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SOIL DYNAMICS
. AND" '..
MACHINE
FOUNDATIONS
By Dr. SWAMI SARAN
Department of Civil Enginemng University of Roorkee Roorkee247 667
(INDIA)
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First Edition 1999
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No matter in full or part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means (exceptfor review or criticism) without the written permission of the author and publishers.
Though much care has been taken by the author and the publishers to make the book error (factual or printing) free. But neither the author nor the publisher takes any legal responsibility for any mistake that might have crept in at any stage.
Published by .Suneel Galgotia for Galgotia Publications (P) Ltd. 5, Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhill0 002.
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PREFACE
During the last 25 years, considerable work in the area of soil dynamics and machine foundationshas been reported.Courseson soil dynamicsandmachinefoundationsalreadyexistat graduatelevelin many institutions, and its inclusion at undergraduate level is progressing fast. The author is engaged in teaching the course on soil dynamicsand machine foundationsat gr'duate level from last fLfteen years. The text of this book has been developed mainlyout of my notes preparedfor teaching the students.The consideration in developingthe text is its lucide presentationfor clear understandingof the subject.The material has been arrangedlogicallyso that the reader can follow the developmentalsequenceof the subject with relative ease. A number of solved examples have been included in each chapter. All the formulae,charts and examples are given in SI units. Some of the material included in this text book has been drawn from the works of other autors. Inspiteof sincereefforts,somecontributionsmay nothavebeen acknowledged.The authorapologisesfor suchomissions. The author wishes to express his appreciationto Km. Lata Juneja, Sri RaJeevGrover and Sri S. S. Gupta for typing and drawing work. Thanks arealso due to the many collegues,friends and studentswho assistedin
wittingof thisbook.
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The author would be failing in his duty it he does not aclaiowledge the support he received from his family members who. encouraged him through the various stages. of study and writing. The book is dedicated to author's Sonin law, (Late) Shri Akhil Gupta as a token of his love, affectionand regards to him. (Dr. Swami Saran)
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PREFACE
CONTENTS
1.
INTRODUCTION 1.1 General 1.2 1.3 1.4 Earthquake Loading Equivalent Dynamic Load to an Actual Earthquake Load Seismic Force for PseudostaticAnalysis Illustrative Examples References Practice Problems
112 I 3 6 9 12 12 12 1366 13 14 15 18 32 36 39 48 53 64 êéóïïé 67 67 70 72 74 76 80 81 86 93 108 108 116 117
2.
THEORY OF VIBRATIONS 2.1 General 2.2 Defmitions 2.3 Harmonic Motion 2.4 Vibrations of a Single Degree Freedom System 2.5 Vibration Isolation 2.6 2.7 2.8 Theory of Vibration Measuring Instruments Vibration of Multiple Degree Freedom Systems Undamped Dynamic VibrationAbsorbers Illustrative Examples Practice Problems
3.
WAVE PROP AGATION IN AN ELASTIC, HOMOGENEOUS. . AND ISOTROPIC MEDIUM 3.1 General 3.2 Stress, Strain and Elastic Constants 3.3 Longitudinal Elastic Waves in a Rod oflnfmite Length 3.4 Torsional Vibration ora Rod of Infmite Length 3.5 End Conditions 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 Longitudinal Vibrations of Rods of Finite Length Torsional Vibrations of Rods of Finite Length Wave Propagation in an lnfmite, HomogeneousIsotropic, Elastic Medium Wave Propagation in Elastic, Half Space Geophysical Prospecting Typical Values of CompressionWave and Shear Wave Velocities Illustrative Examples References.. '. . ; Practice Problems
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Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations
4.
DYNAMIC SOIL PRO~ER~5. 4.1 General 4.2 4.3 4.4 LaboratoryTechinques Field Tests
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FactorsAffecting Shear Modulus, ElasticModulus and Elastic Constants IllustrativeExamples References PracticeProblems
.118186 118 118 147 163 174 182 184 ïèéóîíé 187 187 201 221 236
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DYNANnCEARTHPRESSURE
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Pseudostatic Methods Displacement Analysis Illustrative Examples References
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DYNAMIC BEARING CAPACITY OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 General Pseudostatic Analysis Bearing Capacity of Footings Dynamics Analysis Illustrative Examples References Practice Problems
îíèóîéè 238 238 238 . 249 268 277 278 îéçóííç 279 2.79 281 283 288 296 300 301 306 309 314 319 323
7.
LIQUEFACTION OF SOILS 7. 1 General 7.2 Definitions 7.3 7.4
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Mechanism of Liquefaction Laboratory Studies
DynamicTriaxial Test 7.6 Cyclic Simple Shear Test 7.7 Comparisonof Cyclic Stress Causing Liquefactionunder Triaxial and Simple Shear Conditions 7.8 StandardCurves and Correlations for Liquefaction 7.9 Evaluationof Zone of Liquefactionin Field 7.10 VibrationTable Studies 7.11 Field Blast Studies 7.12
7.13
Evaluationof LiquefactionPotentialusing Standard Penetration Resistance
Factors Affecting Liquefaction 
Contents
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7.14 AntiliquefactionMeasures 7.15 Studies on Use of Gravel Drains IllustrativeExamples References Practice Problems
324 326 332 336 339
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8.
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GENERAL PRINCIPLES 8.1 General 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7
OF MACIDNE FOUNDATION DESIGN
Types of Machines and Foundations General Requirements of Machine Foundation Perimissible Amplitude Allowable Soil Pressure Permissible Stresses of Concrete of Steel Permissible Stresses of Timber References
340351 340 340 347 348 349
349 350 351 íëîóìîî 352
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FOUNDATIONS OF RECIPROCATING MACHINES 9.1 General 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 Modes of Vibrationof a Rigid FoundationBlock Methods of Analysis Linear Elastic Weightless Spring Method Elastic Halfspace Method Effect of Footing Shape on Vibratory Response Dynamic Response of Embedded Block Foundation Soil Mass Participating in Vibrations Design Procedure for a Block Foundation Illustrative Examples References Practice Problems
352
353 354 370 392 394 400 402 408 419 . 420
10.
FOUNDATIONS OF IMPACT TYPE MACIDNES 10.1 General
ìîíóììî 423 426 432 436 442 442 ììíóìêð 443 444 445
10.2 DynamicAnalysis
10.3 Illustrative Examples References Practice Problems
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Design Procedure for a Hammer Foundation
11.
FOUNDATIONS OF ROTARY MACHINES 11.1 General 11.2 Special Considerations 11.3 Design Criteria
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1.1 GENERAL Geotechnical engineers frequently come across two types of problem in relation to the analysis and design of foundations namely (i) foundations subjected to static loads and (ii) foundations subjected to dynamic loads. The characteristic feature of a static load is that for a given structure the load carried by the foundation at any given time is constant in magnitude and direction ~.g. dead weight of the structure. Live loads such as weight of train on a bridge and assembly of peopl{in a building are also classified as static load, The characteristic feature of a dynamic load is that it varies with time. Dynamic loads on foundations and engineering structures may act due to earthquakes, bomb blasts, operation of machines, pile driving, quarrying, fast moving'traffic, wind or sea waves action. The nature of each dynamic load is different from another. Figure 1.1 shows the variation of dynamic load with time in some typical cases, Purely dynamic loads do not occur in nature. Loads ar~ always combinations of static and dynamic loads. Static loads are caused by the dead weight of the structure, while dynamic loads may be caused through the sources mentioned above. .
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Vibrations of earth's surface caused by waves coming from a source of disturbance inside the earth are described as Earthquakes and are one of the ri1ostdestructive forces that nature unleashes on earth. When, at any depth below tile gro~d surfa~e,the strain ene~gy'ac~~ulated due to deformations in earth mass exceeds the resilience of the storing material, it gets release through rupture. The energy thus released is propogated in the form of waves which impart energy to the media through which they pass and vibrate the structures standing on the earth's..surface. The point inside the earth mass where slipping or fracture begins is termed as focus and the point just above the focus on the earth's surface is termed as epicentre. The position of the focus is determined,with the help of seismograph records (Fig: 1.2]'u:ti't'ising the average velocities of different waves and time difference in reaching the waves at the ground surface. Figure 1.3 explains the various terms in simple manner.
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~ ' Total damage. ground badly cracked. some heavy furniture moved. 'H". buildings shifted off foundations. and objects thrown . walls make cracking sound. .. and standing motor car rocked noticeably. lever distorted. heavy furniture overturned. Felt quite noticeably indoors.'. ' ~~ ~ '.H I". Damage considerable in specially designed structures. . standing motor cars may rock slightly. lines of sight and '" . noticed by persons driving motor cars. sand and mud ejected in small amounts. etc. some dishes. a few instances of fallen plaster or damaged chimneys. landslides considerable from river banks and steep slopes. and disturbs persons driving motor cars. ground cracked conspicuously. considerable in' ordinary substantial buildings with partial collapse. spe~ially designed structures. very heavy in substantial buildings with parti~1collapse. " fII Felt only by a few persons at rest. underground pipe lines completely out of service. It is divided into 12 degrees of intensity as presented in Table!. well designed framed structures thrown out of plumb. windows. slight to moderate in well built ordinary structures.L Table 1.1' Soil Dynamics cl Machine Fo"nd4tio. most masonry and framed structures with foundations destroyed. very heavy it) poorly built structures. if any. damagenegligible in buildings of good design and construction. .. specially on upper floors of buildings. Felt by all.1 Intensity. and delicately suspended objects may swing.. XII upward into the air. Felt by nearly everyone. The severity of shaking of an earthquake as felt or ob!jervedthrough damage is'described as intensity ata certain place on an arbitrary scale. rails bent. some chimneys broken. broken. and vibration may be felt like the passing of a truck. broad fissures in ground. and VIII IX X XI rails bent greatly. at night some awakened. changes in well water. Few. damage slight.. many frightened and run outdoors. Everybodyruns outdoors. .dishes. and water splashed over banks. Damage slight j!. specially on upper floors of buildings but many people do not recognize it as an earthquake.4 l. panel walls thrown out of framed structure. masonry structures remain standing. waves seen on ground surface.ns 1. For this purpose modified Mercalli scale is more common in use.. poles and other tall objects IV V noticed sometimes and pendulum clocks may stop.2. VI VII . sensation like heavytruck striking the building. windows. bridge destroyed. Some well built wooden structure~ destroyed. shifted sand and mud. During the day felt indoors by many. disturbance of trees. doors disturbed.1 f'. . unstable objects overturned. many awakened. outdoors by a few. considerable in poorly built or badly designed structures.1 : Modified MereaIli Intensity Scale (Abridged} Classof Earthquakes Description Not felt except by a very few under specially favourable circumstances. earth slumps and landslips in soft ground. a few instances of cracked plasters. and underground pipes broken.
3 gives approximate idea about these.~nd Duration of. '...2()'. ... n ~~f.!. 1965. S ~\.:. 1.. X 8 XI The fault length.1. Magnitude of an earthquake . II Richter Scale Magnitude (AI) 2 3 4 5 6 7 " m IV. . Table ......h~ "... .."""""".5 M ..l J \ 15 2550 .". VIII ...(1.:._~.~.1.\.. 2530 .3 : Fault Length...>.J j J. .000' 2 .<{'j ::.". ' .4) .2) E = Energy released in earthquake in Ergs A comparison of the magnitude M of an earthquake with maximum i tensity of the Modified Mercalli Scale is given in Table 1.2) Aa = Distance correction (F:ig. .1) where M = Magnitude of earthquake A = Trace amplitude in mm (Fig.2 : Comparison of the Richter Scale Magnitude with the Modified Mercalli Scale Maximum Intensity. ®ãáåó¬ùÿþæáæ·ÄãþùÑãþù¢ù ' ~... Table 1.~: . ~".: ~! I"troduction f. ". 1970). A relationship between strain energy released py an earthquake and its magnitude is given by Richter (1958) as follows ~ .(km) 12 ..2. affected area and duration of earthquake also depend on the magnitude of earthquake (Housner.~. ~~~ j i:'. " ' ' Table 1..00 .4 + 1. Area (/en?) Duration of 'Earthquake (8) '5 20.(1....V VI.IX. Modified Mercalli Scale I. . Housner.~. M = loglOA loglO Aa .. ..\1 ".) !. Affected Area. . s 1. Affected.. Richter (1958) suggested the following relation.000 60.2 Magnitude..OO '.. amplitude of elastic waves it generates.2. based on the ._" is a measure of the size of an earthquake. >250 " : f. .Eart~quake Magnitude oj Earthquake (Richter scale) 5 6 7 8 Fault Length" .. . loglo E where = 11..000:. 4550 . Vp VII. . . 25 . i '.
1 (b)].4: Distaoce corredio... the average equivalent uniform acceleration is about 65 percent of the maximum acceleration. For the analysis and design of foundations such a random variation is converted into equivalent number of cycles of uniformly varying load [Fig. According to Seed and Idriss (1911). Most of the analyses and laboratory teSting are 'carried out using this concept.converting the irregular stresstime history to the equivalent number of cycles of cyclic shear stresses of maximum magnitude equal to K 'tmax' ~ ~eing a constant less th~. .+: v ~ I0 U 2 ~ c 11\ .'t ~y~~~~ 6.o for magnitude determination 1. It means that the structurefoundationsoil system subjected to Ns cycles of uniformly varying load will suffer same deformations and stresses as by the actual earthquakes.0 0 0 1 10 100 Distance in km 1000 10000 \ . The number of significant cycles.' ..ity : . 1 . . Ns depends on the magnitude of earthquake.For near earthquake For teleseism$ surface waves with time: period 20 s ' 0 . The loading is not periodic and the. Lee and Chan (1912) suggested the following procedure for .1JP.3 EQUIVALENT DYNAMIC LOAD TO AN ACTUAL EARTHQUAKE LOAD Figure 1.5 and 8 respectively. ' " ' ..peaks in anY two cycles are different. r. They recommended the values ofNs as 10. 1. 20 and 30 for earthquakes ofmagnitudes 1. 1.!.S 4 « c 0 0\ ~ 3 . Fig. SoU DyIUlllfics & Mtrehille Foundations c:.1 (a) shows the variation of dynamic load wi+htime observed during El Centro earthquake./ " :J 'c 0\ 0: 5 E . 1.
. For example.. ". 5. t ..6) determine the conversion factor to each average stress level (Col.5 shows ~}Yl'icalea~CJ.' . '. " '.' .= . ' '.'/ <". . ': ~:"E."' " .'. a plot between stress ratio and conversion factor as sh!)wnin Fig..:. . 0 0 1\ c: ~ e:.65 'tma.uakereco.:""". " .65'tmaxby adding the values listed in Col.". .12 I I I I I I 0 2 4 6 Time ( s ) 8 10 12 14 Fig.. ' . . ' .". 7 (i) Let Fig.< . .' .5 has number of cycles in various ranges of acceleration levels as listed in Col. 1.0.I.essrange (0 to 'tmaX> or acceleration range (0 to amax)into convenient number ofleveIs and note the mean stress or mean acceleration within' each level as mentioned in column no. ..'". Then the number of cycles with peaks 'Yhichfall within each of these levels is counted and recorded.I 1\ 1\ A J\' V VVV A A 1\ A A VVVV" e:. (1975) gave 1. .5 :.J1.number of equivalent stress .. 3 of Table 1. A typical earthquake record ' (ii) Seed et al.t. Conversion factor is defined as'the ratio of equivalentnumber of cycles for 0.rd." .4.cycles at .. . . 4 of Table 1. 5. + 0 .> .6.x by multiplying the values listed in Cols.Divide the s. .:. 'These are listed in Col. H.65 'tmax to equivalent number of cycles for K . . ". 12 . . 3 and 4. .. .at a maximum stress level of 0.. ' .:'~c'"':". " . 1.' ..j~\ "Or. 0. an earthquake record shown in Fig. (iii) Determine the equivalen~number of unifofm cycles. the number of peaks on both sides are counted and two peaks are equivalent to one cycle. Introduction. Note that because the actual time history is not symmetric about the zero stress axis. .I U u <X 9mox. (iv) Determine the total. 2 of Table 1.. .4. 1.4). .... . Om ox :. 'tmax'Referring to this curve (Fig. 1.
..  """ "~. ( ~S)k Tmax 003 0'01 Fig.. .20 20 .6 : Conversion factor versus shear stress ratio For getting the equivalent number of cycles for 0.5= 6..2 0 10 3 1 Conversion factor.4 is divided by this conversion factor to obtain equivalent number of cycles corresponding to 0.75. It comes out as 1. .4 lt5 0.0 r> ' .~.. 8 Soil Dynamics & Machine Table 1.6 1. More details of these procedures have been.. 0.. 1.. (5) 100.5 7/2 = 3. . 9.65 Tmax. cycles (3) Conversion Equivalent number of cycles at 0...5 5/2 = 2..5 >100 2. . .65 'tmaxas illustrated in Table 1.8 0.~ '" .0 0.80 80 . u I 0 x 0. .5 3/2 = 1.00 90 70 50 30 10 5/2 = 2.70 0.t. The value of equivalent number of cycles obtained for 0.65 1"ma:c (4) .00 Total numberof cycles = 9.0 1......6) corresponding to an ordinate value of 0..e.75 'tmax i.5. Seed and Idriss (1971) and Lee and Chan (1972) developed the above concepts specifically for liquefacti~mstudies. ~.n .6: C ._...75 'tmax'read the yalue of conversion factor (Fig.>.60 60 . 1..111 I..0 cycles.40 40 .discussed in Chapter 7..2 0.'. ~.. factor Foundatioiis" . " . ~. .0/1.8 111 111 0.4 : Equivalent Cycles for Anticipated Eartbquake Acceleration level il/ percent of (I) Average and level in percent of (2) Number of. 03 0'1 (Ns )0. .20 negligible negligible '65 1.
.1893 : 1975).7 : Seismic zonesof India in seismic coefficient method. mercalli intensity IX and above Vl1I VII VI Less than VI Bombay 0 0 . bridges and similar structures. . For pseudostatic design of foundations of buildings.7. .6 ~ = Coefficient . the country is classified into five zones as shown in Fig.ndingupon the unportance of structure. 1. response spectrum method is used (IS.Introduction j' .(1.h is obtained by the 'ollowing expression : ah vhere a() = ~I ao .: 0 'I) Fig.3) = Basicseismiccoefficient. = Coefficient depe.. Table 1..4 SEISMIC FORCE FOR PSEUDOSTATIC ANALYSIS For the purpose of determining seismic force. For the analysis of earth dams and dynamic designs. " In : 0 ~ Vo po rt 0 Blair . Two methods namely (i) seismic coefficient method and (ii) response spectrum method are used for computing the seismic force. the design value of horizontal seismic coefficient ~ CJ. 9 1..7 I.Table 1. seismic coefficient method is used.5 depending upon the soilf~undation system. 1. Equivalent modi fide Q) Iv.:Table 1.
.. Table 1. water towers and tanks.5 Combinedor isolated footings with tie beams Raft foundation Pile foundation Well foundation  Rock or Hard soil 1.08 0.2 1.(l.0 . 1.2 \.0 1.0 1. 2.0 1. . Type oJ Structure Va/lIeoJI 3.t.Soft soils .0 1.01 . ~: 10 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations The vertical seismic coefficient..0 1. large assembly structures like 5.Table 1. I. 4. I S No. a <x=1L v 2 .0 1. schools. such as hospitals. important bridges.4) In response spectrum method.2 1.0 2.05 0.0 2.7 : Values of P for Different SoilFoundation System Values off3Jor Soil Isolated footings without tie beams \. emergency buildings like telephone exchange and fire brigades.5 : Values of Basic Seismic Coefficien~ Zone No.:/ <".5 1. cinemas. . <Xv shall be considered in the case of structures in 'which stability is a criterion of design or for overall stability of structures. V IV III 11 I <X/1 ao 0.0 Containment structure of seismic power reactor for preliminary design Dam~ (all types) Containers of inflammable or poisonous gases or liquids Important service and community structures. _.6 : Values of Importance Factor.04 0. assembly halls and subway stations All others \. ~ .0 1.2 1. the response acceleration coefficient is 'first obtained for the natural period and damping of the structure and the design value of horizontal seismic coefficient is computed using the following expression: Tab{e 1. 3.5 Medium soils .0.02 0. Therefore. It may be taken as half of the horizontal seismic coefficient.0 1.
"".: .25 0.JL g .. ~g S = average acceleration coefficient as read from Fig. .20 0. '. vibration in seconds Fig. 'ltil. 1....0.1 0 0 0 1 01 If) 0.j~.4 2. Fo 0..= ~ ..20. 0.ab .40 0.05 .5 0'4 L. '.0 2.~' J~ Introduction . /.~f!" i.10 0.8 : Values of Seismic Zoning Factor.... Fo Zone No.8 3. '.3___ 0 > <! 11 L.. ~ 0. V IV III U I .~'.. c ~ u ~ 0 0. u c 0 ..( L 1) where F0 = Seismic zoni1)gfactor for average acceleration spectra (Table 1. I ..8) . 1.' " . ~ 0 ~ u u 0 ~ 01 0 ... 11 .8: Average acceleration spectra Table 1.. F0 S .4 Natural 16 2..8 for appropriate natural period and damping of the structure.6 . "~j~~".
No. H. N. pp.4. potential" F PRACTICE PROBLEMS 1. Vo\.). Report No. SM9. "Simplified procedure for evaluating soil liquefaction J.0 mm.. The distance to the epicentre is. San Francisco. K. Seed. DC . (1958). and Chan. and Banerjee. New Delhi. and Idriss. Determine the magnitude of earthquake. CF. 97. (1975). H. I. (1972). "Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures".. the distance correction for 100 km is 3. Solution: From Fig. G. Proceedings. Vo\. (1971). EERC 7529. How are fault length an. H.0. 97106. M.3 Determine the equivalent number ef cycles for 0. Seattle. 1. Ed. Richter.9 ÎÛÚÛÎÛÒÝÛÍ HousnCf. l. Englewood IS I:s031975. International Conference on Microzonation. 12491273. Soil Mech. "Elementary seismology". "Design spectrum". Berkeley.. Washington. duration of earthquake depend on magnitude? 1. 609627. University of California.2 Describe a method of getting equivalent number of cycles of uniformly varying load for an actur earthquake record. M. vo\. Wiegel. (1970). W.12 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations tILL USTRATIVE EXAMPLES' Example 1. B. pp. in EarthquukeEngineering Cliffs. K. Hence. estimated about 100 km. 1. F. Found.. Proceedings 3rd World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. "Number of equivalent significant cycles in strong motion earthquakes". B. "Intensity of earthquake ground shaking near the causative fault".0 + 3 = 3. 1. Idriss. Earthquake Engineering Research Center. 1. "Representation of irregular stress . ISI. (1965).1 Explain the terms 'Intensity' and 'Magnitude' irt relation to earthquake. Makdisi. G. ASCE. (R. Housner. PrenticeHalI. H.1 The srandard torsion seismograph recorded an average trace amplitude of 8.time histories b) equivalent uniform stress series in liquefaction analysis". Lee. California. Seed. Freeman.. W. Engg. W. New Zealand. New Jersey. M = 10glO8. W.75 Tmaxfor El Centro earthquake. pp.
" . vibrations due to earthquakes and quarry blasts.g.'~'.1 : Different types oCvlbratlons . Transient vibrations may have very complicated nonperiodic time history e.' . : . one must study the mechanics of vibrations 'caused by the dynamic load.. '. '1\". The pattern of variation of a dynamic load with respect to time may be either periodic or transient.1 a) (ii) Shearing (Fig.e: .g."."" :. ' ...1 d) t ~ .."".:' " (b) Shearing .01 .:.'.'\'<." (c) Bending (d) Torsional Fig. 2.""'.. c: ~J (a) Extenslonal .1 b) (iii) bending (Fig. 2.. . . A structure subjected to a dynamic load (periodic or transient) may vibrate in one of the following four ways of deformation or a combination thereof: (i) Extensional (Fig./'. .'~.{'.'". vibrations in the case of reciprocating machine foundations. .". 2.! " ."" '. The periodical motions can be resolved into sinusoidally varying components e.. :". 2. 2." ..' !!JI!!'!!' :R' THEORY OF VIBRATIONS 2.: .:.H .".1 GENERAL In order to understand the behaviour of a structure subjected to dynamic load lucidly.1 c) (iv) torsional (Fig.".:~.
