards-based connectivity technology.Velayudhan Nayanar. Er. A ponnadai was also presented to Er.Ravindran. a contactless.Healthcare – Information collection and exchange .Velayudhan Nayanar replied to the toast. Bus passes and train tickets: vanished.Transport. Near Field Communication (NFC) technology makes life easier and more convenient for consumers by making it simpler to make transactions. exchange digital content. Welcome to Near Field Communications (NFC). The water temperature was raised gradually.Govindan. –from the novel: The oath of vayuputras What is NFC? Jamie Carter (Courtesy NFC FORUM & TECHRADAR) Your credit cards: gone. enabling current and future solutions in areas such as: Access control -Consumer electronics .Mohandas.Damodaran Nayanar Chief Editor briefly touched upon the main contents of the Lineage issue for the month of March2013 Er. and could soon be a regular feature of your commute.U.A. NFC harmonizes today's diverse contactless technologies.E. He dropped a frog in a pot of boiling water. the frog settled down comfortably. E. It's a shortTOP 13 .V. and connect electronic devices with a touch. The frog immediately jumped out.K. At its core.P. General discussion followed .Bhaskaran Nambiar. A. You've been the victim not of theft.E.Mohanan Nambiar talked about the importance of Solar Power Generation in the present scenario. The frog kept adapting to the increasingly warm and then hot water till it finally died. all NFC is doing is identifying us. and P. M. He then placed the frog in a pot full of cold water.Gopalakrishnan.

One is by using Photovoltaic solar panels (PV) and the other is concentrating solar power technologies (CSP). a discount voucher. largely in smartphones. Solar electricity is a wonderful concept of generating electricity from sun light. including P2P mode (exchanging information. This is the first step in this direction by our Govt. LG and Blackberry all include NFC. too. shopping habits and even your most frequently travelled route home) and takes payment through an app on your phone. WiFi routers will swap passwords for a simple 'tap' from any smartphone.range. Passive NFC 'tags' on posters. The sun drives our climate and our weather. but there are distinctions within NFC.95 billion NFC-enabled devices will ship in 2017. no battery in the device being read. whether heat or electricity.000 Roof –Top Solar power plants. but promoters have great expectations. Taking power from the sun and using it to power electrical equipment is a terrific idea. ABI Research predicts that 1. Nokia. By tapping your phone on a contactless payment terminal in a shop. Solar Power: Next Generation Power It is no wonder that the Sun is worshipped as a God by ancient people of the world. no pairing code is needed. In comes in both passive and active flavours. and because it's very low power. from the power of the sun. a map or a bus timetable that passers-by could touch their phones on to receive – or to instantly pay for absolutely anything. tablet or games console. NFC has long been supported by the makers of Android handsets. Kerala Government and Anert have launched a new solar power project of 1 kW X 10. NFC is only one technology. though NFC will also enter the living room. NFC is still in its trial phase. with 395 million consumer electronics devices to ship in 2017 – in other words. such as business cards or contacts) and SecureElement NFC (where a machine recognises a NFC phone as a bankcard). There are two methods used for generating electricity from the solar power. CSP is a power generator technology that TOP 14 . Minimum requirement is 15 square metre shade free area for installing 1kWp Solar panel array and about two square metre covered area for accommodating battery and inverter. SOLAR POWER Solar power is a general term for generating power. low power wireless link evolved from radio-frequency identification (RFID) tech that can transfer small amounts of data between two devices held a few centimeters from each other. Sun provides all the power we need to exist and supports all life forms. 10 mW solar power plant is a marvellous idea. in shops and on trains could contain a web address. Ten thousand people are going to have there on solar power plant on their roof. HTC. Flagship and mid-range handsets from the likes of Samsung. with Bluetooth and RFID just as able to strike-up a conversation between two gadgets. Directly or indirectly. train station or coffee shop is able to identify your account (and even your personal preferences. NFC will be in everything. Unlike Bluetooth.

This excites the electrons. your home runs on solar power during the day and any surplus energy you produced is fed in to the grid. a phenomenon discovered in the early 19th century when scientists observed that certain materials produced an electric current when exposed to sun light. One layer has to have a depleted number of electrons. Some of these wafers are then doped to contaminate them. these cells are connected together to make a solar panel or a photovoltaic module. In this system. cut into very thin wafers. The wafers are then aligned together to make a solar cell. 1. The semi – conducting material used to build a solar cell is silicon. Individual solar cells only generate tiny amount of electrical energy. When exposed to sun light. in most of the cases. thereby creating an electron imbalance in wafers. The Principles of solar electricity. There are four different configurations you can select while making a solar electric plant. Stand-Alone/ off grid system In this system the power generated by the solar panels are stored in a battery and then used as required. they heat a fluid and produce steam. The steam drives a turbine and generates power in the same way as conventional power plants. The Four Configurations for Solar (PV) Power. causing some of them to jump from one layer to the other. 2. There are no batteries connected in this system. the layers of materials absorb the photons. Conductive metal strips attached to the cells take electrical current. To make useful amounts of electricity. It is when the photon hit the solar cell is absorbed by the silicon that an electric current is generated. Two layers of a semi – conducting material are combined to create this effect. Grid-Tie system In a grid – tie system the power generated by the solar panels are tied to the supply companies grid. actually you are selling the surplus power to the supply TOP 15 .uses mirror or lenses to concentrate the sun’s rays and. The more photons (ie the greater intensity of light) that are absorbed by the solar cell. The power generated is never connected to the supply grid. the greater the current generated. generating an electrical charge. A solar panel generates electricity using photovoltaic effect.

combines a grid –tie installation with a bank of batteries. you do not sell electricity back to the electricity companies. the system automatically switches back to the grid power supply. Solar panels are usually rated as 12. they generate more power. the solar array generates power. which in turn charges a battery bank. Solar panels are made up of individual solar cell. When the batteries run flat.volt panels. 3. power from your solar array is also cut. The grid level inverter monitors the power fed from the grid. This allows a single panel to charge up a 12-volt battery. In the evenings and at night when your solar energy system is not working. With a grid fallback system. The solar array ( Multiple panels link together to provide high voltage) is connected to the grid level inverter – which feeds AC supply to the main grid and also distribute electricity to the devices in the building and grid level voltage. The cost of a grid – tie system with power back up is higher than a standard grid – tie system because of the additional cost of batteries and battery controllers 4. They continue to generate small amount of electricity in the shade also. The open circuit voltage of 12. The grid tie meter monitors how much energy is taken from the grid and how much is fed back in to the grid using solar energy system. A 12. All the power that you generate you consume yourself. Higher voltage panels such as 24.volt panel is up to 26 volts. you then buy your power from the supply company.volt. connected together. One disadvantage is that if there is a power cut.volt solar panel produces around 14-18 volts when put under load. The more powerful is the available sun energy. so by connecting them in series inside the panel. Components of a Solar Electric system Solar panels Solar panel is the main component in a photovoltaic solar electric system. Grid – tie with power backup (Grid interactive) Grid-tie with power backup. Solar panels can be linked together to create a solar array. TOP 16 . Energy is taken from the battery and run through an inverter to power one or more circuits from the distribution panel in the house. In this system. a more useful voltage is achieved. The battery banks provides contingency for power cuts so that you can continue to use power from your at an agreed rate per kWh. 48volt are also available. They generate electricity from the sun. A typical solar cell will only produce half a volt. The solar array then recharges the batteries and the system switches back to solar power. Grid fallback system. If it detects any power failure it also cut power from the solar panel to ensure that no energy is fed back to the also known as grid interactive system. The simplified block diagram of grid tie system is shown above.

watt array with 1 amp current. costing 20. amorphous panels are good at generating power even on overcast and extremely dull days. For the purpose of working out how much space you’re going to need to fit the solar panels. They are also far better in extreme temperature conditions. For the past five years crystalline solar panels prices also have been dropped by 25% per year. irrespective of whether they are connected in series or in parallel. whilst a 1m² crystalline solar panel generate in the region of 160 watts. They are expected to drop to around half their current (2012) cost by 2015. This technology has matured significantly over the past five years. 12-watt panel) connected in parallel.watt array with 4 amp current. and life span is also increased to 10 to15 years.quality amorphous solar panels. . the solar array will be rated as 12-volt. you need to know that a 1m² amorphous solar panel generates in the of 60 watts. Connecting the panels in parallel allows a solar array to produce more power while maintaining the same voltage as individual panels.30 % more than amorphous solar panels. 48. 12-watt panel) connected the solar array will be rated as 48-volt. with significantly less power loss at higher temperature than other solar technologies. Of course. Big name manufacturers such as Mitsubishi. these trends are the lime light of solar power to be the next generation power. which can make them easier to fit many installations. 48. with poor product reliability and questionable life span. If solar array is made of four solar panel (each individual panel is rated as a 12-volt. These panels have a life expectancy of about 25 years but more expensive. If we select amorphous panels more area is required for the generation of same power. When you connect multiple panels together. the power of the overall system increases. TOP 17 . There are two main technologies of solar panels on the market: amorphous and crystalline solar panels. Amorphous solar panels are the cheapest one available in the market also quite reliable also. Sharp etc now manufacture high. However.Connecting the panels in series allows a solar array to run at a higher voltage. Over the past three years. amorphous solar panels cost have dropped by around 30% each year. Polycrystalline solar panels far more efficient than amorphous panels and they are often around one third size of an equivalent amorphous panel. If solar array is made of four solar panel (each individual panel is rated as a 12-volt. Amorphous panels have a bad reputation in the past.