in many cases it is satisfactory to reduce it to an idealized system of lumped parameters..14 s. .n .2). have also been included..2. .1 Vibrations: If the motion of the body is oscillatory in character. In this regard.u /JyruuIfics & Machine Foundations The forms of vibration mainly depend on the mass. t ~ "'_~ Fig.J. . the simplest model consists of mass. stiffness distribution and end conditions of the system. it is called vibration. D: m ~ (b) Two degrees offreedom KI (a) One degree of freedom Z. .~ Z) ~ óååó¢¢ ¢óãÝí  . 2. . (d) Six degrees 'offreedon~ (e) Infinite degrees offreedom ' .2 DEFINITIONS 2.  2... .'. . Z2 . . To study the response of a vibratory system. . (c) Three degrees of freedom' . is called degrees of freedom (Fig.2 Degrees of Freedom: The number of independent coordinates which are required to define the position of a system during vibration. 2. spring and dashpot This chapter is framed to provide the basic concepts and dynamic analysis of such systems.2' :'Systems with different degrees of freedom .: .2. Actual field problems which can be idealized to massspringdashpot systems. 2.
then it is said to undergo free vibrations. 2.6 Forced Vibrations: Vibrations that are developed by externally applied exciting forces are called forced vibrations.8 Frequency Ratio: The ratio of the forcing frequency and natural frequency of the system is referred as frequency ratio.12 Damping: All vibration systems offer resistance to motion due to their own inherent properties. . 2..3 : Quantities describing harmonic motion . the condition of resonance occurs.2. 2.10 Time Period: Time taken to complete one cycle of vibration is known as time period. .. Such vibrations can be caused by setting the system in motion initially and allowing it to move ~~~~~. The amplitudes of motion are very excessive at resonance.. If the frequel}cyof excitation coincides with anyone of the natural frequencies of the system.2. 2. it is called geometrical or radiation damping.1) Z = A sin (rot . 2.2.2. c Fig. 2.9 Amplitude of Motion: The maximum displacement of a vibrating body from the mean position is amplitudeof motion.Theory of Vibrations 15 2. This resistance is called damping force and it depends on the condition of vibration.7 Forcing Frequency: This refers to the periodicity of the external forces which acts on the system during forced vibrations. 2.4 Free Vibration: If a system vibrates without an external force.t '.(2.2..If the force of damping is constant.2.11 Resonance: A system having n degrees of freedom has n natural frequencies. 2.2.5 Natural Frequency: This is the property of the system and corresponds to the number of free oscillations made by the system in unit time. It may be described mathematically by the following equation: . it is t&med Coulomb damping.3 HARMONIC MOTION Harmonic motion is the simplest form of vibratory motion. 2. This is also termed as operating frequency. it is termed viscous damping. .2. If the damping in a system is free from its material property and is contributed by the geometry of the system. If the damping force is proportional to the velocity. it is called periodic motion.2.2. 2. material and type of the system. . These vibrations occur at the frequency of the externally applied exciting force.0) N L r T:2!!Go) Timq.3 Periodic Motion: If motion repeats itself at regular intervals of time. 2.
~ 4". .1) the phase angle is a reference to the time origin.. i.. the' frequency of oscillation in terms of cycles per unit time will be ro/21t.8) dt .J (. .. . at some reference point in a harmonically vibrating system. .6) show that both velocity and acceleration are also harmonic and can be represented by vectors roA and ol A. Velocity = = Z = roA cos (rot .. 2 = r = Z = ro A sin (rot. dZ . It is required to specify the time relationship between two quantities having the same frequency when their peak values ha'ving like sign do not occur simultaneously.sometimesreferred to as double amplitude.. ro rad/unit time.t.I = A.e + 1t) Equations (2. I ) . ro = Circular frequency in radians per unit time.tt ".It is denoted by f 8 = Phase angle.(2. and is the quantity most often measured from vibration records..~Ii<i" .\r. lead the displacement and acceleration vectors by 1tI2 and 1trespectively.8 + ~) 2 d Z . sometimes referred as single amplitude. . and 8 is called as phase lead.< r'l!\"k. the phase angle is used as a reference to another quantity having the same frequency. :'~f.8) dt = roA sin (rot . For example. These.5) and (2.4 vector representation of harmonic displacement. however.. .(2.(2.1t.. (2. (2. (2.6) = ro2 A (sin rot . 16 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations The Eq.C..~.e...5) Acceleration .3. 2. Because the motion repeats itself after 21tradians. For negative values of 8 the peak motion at i occurs within one half cycle ahead of motion at 1.. . The angle 8 is then called phase lag. In Fig. The various terms of this equation are as follows: Z = Displacement of the rotating mass at any time t A = Displacement amplitude from the mean position. 2. velocity and acceleration is presented considering the displacementas the referencequantity(8 = 0)..1.. '. which rotate at the same speed as A. More commonly.3 ) with 1t ~ 8 ~ For positive values of 8 the motion at point i reaches its peak within one half cycle after the peak motion occurs at point 1. In Eq.1) is plotted as function of time in Fig. .".(2..2) ZI = AI sin rot Motion at any other point in the system might be expressed as Z. The time period.4) .I sin ( rot'e. the motion may be expressed by .).j '~~!. The distance 2 A represents the peaktopeak displacementamplitude..(2. T is given by 1 21t T==f ro The velocity and acceleration of motion are obtained from the derivatives of Eq.....
/ E .. ~~ 'i.92) .et Fig..5 occurs. 2..z.(2..z +' C ~ E v 0 ~ TimtZ..'2..5':Motion containi.: './ 2A max .I'.Theory of Vibrations N ./ D....4: Vector representation of harmonic displacement.. velocity and acceleration When two harmonic motions having little different frequencies are superimposed.  2Am\n . ~T . III c . +' C c:.ng a beat ..'"  ~ " :' .I . UI 0 oN .. 17 z.91) + A2 sin (0021.7) N . >+' > v 0 ~ Ti mtZ.I c:. The displacement of such a vibration is given by: Z = AI sin (0011 .t 0 ..t v 0 ..I c 0 Timcz. c:.t a.. It appears to be harmonic except for a gradual increase and decrease in amplitude. 'P1>1Flg. b  """' 3! j.~ TimtZ (t) v 0 a. 2.'J' ''" . a non harmonic motion as shown in Fig.
_.:. (b) Frccbody diagram ..... .." C. Z .':::.. The motion of the mass m is specified by one coordinate Z.. ~ .10b) "Zmin = IAI .(2.10a) .". ..  L Z .(2.1t0) 2 ) . ' f F(t) (I) Springmlssdashpot system ~c ~ Pl8....~'~"'" ..Dj splac(Zment ZZc V(Zlocity Ac c(z l(Zration KZ+ Cl +1 ...9) The maximum and minimum amplitudes of motion are the sum and difference of the amplitudes of the two sources respectively.5).. Zmax = AI .. .. they may result vibrations having the beat frequency. 2. and the resulting damping force is proportional to the velocity.. 6a... 2..6." ~ . called the beat frequency.A21 If the drive systems of two machines designed to operate at the same speed are not synchronized. 18 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations The dashed curve (Fig...4 VIBRATIONS OF A SINGLE DEGREE FREEDOM SYSTEM 1 The simplest model to repre~ent a single degree of freedom system consisting of a rigid mass m supported by a spring and dashpot is shown in Fig.8) The frequency of the combined oscillations is the average of the frequencies of the two components and is given by f = i = (2~)( + A2 0) 1.(2..(2.' .. 2." 'i'j{':.~. representing the envelop of the vibration amplitudes oscillates at a frequency. Damping in this system is represented by the dashpot.~..... ....... The system is sabject to an external time dependent force F (t).. . SI. mz m m ..2.. which corresponds to the difference in the two source frequencies: I 1<01 <021 fb = Tb = 21t ..
J'!.d")Jiti.: l It is due to the acceleration of the mass and is given by m Z. ".. 19 Figure 2. "'.. Theory of Vibrations .ql. For undamped free vibrations. ."""".. '1\".. In some problems in which the damping is not viscous.+. 2."'O:iI'i). Therefore the'" equation of motion of the system becomes m Z + KZ = 0: or .1 Undamped Free Vibrations.j}iJ'iI. >is:. Fi The damping force is considered directly proportional to the velocity and given by C . " :!':"'" '" Substituting the first boundary condition in Eq."Arr. (2.:.' . this force always opposes the motion. >":.12). Substituting Eq. :'. displacement Z = Zo' and (ii) At time 1 = '0. According to DeAlemberfs principle.B) where AI and Az are both constant~ and conis undamped natural frequency.. '." ' force are equal to zero.' .. where Kis the spring constant and indicates the stiffness..'j.[.. F.15 ) j Now. (2. /. K Z+mZ=O ( . ..' .6 (b) shows the free body diagram offue mass m at allYinstant dunng the course~fvibra' tions.(2.'.. si~ cont + A2 C1)n '~os cont ... (iv) Inertia force..I..:'}. F.'" "": . ..13) . .For a linear system.'.. "/.'r:.c. "' Z = V0 Z :. (ii) Restoring force.'.: It is the force exerted by the spring on the mass emutends to restore the mass ."..12a) .'. 'co n ~ .. ."h' ..d".16) .restoringforce is equiJ.. tion. "'".(2. This force always acts towards the equilibrium position of the system. can be brought to static equilibrium by' introduculg on it an inertia force.'.(2. " ' C ..13) in Eq.... This force acts through the centre of gravity of the body in the direction opposite to that of accelera.' ..4. the concept of viscous damping is still used by defining an equivalent viscous damping which is obtained so that the total the energy dissipated per cycle is same as for the actual damping during a steady state of motion. " . .'nji. 'z . (i) At time t ' "' ' ~ = 0.. F (t): It is the externally applied force that causes the motion of the system. (iii) Damping force.: "'1~F"". . a body which is not in static equilibrium by virtue of some acceleration which it possess. ../'.. (2.~".!'". " ' The equilibrium of mass m gives mZ + CZ + KZ = F (t) . """':. velocity . .. We may nave the following two boundary conditions: '" . the damping force and the exciting .'.. The forces acting on the mass m are: (i) Exciting force..' to K ...14) The values of constants A I and A2 are obtained by supstituting proper boundary conditions..=: :' AI" 00. ~:. m .12b) ) Z = A I cos con The solution of this equation can be obtained by substituting" t + Az sin con t .. to its originalposition....~:J}'i". ( 2.. we get? (j)~ (AI cos (j) i + Az sin (j)nt " j+(~) (AI ~os oont + Az sin:oo~t) " =0 =:1: or . .::(2.. . ' :. Z where C is called the coefficient of viscous damping.11) which is the equation of motion of the system..(2. Z..(2.. ':.
." \ /.~. 20 = Az cos 9 V 2.(2. 2.. 0' % y. 3 ' \ e\  "~/ . ( con ) graphically  Vo . velocity and acceleration for the free vibration of a massspring system I> .0.in Eq. N One cycle Acceleration "" 1'.. 9 2lT +9 / 0 Time...20) Substitution of Eqs. .18) yields 2 = Az cos (oon t .. oN ./ TI.7..21 ) ./20 + .22) 9 = tanI 2 ~ ( con20) 2 Az = ..20) into Eq. (2..(2. V.. ' '" V " / 0 / 0 isplacement " velocity () Fig. (2. '\'..23) as shown in The displacement of mass given by Eq..9) where . = AZ sin 9 co n con Vo sin oont .(2. and 2 = 20 cos oont + .19) and (2.7 : Plot of displacement.t .. (2.20 Soil Dymunics & Machine Fo"ndations Substituting the second boundary condition. ~n ..19) . It may be noted that c+) ~ +Az :N .(2.16) A 2 =2. ' /. ..21) can be represented Fig.18) ." 2~\ 1'/ / / 0 .(2.r A Z / 2 "IT.(2. (2..17) Hence Now let. 2.. / .(2..
.27) shows that the natural frequency is a function of static deflection.. .. 2.'reory ilf Jl"l6iatiOns 21 At time t equal to Displacement Z is Az cos 8 Az 0 AZ . T 21t st =.(2.. =1. T and is therefore given by. J. 0 21t +8 AZ O)n It is evident from Fig.24) The natural frequency of oscillation.~ .(2. (K .(2. I.=~ n is given by 21t v. (2... T = 21t O)n 1" .8.. . 2. ~..!.. .~ ..27) gives a curve as shown in Fig. (2.. The magnitude of maximum displacement is Az. 0 8 (J)n 1t +8 0) n 1I+8 0) L 3 1t+8 2 (J)n . The relation of In and Os!given by Eq..(2. The time required for the motion to repeat itself is the period of vibration.81 mIs2 = staticdeflectionof the spring In I 21t Therefore  Vfut rg . 2. The nature of variation of the velocity and acceleration of the mass is also shown in Fig.... .27) Eq..n I .26) Now Where g mg ==0 W K K W = Weight of mass m °st = Acceleration due to gravity.. 9.7..7 that nature of foundation displacement is sinusoidal.25) .
. 9). 2 . Z =A e .(2..32) 2 The physical significance of this solution depends upon the relative magnitudes 'of (C/2m) and (K/m). For damped free vibration system (i.28) is givenby A.29) where A and A are arbitrary constants. . 2...4. (2. F) C ' 2 K . t .(2.. (2. Because.... ' Alt A2t Z ..2 ..22 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundiuions . The motion of the system is not oscillatory but is an exponential subsiden~~(Fig.. the excitation force Fo sin (J)t on the system is zero)..28). which determines whether the exponents are real or complex quantities.A le + A 2e Case I : >K 2m) m (~ 2 The roots AI and A2are real and negative. the differential equation of motion can be written as mZ + Cl + KZ = 0 . so much energy is dissipated .(2. The completesolutionof Eq.30) () ni A + m = 0 .28) where C is the damping constant or force per unit velocity.. (2. By substituting the value of Z given by Eq.(2..1.. :~ 40 30 ..of the relatively large damping.2 Free Vibrations With Viscous Damping.31 ) ... = .2m :i: V~~) . . we get m A A2it + C A A It + K A it = 0 C K 2 or A + By solving Eq.. The solution of Eq.e.. 4 6stat 00 6 (mm) 8 10 Fig.(2.30) C . N :I: 20 c 10 '.28) may be written as ').. 2.29) in Eq.8 : Relationship between natural frequency and static deflection 2.(2.. (2.
.(2. ~~ ~et" . Fig.(2..(2. ..36) . there is no vibratory motion.35) The system in this conditioon is known as ~ritically damped system anaC ~ is known as critical damping constant. C = C 2m ) m' (~ c .. Since the equality must be fulfilled. ".. it assumes greater significance as a measure of the damping capacity of the system. Physically this means a relatively large damping and the system is said to be over damped....This. " Tim(l.".. It is similar to oyer damped case except that it is possible for the sign to change once as shown in Fig. The roots Al and Az are equal and negative. C ~= .. 2.' The ratio of the actual damping constant to the critical damping constant... is.Cc .~.Cc' 2m .C 2JK"m_c:'fK 2m .34) Then Cc "=. (2.Cc'Vm ' By substitutingthis valueof' 2: as ~(On in Eq..(2. 2. to': Free vibrations of a vlscouslycritically damped system When = K.9 : Free vibrations ofviscously overdamped system Case 11 : (~ ) = K 2 2m m ..C Cc .31). z 2 C > 4 km .t . the solution is given by Z = (AI.. .(2.33) In this case also.case is of little importance in itself...2 ~Km".Theory of Vi!'rations 23 . . defined as damping ratio: .37) Cc 'Now C .+ Az t) le = (AI + Az t) eCt/Zm .t Fig. 2m . 2010. by the damping force that there is sufficient kinetic energy left t~ carry the mass and pass the equilibrium position. . " ' z c2=l"km Time.
(2.2 2 < K m The roots Al and Al are complex and are given by .43 ) = (01/ ~ 1. = [...i' . ".(2...(t+Zn/o>"cI) .... r .44 a) or or or ZI  0> f.21t/o)ncl = en Zz r:2 lf...!" Zz .41) can be written as I e z t)+Cz cos( (J)1I~t)] COS(J)ndt] Z = e~O)".42) . we may compute the ratio of amplitudes of the successive cycles of vibration Z L Z2 e0> "f.44 b) .40) ....(2.1 + A e. [Cl sin( (J)n~ or where Z = e~O)II' [Cl sin(J)ndt+CZ wild .41 ) or the Eq.AI e + Az e r::2 r . ~ 21t... 2.. .' 24 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations AI.:!:i~I. 2 =(_. (2.. ..1 = e0>n f. z = Damped natural frequency. [.38) Case III : (~ ) 2m AI..O).28) is given by (~+j~I~2 )O>i (~j~le )(J)"I Z .11) and the amplitude of vibration goes on decreasing in an exponential fashion. z C < 41<m 2 Fig. ..(2..11 : Free vibrations of a viscously underdamped system As a convenient measure of damping.ZI =e Znl.(2.39) .. 2.(2.44 c) .(2.'..~I~.44 d) ZI loge 22.:!:~.. The motion of the system is oscillatory (Fig..(2.21) COn . Z = e~o>"t A j"I~2 0>.(2. (2.2 ]COn The complete solution of Eq.(2..
In many cases of vibrations caused by rotating parts of machines.4. = 0 . and (ii) particular integral.tiolU . Therefore the equation of motion in this case will be : .(2. it may be convenient to measure the differences in peak amplitudes for a number of cycles.. a system is over damped if ~ > 1. . ".(2. ..~t ..45) Eq.~.~ }.. . If the damping is very small..3 Forced Vibrations Of Single Degree Freedom Syst~m.(2.. '.46) The solution of Eq.=.. if Z" is the peak amplitudes of the n.:mwhich is acted upon by a steady state sinusoidal exciting force having magnitude F and frequency 0>(i. Natural logarithm mk. . Hence or Zo.decrement." " 't~. Zn Z2 = Zo ~ . Z0.:) .441) . For this case the equation of motion (Eq.=. Let us consider the case of a single degree freedom sys~. say n. (2. In such a case. Tlreory of Vtb". ZI = eO>/"(C\sinrondt+C2cosrondt) .11) can be written as : . The particular integral is obtained by rewriting Eq. .. Z"I = eno [ Z.inF1': j'/.e.44 g) =2xn 1 I oge.48) .. :: 1 Z\ r::2 1 . . log. 111 Z + C Z + K Z = Fo Sin ro t .(2..Y. F(t) = Fosin rot)... th~ systems are subjected to periodic exciting forces.. then Zo Zl Z2 ZnI 0 .(2.45) as m 2:2+ C 22 + K Z2 = Fo sin rot where Z2 = displacement of mass m a~~nYinstant t when vibrating with forcing function.... damping of a system can be obtained from a free vibration record by knowing the successive amplitudes which are one cycle apart.(2.(2. nonhomogeneous. + C Z. ' ..(2. (~)} is called as logarith.47) Here ZI represents the displacement of mass m at any instant t when vibrating without any forcing function. m Z. V1.. .= .. 2. ~ .. 2...45) is a linear.== e where~ = 2x ~ Z\ Z2 ZJ Zn Therefore.o..~.44 e) or ~= 2x loge ~ ' As for small valuesof~. critically damped if ~ = 1 and under damped if ~ < 1.e. The solution of this equation consists of two parts namely (i) complementary function. of ratio of two successive peak amplitudes {i.z n Therefore. + K Z. ] [ Z2 ] [ Z) ] [ Z" ] 1 ~=n }: ~ I Z 0 oge Zn .' tbus. (2. second order differential equation.46) has already been obtained in the previous st?ctioIland is given by.h cycle.. The complementary function is obtained by considering no forcing function.
? 1 b) (.. ..:' " .49) ".(2..= 0"'2' '."..)2. ' c c .'! " . . . ' Kl~cd2 . Al(~ .". By substitutingJhe values 'of Al and A~"inEq::2'..{2.' " " Soil Dynamics & Mac/line Foundations The.: .I::osffi t. ' ' ." ~.'. . 0 '.CA2 00) sin 00t = Fo sin 00t ". ( m AI 00 + KAt .m A2 002+ KA2 + CA! 00).'(2. .54).53 b) t . .. Q.mm2) + C2m2 " A2 = '<c.".".. 2 " " .\~ " .57) .At 002 sin 00t ..1' " 26 "H. .m m ) + Cm" let.(2. (2.. 'sin{~t "'er "I ..:. (2.o}) .n ". .' '" " .~''.'.e) .."""""""". (2. 'J" From Eg.~ . "'. '...49. """ .48) '... ..(2.:. .i""'~' . ':22 (K . (2A8)... (2.(2.....' ""'='Fosin'ro.and " ".52 a) =0 .' ."". (2. '. (2... . we get At.sine and Cosine functions in Eq. ) F..". " 22 = AI sin 00t + A2cos 00' t where AI and A2 are two. cii1' " .CmFo (K~~2)2+c"2m2. one can obtain 22 = Eg....' ' """"'~!i1I"1!"."""".50: Considering . ..'m2t+'c2 . . .'  .'.51 a). ' (Kmoo2) Fo 2 0. ' "'.ccFo!K ..."~ ._:... arbitrary constants."'G'}""::"'. " .56) .49) in ~q. >. ..55) By substituting Eg.' ..1d.. gi'{en by'.51 a) ." ' .. ' ':°2" ~ 2 {(K'mm2)sinmicwcosmt}  '.(2.(2. (2.. . .55) in Eg..' n "'..~ . 0.A2 ID.. '" W 11 = Frequency ratio =. of Eq. Substituting Eq. m (..solution . . ... (2."" "~~".50) separately.. sin(mt ...52 b) Solving Egs.~ O. "."".. :" :.in 00t) + K (AI sin 00t + A2 cos 00t) . . "~.:' . . ' (....' ".. " .'."..(2..52 b).(2.' ." '.t':.(2.51 b) A{~W )+A2(~w2) m = : .56) may be written as 22 = Where t Fo ~(K~'.JKi{i 'Km .' . '. . t.53 a) (K . . " .. ~ .52 a) and (2. : ..'" . ' '.A2002 cos (0 t) + C (AI 00cos 00t . . (2. ~ = Dam p ing ratio =  ':Ci""..' ~(I:!12)+(2Tl~)~.A2(~ and from Eg..?' ~"" ""..8111.54) tan e = 'C 0) .
" oi . .i ..g~ven by Az = .. UI 0 ..12 Superpos.'.  ~ rr"' "'T'1iiiiii[' ~ . ..(2. '. ' ." " .with the same frequency as the forcing and the pe~ ap11'1!tu4~.. III ..".: .' . +' C ~ (. . . 211" ~ N N . . .t q E c:.'" .'.#" " :'1 i .58) ".' ..~ '~'. /' ." N "I +' C ~ . 2:i 1)'. .... "! "..'' ' E ~ u 0 a. ~(l~ 1]2)2 +(21]~)2 ".. . " . The complete solution is obtained by adding the compJimentary function and the particular integral..). .." ':~~.~.:: N +' C ~ \ 'I \ " ..' ''~. . ... < ..:iit'will die out'soon and the motion will be des~ribed by only the p~uticula:rmtegral(Fig.I u 0 a.." ~.~J'(. '. 2. Co mpl~t~ solu tion Fig.is. . 0 . " " '. .. 27 . Since the 'coriipliIne~tarYfti~l(!tioh:lsan'expJnenii~nf'decayin~ function.' '....t ~ u 0 0 E a.~~#"st'~c. Time.ition of transient and steady state vibrations i. UI ... F. :~~. " ...~\'k Theory of Vibrations ." .: The syStemwill vibrate harmonically . .) ~ Time. Transi~nt .. /K 0 '.'.."'...'.!:t>~tatcz 4... .i. 'h ..
." . .1 .59)  The variation of f. 0 u I 3 1 "0.. Fie.1 is derIDedas the ratio of the dynamic amplitude Az to the static deflection..(2...( '.' 28 SoU Dyrul". "\. the value of f.ks & Maehi"e Foundlltions The quantity FelK is equal to the static deflection of the mass under force Fo' Dynamic magnification factor.1 is maximum. "" ~>. 1.It would be seen that near 11= 1..13 : Macnlficatlon factor (J&) vcnus freqllcacy ratio (11) "0 1 . ..  .13 for different values of damping ratio ~. This is called resonance and the forcing frequency J at which it occurs is called the resonant frequency. c 0 c I I 11 0) u .c 2 c Cl 1 0 0 Frc&quc&ncy 1. f....<~i:«. .~...: .5 ratio. 2.". . and is given by ~ = ~(1112)2 1+(211~)2 . 5 ~=o t. c ..1 versus 11is shown in Fig.....
frequency : " ~ ... 2.Theory of Vibrations 29 Differentiating Eq.J \11 90°' r =0.':J ' . . Jagversus ratio for ... (2.J C'I C 0 120° c:. or ffind = ffin ~12~2 = Damped resonant frequency .14: Phase ..0 Fig...J: a. ' .0 rz.60 b) where ffind 180° 150° <D c:.' different amounts of damping .707 ~ = 05 0 .0 FrczquQncy ratio# 2.59) with respect to 11and equating to zero. 600 30 ° 0 0 '1.(2.(2.60 a) which is approximately equal to unity for small values of ~. . 3. it can be shown that resonance will occur at a frequency ratio given by 11 = ~12~2 .
2E. e = TanI 1. Fig.<'. 2. 12m~.63 ) Variation of e with respect to 11is shown in Fig. the maximum value of magnification factor is obtained.64) may therefore be written as.1 Rotating mass type excitation.48) are similar.. ~ .. _ 211E. '.55) indicates the phase difference between the motion and the exciting force: It can}e. placed at eccentricity e from the centre <.+ K Z = 2 111ero e.14 2.2 ( T\ ) '" .61 ) J...  The phase angle e given by Eq.~. (2. (2.>f rotating shaft and ro is the angular frequency of masses. its amplitude at resonance will be 10 times the static deflection. I . .lmax = 2E. .64) where m is the mass 'of foundation including 2 me' Equations (2. 2 m Z + sin rot . 2. Machines with unbalanced rotating masses develop alternating force as shown in Fig.(2.64) imd (2. .". 2. Since horizontal forces on the foundation at any instant cancel. 30 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations 'By substituting Eq.'~'.15 a. ~~ Forc~ gczn~rat~d (a) Rotating mass type excitation (b) Massspringdas~ot system Fig..(.(2.15b shows such a system mounted on elastic supports with dashpot representing viscous damping. . (2. where me is the mass of each rotating element.15 : Single degree freedom system with rotating mass type excitation The equation of motion can be written as . . . 2. except that 2 Ill" ero2 appears in Eq.60) in Eq.59). (2. C. This indicates that systems will be subjected to very large amplitudes at resonance which should be avoided.(2.3..n~s ...64) in place of Fo' The solution of Eq. the net vibrating force on the foundation is vertical and equal to 2 me ero2sin rot..writt~..) . .62) Assuming a damping of 5% in a structure.(2.~IE/ I .4. (For small values of. (2.{f.". Z . It is given by .