Micro. in a grid.tie system solar array connected directly to inverter and the inverter handles this variability. Theoretically. Electricity from the supplier’s grid is high-voltage alternating current (AC). these can be connected together to form a larger battery bank. If you are planning to run equipment that runs from grid by voltage from a solar electric system. batteries store the energy and provide a constant power source for your electrical equipment. multiple batteries used in series increase the capacity and the voltage of a battery bank. Inverter The electricity generated by a solar electric system is direct current (DC). If you have to run high. These look similar to car batteries but have a different internal design. However. this energy is stored in ‘deep cycle’ lead acid batteries. Like solar panels. A more recent invention has been the micro inverter. This design allows them to be heavily discharged and recharged several times without damaging the batteries . Typically. this will quite rapidly destroy them. Electrical devices The final element of your solar system is the devices that you are going to use with solar system. Controller Controller is required to manage the flow of electricity (the current) into and out of the battery. all the equipments power with electricity can be powered with solar electricity also. this will damage and eventually destroy them. If your system overcharges the batteries. This makes the power source too variable for most electrical equipment to cope with. this may not be an issue if you are installing a grid-tie system. Likewise. Micro inverters only used with grid -tie system and are not suitable for systems with battery backup. which makes running them on solar energy is very expensive.Batteries: Solar panels are not directly connected to electrical equipment because the amount of power the solar panel generates varies with the strength of sunlight. many electrical devices are power hungry.Most batteries are 6-volt or 12-volt batteries and. However. There is usually one central inverter in a solar system. if your system completely discharges the batteries. Of course. Multiple batteries connected in parallel increase the capacity whilst keeping the voltage the same.power appliances on an off-grid system TOP 18 .inverters are connected to individual solar panels so that each individual panel provides a high voltage AC. like solar panels. A solar controller prevents this from happening. For stand-alone or grid fall back system. you need an inverter to convert the current from DC to AC and convert the voltage to the same as you get from the grid.

Of course. vacuum cleaners. If running everything at 12-24 volt requires a significant amount of additional rewiring. plus a higher voltage AC supply for running larger devices such as televisions and kitchen appliances. In addition. There can be disadvantages of low voltage configurations. High voltage devices If running everything at low voltage is not an option. ovens. you use an inverter to run your electrical devices Shortly in stand. washing machines etc specifically for people installing solar and wind turbines. The solar controller charges the batteries and supply power to the low voltage devices using either from solar power or batteries as the source of power. Another important point to be taken care is that if the cable running between your batteries and device is too long. or if you are using a grid tie system. Generally. rather than running the whole system at low voltage. you will get a greater power loss through the cable at lower voltages than you will at higher voltages. such as refrigerators. this may require separate wiring circuits. some specialist manufacturers are started manufacturing ultra low energy appliances. the arrows indicates the power flow in the diagram. it is more appropriate to run a system at grid voltage using an inverter.means. If you already have wiring in place to work at grid –level voltage. Lots of equipment is available to run from a 12/24 volt supply: light bulbs. The block diagram shown above is stand alone system with batteries as described above. If you are going to construct a new house and fresh wiring running the system at 12 volts is often more suitable.grid solar system run at low voltages hence for greater efficiency it is better to run some of your equipment directly from your low voltage DC supply rather than running everything through an inverter. refrigerators. Low voltage devices. you have to have a more powerful off –grid solar system to cope with the peak demand even though it is used for a short period. the cost of carrying out the rewiring can be much higher than the cost of an inverter and a slightly larger solar array. air conditioning units washing machines are all available to run on 12 volt power. it is more efficient to use the electricity as DC supply than AC supply in solar electric system TOP 19 . Most off. televisions.alone system you have to design a wiring system which provides both low.voltage DC power for running smaller electrical devices and appliances such as laptop computers and lighting.