'. where Az (2mee/ m)'T}2 2 = I (1T}2) Since or F=2m 0 e .0 4..tJi. 2.66) 2 ...50 0.65) .0 2.. 0° 0 1.'." '. 0. ..0 0..0 3.05 I 0..'. sin (0) t + 0') .. (a) Az 1(2m~elm) versus Irequency rauo 11 180°.0 ratio.0 ' . 4..'.Iile 1. . 3.(2.eO) +(2~T}) 2 2 0)2 F (J) K = 2 me .s::.10 2.(i:'.(2.'t (b) Phase angle versus frequencYT&tio11 Fig.67) e = TanI 2T}\ 111 ( 3.oh system with rotating unbalance ..16 : Response..0 .' '<'F '" "."": Theory of Vibrations 31 Z = A.').2. . aI C7I c: 0 90° aI 0 U\ .25' a. :~. e K = 2 me . e ) (mro~) = (2 me :}T}2 .0.0 1) 5.0 Frqquqncy ratio.(2. '(D .(\~. Frequency '..0 5. '.0 . . ".0 00 1.
71 ) 2..32 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations The Eq. Z = r e2 .(2.5.(2. The curves are similar in shape to those in Fig.. the inertial force developed in a reciprocating engine or unbalanced forces produced in any other rotating machinery should be isolated from the foundation so that the adjoining structure is not set into heavy vibrations. the force will be transmitted directly to the foundation and may cause objectionable vibrations.(2. The machine is excited with unbalanced vertical force of magnitude 2 me eci sin 00t .. In either case the effectiveness of isolation may be measured in terms of the force or motion transmitted to the foundation.68).)2 2'11.sm(oot8) (1'12).68) with respect to 11and equating to zero.. 2.. Figure 2.73) w~ere 8 = TanI .69 a) 1"\= F2e or ro = 0011 .13 except that these starts from origin.72) 2 /K .69 a) in Eq...(2. (2. The variation of phase angle e with 11 is shown in Fig. 2.74) [ 1.. +(21"\1. For example. The first type is known as force isolation and the second type as motion isolation.2 By substituting Eq.. 2 m Z + C Z + KZ = 2 me eoo sin 00t The steady state motion of the mass of machine can be worked out as 2m eoo .1"\ ] .69 b) nd . (2.~11.. it can be shown that resonance will occur at a frequency ratio given by 1 . It is desirable to isolate the machine from the foun'dation through a suitably designed mounting system in such a way that the transmitted force is reduced.. Another example may be the isolation of delicate instruments from their supports which may be subjected to certain vibrations..ofmotion of the ~achine can be written as: .(2. The equation ..68) The value of A= /(2me elm) is plotted against frequency ratio 1"\ in Fig..16 a.16 b.(2... (2.1 Force Isolation.. (2.66) can be expressed in nondimensional form as given below: A~1"\2 (2mee m) / = ~ (11"\2)2+(21"\1.)2 .. .17 s~ows a machine of mass m supported on the foundation by means of an isolator having an equivalent stiffness K and damping coefficient C.2 . we get Az  l' 21. Differentiating Eq.JI=21.(2.(2.2 ( 2meelm ) max ~ . 2.5 VIBRATION ISOLATION In case a machine is rigidly fastened to the foundation. 2.70) 2\ for small damping .
"": '. C Z.' i J " "..e)+ ..':.17 : Machineisolatorroundation ' systcm The only force which can be applied to the foundation is the spring force KZ and the damping force .75).. sin(m t . J ] .P) .:.. 2."'. r".'n1. ' +(211~) p is the phase difference between the exciting force and the force transmitted to the foundation and i  P ~e =~~~l '" .(2.2me em2 /K '00 cos(mte) 2 2 +(211~) .0:"<\'. t~ (11l) 2 +(211~)2 (1112) C.. (2..76) Equation (2.. (1112) is given by . hence the total force tqmsmitted to the foundation during steady state forced vibration is Ft = KZ + CZ 2m em e 2 .76) can be written as: F t = 2me em where 2 . ' ~~~ Ma chine K 2' c K 2 Iso lata r Foundation Ground surfac~ Fig... Jl+(211~)2 2 2 ..78) ~ '.:: 33 '~. (2.'t "t" "'. .."n" coo K. sm(mt..' '1 Theory of Jlibrlltions .'"o/.73) in Eq.75) Substituting Eq.[ .(2.77) .(2.' '' . . we get F = .(2.
79) IlT is called the transmissibility of the system.0 3. is essential to maintain stability under transient conditions and to prevent excessive amplitudes when the vibrations pass through resonance during the starting or stopping of the machine. . Therefore..0 ~ =2. however.125 f 1. the presence of damping reduces the effectiveness of the isolation system as the curves for damped case are above the undamped ones for 11>12.3. A plot of IlTversus 11for different values of ~is shown in Fig.. Foundations Since the force 2 m e e ol is the force which would be transmitted if springs were infinitely rigid.. ~ =0 =0. A certain amount of damping.0 =<.125 ~ =0 ~ =0.0 . » .0 ~ 0 : 0. for the vibration isolation system to be effective 11should be greater than 12. 2.34 Soil Dynamics & Machine.(2..18: Transmissibility (J. . 4... However in this case.. It will be noted from the figure that for any frequency ratio greater than 12. oD U\ U\ . a measure of the effectiveness of the i~olation mounting system is given by . I ~ =0.5 4.18. 2.0 1'\.5 ~ =1.1r) versus freqeuncy ratio (Tt> . the force transmitted to the foundation will be less than the exciting force.E 20 III C 0 . Frczquczncyr(:itio Fig. ' Ft ~1+(211~)2 IlT =2 2 meem = ~ (1112)2 + (211~)2 .125' I  ~ =0 2.0 1.0 I 0 1.
d u (l to n (l i9 h bo u r in 9 machines Fig... .r:. Again we require a suitable mounting system so that least vibrations are transmitted to the system due to the vibrating base.+(Cro)2 sin (rol'+ ex) . 2.83) " " .(2.' tt~~7T{~:. . '.+ KZ = Yo ~K2.<"f:' '..(2..81) will give the maximum amplitude as: Z .5..' '.. . . Machina z " ..:s:". : '.:£'4/ l'.Y) + K (Z :. . In many situations..~ ...+ K Y = C (I) Y0 cos 1 . an K l:he solution of Eq. . ~1.' ". Theory of Vibrations .f "c"'" f '.'" .. Vo'~ " (l'1l2)2+(21l~l ". 2.19: Motion isolation system Let Z be the absolute displacement of mass..8?) T I CO) ex =.(2.19... ) .+(21l~)2 . Motion Isolation.80) (I) Z + K 2 ...Y) = 0 m . We consider a system mounted through a spring and dashpot and attached to the surface which vibrates harmonically with frequency (I)and amplitude Y0 as shown in Fig. Foundation . Iso lator v = Yo Sin GJt Vi brating ground..' . it would be necessary to isolate structure or mechanical systems from vibrations transmitted from the neighboring machines.. ' ' ' 35 2.:'. (2. .(2..81) .. max . :~". the equation of motion of the system can be written as: m or Z + C (2 .2.+ K Z = C Y .+ K Y0 sin (I) 1 or h ere m Z'+ C 2.': .
It has very high damping and so is suitable in the range of low frequency ratio. Cork.5.18. as closely as possible.4.6 N per sq mm. velometers or accelerometers.20 shows a Vibration measuring instrument which is used to measure any of the vibration phenomena... It is found very s' ".3. It has negligible damping and so is suitable for working in the range of high frequency ratio. 2.Felt. The maximum temperature upto which rubber can be used satisfactorily is about 65°c. Figure 2. Cork is very useful for accoustic isolation and is also used in small pads placed underneath a large concrete block. the vibration phenomenon. Materials Used In Vibration Isolation. For satisfactory working it must be loaded from 10 to 25 N/sq mm.2.2 illustrating motion isolation..y. Materials used for vibration isolation are rubber.79) obtained earlier. velocity or acceleration of the vibrating system and accordingly the instrument which reproduces signals proportional to these are called vibrometers. its properties change with the frequency of excitation. There are essentially two basic systems of vibration measurement. The system reduces to a spring mass dashpot system having base on support excitation as discussed in Art. it must be designed in such a way that T\> . 2.1. The effectiveness of each depends on the operating conditions. It is not affected by oil products or moderate temperature changes. (2. 1. felt.3.6 THEORY OF VIBRATION MEASURING INSTRUMENTS The purpose of a vibration measuring instrument is to give an output signal which represents.5.3. It is again noted that for the vibration isolation to be effective.5. Its damping and stiffness properties vary widely with applied load. 2. Transmissibilityof such system can also be studied from the response curves shown in fig. The second system.ble for high frequency vibrations. 2.18E:. the latter mode gives higher flexibility. Rubber is loaded in compression or in shear. However. . Metallic springs. 1. Rubber. Metallic springs are not affected by the operating conditions or the environments. This phenomenon may be displaceme~t. One method is known as the directly connected system in which motions can be measured from a reference surface which is fixed.5.(2.3. They are quite consistent in their behaviour and can be accurately designed for any desired conditions. With loading greater than about 0.3.5. 36 SoU Dynamics & Machine Foundations The effectiveness of the mounting system (transmissibility) is given by . cork and metallic springs. known as "Seismic system" does not require a fixed reference surface and therefore is commonly used for vibration measurement. it undergoes much faster deterioration.fi. It must not be used in presence of oil which attacks rubber.84) ~T . Felt is used in compressfun only and is capable of taking extremely high loads. 2. More often such a reference surface is not available. shape factor.3. excitation frequency and the amplitude of vibration.~(1T\2)2+(2T\~)2 Equation (2.Zmax ~ ~1 + (2T\~)2 . The frame is mounted on a vibrating body and vibrates al~ng with it.84) is the same expression as Eq.5. temperature. . They have high sound transmissibility which can be reduced by loading felt in conjunction with it. It consists of a frame in which the mass ~ is supported by means of a spring K and dashpot C. It is mainly used in conjunction with metallic springs to reduce noise transmission. 2.
then the output of the instrument will be proportional to X = 2 .TJ2)2 + (2T1~l ill .(2. let 2 be the absolute displacement of the mass. 2.(~ z m K c y = Yo Sin '>t Fig.>' J! = ~1. «(0 t . 11 = = frequency ratio (On e) ... Subtracting m Y from both sides.(2. The equation of motion of the system can be written as m Z + C (Z . .Y) = 0 ...TJ2)2+ TJ (2TJ~)2 Yo sin «(0 t(0.S7) where  ~ = damping 1 ... The output of the instrument will depend upon the relative motion between the mass and the structure.(2.TJ2 ) ..(1. = 1)2.8S) .. since it is this relative motion which is detected and amplified.8) (2. m X + C X + K X = ..Y) + K (2 ... 2 .S7)ca~ be rewrittenas: .J! Y0 sin .°1 ">.:.86) . Thtory of VibratiOns 37 .20 : Vibration measuring instrument Let the surface S of the structure be vibrating harmonically with an unknown amplitude Y 0 and an unknown frequency (0.Y.ratio 2 TJ~ and e = tanEquation(2. X where ( 1.SS) ..m Y = m Y0(0 sin (0 t The solution can be written as 2 X = ~ (1.
The variation of8 with 1'\ is already given in Fig.I t \ \0 . Or in other words. The instrument will read the displacement of the structure directly if I and 8 = O..1 is approximately equal to unity for small values of 1'\. .The variation o{Tl~ with~'aiid'~is shown in Fig.)n 1.1 = Pickup. 4. 2. 1 0 .1 is approximately equal to 1 and 8 is approximately equal to 180°.0 I I I  " 2 0 ... The instrument can not be used for measurement of strong vibrations.0 ratio. 1'\21.' . 1'\should be large which means that the natural frequency of the instrument itself'shou~d be low compared to the frequency to be measured.1 with 1'\and. 2..6.1 is constant. ' 2 .21 : Response of a vibration measuring instrument to a vibrating base 2..0 FrequClncy 3. . Therefore to design a displacement pickup. I X =2 (J. Figure 2.  3.. .. Soil Dynamics & Machine . The instrument is sensitive. 11should be small which means that th~' " "." '" Foundlltions .13 shows the variation of J.Therefore to design an acceleration pickt!p. .2.14.2.88) can be rewritten as .. It is seen that J. . Displacement 1121.1. the instrument should have a soft spring and heavy mass.38.89) The output of the instrument will be proportional to the acceleration of the structure if J. '1.(2.0 Fig.. .. Acceleration Pickup (Accelerometer). 0 0 1. It is seen"'tnatwneifff is" large.. flimsy and can be used in a weak vibration environment.21. Equation (2.~'n'7""~:"'"""'" .0 5..1 Yoro sin (rot ..8) .0 2. 2.'1::' 'lr~r\f .6.
. acceleration pickups are to be favoured. The instrument is less sensitive and suitable for the measurement of strong motion. They are relatively less sensitive and this disadvantage can easily be overcome by high gain electronic instrumentation.91) con 2 ':1 .88) can be rewritten as 1 X = . the system as a whole h~s as many degrees of freedom as there are masses.electrical gauging.: atTl = 1. the instrument will measure the velocity at 11= 1. The output of the instrument will be proportional to velocity of the structure if ~ At 11 = 1. corrections have to be made in the observations as the response is not flat in the starting regions.. even if each mass is constrained to have one degree of freedom. Design of Acceleration Pickup. In many engineering problems. Xa Y if TI» 1 Displacement pickup (Vibrometer~) .7.6. Further. sturdiness and ease of calibration.elerationpickups. .. In other words. . In systems when there are a number of masses con~ected with each other.. Calibration of these pickups is not simple. the instrument should have a stiff spring and small mass. 2.(2. X a Y if 11= 1 Velocity pickup (Velometers) Displacement and velocity pickups have the disadvantage of having rather a large size if motions having small frequency of vibration are to be measured.7 VIBRATION OF MULTIPLE DEGREE FREEDOM SYSTEMS In the preceding sections..1= . vibrations of systems having single degree of freedom have been discussed.. . ô dyn. one may come across the systems which may have more than one degree of freedom.3 Velocity Pickup. ' 2.90) 111l is a constant.(2.!mic analysis of multistoreyed ø . acceleration and velocity in different frequency ranges.<.4. Of the various methods of measurement of relative displacement. Electrical gauging offers the possibility of high magnification of ~e signals which are usually weak because the spring is stiff and the displacements are small. .1 ~ Yo(J) sm (0)10) ... Eq.6. Such an idealization is done for carrying out buildings. 2.75 an4 ~ is of the order of 0. the mass an~ the support would be a measure of the support acceleration ifTl is less than 0. .l quantity alters either the resistance.90) can be written as O)n 1 . 2~ Since O)nand ~are constant. Two degrees freedom cases arise when the foundation of the system is yielding thus adding another degree of freedom or a spring'mass system is attached to the main system to reduce its vibrations. . The relative displacem~nt between. The instrument size is small.6 to 0. Equation (2. flat frequency response.0) COn .TIJ!Y0 (J)sin «(J) 1 .. From the point of view of small size. or capacitance or the inductance of the circuit which consequently alters the current in the circuit. X = 1 It may be noted that the same instrument can be used to measure displacement.<~ Theory of Vibrations 39 natural frequency of the instrument itself should be high compared to the frequency to be measured. (2.:in 'whIch {he mechanical quantity is converted into an equivalent electrical quantity is best suited for a~. . X a Y if 11 « lAcceleration pickup (Accelerometers) . . The mechanica. f.
.22<.22b shows such an idealization and it gives a four degrees of freedom system. into Eqs. If all adjacent masses vibrate out of phase with each other (Fig. Let Z\ be the displaceuent of mass ml and Z2 the displacement of mass m2' The equations of motion of the system can be written: In t Z\ + Kt ZI + K2 (Z\ 1nl Z2 + K3 Zl + K2 (Z2  Z2) =0 .(2.(2.95).(2.)A2 = 0 .(2. The restoring forces are provided by the supporting systems.97)  K2 Al + (~ + KJ .(2.94) and (2. (2..221'show the four modes of vibration. the mode is termed the highest mode of vibration and the frequency associated with this mode would be highest in magnitude compared to other modes.(2. in general.K2A2 =0 . 2.7.. In free vibration a system having four degrees of freedom has four natural frequencies and the vibration of the any point in the system.. 2.22c). Figure 2. (2.1. (2.. yields: (KI + K2 . and these are known as the principal modes of vibration.23 shows a massspring system with two degrees of freedom. 2. any point in the system may execute harmonic vibrations at any of the four natural frequencies. (b) Idealisation (c) First mode (d) Second mode (e) Third mode (t) Fourth mode Fig. Under certain conditions....) = 0 The solution of Eqs.22 a shows the frame work of a four storeyed..1.96) .''i. 40 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations . Two Degrees of Freedom Systems.22 : A four storeyed frame with mode shapes Figure 2.93).9S) .93 ) . building.92) and (2. 2. = A2 sin ro" t Substitution of Eqs.to 2..1.92) and (2.93) will be of the following form: ZI=A\sinro.( Z2 . If all the masses vibrate in phase (Fig.92) . is a combination of four harmonics of these four natural frequencies respectively.. the mode is termed the first or lowest or fundamental mode of vibration and the frequency associated with this mode would be the lowest in magnitude compared to other modes. 2.Z.m2 C1).ml C1)~) Al .22£).. Undampedfree vibration: Figure 2..94 ) . (a) Four storeyed frame .7. part of the supporting system (columns) above and below the floor and effective live load. It is usual to lump the masses at the floor levels and the lumped mass has a value corresponding to weight of the floor. Figure 2.
23 : Free vibration of a two degrees freedom system For nontrivial solutions of oon in Eqs. (2...!.. 2 Kt + K2 mt ron K2 .. ìï ~!'\Wm ~heory of Vibrations ×¦ô Æï ÕîøÆÆóÆ´÷ Jz~Z2 Fig.~ ro n 21 =0 .  11 iiii .K2 ~K3 + 2 KI +K2 m) K2 +K3 2 + 4 K~ [( m) "'2 ) {( ~ ) mj ~ } ] .I .(2.100). 2. (2.99) Equation (2.97). two valuesofnatura!~!!e9~~ncies oon)and oon2 can be obtained. con)is corresponding to the fIrst mode and COn2 is of the second mode.(2.K2 or K2 + K3 . ..100) From Eq. n and the roots of this equation are: 1/2 ro~= .99) is quadratic in ro2.96) and (2..!) 00: _ Kt + K2 + K2 + K3 O)~+ K) K2 + K2 K3 + K3 K) . K) +K2:t.= 0 [ m) ~ ] ml~ .f2 9.
(2..24 : Forced vibration of a two degrees freedom system .Z\) (2. (2..". equations of motion will be: ml Zt + Kt Zt + K2 (Zl . '.1."'2 ffin2 (2) 2 K A2 KJ + K2 .105) ...106 = 0 F0 sin G.m) ffin2 2 ....(2.)tl 21 22 ..96) and (2.102) 2 sin (0n I t + A(2) 2 sin (0n2 t The superscripts in A represent the mode.. Fig.101) Z 2 = A(I) .(2.103j . 42 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundatiofls The general equation of motion of the two masses can now be written as Z I = A (I) I sin (0nl t + A (2) I sin (0n2 t .7..K2 + KJ .K2 +KJ "'2 ffinJ (i)2K A2 KI+K2mlffinl 2 (2)' 2 AI K2 . The relative values of amplitudes AI and A2 for the two modes can be obtained using Eqs.y ..97).. 2.(2.10{ 2. Consider the system shown in Fig. 2.. Undamped forced vibrations.(2. In this case.Z2) = Fo sin (0 t 1n2 Z2 + KJ Z2 + K2 (Z2 ..2. Thus and (0 2 Al K2 .24 with excitation force Ft sin (0 t acting on mass ml.
23) = 0 m3 23 ... (2.113) .(2.'" "' .... The denominator of the two equations is same....108) in Eqs. Undamped free vibrations: Consider a system shown in Fig. . .. .107) and (2. .1110) and (2.(2... 2.111 a) mlrnz  ml rnz co  KI+Kz [ ( ml ) co + z KIKz+KzK3+K3KI ] ...(2. "'. ..105) and (2.. .111b) IS of the same type as the expression of natural frequency given by Eq.. Z3 . 2n are the displacements of the respective masses at any instant..7.. . the solutions will be as 21 = Al sin 00t .7..: 0 . ' 2.. .c"" '.(2. If Z \' 2z.. 2.. .106).99).(2.. . . .114) mz 2z .(2..Zz) =0 .. .110) = 4 (Kz +K3 rnz co ) Fo + Kz+K3 rnz .mz 00) Az = 0 Solving for AI and Az from the above two equations.....8. ..Kn (2n  I '. co.23) + K4 (23 . .. .~.. .107) . . 2.Kz Az = Fo z ..(2..2z) + K3 (2z .1.. . (2. . (ii) The numerator of the expression for Al becomes zero when Cl) = /K2 rnz +KJ) ..2.leory of Vibrations 43 For steady state. then equations of motion are: rn.Kz(Z( .. 2( + K( Z\ + Kz (ZI . n . Therefore at 00 = oolll and Cl) = Cl)nZ values of A laud Az will be infinite as the denominator will become zero. '. . System With n Degrees of Freedom.(2. .109) .. :'.. No such stationary condition exists for mass ml' The fact that the mass which is being excited can have zero amplitude of vibration under certain conditions by coupling it to another spring mass system forms the principle of dynamic vibration absorbers which will be discussed in Art.(2.. .24) ..'~'.ml 00) AI . .... .. .. .. (2.108) 2z = Az sin 00t Substituting Eqs. . It may be noted that: (i) The expression inside the bracket of the denominator of Eqs..(2.K3 (2z .. ". .. .116) ". .. (2.. . .... . . we get z AI .(2. ... as a function of 00... we get Z (KI + Kz .. .2.112) 0 Thus it makes the mass ml motionless at this frequency.11Ib) Ã and Az = mlrnz K3Fo 4 co [  KI+Kz ( ml + Kz+K3 rnz ) co + Z' KIKz+KzK3+K3KI m\rnz The above t\VOequations give steady state amplitude of vibration of the ~wo masses respectively. . mn 2n .25 having ndegree of freedom.2n) =0 .Kz AI + (Kz + K3 ..115) '.
181:.25: Undamped free vibrations of a multidegree freedom system . 2.J 44 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations Z1 Z2 Z3 Kn 1 Zn1 Zn Fig.
...124).125) is of nthdegree in CI). . .~jgit for determ41ation of frequencies and mode sh<1pes becomes tedius... (2.120) Substitution of Eqs... 0 '" (KnmnIDn) Equations (2. .(2.... .'T vi degreeS of freedom exceeds three.116)...mJ ID ~] A) . (2. :"""'.(2....125) . .::. (2. ..~.. ..125).. (2. .113) to (2. .] K) 0 '" [ (KI + Kz) . yields: [(KI+K2)mIID~] AIK2~ K2A1 + [(K2+K))~ID~] A2KJAJ =0 =0 ...117) to (2..ml ID.. '...124) For nontrivial solutions of oonin Eqs.!n~".>.."'... ...(2..... ... (2....."t. When the numht..124) by using. .~es are invariably resorted to in such cases..(2._~ ........121) ..] K2 0 0 0 0 Kn 0 0 0 2 =0 (2. Holzer's numerical technique is a convenient method of solving the problem for the system idealized as sho~ in Fig. Numerical techJ'iG...~ ~:==E'~. . The mode shapes can be obtained from Eq..113) to (2..(2.n rA'. ..I + (Kn mnID~) An = 0 . at one time....2.."'" "'...(2... the problem of forming the frequency equation and s01"..: " ~::===.:=C°':"~". and therefore gives n values of con corresponding to n natural frequencies... .... .118) ....'::............117) .122) . By sUI11II1iPgJfotces at free end... .....121) to (2..(2..119) ~ Theory of Vibrations The solution of Eqs.120) into Eqs. Zn = An sin cont ........ one of the various values of conas obt1incd from Eq.26. (2..KJ Az + [(KJ + K4) .. ...~. Kn An . 2.._.121) to (2.... 'O". .::..'F.K4 A4 = 0 . ..123) . Kz [(Kz+KJ)~ID.".116) will be of the follow:"'~ IO':n: ZI = Al sin cont Z2 = A2 sin cont Z) = AJ sin cont . 45 .(2...'~.
.1) Equating Eqs.127) iI .26 : An idealised multidegree freedom system Inertia force at a level below mass mi . 1 11 m. we get I'i~'t mi .. (2.. m.129).129) amplitudes.128) Spring force at that level corresponding to the difference of adjoining masses = K...126) .(2.(2. iI .I .Ai .(2.If 46 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations ..can be obtained . .J K1 m1 m1 Z1 I ml m2 Zz K2 m3 Z3 .z...ZiI) Putting Zi = Ai sin (()t in Eq..1 m. Starting with any (0~ would Equation (2.1.pfQ). 1 .126) and (2. J m i+1 I ~_1 . 2.Ai or .129) gives a relationship b~tween any two succ~sive arbitraryvalueof AI' amplitudeof all othermassescanbe deterinined. 1K.. A plot of An + 1 versus have the shape as shown in Fig..27.. L. (2.' ( U)~ sin U)n t) = Ki  I (Ai sin (Unt .I sin (Unt) '2 Ai = AiI  K U) n "iI A iI £.(2. K.. = ". .127) . by substituting the correct value of (O~in Eq. (2.I ( Z... Kj1(ZjZi1) Fig.. various val~~s... Z. Finally An + I should worked out to zero' ~ue to fIXityat the base. The intersection of the curve with (0~ axis would give $ape. 1. Lj=lmjZi = KiI (Zi.J=I } } ..j=lmj j . 2.128).. .~ode .