Solar irradiance varies significantly from one place to another and changes throughout the year. Capturing more of the sun’s energy The tilt of a solar panel has an impact on how much sunlight you capture.your latitude= optimum fixed year –round setting This angle is the optimum tilt for fixed solar panels for all –year round power generation. In order to come up with some reasonable estimates. the optimum tilt of your solar panels will vary throughout the year. If you mount your solar panel at an angle. and the results can be expressed as watts per square metre (W/m²) or.Solar Energy Calculations Solar energy is a combination of the hours of sun light you get at your site and the strength of that sunlight. you need irradiance figures for each month of the year for your specific location. tilted towards the sun you can capture more sun light then you mount the solar panel flat against a wall or flat on the ground . the number of kilowatt-hours per square metre per day) you can multiply this figure by the wattage of the panel to give you an idea of the daily amount of energy you can expect your solar panels to provide. If you want to get your optimum output from your solar panels detailed calculations according to the site conditions are required. this tilt will give you the best compromise. To calculate the optimum tilt of your solar panels. you can use the following formula. Once you know the solar irradiance for your area. based on a solar irradiance of 1. NASA’s network of weather satellites has been monitoring the solar irradiance across the surface of the earth for many decades and it is available in website. depending upon the season. This does not mean that you will get the maximum power output every single month. quoted as a daily average (i. in kilowatt-hours per square metre spread over the period of day (kWh/m²/day). Photovoltaic solar panels quote the expected number of watts of power they can generate. This figure is often shown as a watts-peak (Wp) figure and shows how much power the solar panel can produce in ideal conditions. This varies depending on the time of year and where you live. 90°. It is not an average reading that you could expect to achieve on a daily basis. A solar irradiance of 1. generating electricity all the year round.Capture more sunlight means more power generation. Because of the 23½° tilt of the earth relative to sun. TOP 20 .000 watts per square metre.e. This combination of hours and strength of sunlight is called solar insolation or solar irradiance.000 watts per square metre is what you could expect to receive at solar noon in the middle of summer at the equator.

27 5. The amount of energy you capture from the sun differs on the tilt of solar panels.48 5.30 5.02 5.69 4.52 5. Hard shade is an obstruction that blocks out light from reaching the solar cell completely.70 5.90 7.11 4.Solar irradiance Figures in Calicut. It is highly important that your solar panels should be fixed out of shade throughout the day. irradiance is more when panel set at 790 angle and directly to south.63 5. Solar panels and shade The biggest negative impact on solar energy production is shade .Even if only a very small amount of your solar array is in shade.65 4. SET AT 790 ANGLE-FACING DIRECTLY TO SOUTH JAN FEB 5.82 5.e.10 4. For crystalline solar panels loss will be more. the reason for this is in the construction of the solar panel itself. Unit in Kwh/m2/day.24 4. which significantly reduces the amount of light reaching the solar cells.43 5.79 6. the impact on the performance of your whole system is very high. MONTH IRRADIANCE ON SOLAR PANELS SET ON FLAT SURFACE FACING DIRECTLY TO WEST OR EAST IRRADIANCE ON SOLAR PANELS SET AT 790 ANGLE FACING DIRECTLY TO WEST OR EAST IRRADIANCE ON SOLAR PANELS.17 4.89 6.23 6. A soft shade is a distant obstruction where the shadow is dispersed or diffused.22 4.06 4. Shades can be brake down into two categories: soft shade and hard shade.07 5. If only 5% of a photovoltaic solar panel is in shade. fallen leaves or a tree branch sitting on the glass would be classed as a hard shade. you will capture less energy than if you face them due south and tilt them towards the sun.29 3. it is possible to lose 15-20 % of power production from your entire solar array.74 4.84 APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 6. Where cells are soft shaded a TOP 21 .51 4.06 5. A shadow from a tree would be classed as soft shade.25 3. The angle shown is the angle of adjustment from an upright (Vertical) position i.Solar Electricity Hand book.12 6.54 MARCH 6. If you mount your solar panel horizontally or vertically.52 3. Bird droppings. angles are degrees from vertical.63 5.61 5.78 The data revels a fact.39 The above data were taken from web site .85 4.

When considering a position for your solar array. Since Kerala stands on the equator. virtually you are creating two separate solar energy systems. Solar panel manufacturers provide information to show the effects of temperature on their panels. the sun passes overhead so we need to consider the obstruction in the east and west only. Dirt and grime will reduce the efficiency of your solar system overtime and requires cleaning. For better performance of a solar system we need the site survey to answer two questions 1. Is there anywhere on the site that is suitable for positioning your solar array 2. It will identify the suitability of your site and the ideal position to install your system and ensuring that you will get the best value for money and the best possible performance. Hence it is better to avoid such areas where the bird droppings are more for the installation of solar panels. which you then have to link together. For a grid tie system you would require either a micro inverter system or an TOP 22 . Called a temperature coefficient of power rating. If you split in to two. The effects of temperature on solar Panels Solar panels will generate less power when exposed to high temperature compared to when they are in a cooler climate. the temperature of the solar panels may be an important factor when planning your system. you need to consider how easy it is going to be clean them. the production of the entire array will drop down to the same level as the affected cells. Do nearby obstacles such as trees and building shade out too much sun light? By answering the second question. you can identify how much of the available sunlight you will be able to capture. If the cells are covered completely. it is shown as a percentage of total power reduction per 1°C increase in temperature. You can help reduce the temperature of your solar panels by ensuring a free flow of air both the above and below the panels. they are tested at 25°C against a 1000 W/m² light source. you may see a complete power shutdown.significant drop off in energy production is noticed. whilst at a warmer temperature the same solar panel will generate less. the solar panel will generate more electricity. make sure there is a gap of around 7-10 cm below the panels to allow a flow of air around them. In India the temperatures are significantly above 25°C for much of the year. The site Survey The site survey is one of the important aspects of designing a successful solar system. While you are mounting panels on a roof top. When solar panels are given a wattage rating. Where cells are hard shaded. Some time the space available is not sufficient to install all required panels then you can split the solar array in to several smaller arrays. At a cooler temperature.

Clean the solar array. TOP 23 . Solar Electricity hand book.inverter that can accept inputs from more than one solar array. For stand. It can be harnessed relatively easily and effectively. If your solar controller or inverter includes a display that shows power input and power output. 2. controller and inverter. Compilation : Ravindran Terampath. This time Sun will bless his sons – that is in the form of Electricity. Solar electric power is an excellent and practical resource. Karnataka. References: 1. It is important to do you’re planning first and to be meticulous with detail. Another important thing is that you have to identify a suitable location for batteries. The present generation completely exploited the wealth on earth and the coming generation is going again to worship the Sun. fire. wind and rain – with their hard work they produced food and prosperity on earth. If there is an unexplained drop in performance clean the solar array. by Indian Institute of Science. water. A case study of 3MW scale .grid connected Solar – Photovoltaic Power Plant at Kolar. Conclusion. Even solar electricity will also turned out to be a bad master if we neglect the fundamental of electric safety. Our ancestors worshipped Sun as God and God gives them light. visually check the conditions of the cables and balance the battery bank if you have a multi-battery bank. Plan the cable runs and measure the length of required cables. Cable should as short as possible in order to reduce the voltage losses through the system. To get the best out of a solar electric system. Safety Electricity is a good servant if it is properly controlled otherwise it will become a bad master. then only you will have a system that will perform properly. we have a long way to go in research and development. Maintain your battery in every three months.2012 Edition – Micheal Boxwell. More detailed discussion is required in this area alone Maintenance of Solar Systems There is very little maintenance to be carried out on a solar electric system.alone system you would require a battery controller for each separate solar array. In Kerala the rain itself will do a very good job. check the performance of your solar array.