...135) or n (r)'.r d + I n (r) .. The individual modal response would be some fraction of the total response with the sum of fractions being equal to unity.'" ...133) Under free vibrations.0 2 wn1 Fig. then for mass mj' Z. If the factors by which the modes of vibration are multiplied are represented by the coordinates d.A.2. it can be shown ~ Kij A j 1=1 r=1 n (r)  2 (r) oonr mj Aj ...130) where i = 1..1 d r . n (r) . (2.(2. t 0 1. Forced vibration. ... + A.3... . 'I A.n . we get ImjAj n (r) . n 2 (r) dr + I oonrmjAj dr r=l Fj(t) Fj(t) .133).136) l' ... Z. + I I I =1 K. ' = I r=l A~r) ' d r .'T .~ ""}' ")J'!!I~' ..0 ' ~ ...dr) r=l . (2..132) Substituting Eq.Theory of Vibrations 47 1.~7: 2 ""nz Residual a~a flinction of frequency in Holzer method 2.131 ) Equation (2. n r=1 r=1 j=l t I K.2. Let an undamped n degree of freedom system be subjected to forced vibration. .F. (2.7. ( t) .131) can be written as n Z...(2.n IJ ) = F.(2.(2. 2 ImjAj (dr+oonr. .)2 n.134) Substituting Eq.(2.(2) d2 (r) (n) d + .132) in Eq. + A. ( ) .(2. The amplitude of vibration of a mass is the algebraic sum of the amplitudes of vibration in various modes. Z..134) in Eq.. I A.2. J c: ~« ~ 1: J + (. and Fj (t) represents the for~e on mass mr The equation of motion for the mass mj will be n m.(2.. 1 dr +.(1) d 1 + A.. (2.130) Im.
141) yields õ Õ õ Ka)KaAZ KnAI + Az (mnO}Z+ Kn) =0 óóþ ó þ þþóþùòóþóò ..142) .8 UNDAMPED DYNAMIC VIBRATION ABSORBER A system on which a steady oscillatory force is acting may vibrate excessively. 2. Let F...(2.. bringing the main system to rest..A~r) Z (2.. The equations of motion of the complete system can be written as: MZ1 + KZI + Ko (ZIZZ) = Fa sin rot =0 .137 a) "J  where fr (t) is the modal force and given by Ili fr(t) = i~1 (t) . z dr + O}nrd.137 a) in Eq.144) (2. Let the combination of K and M be the schematic representation of the main system under consideration with the force F0 sin CJ}t acting on it.143) .. (2.(2.(2.~. =fr (t) Equation (2..145) moZZ+Ka(ZIZZ) The forced vibration solution will be of the form ZI = Al sin rot ~ Al (M0}2 = Az sin rot = Fa Substitution of Eqs. The d's are termed as normal coordinates and this approach is known as normal mode theory. Therefore the total solution is expressed as a sum of contribution of individual modes.=1 Substituting Eq.mass (auxiliary) absorber system is attached to the main system as shown in Fig. (2.140) and (2.142) and (2..137 b) Lm[(A~r»)] . This forms the principle of undamped dynamic vibration absorber where the excitation is finally transmitted to the auxiliary system. uncouples the n degree of freedom system into n systems of single degree of freedom. 48 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations Since the left hand side is a summation involving different modes of vibration.. (2.(2.(2.138) = J fr Ct) sinO}nr(t 1:) dt where 0 < 1:< I ..(2. (t) be expanded as: Fj (t) = r=1mj A~r) fr n i (t) .143) in Eqs...(2. 2.28.. especially when close to resonance. the right hand side should also be expressed as a summation of equivalent force contribution in corresponding modes. we get .136). A spring .139) 0}nr 0 It is observed that the coordinate d.138) is a single degree freedom equation and its solution can be written as 1 dr I (2..140) . Such excessive vibrations can be eliminated by coupling a properly designed spring mass sytem to the main system. (2.141) .
2 .. <. ro~ = M = Natural frequency of mam system m Ilm = ..148) ."'..Jl..147) for At and A2' we get Cil ' .Theory of Vibrations ..146) . 2.49 Z2 ma Absor ber syst <z m Ka Z1 M Main syst<zm Fig.(2. = Si n' L " ". ."..'.02 n) K{/ A 2  K A2 =Z SI . "~t'u'". 2 ro ro ' no ~ K  2 ro' 2 ron ' K ~ . ". Solving Eqs. (2.146) and (2.... i . (2. K = Staticdeflectionof main system Ka == Natural freqeuncy of the absorber ma ro K .144) and (2.145) can be written as AI (1 K{/ +<i K <..28 : Vibration absorber Subtituting: F ZSl 2 na = 2.J I "...(2. rona )( 1+ K" ) K' ...  ( ld"2.(2. M = Mass ratio = Absorber massIMain mass The Eqs. ~t. " ...". .147) and = ( 1:~: äò±²¿ ) 1.
.Jlm OOna I ) 00' The denominators of Eqs.149) i . it is evident from Eq. 00= oon'But for the absorber to be effective.. (2.K Zst .: 1. Hence.. Therefore.150) Thus the absorber system vibrate in such a way that its spring force at all instmts is equal and opposite to F0 sin 00 t. .149) gives Az .(2... Eqs. Let when00= oonl' the denominators becomes zero. At a value of 00when these denominators are zero the two masses have infinite amplitudes of vibration.~ . (2.(2...148) that Al = 0 indicating that the main mass does not vibrate at all.y OO"a 00') ( 1+ Jlm.~' lithe natural frequency oonaof the absorber is chosen equal to 00 i..149) become: 1...oon Ko =K M t"'m ma or .152) and (2.. .. the absorber is known as a tuned absorber.153) are identical. ~.148) and (2..oo~ ) ~ (1. Further Eq. (2. for the effectiveness of the absorber at the operating frequency corresponding to the natural frequency of the main system alone.(2. The addition of a vibration absorber to a main system is not much meaningful unless the main system is operating at resonance or at least near it.(2.Ka or Az Ka = ..K Zst .y. ~. .151 a) oona = .=Ii K M .151 e) When the condition enumerated in Eqs.(2..50 SoU Dynamics & Machine Foundlltions K ~~ ~ . (2. (2.153) ~: = ( 1.(2.. there is no net force acting on main mass M and the same therefore does not vibrate.(2.152) ( OOna 00') ( 1+ Jlm...Jlm OO~aOOna 00' J .151 b) K m !L=!!.y.e. For this condition the expression for the denominators can be written as  ..y~ J .. Under these conditions. frequency of the excitatipn force. 00should be equal to 00 na .151) is fulfilled. we have or .. For a tuned absorber...002 ( ~.OO~a ro')(1+ ~.
0 0.6 _1.30 fora valueof ~'" = 0.4 ~ (1+~2m )~J~m+~4~ . it is evident that greater the mass ratio. the system will work efficiently. (2.154) is quadratic in <0. It may be noted that by adding the vibration absorber.(2. (2.6 0 0.2 Mass 0.Theory of Vibrations 51 OOnt ( OOna) 4<2+llm) OOnt ( <Ona ) 2 +1 =0 . Any change in the exciting frequency will shift the operating point from the optimum point and the main system response will no longer be zero.155) 1.{2.154) gives: (:J 1.152) and (2. The frequency response curve for the mainsystemis shownin Fig.8 0. These two frequencies are the natural frequencies of the 3ystem.4 ratio 0.2. (2.Im 0.. Now I :::w...1' and therefore there are two values of oonl for which the denominators ofEqs. Now if the exciting frequency is absolutely constant.29: Natural frequency ratio versus mass ratio The relationships of Eq.155) is plotted in Fig.' Hr. The dotted curves shown actually mean that the amplitude is negative or its phase difference with respect to the exciting force is 1800. From this plot. It can be noticed from this figure that by attaching a vibration absorber {oona= (On)to the main system vibrating at resonance reduces its vibration to zero. 2. greater is the spread between the two resonant frequencies.154) The Eq.2. .29.6 }. 2.153) become zero. Solution of Eq. we have introduced two resonant points instead of one in the original system. (2.2 _ 33 1 c c ° 1..8 Fig.
20 z 1. }Jm=0.29.5 1.. 2. After deciding the spread between the resonant frequencies. Such an absorber system is called a damped dynamic vibration absorber.!IIZ~ 52 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations if the variation of the exciting frequency is such that the operating point shifts near one of the new resonant points. (2. 2.156) nl ( (J) //(/ ) . then amplitudes will be excessive.5 2.(2.154) can also be written as ~m J~)lr 2 (J) ..30 : Response versus frequency of a vibration absorber The Eq.. a proper value of !J. Undamped dynamic vibration absorbers are not suitable for varying forcing frequency excitation. Thus depending upon the variation of the exciting frequencies the spread between the two resonant frequencies has to be decided to remain reasonably away from the resonant points.0 0 0 0. <I~ 4. it is advantageous to introduce a damping device in the absorber system..)n l øòË²¿ \ '1.0 G.0 2. To make the vibration absorber effective over an extended range of frequencies of the disturbing force.m can be chosen from the curve of Fig.5 Fig. 8 6 .
.) 10(oispl.5 t Determine the maximwn an~ minimum )~1itude periodic motion.0 rad/s and 0. 10 ro and 10 ro2 respectively.Theory of Vibrations 53 t ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLEs! Example 2. ~/z 2.0 and O. The phase difference is such that the velocity vector leads the displacement vector by 1t/2 and the acceleration vector leads the velocity vector by another 1t/2.!. velocity and acceleration vectors at time t = 0.."~'. and the time period of the Z2 (mm) = 21 sin 8.~. I 20 (V el.1) 21t 21t Time period == 2 = 1t s ill === 41ts ill (0. Figures 2. 10(OlspL) ( b) CV= 0.31 a and 2..31 : Vector diagram (Example 2.) 40 (Accln.0 rod/sec s(Vel.0 rad/s for ro Time perIod = 0. . ~~tm~f~dJ "T'f:ifrir" """"". the motions Zl (mm) = 20 sin 8.'.5 rad/s.) .) ".5 rod I se c Fig. and ro = 2.<f:..:F.'!.1 The motion of a particle is representedby the equationz = 20 sin rot..) = 2.S(Acc!n.5 rad/s Example 2..) (a) G. 2..?Orad/s respectively.':.simultaneously.20 ro sin ro t = 20 ro sin (w t + 1t) l The magnitudes of displacement.31 b show the three vectors for ro = 2..0 t of the combuled motion.. Solution: Z = 20 sin rot Z = 20 ro cos rot = 20 ro sin rot + ~ ) 2 2 Z =.~~ '111"" .5) 21t 21t for ro = 2.:Jijj~ .2 A body performs. velocity and acceleration vectors are 10. Show the relative positions and magnitudes of the displacement.
.. determine the natural frequency of the system if Kt = 1000 N/m Kz = 500 N/m KJ = 2000 N/m K4 = Ks = 750 N/m Mass of the body = 5 kg Solution: Let Ket and Ke2represent respectively the effective stiffnesses of the top three springs and the lower two springs. ~ 21t 20 1 ~1O4 Example 2.__. = 3....57 s Example 2. 'Fig.0 1= 21t 21t 0. 1000 500 2000 0.0795 Hz.  I . = 21 . then K1 KZ K3 1 Kel = ++Kt 1 1 1 KJ K4.54 Soil Dynamics & Machine 'Foundations Solution: Z max = 21 + 20 = 41 mm Z mm . 2. K = W ~\t 20 x 9.....0.32:"MuHpriags system ~ .5 = 41t = 12. causes a static deflection of 20 mm.0035 ".. KS Kz =~+~+~._. Find the natural frequency of the system.32.20 = 1 mm The beat frequency is given by 8..58.5 = 21t = 0.6 Hz. ~_'". Solution: Stiffness of the spring.~.3 A mass of 20 kg when suspended from a spring. 2.....4 For the system shown in Fig..81 ::::104 N/m K = 20xl0J 1[K Natural frequency. and T = 2. ..In = 21t V.
0 rad/s ID n i. 4.. . Example 2...1 ~=C=0.x0. ".."K. .". Determine the amplitude and phase angle when a force F = 3 sin 4 t acts on the system..0 .6mm.g""~.92 times.195 TII = 2..u ..7 N/m f..5 A vibrating system consists of a mass of 5 kg.:: 285.0 = 3."".27t.. . the period of vibration was found to be 2.319 Ns/m J: C 0.'"" '. therefore effective stiffness.. =..'! 3.0 S 21t 21t (lJ n (lJ = T = '2 = 3. Solution: (i) Cc = 2 ~km = 2J5x 103 x 5 = 0.= = 0. 27t~ ZI 10 .~2 or. ~ 1.~~ . 5.313 = 2. Determine (i) damping ratio and (ii) logarithmic decrement.0. . a spring stiffness of 5 N/mm and a dashpot with a damping coefficient of 0.~ ~~.2 ~ = 0..273 F 3.~ 1. Fo =.7 21tV.1 Ns/m. The unit of the force is Newton. n ~ ~.313 c . Ke = Kel + Ke2:...14 = 1. ..~...0 t:<.:' radls T1 ='~'= .<...92 Z2 Therefore the free amplitude in the next cycle decreases by 7.:.319=0.. (ii) = loge Z2 = loge 3 = 1.0N.14 = 4. ".0 3.07 eZ 2 = 7...fi.'~ ""'~. .. 55 Kel = 285. .. When the mass was displaced and released.' . and the ratio 01 the consecutive amplitudes was 10/3.. 21t 5.. Solution: i.6 A mass attached to a spring of stiffness of 5 N/mm has a viscous damping device..~.'.. '.0 s. ...'>.l = 2.'."...:....' .07 .. (i) . AsI = 9..3132 Z log ::.7 + 1500 = 1785. (in Lograthimic decrement 27t~ = ~ 1 ~2 . /K = ~~1785..e."...7 N/m Ke2 = K4 + Ks = 750 + 750 = 1500 N/m  Theory of Vibratimrs Now Kel and Ke2are two springs in parallel..0Hz Example 2.
Fig.273 2 ) = 141. ~Q... I I f1 I 14 fn 18 Ifl 22 .755llll11 ~(11. n. E 0. 2. Asl = Static Deflection " .195 x 1.05 I I I I I I I I I I 0.58). ~ (111) 2 t+(2~11) '.2732)2 +(2 x.04 10 .195 11.0f (Z xci to t ion. A response curve as shown in Fig. A Soil Dynamics & Machine' Foundations Az =. 12 ~ 11 ~ 2 ( 2/n J factor ~ is given by the followingexpres  Where 11 and 12 frequencies at which the amplitUdeis 1/. .dependent excitation the damping ): . .6 .56 From Eq.J2 times the peak amplitude.: .084 0.33: Determination of viscous damping in forced vibrations by Bandwidth method .273)2 e = T an ( r = Tan ( 111 ) Example 2.33 is obtained. 2. .4° S1On: .. 24 Hz F r (Z q u (Z n c y .08 C:I "'0 E E " 0. Solution: In a forced vibration test.07 ::J  c.7 Show that.06 et 0.09 Amox = 0. in frequency 211~ 1' 2 x 1. 2. 0. ' = I . the system is excited with constant force of excitation and varying frequencies.!. (2.273 x 0. 0.0. .
0.784 .. Example 2.5 'innl ~st . . then fr~m Eq.~ "'.8 .'.042 mm ~'\." Th~o.J. 00= = ~KI m = .'.5 '~(1'3582)2 +(2 x 3. 184 x 103 100 (J)II .'/ . V 21t " ==87.7 rad/s x 50 = 314 rad/s = 3. Assuming a damping factor of 0. determine (i) the amplitude of motion due to unbalance.J2' 2~ = 4(1 :"112)2 +4~2 ~2 or 1142112 (1 2~2) + (1.. .59. ~~~.8~J) = 0 or 11~. we get I 1 .'. .2 112 111 = 4~~1~2 = 4~ = Il. .112 = 12.2~2):f:2~~1 + ~2 Now Also 11~11i 1. " " ". " 00 ..~"F. 11 = 1 ana A~I Zst 57 = 1/2 ~ (for small values of ~). ~ 87.314 =.11 In2 [for small values of~] 12+ I.. 'Solution: ( i) .2)2 = 0.11 2 ( In ) This methodfor determiningviscous damping is knownas the band width method. Now ~ ~ ..'n .58 '. 2. . .' cc:  .7" Fi) '392 '= 0.. ...~2l'+(2T\~) .. If the frequency ratio is T\when 1 amplitude of motion is 1/.Az == 4(~.  2 = .20. ..!s At resonance.. '  '. '. : :'?it .. .' ':. A machine of mass 100 kg is supported on springs of total stiffness of 784 N/mm. In ( In since )( In ) = 2 I 2 . UJln. The machine produces an unbalanced disturbing force of 392 N at a speed 50 c/s.of v~. = 2 ~=! Iz .2= ~[2(12~2):t~4(12~2)2_4(18~2)] . (1 . and (iii) the transmitted force. Therefore ( In ) 12 + f .58 x 0.[i times the peak amplitude.. (ii) the transmissibility.
2)2 .58 x 0.15 1 + 4112 x (0.10 A seismic instrument with a natural frequency of 6Hz is used tomeasure the vibration of a machine running at 12.95 = 47.7 rad/s K = m (47.7)2 =:= 2. Also ~etermine the magnitude of the transmitted force. Neglect damping.25)2] or 114  12.43. The motor was mounted on an isolatorwith damping factor of 0." = 3. Example 2.~(13.15 x 22. Determine the stiffness of the isolator spring such that 15% of the unbalanced force is transmitted to the foundation.5 N.25.582)2 +(2 x 3.95 = 3..15)2 [(1 r 112)2+ (211 x 0.JK/ m = 3. Example 2. .58XO.95 i. Solution: (i) Maximum force generated by the motOi = 2 me eo:? = 7.e. The in~trumentgives the reading for th~r~lative displacement of the seismic mass as 0. I.84112 .44 = 0 (0 It gives Therefore 11= 3.0 x 0. or ~ (1 112)2+ (211~)2 .15 .05 mm. ~1 +4112~2 Jl = T Force transmitted unbalanced force = 0.95 (0 601t (0" = .16 x (21t x 30/ = 22.1467 = 57.1467 (hi) Force transmitted = 392 x 0. = 22716 N :ii) .e.25)2 = (0.4 kN. Determine the amplitudes of displacement: velo'city and acceleration of the vibrating machine.9rpm.72 = 3.0 x (47.2)2 ==0.9 The rotor of a motor having mass 2 kg was running at a constant speed of 30 c/s with an eccentricity of 160 mm.58 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foulldations ~1+(211~)2 (ii) Transmissibility JlT =  ~(1n2)2 +(211~)2 ~1+(2X3.72 kN '. x 2. = 0. .7)2 = 4639 N/m (iii) Force transmitted to the foundation = 0.
.125x (Yo 00) 0. ~:::.05 = (0. 2.~yo 0.333)2 (ii) For displacement pickup..'. Eqo (2.~>=j"~ .40 mm pickup.~ '/reory 01 v. co:" '1.333)2 x 1..125 1. .~. (2.:.. 0 (Y 000) = velocity = 5.125 x Yo or or (iii) For velocity Yo = 0.57 37.7) or o. Eq.. .125 = 63.7 = 120 rpm = rad/s (J) 120 x 21t =' 12./ .7 = 0.333 x 1.olution : (i) CJJ n = 6 Hz = 37.mm/s pickup. OOn or 0.(0.03 .125 (Y 002) (37.89) gives (iv) For acceleration X ='4 . (2.05 = 1.05 = (37.05 1.88) gives 2 X=.34 a."""""..333 1 1 1. (Y() 002) = Acceleration = (37..2 ~ == for ~= 0 . .7)2 0 I.ibrations 59 '.57 rad/s 60 '1 = 12.91) gives' 1 X = 00 11~ (Y 0 00) n 0."'O'~.11 Determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system represented by a mathematical mod~1 shown in Fig.7)2 x 0. = 1.~ . Eq.17 mm/S2 Example 2. .e. (YOOO2) ' .
104).m2 } =K ) m (02 112 = . 2.. we get \l2 (02 = . ''' . Hence.JK/ m and CiJ~2 ?:.100) by putting KI = K. 2. Kz = 2 K and KJ = K.103) and (2. m ] = 5.. ~ 'for the two modes can be obtainedusing Eqs. and m I = m2 = m. By doing this. .}~~r .K . ' (ii) The two natural frequencies of the system can be obtained using Eq.:. . i J 60 Soil Dynamics & Machi'Je FOUlrilatiolls j +1 + 1 (a) Two degrees freedom system (b) First mode (c) Second mode Fig." . ...34 : Two degrees freedom system with mode shapes Solution: (i) The system shown in Fig. ~." .m . " . (2. ' .34a is a two degree freedom system.7.!.. m. The solution of such a system has already been described in Art. [sK/. COni= .r6K + 4K 2 l m. 2. ' . III 2 [( 3K + 3K _ 4 ~ (2 K)2 m m) { .!.' ' (iii) The relative values of amplitudes Al and (2. ..
(2."'::::""'c. 0.35 : Three degrees freedom system with mode shapes Solution: (i) Equations of motion for the three masses can be written as m 21 + K 21 + 2 K (21 .21) + K (22 . the solutionswit be as = At sin ron t ~ =~ .(2.157 b) ..m x 5K / m . 2K 1= A(l) 2 A~2) 2 = =+1 K1+ K2 m 1 o:l K+2Km x K/m nl 2K A (2) 2 = K + 2 K .1' '~""~"~=' ~ :::....Z3) = 0 m 23'+ K (23 2t 23 . 2.35 a.34 c. = 1 The mode shapes are shown in Fig.:: _...1"58 c) .12 Determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system represented by the mathematical moqel shown in Fie.~ ~ ~  'W.(2.0 (a) Three degree freedom system (b) First mode (c) Second mode (d) Third mode Fig.:~.157 a) .~:(2. sin ron t ron t = A3 sin .761 1. 2. B:xample2.eory of Vtbtalions_/ 6i A (1) K .(2..._ . .22) = 0 For steady state.34 band 2....(2.:" .i'i~!~:t'jj .2 + 2 K (22 ..158 a) .158 b) m 7. . 2." ".". '.22) =0 ..157 c) .
(2.238) AI ..160) become as 3A 2 0 or 2 3A 1 0 IA 1 I =0 .(2. IIIWPllttll1~ A = !l ~ . /I 2K "'K moo/l 2 ' K 0 2K 0 K 2 1=0 Kmcon ..158) in Eqs. we get .) A3 =0 ." 62 Soil Dynamics & Machine Follndations substituting Eqs..162 b) .2 A2 Eg. and A) = 5.0...' .'11 . .. Eg ..161 b) Eg.(2.160) " .129 = .111 oo~) Al .724 AI .159 b) óîÕßø +(3Kmoo~)A2KA3'=O ..AJ =0 .2 K A2 = 0 .(2.. The values of A are worked out as A( = 0. (2.157).162 h) gives = 0 or A2 = 0.. K (2.162 c) Therefore.238Kl m.761 . (2.159) in terms of A can be written as (3 .(2. (2. (2.159) 3K11l00 .K A2 + (K  111 co.. 00/1 ( (ii) Egs.637.(2....'.238) Az . CO/l2 = ..162a) .A) = 0 .0.' or x 0.724 A2 t(3 .159 c) For nontrivial solutions of 00/1 in Eqs.A) A3 For r mode: Eg.(2.161 a) f. (2.161 b) is cubic in A. .A2 + (1 .637 Kl m.162 a) gives " =0 A = 0.2 . (3 K .3  2 7 A + lOA .129 Kl m .... (2.. ' " ".2 A I + (3 .(2...1 "iI..238. ' A3 A2 = 0.2 A2 = 0 ..J1.2 = 0 .(2.A) Al . A2= 1. and 00/13 = ~5.J0.159a).A) A2 .238 (3 . (.(2.
.0.= 5." 'h.891 : .13 A small reciprocating machine weighs 50 kg and runs at a constant sp~~d of 6000 rpm. After it was installed.14 : 1 The mode shapes are plotted in Figs.35 c and 2.2) 628 i. Forcing frequency == Natural frequency of system Therefore. For II mode.815 a = 1: 1. it was found that the forcing frequency is very close to th~}latural frequency of the system.35 d. .::.4.933: .815 . (2.:) ) illnl 0)//(/ = 0.:J If JInl  ~ l.0.:. = a.0.381 a : 1.551 : 0.761 : 1 Similarly.635 : 1. Solution: ( i) ill =W 21t N "" 2 Tt x 6000 = 628 rad/s 60 At the time of installation of machine.4 rad/s For tuned absorber: = K = JIM Ka Now from Eq.156) J(:. 753. the natural frequency becomes (1 :i:0.\ Theory of Vibrations 63 Assuming Al :.129 Al : A2 : A) = 3.8 . = 1. Example 2. or ~ ma M = 628 K = m x 628 2 = 50 x 6282 = 201 x 105 N/m (ii) Aner adding the vibration absorber to the system.637 Al : A2 : A) = . and For III mode: A.e. What dynamic absorber should be added if the nearest natural frequency of the system should be at least 20 percent from the forcing frequency..381 a and A) = 1.6 rad/s or 502.381: 1.815 a Al : A2 : A) = a : 1. A2 = 1. 2. A. 2.35 b.
causes a static deflection of 25 mm.7 A spring mas system (K\.a b >.2025 x 201 x 105 ma = 0. Discuss clearly its limitations. (0.2025 x 50 = 10.7 x 105 N/m Adopting the higher value of Jlm Ka = 0.2)2 1}2 Jl m 1.2 = {(1. Ans. (K/3) 2. Find the natural frequency of the system. The moment of inertia of weight W about the point 0 is Jo' Show that th~ system becomes unstable when: K.8 A mass of 5 kg is attached to the lower end of a spring whose upper end is fixed.{(0. 2.4 Starting from fundamentals~explain the principles involved in the design of (i) Displacement pickup.2 2 = 0. Determine K2 in terms ofK\. Ans.36.2 'Presence of damping reduces the effectiveness of the isolation system'. (if) Velocitypickup. 64 2 2 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations } Jlmand when (Onl (Ona 1 . ~fa second spring of stiffness K2 is attached in series with the first spring. Determine the natural period when a mass of 2. Illustrate your answer with neat sketches. .14 sec) 2.12 kg PRACTICE PROBLEMS 2. m) has a natural frequency of f\. . (20 rad/s) 2.8 = 0. Ans. 2.a single degree freedom system. the natural frequency becomes f\/2.1 A single degree (massspringdashpot) system is subjected to a frequency dependent oscillatory force (m eo (02sin (0 f).134 = 40. 2.and (iif) Accelerationpickup. Is this statement true? If yes.6 A mass of 25 kg when suspended from a spring.'1 . explain with neat sketches. 2. The nawral period of this system is 0.5 Describe the principles involved in a 'tuned dynamic vibration absorber'.9 Determine the differential equation of motion of the system shown in Fig. Proceeding from fundamentals. derive the expression of the amplitude of the system..8) 2 0.. Illustrateyour answerwithneatsketches. 2.5 kg is attached to the mid point of this spring with the upper and lower ends fixed.W .40s. 2.3 Give two methods of determining 'damping factor' of.2025 = 1.
At resonance the amplitudewas measured .(2 vi :1:/2)' Determine.1874) 2~r5:AssUnlfngsm~ll ~plitudes. 3.I ':.30 s and an inertial amplitude of30 mm..t..8 s and the ratio of consecutive amplitude was 4.:".~.\... When the mass was displaced and released. (0.:. Determine the amplitude and phase angle when a force F = 2 sin3t N acts on the system.:':!Z~.. set up differential equation of motion for double pendulum using the coordinates shown in Fig. Ans.>'1..46) 2. 2..system shown in Fig. = ~.100 mill.. .. Determine the logarithmic decrement if the amplitude after 10 cycles is 0.!. b a Fig.At 80%resonantfrequencythe amplitudewas measured80 mm. r t ...~ ~~. a spring stiffness of 0.14 A sp~ingmass system is excited by a force Fa sin (J)t.:. )J . Ans (0.55) 2. Ans. :.~ . . K 2.! . .'. ... .36 : Massspring system 2.7 N/m and a dashpotwith a ..:. ..11 A vibration system consists of mass of 6 kg.'" . .2 to 1."."'~.Determinethe d~mpingfactorof the system. (0."'.12 Write a differential equation of motion for the ..3 mm.37 and determine the . (0.. Ans.. ..13 A mass is attached to a spring of stiffness 6 N/mm has a viscous damping device.Determine (a) Damping ratio (b) Logarithmic decrement .708mm.~ Fig. the ratio of the amplitudes xI/x2' ./uJ j ...:.. td be... 2.. the period (jf vibration was found to be 1.t e. ... .~.4°) 2.. .488. natural frequencyof dampedoscillationsand the criticaldampingcoefficient.38. . ~. . g...J ~ '\""I\~ ~"V :.37 : Massspring dashpot system r w . ..Theory of Vlbrations 65 Wt") K T b 0 a c A l 1 ~ 1 ..J .. ". 2. 56. ..10 A body vibrating in a viscous medium has a period of 0. dampingcoefficientof 2 Ns/m." . Show that the natural frequencies of the system as given by the equation.'T"""7~."h. 2. 1.. co' I 2 \11..I '1'1' .
3 kN) 2.17 A small reciprocating machine weighs 60 kg and runs at a constant speed of 5000 rpm.043 mm.22 kN/m. DD .3 kg. Specify the springs for mounting such that only 20 percent of the unbalanced force is transmitted to the foundation. and (c) the transmitted force. (0.19 A machine having a mass of 100 kg and supported on springs of total stiffness 7. 9.3mm. for the machine. (c) the maximum acceleration of vibration. Ans.2 N) to a maFind out (b) the maximum velocity of vibration.26 Ns/m. After it was installed. Detelmine the natural frequency of the system.03 mm. The instrument . Also determine the magnitude of the transmitted force. Ans. For vibration isolation. 0.2. (a) the amplitude of vibration.14 rad/s. 105 N/m speed of 58. Ans. Ans.0456 mm) 2.148. 4.20 The static deflection of the vibrometer mass is 20 mm.38: Doublependulumsystem 2. (b) the transmissibility.84 x has an unbalanced rotating element which results in a disturbing force of 392 N at a 3000 rpm.2 x 10 N/m) 2. (Ka = 931. it was found that the forcing frequency is very close to the natural frequency of the system. . and . 2. 26. 0.16 A motor weighs 220 kg and has rotating unbalance of 3000 Nmm.20 determine (a) the amplitude of motion due to the unbalance. " . What dynamic vibration absorber should be added if the nearest natural frequency of the system should be at least 25 percent from the forcing frequency? 6 Ans.when attached chine vibrating with a frequency of 125 cpm records a relative amplitude of 0. The damping coefficient is 6. springs with damping factor of 0. (15. (0. 0.:i: 66 Soil Dynamics & Machine "Foundations m Fig.628. The motor ~s running at constant sped of 2000 rpm. (31.754 mmlsec. Assuming a damping factor of 0. Find also the logarithmic decrement and the amplitude after three cycles 'if the initial displacement is 0.0576 mm.86 mmlsec2). 0.18 A mass of 1 kg is to be supported on a spring having a stiffness of 980 N/m.25 is used.
. Strain is a measure of the deformation produced by the application of the external forces.. KN/m2.1a. . 3. t11 3 1b Compresslve steam = £c = T ..1a) Similarly in Fig..":"'V "..2.::~. 'The propagation speed of seismic waves through the earth depends on the elastic properties and density of materials..= ~1 .(3."'. The external forces acting on a body constitute what is called the "load". Shear stress is said to exist on a section of body if on opposite faces of the section equal and opposite forces exist. The phenomenon of wave propagation in an elastic medium is of great importance in the study of foundations subjected to dynamic loads.. 3.  .. etc. ..  . . WAVE PROP AGA TION IN AN ELASTIC.':~. therefore the application of a load on a body causes deforn1ation. At right angles to the direction of the stress. HOMOGENEOUS AND ISOTROPIC MEDIUM 3. depending on whether the stress is compressional or tensile.1 GENERAL A sudden load applied to ~ body does not disturb the entire body at the instant of loading. The stresses preserve the shape of the body but change the volume.. therefore . . In this chapter wave propagation in (i) an elastic bar..'<' "... )  ." .':"'.)' ~"<i:. 3.2. the body dilates or contracts. and the deformatio~s produced by the disturbance subsequently spread through out the body in the form of stress waves.. and if 1 is the initiai length of the bar..{""J""'""". The parts closest to the source 'of disturbances are affected first. Strain. In all cases internal forces are called into play in the material to resist the load and are referred to as "stresses". the deformation is an elongation of a bar by the amount t11. STRAIN AND ELASTIC CONSTANTS 3..'. .2.. (ii) an elastic infinite medium and (iii) an elastic half space have been discussed. The intensity of the stress is estimated as the force acting on unit area of crosssection."'~. then . Tensile strain = £.(.1 Stress.}~".2 STRESS.'". 3. No material is perfectly rigid. and is expressed in such units as N/mm2.tb the deformation is a shortening of the bar by the amount t11... In Fig...
(3.2) l. I I w I I I I I I Fig.i 6l .2 : Transverse strain 3.68 R:.. 3.. For an isotropic elastic material subjected to normal stress Oxin the xdirection. 1 TL t ~ F (b) Compressive strain (a) Tensile strain Fig...2. A transverse strain: A transverse strain tw is defined as the ratio of the expansionor contraction 6 w perpendicular to the direction of the stress to the original width w of the body (Fig.3. f l l III .1.3. . the strains in x.2. 3. E Z C1 =e =~ E . An elastic material is one which obeys Hook's ~aw ofpruportionally between stress and strain.' Soil Dynamics & ~~e FlHUldations F ..2.2). Thus 6w Ew = .1 : Axialstrain 3.. y. z directions are t t x Y =!.7 I I . 1 .llWI F . Elastic Constants.
G Cr Y:x=6 G is the shear modulus or rigidity modulus and is the same as given by Eq.. [O'x  Il (O'y + O'z)] .(3. E+2Ge .On"l" lin Ettistii!/llo".9) Similarly in an isotropic elastic material.(3.. " Ey Ez = E I". I'yz =.4 b) 1 . = Ex+ Ey+ Ez I..(3. E is the modulus of elasticity and 11is Poisson's ratio..(3.op'agat..(3.(3.5 b) az = (1 + Jl)(I21.(1+fl)(I2Jl) .(3.1) x y z (Ex+ Ey+ Ez) t: 1 + fl Ez .t + E 11 Ey y + E) + 1 + r E ay = . .'.' ..(3.(3.8) in which E ..6 a) ..10 a) ..(3.. E G.. Kolsly. 3... 69 If the element cif material i~:Subjected to normal stress O'x'O'y"O'z'then by superposition we obtain 1 Ex . ~.6) and (3.= 2(1 + 11) .. e+2Ge a z =A..(3..4 c) In the above expressions... (3. 'tyz .'. =E = E [O'y .6 b) .. . an:d (3.. ' IlE O'x = .Il (O'x + 0')] [O'z .~ Wave'P.10 c) Equations (3. E (E.10 b) .6 c) ...(3..4 c) can be rearranged so.4 a) .1) (Ex + Ey+ Ez) + 1 + Il Ex JlE (1 + Jl)(I2Jl) JlE. 1963)..4 a).1E '). that the stresses are expressed in terms of the strains as follows: (Timoshenko and Goodier.10) comprise six equations that define the stressstrain relationship. Thus Yxy= 'txy G .5 c) For simplicity the equations may be written a x =A. . E+2GE a y =A.7) . ..'. ..(3... E .5 a) (1 +'Jl)(I21. It may be noted that here E is dynamic modulus of elasticity and . 1951.. 'Equations (3... there exists linear relation between shear stress and shear strain.not the static modulus.4 b).....:rigeneous and Isotropic Medium ..9). .. .(3.(3...Il (O'x + O'y)] ...
...t .(3.ox2 . the equation of motion for element can be Nritten by applying Newton's second law of motion as given below: ocrx .. the summation of force in xdirection is given by: IF x =cr x A+ ( cr + x ocr ox :L6.x.. 'Y . 3.3 LONGITUDINAL ELASTIC WAYES IN A ROD OF INFINITE LENGTH ax~ ~ OX + oOX ox b.::'.x.6..(3..6.8B:. Assuming that the stress is uniform over the entire crossectional area and the crossection remain plane during the vibration.3 : Longitudinal vibration of a rod Consider the free vibration of a rod with crossectional area A.x).1 70 Soil DyIUUlfics 4 Machint! Foundations 3.E a2u ox ." .A.x ~ 6x ~ A = Area of crosseciion Q x a b x ~~x ~ ~ u (Displacement) Fig.11) If the displacement of the element in xdirection is u.14) ..6.'Y a2u .A ox .A ox = 6....(3. Young's modulus E and unit weight r (Fig.12) or fu ocrx .13) DifferentiatingEq. (3. Now let the stressalong section aa is crx and the stress on section bb is (crx+ °ocr..(3.x ) ocr' A=L.x ox . 3.clu ( g ) at2 .g'dt2 Form stressstrain relationship E = stre~s =~ stram ~ mx xd~ection direction oula x ou cr = E.3). .x.13)with respectto x ocr. .
'.'*'" ""':.o.Y.. = ..17) may be written'in the form' u=/l(vct+x)+/2(vctx) . < .22).. t.""':' . Further both ' ... zone is given by .1. ..*"r'1.' 71 Therefore..t. vc' During a time interval . ' compressive stress from one zone to another occurs at the velocity of the wav~ propagated in the medium.15 can be written g ./ .(3.:':'. .17) at2 c ax2 E where v.. 3. it can be noted that at the instant a wave is generated. when the compressive wave travels in one direction.: = E Vc this.18). If the wave propagation in a rod is considered at SOIpt:: interrpediate point in the bar.the ~nd of the bar or particle velocity. . .. .r.. a2u . The transmission of the .:' Wave . initially only a small zone of the rod will experience the compression.theintensity .(3.15) Using the mass density p = 'Y. the compressive stre~s will trave.. constitutes the compressed zone.20) .(3.l along the bar a distance (. the wave propagation velocity V is only a function of '..1..(3.(Fig. ..~. " .4 a. (3.(3." ( " .omogeneous and Isotropic Medium . and it indicates that during 10ngitudiIia~ vibrations. To understand the difference between the wave propagation velocity Vcand the velocityof particles in the stressed zone it. cr x propagation velocity and particle velocity are in the same direction when a compressive stress'is applied but the wave propagation velocity is opposite to the particle ve19cj~. i. At any time after In' a segment of the bar of length. . when. displacement patterns are propagated in the axial direction at the velocity vc~' : :.'.ft~:t\>:~.(3. Equation (3. and the second term represents the wave travelling in the negative x direction.~.' .4 b) is applied to the end of the bar.' <r'::" . The amount of the elastic shortening?f or Hence cr cr u=Lx =Lv .. . xn = vctn.19) where I1 and 12 are arbitrary functions.h~"".. !'..' properties. .at2 .. . .a tensile.17) has the exact form of the wave equation.' . 'Y a2u g at2 = E clu ax2 . This compression will be transmitted to the successive zones of the bar as time increases. Eq..that the particle waVevelo~ity it . (3..'."" '""".' mate~ial wave c (Eq." an H. the tensile waves travel in the opposite direction.'.16) a2u clu or = v2 . . . there is compressive stress of the fac~ in the positive direction of x and tensile stress in the negative direction of x. . 3.*: .x = vc'~ f). " Prop~gationin ' . ..e.' .. When a uniformly distributed compressive stress pulse of intensity crxand duration: t".E clu = p ax2 i .21) The displacement u divided by In represents the velocity of.. u =v .dependson of stress but . 3.18) Vc is defined as the 10ngitudinalwavepropagationvelocityin the rod.'..(3.'P{... .. .22) E c It is evident from Eq.stress is applied.' ' P The solution ofEq.. Hence. In this equation. .t E n E c n u cr t. '" .. Elastic..... 3.. the first term ?iepresents the wave travelling in the positive x direction. . consider the stressed zone at the end of the bar as shown in Fig. . .(3. . .
..: :toraue 1. .. " tn (b) Uniformly distributed compressive stress t Fig.4.. be written as .' ..car.A'""~.I '= Polar moment o:f inertia of the crossection Of rod . a rod subjected to a torque T which produces angular rotation e is shown..«ft'll!" ex =:Angle of twist per unit length of rod.23) G = shear modulus or"thc'material of rod ." ) ( ... The expression fo~'t.J I+OX. x u (a) Stressed zone at the end of the rod er er X . where " T = G I Be P Bx .S G.. jf.." . _..~ 72 's~u Dynamics & Machine Foundtiiions ~x ..(3...'. ( x Xn = Vc tli . 3. " 3.4: Wave propagation velocityand particle velocity in a rod ...3. .<TORSIONAL VIBRATION OF A ROD OF INFINITE LENGTH In!if:.'. ae'..'' It .p .. ! .~ .
. '. '." .. an41sotrQpic Medium L ' ''' ..Jre ox P p:!> 2 .x can be written as P :ot2 By applying Newton's. . . "vt " .' .. T = pI~x~ . .x ) = p!p *xy at '.J:lfI'RlJIIeneous . #e" ".' ..t~~J.. ... .1'01 l\'1'.. . 3.second law of. aT or T + ( T+ Ox 6.oI.25) .5b. ' .' .'. _3i." ~ .. .l!... \ \ .mo~onto. .la B 73 .(3.~e.. .5 : Torsional vibration of a rod The torque due to rotational inertia of an element of rod of length 6.x shown in Fig... #e .: (b) Motion of the element of rod of length Ax Fig.(3.Pr~g~!p. r . fix ": ': I'.24) . 3.!. ... ..'1£h . .... o. '...I aT =.arielement oflength 6. (a) A rod siabjectedto torque T T + aT oX t::.II#E.x .\ ..I x x ~X r.
6 d).6 c)..= pI cia P ax2 P 8t2 ia . '" .6 : Elastic waves in a rod with free end conditions (.J3." "'" . . ' "".n the t\\/O\vaves pass by each other in the crossover zone. Consider an elastic rod in which a compression wave is travelling in the positive . : 3. " """.. Soil Dynamics & Machine' Foillldations t..~tyof either wave (Fig.. 3. ..Contd. t Id: 0 oo ien r=o sion v "0 Xt 0 c (a) Compression and tension wave~ travelling in opposite directions ~~ 00 ~ . 0'=0 U = 2uO . 3. the centre line crosssection can be considered a free end (fig.6 a). 3.a2a OX p ax2 '.agnitude and shape. zax  "" is the shear wave velocity of the material of the rod.1:l twice the particle veioc. Vc (b) Waves at the crosso~'er zone Fig..27) . .ssion wave is reflected from a free l'l1d as a tension wave of the same m. oT ..=GI.J3.0 cia a? .) ..' .'...28) .": '. 3.' ~. By removing onehalf of the rod.23). the stress is zero at all time. it can be observed that a tension wave IS re Ikcled from a free end as a compression wave of the same magnitude and shape. .'.(3. Vc. 2 a2e Vs '~ at". After the two waves have passed the crossover zone the stress and velocity return to zero at the crossover point and both the :ompressive and tensile waves return to their initial shape and magnitUde (Fig..P a2e  ox2 " '~':' . 74 '. Similarly. It will thus be seen that on the centre line crosssection."': "'...6 b).  . . Hence 'it can be seen that a compre." . Wh.. the portion of the rod in which the two waves are superposed has zero stress wit:. From Eq.rdirection and an identical tension wave is travelling in the negative xdirection (Fig. This stre~s condition is the same as that \\hi:h exists at the free end of the rod..26) Therefore. (3.. 3.. y ~Xt1 qnrn '00 .. ' . or or a2a .5 END CONDITIONS Free End Conditions.
7 d). ... they return to their original shape and magnitude. . 4 I .6 :'Elastic waves in a rod with free end condWons Fixed End Conditions.7 a).) (b) Waves at crossover zone Fig. The centre line crosssection r:~mainsstationary dur.'" f'ave.is doubled.. N°'Y. it can be observed that a compression wave is reflected from a fixed a fixed end of a rod as a compression wave of the same magnitude and shape..~.i0: <~~... ~ "0' . y. Homogeneous and Isotropic Medium 75 . Whe'nthe two waves pass by each other in the crossover zone. 3. the centreline crosssection has stress equal to twice the stress in each wave and zero particle velocity (Fig. : 3. 3.7 b). "~ ..' 'c: :. 3.~onsider an.an El~$tit. ing the entire process and hence. j' U = 0 (..7: Elastic waves in a rod with fixed end conditions .:~~!""i"" '. 3.Contd.. er er ~ = = a' 0 .lasticrod in which a compression wave is travelling in positive xdirection and an identical compression wave is travelling in the negative xdirection (Fig. and that at'the fixed end the stress.'" "'.':. . . behaves like a fixed end of the rod.Xto (a) Two Identical waves travelling in opposite directions Xt1 er = 200 .~~ . Xt3 4 Vc (d) Waves considering one half of the rod Fig.h . 'v ~ ~o."'. er=0 ~u=o I ~ ~  Vc .~:..~ :. After the waves pass each other. Xt2 Vc I u 0 (c) Waves after passing the crossover zone Vc ~ Free enq .l4~' \~~)'" .Propagation in .e. Considering left half of the rod (Fig.
(fixed:fre~~ 3.J.' . one of its normal mode~ The solution of t~e wave equation (Eq.strainat both ends of ~ rod of finite lertgthin ~reefreecondition (Fig. .(3. " Fig. 3.. One end fixed and on~. 3. The stress and . . Th'is means that dUMx= 0 at x ~'O x :i.30) is . ..6 LONGITUDINAL VIBRA TIONSOF RODS OF FINITE LENGTH " Consider a rod of length L vibrating' in. d2 U + oo~ ~ 2 U =0 dx Vc OOnX OOIlX ' ... Vc ~ " " l ' Fixed end xt 3 ~ " (d) Waves considering one halfofthe rod ...' :" . Both ends free (freefree) 2. . and A4 are arbitrary constants which are detenrtined by satisfying the boundary conditions at the ends of the rod. U = A) cos ~ + A4 Sin '"~ ...._:::_.end fr~e. we get .Three possible end conditions are: 1.~ ' '' Xtz "/ (c) Waves after passing"the crossC)ver zone Vc . 3. .L. I.". (3. ' where u = U (AI cos (J)nt + Az ~ii1con1) U = Displacement amplitude along the length of rod .29) in Eg. ~'. '". " .0 .'\. (3..' .17) can be written as . ' . ....(3. I ''.8 a) will be ... :.:< ..31) ..'!.:' '" :: ' " ..29) AI' A2 = Arbitrary Constants (I) 1/ = Natural frequency of therod Substituting Eg. 0::0 u :: : Vc G "0 ~. .~ 6 ". ":_'~./l:ro. ..' . " .. " .30) The solution of Eq. 76 $Dil Dynamics & Machine Foundations. Both en~s fixed (fixedfixed)'.'.  " ".III'JIE.17). Vc ~.(3. FreeFree Condition.. .... (3. ':' . .'~j . ' \ .. .7: Elastic waves in arod ~ith fixed end conditions' 3.
~l~k' Wave ..=.we get ron cc'( dU dx The condition = \! .. ..ives . . H~m.' "'. ~Ith freefree .end conditions Differentiating Eq...geneous and Isotropic Medium 77 u 01 .31) w:!t"x. . El x lx I~dX (a) Rod of finite length with freefree end conditions ~ ßÖ Ô T ø¾÷ ´ First harmonic Ì ßí U1= A~ cos ~x (n = 1) U2 =A3 cos 2Tfx L (n = 2) .!fi 't"L}". .~l1:>.{}1J in.t.PropagaC.9. ' '.A~=. an Elastic.? g. 0' " . (3.J! 0 at . 'ro"x <o"X Vc ) ~~= ..A 3sm+A4cos' V .'. 3.8 : Normal modes of vibration of a rod of ~nite lengt~.O.'~ (c) Second harmonic 0 AJ U3=A3 cos 3Tfx L (n = 3) I (d) Third harmonic Fig. .
3. the end conditions of the ro<1 are: (i) At x = 0.33) . !! = n 1t Vc =0 .:.34) Equation (3. TTx = A4 sin =2L(n =1 ) U2=A 4 s' In.r.. 3. Displacement i.' L::q. (3. [11 Fixedfree case (Fig.35) l::c. 2.. ro L A sIn !! = 0 at x = L we get ' vc roL For a nontrivialsolution. The rirsl three harmonics are shown in Figs.. the distribution of displacement along the rod can be found for any harmonic. .  Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations Putting J dU dx .78 ". FixedFree Condition... U = 0.(3...31). and (ii) At x = 1..34) in Eq. n = 1..e.8b.. Strain i. 3 . By substituting Eq.(3.. 3. we get n1tx Un = AJ cos L ..9: Normal modes of vibrations of a rod offinite length with fixedfree end conditions (. (3.9 a).e.31Tx 2L (n=2) (c) Second harmonic Fig.Contd. c and d.35).34) is the frequency equation'for the rod in freefree case.) . d U/dx = 0 L t x (a) Rod of finite length with fixedfree end conditions ~I~ A4 TU) (b) First harmonic .n1tvc or ron . (3.(3..
(3. By substituting the second end condition A cos 2L 4 vc " W L = 0 1t " . 3.."<' > . 1 A  . ~ I (a) Rod ornnlte length with fixedfixed end conditions .31.Fixed Condition.38) The first three harmonics described by Eq....32. Putting the first end condition in Eq.) .A . (d) Third harmonic Fig.1) 2 ' . and (ii) At x = L .. to: Normal modes ofvlbration oh rod of finite length with fixedfixed end conditions (.x U . 'SlTX (n=3) U3=A 4 slO . c and d.10 a) the end condition are: (i) At x = O. ( TTx 4. 3. wn = (2 n  I) 2 L ' The displacement amplitude can be written as U .9 : Normal modes ofvibrations in Eq.... .(3.38) are shown in Fig... (3. . yields AJ = O.(3. In this case (Fig. ora rod of finite length with fixedfree end conditions " .. . (2nI)1tX n 4 sm 2L . 3.. 3.36) or or v wnL c = (2 n . L ( n = 1) (b) First harmonic Fig. Fixed . U = 0 . 3. U = 0 ' ~ :L .9 b.2L .37) 1tVc . 3.Contd..SIn .. Homogeneous and Isotropic Medium 79 . '."'" Wave Propagation in tin Elastic.
..3TIx 3 . ~ 2 + ~2.~.. c and d. (3.(3. 3. . 21Tx U2=A4SlnC(n (c) Second harmonic =2) U _ . 3.of Eq.40) ..17) . we get A3 = 0.e solution .~~£~ 80 f Soil.oF JlODSOF As the wave Eq. 3. and A4 sin or . .. I b U ISp ac.A4sIn L ( n = 3 ) (d) Third harmonic Fig.Vc = 0 n1tx oo=n1 n L' .. we get. tJ:le case <?flo~gi..ynamics ~ Machine f~u~cJptions .42) in Eq.(3.39) 23 .. oonL . .=0 e . D.28) is identic<\~ t~ wave Eq. (3. e = eA(A I cos where eA (j) n I " OOn t + A2 sin oont) .. (3.ons discussed in the previous section..31).28) can be written as : .42) = Rotational amplitude of angular vibration = Natural frequency of the rod A I' A2 = Arbitrary constants Substituting Eq. ". (3..10 b.(3. the proble'm' of torsional vibr~tions of rods of finite length can be solved in the saITi~manner as foJ.. n1tx 4 sm L FINITE LENGTH The first three harmonics described by Eq.41) are shown in Fig. (3..41) Th d e .7 TORSIONAL VIBRATIONS .10: Normal modes of vibration ora rod of finite length with fixedfixed end conditions Putting these end conditions in Eq. Th.. n ' = A .(3. dx' v's 2 2 ' . (3~28) .tudinal vibrati.(3..43) .ement IS gIven y. (3..
S0il.dz)at2:::10 . ..A3cosn7tx L FixedFree condition...eletneni.<:ed condition..8 WAVE PROPAGATION IN AN INFINITE. COnX smVs .A 3cos +A4 Vs: .47) " ." p. .. = aox' ox + a~.sides~aucingdx.(3.on:t. (". ':0l2 or.(3.46) eAn . n 1t Vs (On = L .. con = (2nI)7tvs 2L (2nl)7tx 2L .5. + aa"... eAn =A4sin .45) ..)dz ilu ]<dxody) .in:anj..dy..nfinite"homogeneoou$~ ~~Qpic.. the.ll 'showsthe.. elaiUc . n 1tVs con = L . The solutionfor the three types.43) is .... For obtaining the differential equations of motion. .(3..direction the ~quilibrium equation is [".tt' +. dy. .'dY.. The solid vectors are acting on the visible faces ofthe element and the dotted vectors areacting.(3....(3... are givenbelow: FreeFree Condition.Fi.theprop~gation of stress waves..'....~di..(3. ay' j)z .h~hidQ. H~MOGENEOUS~ISOTROPIC.0 + 'ty:c ( ( 'tyx+ a.~{3.sum of the forces acting parallel to each axis is considered~In the x...ELASJICMEDIUM ' In:this section. (3.'Eig 3.WavePropagation'in'an"Elilstic/ Homoggneous and Isotropic Medium 81 The solution of Eq.(J.49) .um.. ~ presented.dz)+p(dx.48) Fixed .(3.50) eAn = A4 ~1tX L 3.... d X) ]<dYodz)+[ V'( U't 'n + a.onditions.conx eA ..cf.stresse5Jicting:on a.~n faces.44) The values of arbitrary constants A3 andA4 can~eobtained by puttingoappropriate end conditions.xy':"~...of end c.witb.52 a)  " ". )] (dx..'il~d<ftZ..
C+ ay ow' av'.6) to' Eqs.. " :.++L ot2 . . av Ey ='ay aw E.52 b) o't o'tzy' ocr pa w .(3. Shear strains.dz ).:' ' Axial strains..s.(3...54 a) .. ..ox ay .' +Yyz. p is the'imiss density of the soil. ~ . & Machine F o..' o't yz oz 07 ' .(3. (3.~. and z directions respe'ctively.ay oz ou ow yzx = OZ + ox ~... = ox . I .. + ~. These will give p. (3.. t" yl I .53 b) .. .~ ." dy ' ( 1':+ ZI ~'tn az dZ} ." .(3..To express the right hand sides of Eqs."'.54 b) Yxy'" 0. the relationship for an elastic medium given by. .. ~" .(3. (' I I cry (""..54 c) ) . 't'yz+ ~ryz ~.(3.... 3.' .Eqs.M.: .(3. (3 52 c) In the above expressions. .11 : Stress on an element of an infinite elastic medium Equations similar to Eq. (3. y'and ware :displacementsin the x.. .(3. The equations for strains and rotations of elastic and isotropic :materials in terms of displacements are' as follows. t 1:yz I .) + ~f)~YX .!lY)....8~~ z ':' . y.53 c) = ay ov ou . . crz+ ~ "" itr... t ~IZ (GY + ~cry C)y dy) ('t'yx ~ax (cr. SIJU Dln9nUc. dy) I Fig. . u. .' " ".52) .51) can be written for the y and z directions.": .ullllations ... ou Ex .iv 2 ot2 (h yx ocry = ++ox ay . ..d. . .. .10) are used.. I('tu + ~ ax' I I I t r IY dl) er..53 a) .
~< 2.,:,'
"',,',"'l,:,".
Wave Propagation in an ElastIc, Homogeneous
:,.",~,~:
":",),,'0'
,
:'
and IsotropIc MedIum
..
J..... 8'3
Rotations.
2w y ~oz ox ov ou 2w =z ox oy
: ,,' """"""""":'"""':""'/:~";",""i'
ow 8v' 2w = Xo y oz.. iJu' .;iw
';,
"
...(3.55 a) .:.(3.55 b)
,..(3,55 c)
In E:q, '(3.:~5);"wx ' w/ ,wz 'repie~~Ilt 'the i~tati~rt~ 'aborttx;y~rid'~iaxes'respettivetY..'
"",1"", ",' ',',"
3.8.1.CornpressiQD Waves. Subst.itut~on off:qs.p,. 6 a), (3.10 a), ,an~;(~,lO b) into Eq. (3. 52 a) gives 'd d ~'"' ( ",E+ 2G E..)+~ (O '1,' ) + (G '1 ) , p,= "'
'
','
"""j;U"d"
',
'"
'
'
,
,
"",ot2
,"
..,
"
..
"d.,J."'
",
,X,dy,xY"dZ
'
0,'
",.
"
,xy ,
Now on substitutionof Eqs. (3.54 a) and (3.54,b) in Eq. (3.56), ~e get, , ' ,', '~~i'
,
,
~'~(A<'~';~E,)+GM~: '
,', "", "'
co"
~~;FG:z(~> ~;r
, /,'
'2
or
As
02u  A. d E+G a u+
p 0(2
,: ax . .
,,'..
,ay' dX'az ax2 al [ ax2 dX '
.
~
2
'2'
+ d
w'
+
au+au+au
2
2
2
di ]
...(3.57) ...(3.58)
02u 02v azw" ++ OE ox2 OX'ay ox.fJz  ox
, .. ' o'E 2
" ,
The Eq. (3. 57) can be written as
azu
where
p ot2 = (A. + G) ox +? ~ u
...(3.59)
2 az az az V u = ++'ox2 ay2 fJz2, Similarly Eqs. '(3.51 b) and (3.52 c) can be expressed as azv ... aE
...(3.60)
p
0(2
= ( A.
+ G)
ay
aE
~
'
+ G V2
.'.~(3.61)
" "
and Py
,
02W
&~,
= (A. +
G)
+ GV w
'
2
...(3.62)
Equations
,
(3.59)
, (3.61) and (3, 62) are the equations of motion of an infinite homogeneous, iso
tropic, and elastic medium. On differentiating these equations with respect to x, y and z, respectively, and
adding
;'
fil
"
au
:";";
Ov
Ow
',=
a2E
02£
file
2
au
Ov
Ow
'.:.',:~
" or.,. ;,
,
P 0(2 ( Ox + ay + Oz')
"'::"}J,
",;,q~,
(A + G)'fix2 (
""(k +, G)
+ aji2 t"fJz2' ) + G V ( at'+
'c,.'~';y:!..;,
'
ay + fJz: ) ",.
!"..i~),':J.' (TE . ,~,p "2'" (V
\,O~i'~',_",\,,;v~'
"",..",,,,'=',' , , '.."'. v ;"
2
','.'
.".'"
""', E) ,+ ,(GV
""J
2
',.
';". """"""""q,, '..d" ',J. ,"..
""
.
,P"",)..".I,;t"",'jl',ttf.~<l;.U;4;"d~,'H.
'1"'>""1';'_',,1,,1'1.,;,,,.,
r
E),
"!'"
'. ",C
,,'
"I,
~ ':'J",) n,...O~;'J1
.~f..'
,'."
';.
'.,
< "," ,,', L«'\'
;,
84
"s.iJ ,J)yIUVflil:s..& MadMe'
F~IIRd4tU1ns
Hem:e
or where
p ilE = (A.+ 2G) V2E &2 <YE  (A.+2G) (V2£) = V;V2f, at2 . p
...(3.63 a)
..~(3.63 b)
.
A.+2G P ...(3~64) vp is the ve1ocityofcompre~on waves which are: a1soreferredJls primary wave or:Pwave. It is important to note the.difference in the wave velocities for an intmite.elasticmedium with those
Vp
2
=
.
obtainedfor an elasticrod. In the rod Vc= ~E/p: but in the infinite medium vp~ ~(A.+2G)/p. This
means that V p > Vcthat is 'compression wave travels faster in infmite medium. It is due to the fact that in infinite medium, there are no lateral displacements, while.in the rod lateral displacements are possible.
. '" ,
3.8.2 ShearWaves;
DiffererniatingEq.'(3:61) 2
with:resJrect to z and Eq. (3. 62) with respect to y, we get
a av
aw
p at2 az: = (A.+ G) (ay)(az) and
a2p
()
a E
2av
+ G V az
2
...(3.65) . ...(3.66)
P;z ( ; = (A.+ G) ;;+GV ut ay ) ayuZ Subtracting Eq. (3.65) from Eq. (3.66), we get
ae

aw
ay
p~
aw av = G V2 aw av at2( ay az) ( ay az) aw av .
.
...(3.67)
From Eq. (3.55 a), ay  az = 2 wx' Therefore
pf at
or
rJw
= GV"wx
...(3.68)
2,
G 22 V2rJwx =."11 w = V' w at2 p x s x
Similar expressions can be obtained for Wy and Wz as below: rJWy =.8t2
.
G
P
"11
2W
2 2y =vVw s y
...(3.69)
'rJwz' = G V2w = v2V2w
at2 p, z s z The above expressioMindicate"thafithe'Totation
...(3.70)
.is.propagated with velocity Vs which is equal to
~G I p. Shear wave is also referred as distortion wave or swavoe.}tmay be noted that shear wave propagates at the same velocity in both therod!andthe..infiniteniedium/Fig. 3.12 shows plots of shear wave velocity and void ratio at several confuii,ng pressures for sands (Hardin and Richart, 1963).
W~ve :ProplIgiitionin 
4" E/~'stic;"H~mogeneollS alid Isotropic Medium 
,1.'85
(
'N ,E '"
J
;.
,"~ "26.'0  '.

"tJ,
lA ::I
0
::I
19:5
,,
,
,
E
390 30
Con'1ini'ng (pres'sore 0,+
./11
0.5
360
330
/~<
E
~
~


Round grains Ottawa Angular grains .Crushed

sand quartz
\11
.... u
>
270 240
.
>
~
,>
0
~
~. .'0 210'
'
s:. V1
~
180
,150.'
I '
120
L..:
0.3
1.0
1. 1
1.2
'1.3
Void ,ratio (a)
I'.g. 3.12: Variation of shear wavev~locity IIndshear modulus with void ratio and coririnlng'press,jre for dry sands (Hardin ani:!Richart. 1963) . ,I,.. .~ .' ,. i. '" . ;
,"
.,.
, ,, ,'. ' .,' .. , "'".
, ., ..~
Et.
.'
:86
.
.i
SoU :!)yntUlli~
&I Machine Foundtllions
3.9WAVEPROP AGATION INELASTIC IL\LF,SP ACE
.'
.
In an elaspc~lly homogeneous gr~und, stressed shddenly' at a point 'S' near its surface (Fig. 3.13), three elastic w~ves travel outwards at different speedS.Two are body waves; that is, they are propagated as spherical,fronts affected only a minor extent by the free sUrfaceof the ground, and the'third is a surface wave which'is confined to the region. near ~ fiee surface. ;
~
G
x
,
vp t
I'
~,vst
"
Vrt
5
t
Fig.3.13: Pulsefrontsofthe P,Sand R waves The two b.ody waves as already d,escribed in the previous section differ in that !he ground motion within t~e pulse is in the direction of propagation (i.e. radial) is the faster 'f' (primary) wave, but normal to it (i.e.I tangential,to the pulse front) is the slower 'S' (secondary) wave (Fig. 3.13). The stresses in the ," P wave~ which is ~fl°!lgitudinal wave like a sound wave in a~~,are thus due to uniaxial compression, while during VIe passage' of an S wave the medium is su~jected to shear stres~. The surface wave travels more slowly.than either body wave, and is generally complex.,This wave was' first studied by Rayleigh
(1885)and later was,describedin detailby Lamb(1904), It is refe,rred'as Rayleighwaveor Rwave.The
influence of Raleigh'wave decreases rapidly with depth. Equations (3.59) ,(3.61) and'(3.62) may be used to study the characteristics of Rayleigh wave, The half space i,~defined as the xy plane with z assumed to be positive toward the interior of the halfspace (Fig. 3.14) .Let u and w represent the displacements in the directions x and z, respectively and are independent of y, then
"
',,' ",',
ax ,az _a~ O\V ,waz. ax
' av' ",.,". .
u=~+
~
"
a",
...(3.71) ...(3.72)
where
~ and 'If are two pot~nti~l,functions. As ay = 0, th~'dh~ti~n.e"~f the wave can be written as
atH'~'j;
"
,""
Wav'i"Propagaitoidli
an ElaStic;'Ho,,;(/geneous ,
and Isotropic Medium
87
'0
.. 'au,.:.,aw ,1:;'+,
'
:c.:..
dX dZ
( dx2
,
+
d24>
dXdZ J
,
#cpa2'V d2'41 + ,"
( ai,
oxOzÖ
...(3.73)
'or

I:;
a24>a2cp' 2' ãóõóãªùþ 2 'I' ~1
~ '
' "
,
'.
'
:: 'U.A.'
,,0
Z
'.
Plane wave
,,'
front
I rL../
,)
x
I / // ./
,
I
I I I
/
',.
.//
/'
/
/
/' .//' Z .// /' / /..
/
/
,
Fig. '3.14: Wave prop~gat!on in ~Iastic half space
.
Similarly the rotation in xz plane is given by
'" " ""'
"
,.
"
"",'7'",W~;'=azox
2
""""""&
?..:'~,.;.j
aw
=~
d'V + d'V
~=,v'V
Z
2
.
oz'
"
;..(3.74)
.",..",d?",dz"..,
Substituting u and w from Eqs. ~3.71) and (3.72) i~ e~s:,(~' 59) and (3.62), we get
p
,
',OX ,' ,':.",az...2".i;J"",\",;,,.~,ox, , D.).~tj;.i:>~f};~:#~,alk. ,<"::"',>:":'{,~F,,>':r:'{..'~,:J:;~~:
l
(
,~2~
)
+ p~
az~ :'~ki\:,~:Cj)' ~;(V.Z~y~.p!G ,2 (V2'V) (
'6'!'f,~'~"""J'" ~;" L '" :"""":'" rJ'1~rl"~ <:' ",~/ :;Oz.,' ll.":i!i'."~'," ::":""'" ,'" ", : , '" ',' 0,' 't' "" i"f:"
l
...(3.75
)
,
.. ~~,..~,.,...~~~=~..~ ,.,.,..,
""~""'j'.,"~..,. '="..,
""
...
88
Soil DylUlmics & Machine Foundations
and
p
~
&$
Oz ( 8t2 )
 p
~ ax
&'V ( 8t2 J
= (A + 2 G) ~ (V2$) v£.
G
UA.
! (V2'V)
...(3.76)
Equations(3.75) and (3. 76) are satisfiedif &$ = A+2G V2$ = lV2$
8t2 P P and &\jI
...(3.77)
a t2
= 'V
p
G

2
'V = v 'V 'V
s
2

2
...(3.78)
Now, consider a sinusoidal wave travelling in positive x direction. Let the solutions of q>and 'V be expressed as ~

'V
= F (z) ei (wr  nx) =G (z) ei (Wt  nx)
21t
...(3.79) ...(3.80)
F (z) and G (z) are the functions which describe the variation in amplitude of the wave with depth, and 12is the wave number given by n Where L is the wave length. Substituting Eq. (3.79) in Eq. (3.77), and Eq. (3.80) in Eq. (3.78), we get  0./ F (z) = v~ [Fit (l) ' n2 F (z)]
 Cl) G (z)
2
=T
...(3.81)
...(3.82) ...(3.83)
= vs
2
[G" (z)  n G (z)]
2
Equations (3.82) and (3.83) can be rearranged as 2 F" (z)  q F (z) = 0
G" (z)  5 G (z)
2
...(3.84) ...(3.8S)
=0
2 2 (J)
where
2
q =n  2 vp . 2
2 2 (J)
...(3.86)
Vs The solution of Eqs. (3.84) and (3.85) can be expressed in the form 5Z sz G (z ) = B I e + B2 e where A I' A2' B I and B2 are Constants.
F (z)
5=n2
...(3.87)
=
AI eqz + A2 eqz
...(3.88 ) ...(3.89)
A solution that allows the amplitude of the wave to become infinity is not possible; therefore A2 = B2 = O.HenceEqs.(3. 79) and (3. 80) can be writtenas
'"  A 't'  le  B '"

[qz + i(CDInx») [J'z + j (wr  nx)]
...(3.90)
," .
le.

...(3.9] )
Now at the surface of the half space i.e. at z = 0, °z, 1::xahd~1:~.are equal to zero.
IIi
IIIi "
iI;{~d'~
Wave Propagation in an Elastic, Homogeneous
and Isotropic Medium
89
Therefore, and
, ,
crz = A E + 2 G Ez== 1 E + 2G
,
;=
0
(3.92) ...(3.93)
't
zx
=G'"
IZX
=G
,
(
'
aw +
00
Ox az
)=0
Combining Eqs. (3.71) and (3.72) and the solutions of cl> and 'I' from Eqs. (3.90) and (3.91). Eqs. (3.92) and (3.93) can be written as' ' AI BI ' (A + 2G)q
, '2
2iGns 2
2
 An
2
...(3.94)
and
AI
 (Tt + S )
BI 2i n q Equating the right hand sides of Eqs (3. 94) and (3.95)
16G
2422
...(3.95)
n s q =(s
2
+n)
22
[(l,+2G)q
2
"I
lI.n]
22
...(3.96)
Substituting q and s from Eqs. (3.86) and (3. 87) in Eq. (3. 96), and dividing both sides by G2 n8, we get ,.
2 2
16 1
(
vpn
~\
)(
1
vsn
~\ )
= (
2 (A+2G).
G
vpn
~\
)(
2
vsn J
~\
...(3.97)
From Eq. (3.81)
Wave length = 21t = velocity of Wave vr n (ID/2n)  (ID/21t)
or
...(3.98) ...(3.99)
n =
ID
vr
where vr is the Rayleigh wave velocity. Using the following relationships:
2 ID 2'2=2 vpn and 2 ID 2'2Vs n 2 2 2 ro vr 2 2=2=a~ vs(ro /vr) ,Vp 2 ro 2 2 2 vs(ro Ivr) 2 Vs
Yp
2
2
...(3.100) ,
2  vr 2~ Vs
2
...(3.10t)
where
¿ãó®
...(3.102 a)
GIp = (A,+2G)/p
t '
or
. ,: ";}
2.. G'~ a"='(A,+2G)
,:J.~:~r2t.;~(:
(3.102 b)
" ':'i' ",+ ..: i
. :; ,',;.0
,
.
t'
".
"
',.
,.
",
. '/,:
::~:;,,;
i;~'liJi,~n lJ'rU .'",. . , '", I ~..
J. ,.

.c..=;''
,  .,,'
'; ,.
=
~ ===
It
.. c"
"
,
.. ""
'.,.
'' .,. '.'
.',
,},
90
,
Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations
, , , , , , ,
..'
Using the relations (3.8) and (3.9) , Eq. (3.10.2) can be written as 2 12)l øÈ =22)l Sustituting Eqs. (3. 10.0.), (3. 101) and (3. 10.3) in Eq. (3.97), 16 (la2~2)(1~2) ~ (2~2)2 (2~2)2 ...(3.10.3)
...(3.10.4) ...(3.10.5) ratio, the value of ~2 can be
or ~6 ,8 ~4  (16 a2  24) ~2  16 (1  (X2):::;0. Equation (3. 10.5) is cubic in ~2. For a given value of ')l' Poisson's
determined. Using Eqs. (3.10.0.)and (3.10.1), we may then obtain the values ofv,Jvp and v,Jvs' It may be noted that the value of ~2 is independent to the frequency of the wave. Therefore the Rayleigh wave velocity is also independent to the frequency and dependent only on the elastic properties of the medium. S
4
>I
'0
c 0
3
> "I >
....
0
2
:J
>
0
tII
vr/vs
0 0
0.1
Polssons
.
0.2
J
0.3
ratlo)v
.
0.4
0.5
Fig. 3.15: Variations ofv r / v. and vp / v. with Poisson's ratio, Jl
Figure 3.15 shows the variation of v,Jvs an~ v/vs withPoisson ratio Jl. The three types of wave appear in order on idp..alized seismogram (Fig. 3.16), which is a graph of
ground motion against time at a particular geopho~e
~ at a distance
x from the source '0'. The time zero'
is, of course, the time of the shot, and it is clear that ~he thr~e ve!ocities vp' Vs and vr could be found from this record. In practice, this determinatiords made'byco'ITl.,j.ningihe}nformationJromseveral geophones at various distances from the source on timedistance graph as shown in Fig. 3.17. " ' ,0
a..,
91
rave Propagation in an Elastic, Homogeneous and Isotropic Medium
Ground motion
'" X/Vs
~
x/vp
x / vr
~
Time
.'
Fig. 3.16 : I~alised seismogram ofthe ground motion at a distance x from the source
, ,
Stope u
1 /vr

(\) \J\
..
Slope
1/vs
stope
1/vp
X,) m
Fig. 3.17 : Travel time graph constructed
from a set of seismograms
3.9.1. Displacement of Rayleigh Waves. Substituting the relations developed for 4>and 'V {Eqs. (3.90) and (3. 91)} in Eqs. (3.71) and (3.72), we get .' .  s= i(rot  not) .  q= + B ...(3.106) A ) 11 = ( In le (se e . . :. s: i{oot not)  q= B ...(3.107) ) (A
.
w=
Iqe

"ne,.
e
 ~ '. ~ ."...'. ., .11... "'dO"....
.'
"0
. ,"
,i
92
Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations
.
wntten
Now, substituting the value of BI in terms of Al from eq. (3.95) the above expressions can be
as
U 
 A . qz+ 2qs sz e i(ootnx) 1 m e 2 2 e s +n ) (
.
...(3.108)
2n sz i(OOtnx) qz ...(3.109) W  A I q e2. + 2 e e s +n ( ) From Eqs. (3.108) and (3. 109), the variation of u and w with depth can be expressed as
.

.
.
2
U( Z} e
<qln)(l/z)
2(qln)(Sln» 2 2 +( s In +1
.
)
e
e
(sIn) (nz)
...(3.110) ...(3.111 a)
s In +1 Uc;:Tlg Eqs. (3.99), (3.100) and (3. 101), eqs. (3.86) and (3. 87) can be written as : 2 . 2 2
W (Z) e q
n
(qln) (nz) .+
2 2 2
(sin) (nz)
2"
=1
and
2" "
s
2 =1
22=l2"=la n vp 2
ro
Vr
2
~
22 =1n Vs
3:..
Vp 2
~
2
...(3.111 b)
2
2 =1~ Vs
...(3.112)
Amplitude Amplitude
at depth z at surface 0.6 .0.8

6
H. rizontal cc mponent
0 :
O.41~(Z)J
N..
0 .I:.
vertical component
g' 0.6
V: 0.25
))
= ~ ..
0
.. >
 0.33
[W(Z>]
~C
1.J  O. 40 '" o..t ~~ 0.50
1.0
1.2
1.4
Fig. 3.18 : Amplitude ratio versus dimensionless depth for Rayieigh wave
Wave Propagation in an Elastic, Homogeneous
and Isotropic Medium
93 v/vs can be obtained from Fig. 3.15 a given value of Po isson's ratio. As n studied with respect to a nondimenfor Poisson's ratio of 0.25, 0.33, 0.40
~or a given value of Poisson's ratio, the values of v/vr and (Richart, 1962). Hence values of qln and sin are determinable for = (21t/wave length), the variation of U (z) and W (z) can then be sional term (z/wavelength). ,Such variation is shown in Fig. 3.18 and 0.50.
The amplitude of body waves, which spread out along a hemispherical wave front, are proportional to lIx,x being the distance from the s()urce. The amplitude of the rayleigh waves, which spread out in a cylindrical wave front, are proportional to l/.r;. waves is slower then that of the body waves.
'
Thus the attenuation of the amplitude of the Rayleigh
3.10
GEOPHYSICAL PROSPECTING
3.10.1. General. Geophysical exploration is relatively new area of technology. It involves measurement of some physical field such as electrical, magnetic etc. on the earth's surface and interpreting the data so obtained in terms of properties of subsurface layers of soil. The geophysical techniques most widely employed for exploration work are the Seismic, gravity, magnetic and electrical methods. Less common methods involve the measurement of radioactivity and temperature at or near . '. the earth's surface and in an.
In this section, the seismic method of geophysical exploration had been discussed. This method utilises the propagation of elastic waves through the earth and is based on three fundamental principles namely (a) the waves are propagated with different velocities in different geological strata, (b) the contrast between the velocities is large, and (c) the strata velocities increase with depth. It consists of generating an elastic pulse or a more extended elastic vibration at shallow depth, and the resulting motion of the ground at nearby points on the surface is detected by seismic instruments known as geophones. Measurements of the traveltime of the pulse to geophones at variQus distances give the velocity of prop agation of the pulse in the ground. The ground is generally not homogeneous in its elastic properties and this velocity therefore vary both with depth and laterally.
,
The real stratum, which in fact often consists of stratified material, is usually best approximated by a layered medium, each layer having a constant velocity or one changing in a simple and regular way. with depth. The interfaces between layers may be inclined at an angle to the horizontal and to each other. In this section few simple cases have been discussed.
Let us considerthe case of one horizontalinterfaceat a depth h 1between media in which the compression wave (Pwave) velocities are vplare vp2'vp2being greater. Figure 3.19 shows the.possible paths of the body waves generated from the source S. " '
The first path as indicated by ray 1 is the same as the path of surface wave (Le. Rayleigh wave). A compression or shear wave (ray2) striking an interface will generate two reflected (P and S) and two refracted (P and S) waves (Fig. 3.19). According to the laws of reflection , and refraction: , ,~in ip = sin rp = sin.rs,:= sin Rp = sin Rs
vpl vpl vsl Yp2 . vs2
...(3.113)
reflected waves are of the same type.
The equality of the angles of incidence and reflection (e.g. ip = rp) holds only if incident a'rtd
c;.on'" ~
...:. J.: ~ '.
lE.
94
.. "
"'Soil
Dynamics
& 'Machine~
Foundations'
',:
source
"
<1)
" "
I
'
'
,~
pwave
"
'
J .
,
.... ~ a.. ..,,;
'a.
.,.,.
b a.
v P1
'
h1 p
"
Q:,
I
ir
..
',>'
,
vp2
'~"f "0 ~("Cl ~
...
~Ov "
Fig.3.19: Possiblepathsofbodywaves In seismic refraction only compressional waves (P~waves) are considered and the interpretation is based mainly on the first arrival times derived from the se'ismograms, This is due to the fact that Pwave travels much faster than any other wave, Therefore , for this case, Eq, (3.i 13)' ',can be written as ,
sinip sin Rp The above equation =vpl vp2 Since vp2> vpJ' angle of refraction Rp is
..,,(3.114)
is Snell's law or the law of re~action.
greater than angle of incidence ip: Whenip
increases; there is a 'unique' case where Rp
'
= 90°
and
sin Rp = 1. Then
,
,'
,
. ,
v
pi
 . .
.5m 'pc
,
sm 'p'  ~ vp2 ,
...(3.115)
,
, Angle ipc is called critical angle of incidence. For ip >ipc' the energy is totally reflected in ~he upper layer. If vp2 is less than vpl so that the ray path is refracted away from the normal this critical refraction
cannot occur. . ~, ',. ~" " , :'
"
:
d'
:
. ,,", , .
jt}cj~~
" . "
: ;

óôñ¢ñóñ¢Ö
,,
", ',,'
"
.f
~;,'.f?'
Wa!'.e,Propagatil!n i~ an Elastic" Homogeneolls and Isotropic Medillm
9S
'
It can be shown that the trajectory based on critical angles give the shortest time. Let a geophone is
placed at a distance x from the source (Pig. 3.2'0). ' "
.~ (Sourccz)
"S .
x
.. ~ .. .,' ,
(Gczophone) G
1
.
Vp1
hl
..
'
Intczrtaccz
A
Fig. 3.20 : Typical trajectory
B
of a compression wave
h. SA = BG = .!
.
...(3.116)
cos ip j3.117)
AB = x2 hI tan ip Total time, taken by the wave ~eaching from S to G will be: . x  2n 2h l tan i
.
. '
T=
,
l
+
p
...(3.118)
,
.
Ypl cos ip
vp2
The time T will be minimum when d T  2 hI sin ip ,di P
'.
2 hI 0 2. . 2. Vpl cos 'p Yp2 cos 'p
...(3.119)
or
sIn,
.
Vpl '. ' == SIn ,pc P v , p2
.
...(3.120)
,
Therefore the travel tiITlefrom ~ toG via the second layer is minimum when slant ray paths through vpl layer make angle ipc with the normal to the surface. Hence a geophone on the surface at any distance greater than the critical range 2 h I tan ipc from S will lie on one of these rays and will record the arrival
of the wave at the a,ppropri~tetime (Fig. ,321} Th~ ,refracted wav.esshown by d~~ed lines are known as head waves. ' . .
"
1."
,
.
,,; ..
" '
~,;..'",'
""",._"Hi;j;
" ' , ',' .~,:
.,,'
,
"
"t~;." ,.. ,'"
..
"
"
_.'
96
SoU Dynamics & Machine Foundations
..
5
2h1tan
1pc
..
G1 /
/
.
I /
1
G2
G3 / / / / /
.9 /
/ / / / / /
/
I
'
/
h1
vp1
.
I.
/
I
/
/
/
/ /
I
/ /
I
/ / /
'pc I'pc /
/1
hI
11
vp2
 
Head
waves
Fig. 3.21 : Critically refracted ray path and head waves
3.10.2. Depth Formulae. 3.10.2.1. Two layer soil medium. If the first arrivals ofthe elastic waves are recorded by detectors planted in the ground, the times from the impact instant to the detectors can be plotted on a time distance graph as shown in the (Fig. 3.22). The slope of the lines yield the reciprocal of velocities, namely lIvp' Therefore, the lower the velocity, the steeper the slope of timedistance line. .. The intersection, break point between the two velocity lines is obviously the point where the times are equal. The distance between the impact point S and the break point is called the critical distance. The break point corresponds to the emergence of the wave front contact at the ground surface. Intercept time is the total arrival time of the refracted waves minus the time'x / vp2, x being the distance between the impact point and the receiving station. It is the intersection between the prolongation of the timedistance segment corresponding to the second medium and the time axis through the impact point. For calculating the depth at an impact point two different approaches are available either using the intercept time or critical distance (Milton, 1960; Parasnis, 1962).
~ Sou
S
x
r S(Z
1
ipc
ipc
h,
(a) Ray paths
vp1
VP2
Fig. 3.22: Fundamentatprinc:ip'e ofrefrac:tlon shooting (...Contd.)
Wave Propagation in an Elastic, Homogeneous
and Isotropic Medium
97
....
01
E
+"
"'"
> ...
+" cIi
0
 
...T2 ' 0 I
...
LL.
,.
Xc
(b) Timedistance plot Fig, 3,22: Fundamental principle of refraction shooting
Dj'stance)
X
Intercept
Time. Refer Fig. (3.22a)
Arrival time T I of direct surface waves = ~ vpl
...(3.121) 2h x  2 hI tan i c
P vp2
Arrival time T2 of refracted waves =
,.
sin 'pc Vpl
I. + vpl cos 'pc
...(3.122)
 vpZ
2hl
...(3..123) 2hl sin ipc sin ipc +~ . vp2 vpl cos 'pc
.
Tz = vpl cos ipc
z
=
V
2hl
p l cos ipc
2 hl(1 cos ipc) +~ vpz vpl cos, .pc
...(3.124 a) ...(3.124 b)
or or
 x Tz + V z p x T
Z
 +
2 hi cos i pc vpI 2hl vZ v 2
. Vpl Vp2
vp2
,j
p2
pI
..
cos
"
=.1 pc 12 ,
vZ
pI
. vp2
. 98
Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations
.
This is the equation of a straight .line with slope l/v p2 and an intercept on the time axis through
impact point is given by putting X = O.
T2i
'
=
,
2hl cos ipc
vpl
...(3.125) ...(3.126) ...(3.127)
or
hi
T2i vpi
=
I
2cos'i~c
or
h
= Tzi v pI vp2
~ Vp2 2 V pI 2
Critical Distance. Let the critical distance is Xc at which TI = Tz (Fig. 3.22b)
2 hi
\',,;COSlpC I' or
+ .'c  2 hi tan ipc
V p')
=
Xc
Vp l
...(3.128)
2h, vpl cosipc
 2hl(lcos2 ipc) = x vplcosipc cl Vpl
(~~ I
Vp2)
"'pI
or
2hl cos lpc  Xc 1
.
.
(
vp2 J
or
hi
Xc (lsinipc)
...(3.129)
=
X
2 cosipc
Vp2 V pI ...(3.130)
or
hI
=;
J vp2
+vpl
3.10.2.2. Three layer soil medium. Consider a threelayered soil medium with compression wave velocithat v I < v , < v 3 (Fig. 3.23a). If S is a ties of layers 1, 2 and 3 as vp I , vp~ and vp 3 with the condition "p pp source of disturbance, the direct wave travelling through layer 1 will arrive first at A, which is located
')
a small distance away from S. The travel time for this can be given by Eq. (3.121) as T I"" x/vpl' At a greater distance x, the first arrival will corresponds to the wave taking the path SDEB. The travel time for this can be obtained from Eq. (3.123b) as
I2
T2
2
'
= +
,vp2
X
2 hlVvp2 V pI
vpl vp2
At a still larger distance, the rust arrival corresponds to the path SFGHIC. According to Snell's law sini
sin ic2
= vpl vp2
'
...(J.131 )
sin
Therefore,
ic2
= ;p3
v pI .vp2  vpI
= vp2 vp3 vp3
vp2
...( 1.132)
sin;
'~"':'~",F"'"
'~')""~
',",;"
,,'
'
Wave Propagation
in an Elastic, Hom~geneous and Isotropic Medium
99
The equation of the time of arrival, TJ for the wave from S to C,through thirdlayerjs TJ = 2 hI .+ 2 I? . + x 2
~ tani  2 I? tan ie2
" . .
vpl cos I
vp COSle2
vpJ
Substituting the values of cos i and cos le2 from Eqs. (3.132) & (3.133) in eq, (3. 134). We get
,
TJ
= x
v
,
+,
2hl~v;Jv;1 ,
v
pJ
pJ
v
+
2~~v;JV;2
.pJ
. '
pI
v
v
,..( 1,35)
p2
s
A LaY<l r 1 vp1 ic1
=
B
...
sin1 (vp1 /vp2)
(}
h1
., ,
"
si n1 (v P1 / v P3 )
'",'~"'_:
, . ~ ,...'
,
.E
.'.
"
, . ',..
. "..'
'
,
IC2=stn,
'
.1 ( ) vp2 vp31
I
I
1
,.,.; ',':,:,.":",,
'# "
LaY<lr vp2
.,.~,
" . ,
hl
,f'
,..
.' .',
,.. ,:'
,
"','
~.',
. .,,
Or< ,:' : ,.. ,"
,~.'~..,
(a) Ray
: 'Layer: 3 ", Vp3
°¿¬¸
.
...
tII
C"
.
,~ T3i ...
0 >
" "  ~, I .
.,
 ,. ,
,
'
t. TZi 0 '
...
\J\ ....
: ,'1.
I I
I I I I
u.
(b)
"!;"Timedis'tan~e
",'P;' "',~,
,.' ,I
"
,'.
I I I .1 I I I I ,I::
'I
I I
ôòØ¢Ý´ùòÄ
".t., gi;!:o,
,xC2
'Oistance,'x,.;.,j,.'..\;,
,.t'.:,)~1" .FJ~v~~\ ':',:.,: ,; c;"
,I,,JJ..J. "..' . (er ",.1. ~.J\J,', J,c.di;' ,,~' . '",.
""','""""",y.,: I"",~"P.<:~ ~"",L :.4;,;"..,.,..,., ;.,.,.",',' ',..""";..,, ,,"')J';"""';"'""~"" ,,"" ",."., , .;:,<;( 1:,..",,'d~.J ";""<::~"'~'>;J!Lf""}Wd,Ll;),I;>",.q"i'1> ~.,..if"""":.;'i:' ,..,l1.".~.1 !U <;,.'" ,rf::;.:.tj.",.ff' , ," ,Flg..3~~3..:"'~efraction shooting an three layered sod medium, .' :,.\:.';~t<:,".. . ,,'," '
,if' 1~i~.:t:ttf
,~. tf."'.l ,:1 ,'.
"
.._~ "" , , ,.." " ", "..
100
Soil Dynamic.. & Machine Foundations
The records of geophones placed at various distances from the source may be plotted on time versus distancegraph as shown in Fig. 3.23 b. The line OA corresponds to Eq. (3.121), OB to Eq. (3.123 b), and BC to Eq. (3.135): The thickness of the fIrst layer can be obtained either by Eq. (3.127) usingintercept timeT2i or by Eq. (3.130) using critical distance xci' The thickness of the second layer h2 can be obtained by the two approaches as given below: Intercept time: (Fig. 3.23)
TJ i
=
2 hI cosi
vpl
+
2 ~ cosic2
vp2
...(3.136 a)
or
h2 = .!. 2 T3' I
2 hl~V~3  V~I V
p J Vp l
.
vpJ vp2
(
Critical distance: (Fig. 3.23) At distance xc2' T2 = T3 . Therefore
}
~2
...(1.37)
V vpJ 
vp2
.
x 2 hI~ vp2 x + 2 hI~ vpJ 2  vpI 2 = £f.. 2  vpI 2 + 2 £f.. +
vp2 vpl vp2 vp3" . v
p3
~
~
2
vpJ  vp2
...(1.38)
vp3 vpl v.
p2
vpJ vp2 hl Vp2~V~3V~IVp3~V~2V~I
Vpl ~ vp3 2 vp2 2
or
h =
2
xc2
(
)
...(1.139)
2'
vp3 +v p2
:':"'~"'.:
:,,"..;', :,:':,'~',".:.:':.".: 11 vp1
Layer
...... .. toI
E
....
La yer
2 I vp2
0 >
~
~ 0
.... IJI
~
Scigment Slope=1/vpn
n
u. Sczgment Layer n, vpn 1
Di stance
(a) Ray paths (b) Timedistance plot Fig. 3,24 : Refraction shooting In multilayer soil
Slope = 1/ vp1
Jx
3.10.2.3. Multi/ayer soil system. If there are n number oflayers, the fIrst arrival time at various distances from the sources of disturbance will pl~t as shown in Fig. 3.24. There ~iII be n segments on the t versus x plo,t. Using either intercept time or critical distance ~pp~oac~,the thickness of various layers can be
",!",,;,1"1
¢òþå þþæôòþþþþôôùæôô¶¢ùòòº¢
.
J
:. =.. normal to the refractor.150) represents a straight line with slope sin (ipc + a)/vp\. Fig.(3. ."(Zd + x sin a) tan ipc + Zd + x sin a vplcosipc vp2 vplcosipc Zd ....' where Tu.25 a.146) CG = (Zd + x sin a) tan ipc (3. and whenx = 0.(3.'0' . h2"""'" hn .u Wave..145) .151) The apparent velocitY vpll s~ (ipc +a) is equal to vp2sin i pc I sin (ipc+ a) and is smaller than the true velocity vp2 since ~in ipcI sin (i pc+ a ) < 1.Zd tanipc'. 3... 2 zd cos ipc vpl .e. 1H.with respect to horizontal.1 in sequence.(3..Propttgatioll in all Elastic.143) ID = DK .142) . (3. "".(3.The rays such as ABCDmakingthe criticalangle ipc (sin ipc = Vp/Vp2)wIth the first arrivals..HolIIfIgelleous alld Isotropic Medium 101 obtained by detennining hI..150) The Eq. The general equation can be written as : Tni vpn Vp(nl) Vpn vp(nl) "j=n2h_ ~j=1 ´ÁóÔ Ö ivPi Vpn 2 hn  1 2 v~n . the downdip time T2d is AB BC CD T 2d = ++. ~..4..2. COSlpc = x sin a COSlpc CD = (Zd + x .(3..(3..JII.144) AK = EG = x cos a EB = Zd tan ipc .148) vpl vp2 vpl = or + x cos a . the time from A to D for the ray ABCD. ..149) T 2d = 2 Zd cos ipc x .. Sloping layer system. (3... +sm(lpc+a) vp I v I p ..v =~ p(nl) 2 ~ Vpn 2 .:u . 3. intercept is T2 d.141) .10.. i.ch..140) is based on intercept time approa. The interface of soil layers 1 and 2 is inclinedat an angle 0..(3.r..147) If we assume that point A to be the energy source and D the detector station.0 .. 3. . take the shortest time from A to D and are therefore Zd  Referring Fig.. .(3.sin a) cos Ipc  .. AB = Cl = cos ipc DK = x sin et  .(3.Vp(nl) 2 .140) The eq...~. (3.(3.25 a shows two soil layers.
...:..""'..... Itcu x increasing .a!erin1:.. ':. . 3.25 : RefractloD'Surveyjn soiis \vit~~~~n~~dJ.' . tor Tu !~ " . :.R 102 SoU Jiynamics '& Machine FtlflllilawnS': :/: .:.. . .' "".:. . I I Distance.:' ...'~" IA It i hu '. e 0 > 0 ..'. (a) Ray paths ..". T2ui T2di " I I . .. Fig. 11incrtosing tor Td .
r """"'..159) '.~ !".154 a) Tu. .' .et..(3.'.153 b) = Tu.a} ..(3.152 a) vpl vpl In this caSe.152 b) T2divpI Zd = 2 cos ipe . intercept is T 2ui' where T 2ui = 2Zu cos ipe vpl . ." ( if '.) which is equal to v2 sin ipjsin (ipe .157)  similary h = .155) = 2' . Therefore. apparent velocity is vI/sin (ipe .a .':' . For critical distances: (Fig.I ~ /tJ1Iehopagatioll in an Elastic. that apparent down dip velocity in the second layer is given by . 3.25 b) xed = 2 Zd cos ipe + xed sin (ipe + a) vpl vpl vpl xcd {Isin (ipc +a)} Zd or c .}'\" ' .. .153 a) T2divpi h = d 2 cosipc cos a Z u . h .Yu ':=::":sin (iF'~ a.sin (ipc .{!f~..(3..... .. Homogeneous and Isotropic Medium 103 For updip recording the equation oftime can be obtained by replacing Zd by Zu' and a by . "~.I?.(3.. T 2u .> ~.'" p .then 'e get.' p.. Y" J '.a ) ' . ' . \ It'is evident from Eq.".156) COSlpe .(3... .iU {1..154 b) The vertical depths hd and hu can be obtained by dividing Zd and Zu by cos a. vpi h = u 2 cos ipc cos et.150).... x = 2zu cos ipc + '.. = : Xcd{lsin(ipc+a} d 2 cosipccosa Xcu .. nb:.(3.t3.~9~.(3. 2cosipc COS a.). '.(3..titIi)2~JV.. This elocity will be greater than the true velocity vp2 For x = 0. ... v pI 2 cos ipe .158) . (3.(3.. . ~'>"Hi! co.a) .(3.sin(ipc...J'}'I'~ I !...
. 3..(3. VK2 ~Z Kl VK1 ~ZK v K ~ Z K+1 VK+1 v Vmax K+2 Fig.: ( sin ipc = VPI vp2 ...26).(3.a) = ~= v2u sin ipccos a .. .(3. 3.il l)ynamics.10.cos et = vpl(vU +v2u) Vu Vu vp2 V or or .5.16..2.16' .16 p'  = 2 cos a.16 ] .(3.104 So.e. M~dJine ...a) ..(3.26: Refraction s~rvey in soil having continuous change of velocitywith depth . pc Vu v2u V I 2 L.Foundatio/l Similarly the apparent up dip velocity will be vpl v2u = sin Upc.16 .. Refraction in a medium having continuous change of speed with depth. = ~ + J!.. The problem may solved by dividing the strata in infinitesimally thin members i.16f The true velocity vp2 in the refractor can be derived as follows: v sin Upc + a) = 1 = sin ipc cos a + cos ipc sin a Vu v 1 sin (ipc or ..... V 2u 2d V v2u + Vu 3. layers and each of higher speed than t above (Fig.cos ipcsin a v I v I 2 sin i cos a.(3. & ...
) t " . it.(3.~qn '.171)' Vk 1 Vrnax ) ~Zkl x = t. = p"(constant) ray parameter.(3. 115!.(3. 1.x vrnaX 2 ' .. Homogeneous and Isotropic Medium 105 The solution may be obtained for a given velocitydepth functions such as v = v0 + k'z ' .168) ....!iftoj .. k :.I 1..( vrnax) /). 1 vk cos ik vkV1sm ik As .167) = SIn ...1iI I '~f'A.sinik = sinio . Therefore vmax is actually a parameter that itself identifies the particular ray under consideration. ' vk "'~"'~'O N'" ~ 'o!...' .(3. ik ..'"kP 'i".l ~ vrna..173) According to Snell's law: sinik = sin 90 ""l.:> .~ '..(3. I"'....166) where v = speed at depth z v0 = speed at zero depth k' = constant For any particular ray there will be a layer having a speed v max in which the path becomes horizontal...170 b) 2 vrnax Total time for a wave to travel through Nsuch layers: N ~ t=L. 2.170 a) ~ or ' ~xk =~Zk Ft 1vk 1 vrnax 2 vk j3.. .xk = . . .::.(3...(3. r. vk .il M 4.Wave Propagation in an Elastic. v rnax ..169) Horizontal distance traversed by this ray in kth layer t:!. ~Tk = Vk1/1. .Zk tanik l ."".. Consider kth layer: Travel Time for passing the ray through kth layer ~Z k = ~Zk A T °k' . ..(3. ... k 2 k=\ and net horizontal distance N ~ .1n) ( vrnax) . 1 vrnax ) ( ~k 2 .~(. ='.
.. 3.. i v~) x can be written as..106 SoU Dynamics & Machine Foundations Considering v~locitydepth function i.1 ' 2 1/2 ) .27 a shows a family of such circles for a number of rays having different angles of immergence into the earth.(3.. )( e>+ C.: 2 ( (vo+k'z) 2 ) . v = Vo + KZ..177) ...(3.iv~ Vo 2 1 .180) ( x k'p ) + ( z+/1 ) = k.(3.27 : Ray paths and time distance curve for linear Increase of speed with depth (. t and = !. Zmu ..179) ~ 1.174) x= then t and r v~lii 0 Zmax pv dZ . Figure 3.(3.175) = 0 (vo+k'z)~Ip2(vo+k'z)2 Zmax J pv dZ .p ( Vo+ k z) } x ..CoDtd.p Vo ] k'p and Equation of x = J . Line of Vo centers "'%' ~ k' Surface of ~a rth x '\~ \~ z (a) Ray paths Fig. and replacing vk by V and lIvrnaxby p..iv~ / k' p from x and z axis respectively..)   .2 i This is a equation of a circle of radius 1/ k'p and centre at ..(3.176) p(vo+k'z}dz 0 ~1p2(vo+k'z)2 Integration of the above two expressions are as under: 2 2 \12 2 .e..{I.. C2 C3 Cl..(3.Vo/ k' and ~1.178) 1 (vo+k'z) (I+~It = In k' Vo 1+ ~2 Ip .[(I ..~1 ~V Z .(3.
182 a) sinio Vo p=.. (3. = ..(3.. ~ . (1 + ~ p' v~ k Vo ) 2 VV~ l.. .1C' (co sec 107" t) .ok. In v. (3. '\lo ' max .'~~' ~~ Wave Propagation in an Elastic.' '! . vo' 2 ) . cot 10 . ~ '\ k ' Z Vo+ . (a) Ray paths rto! E r T= 2 K' Sin ." .(3..nwl 1 where ).1' "~L Vmax '.\. x (b) Timedistance plot Fig.(J.  ..{ } or Z =.181) or r vo zmax = k'p F vo vo = k'sini 0 F ' . ".(3.184) .183b) ..(3.27 : Ray paths and time distance curve for linear increase of speed with depth 1 V Radius of circle = k' p = k~ +Zmax . .. ( vmax..183 Cl) =.181)..179) and eliminating p using Eq.. 3.. Homogeneous and Isotropic Medium 107 . h1 Kx' 2vo Distance.178) imd (3.(3.:.182 b) Putting the value of Z as zmaxin Eqs. ~ =~ ~ v/\ k...+ = In 2 k 2v X vl114Jt ' l v1l~) \In . ~( " J ) ..:... we get t ~ 3. .
Determine E.9) in the above equation. P b say ).1.1.1 Table 3.). m/s 6001750 300800 15004500 35006500 4600. This can be expressed as .25) x (300) (10.1000(1+0.179). Two geophones were placed in the ground respectively. (3.(3.1 Wave pro{Ju". (3. ). G. 7502200 18003800 25004000 I ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES t "~'Xamp'" 3.kt. (3. Assume suitable values of Poisson ratio.25 and Pb = 1000 Kg/m3 2.76453000 N/m =A+2G = 76453 kN/m 2 . 3.0 m from the source.25) . 4 5.1.64) V î p P Putting the values of A and G from Eqs..0 m. The mverse slope of the timedistance curve at any point is equal to the velocity at the depth of maximum penetration for the ray reaching the surface at that point. Seismic waves were generated by the impact ( a h:':PlHlcrfalling through a height of 2. V p as 3C mIs. The timedistance relation for a such a circular ray between entry into and emergence from the earth can be obtainedby eliminating p and z from Eqs. we get p(I+). .7000 Vs' m/s 80160 100500 .) 2 E = (1).178) and (3.1. = 0.SinhI k' x T . 3. 2v0 .25)(12 x 0. and submerged density of soil.27b. Mathura.8) and (3..iaterial 1. I. The soil at the site was cohesionless and the position of water table was at 1.1. vp '2 2 .# h 108 Soil Dynamics & Mllchine Foundatitlas.1. 3.185) The timedistance curve applying for a linear increase of speed with depth is shown in Fig. for determining the insitu ve locities of wave propagation and dynamic elastic moduli.. VS and vr' Solution: 1. The analysis of data gave the velocity of compression wave. From Eq.0 m depth below tJ ground surface. Moist clay and Wet Soils Sand Sand stone Lime stone Granite vp.)(12). 2.1 : Compression and Shear Wave Velocities i.11 TYPICAL VALUES OF COMPRESSION WAVE AND SHEAR WAVE VELOCITIES Some typical values of compression wave and shear wave velocities (vp and vs)are given in Table 3.'Jtiontests were conducted near Mathura Refinery.Om and 5.
845 1 x 3" = 0. Travel Time (milli s) 0 2 4 6 8 .854 = 0. 2L =~a2~2 =0.112). LiIIiIft 11 109 ve Propagation in an Elastic. dO"dd~ 0'_"""".25) E  76453 = 30581 kN/m2 3.282 From Eq. Therefore ~2 = (22/J3) 2 Cl = 2 .2 The data of a refractor test is given below: Distance of Geophones from Source (m) 0 4 8 12 20 25 '. 3 ~6.J0. s 2" =1~ n 2 2 For ~2 = 2 and (2 + 21 J3).12 ~2+ 8) = 0 2 . (3.531 = 160rnls vI" = Vs From Eq. (3.5(1+ 0. . ~ =2 2+ 2 ' J3' 2 2 J3 .2 x 0.9192 Vs r 160 = 0.24 ~4 + 56 ~2.25 or Therefore.100).(16 Cl .8 ~ . '<~iL: .1= 0.!). 9 Determine the depth of the refractor using time"intercept approach and critical distance approach.531 vp vI" =300 x 0.1.155 = 0.1= 2 .. :J .845 2 ~ = 0.2 x 0. Homogeneous and Isotropic Medium From Eq. From Eq.! 1.24 ) ~ .. 2 1.2 J. From Eq.25 = 3" 1. (3.2 J. JP2 = .25 1 Cl = 2 . value of sIn will work out imaginary.4 ) (3 ~4 . 6 4 2 2 ~ .9192 = 174 rn/s Example 3.9192 = 0.1~1).32 =' 0 (~2 .16 (1 " For ) =0 J.9) G = 2(1 + J. Cl From eq. (3. ~. (3. (3. 105).103).
127) h = Tu vpl vp2 I 2 vp2vpl 42 2 = 0."'" "".006 = 2000 mls 8 vp2 ' = 0. 12 vpl = 0.. 3./. r .003 x 2000 x 4000 = 3./ // I '2i 2 I I I I I I I I I 0 0 4 8 . Solution: 1.003 and Xc = 12 m.. From this figure.28. From timeintercept approach (Eq. graph as shown i 10 u 8 ~ 1/. E E 1 // 41.xc 12 I I 16 20 24 Distance (m) Fig.002 = 4000 mls 2.2 .. 6 "".{ ." I "". Also. "". 3..äþ þ ù ô ù½ ùåùôù¢ù ò òòòù óó þó òô óòòòòò ó óóòóó ô ò òòù ù 110 Soil DyntUllics & Machine FoundlZlUJr..28: Timedistance plot for the data given In example 3. . The data given in the example has been plotted on timedistance Fig.' 2~4oo02_20002."'" . TZi = 0.46 ID ... 3.
.00745 = 3000 + = 0. 130) x hi =.s:' ..'  . Example 3. . .03445 500 = 0. 3.03715 s M_inimum ~avel ~e " . 3.{ J vp2 v Vp2VpI pI =Q 46 m 2 ~/40002000 4000+2000 = 3'..V~2 ~)~l ~)~2 2 x 5~30002 5002 2 x 10~3000220002 3000 x 500 + 3000 x 2000 = 0.29. .'.0 Is .01 + 0.06S (ii) Arrival timeT2 of refracted wave fro~ flIst layer (Eq.135) =+x ~) 30 2hl~v~) V~l + 2~ ~v~) .29 : Data for example 3. From critical distance approach (Eq... 3.3 In Fig. m 30m Vp1 = ~ ~ m I sec.' ~. O:O~'f4. determine the time of the flIst arrival wave from source Sand geophone G. Wave Propagation in an Elastic. ..3 = 3000 mlsec Solution: (i) Arrivaltime T 1 of the direct surfacewave = ~I = :o~ = 0. 3.0 m vp2 ~=~ 2000 mlsec J vp3 Fig..'." i: '. t 5. 500 t .. 3." \ : . .01972 + 0. 10.015 + 0. Homogeneous and Isotropic Medium 111 3.124 b) =+ x Vp2 30 Vpl Vp2 v v 2hl ~ p2 2 2 pi 2x5 .' ~ 2 2 = 2000 + 500 x 2000 "2000 = 0.01936 (fU) Arrival time T) of refracted wave from second layer (Eq.
.4) Solution: 1."" ~s .6 . 3