W¦ o°]SpL¥ Iv]Ra RvS\ÿL WºRfÐO `L¢ wË]¨Sv \Ot] v}ReLqLoOXRo¢ Sj¡¨O f]q]pOÐO o°]p o]u]Wt]¤ \]q] o]ÐOÐP. WPj]SÕLSpL¥. v]WQfU vL¡ÈW|¾]¢ oOXUoPa]W¥ `°¥ Wt]pLpSsæL \L¡¾] j]¤¨pLU. ‘jYq v]h|Lsp– yOÎq]'ÕŸU `°¥ kf]\ÿO RWLaO¾v¥.WPŸOWLq] yOYfWOoLq] KqO vQÈRp¨Sºj]ÐRs ozLSƒNf– jap]¤. j} orÐOSvL?' RkRŸÐO kç]¨Paoe] oOŸOÐP. kPËL¤– S\ÿLÕ]sLpV Rvç]ÕLhyq¾]¢ oe]¨t].-.. yv]yVopU CfO SkL¤. IRÐ j}SpL¡¨OÐ]Ssæ? khVo. WìU. Rjµ]¤! WOŸ]WStLa]¨Pa] vqOÐP k¾LU WæLy]¢ oOã¾O WOaoOsæ \]q]\ÿO v]aqOSÒL¤ kŸOkLvLa R¾t]R`Lr]W¥.`Ljr]´fO kNf¾Lt]sOU oãU WLeLrOºfsæSpL?’ ‘WOŸ]SpL?’ ^-q v}e WRáR¢r Wá]¤ S\ÿ¡¾O RkLŸ] `L¢ \]q]\ÿSÕLtvtOU \]q]¨OÐO. Bp]qU Rk¦ kPvOW¥¨]ap]¤ R\ÍLoq– ÕP vO SkL¤ v]t°]SpL¥. ‘SjL¨P. j}Ÿ]p vL¤¨R¹uO¾. This poem appears in MANALEZHUTHthe collection which earned her the Rs Ten lakhs award. W]sO°OU SkL¤ vL¡ÈW|U \]q]¨OSoL? TOP 24 Smt Sugathakumari won the Saraswathi Samman for 2012 recently. SYLk]¨Or].Af]¢ k]Ð]¤ oOa]Õ]ÐsOoLŸ] qSºLo¤¨OoLq]W¥ \]q]\ÿO RWLµ] ¨ºOoOŸOWpSsæL v}ºOU! RvrOSf WLs¾]¢r SWLoLt]¨t] SjL¨] RvrOSf Wq°¥ SWL¡¾LzæLhU kWO¨Sv vu]Sp SkLSvLqOãO SjL¨OÐP. -Editor . Rk¦W]aLvv¥ fLSjL òPso} vQÈLWLqU? I¢rpÒqÕ]R¢r oOÒ]sLpV kuRpLq– ÕOµ]q] KqO oLNf o°] o]ÐOÐP v}ºOU ‘ANf¨O oLr]SÕLSpL? `L¢? f]q]\ÿr]pOvL--– RjL¨LRfpLSpL?v¡xoÒfOSouOU SkLp]! WOŸ]pOU oLr]SÕLp}. Ò]t] \ÿ]q].

the sensex crashed by 290 points and Nifty by 104 points which clearly showed its impact on budget. However on the last day of the Financial Year the sensex rose by 131 points and Nifty by 41 points giving hope for better days ahead. The sensex declined from 19683 to a four month low of 18681 and Nifty from 5946 to 5634.TIPS ON INVESTMENTS IN SHARES-CXVIII The month of March witnessed the same declining trend for Indian markets as in February. But negatives cues were there in plenty. As a result the markets began their declining trend.The index needs to move above 19750 to make the short term view positive. KNC TOP 25 . for the past one year will begin to be announced and the trend of the bourses will be dependent on them.The short term trend will stay downward as long as the index trades below 5930. The medium term view for the index is positive as long as the sensex remains above 18500.. The shares of Navaratna Companies of central Govt. 3. The inflation went up two basis points. The only positive feature in this otherwise depressive trend is the continued investments in our markets by FIIs. 2. which everyone hoped will provide much awaited boost to the bourses failed to do so. The lower index of industrial production. On budget day. The declining trend for markets may continue for a few months more. The immediate support for sensex are 18814. which give high dividends are good bets for purchase. From 15th. to 25th March sensex declined by 890 points and Nifty by 274 points. The supports for nifty are at 5550 and then at 5475. Economic crisis in Cypress. The main cues were:1. The fear of instability of the Central govt. From the middle of April the results of the companies. The next levels of resistances are at 1910. Thereafter. WISHING ALL READERS A VERY HAPPY VISHU. One may track the prices of these companies and invest in them at prices suitable to one’s risk level. there were no positive cues so far to strengthen the markets. The resistance levels are at 5760 and 5841. For retail investors this is the time to pick good shares as most of them are available at low price.19265. 18500 and then at 18263. The budget. due to withdrawal of support by DMK. 4.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful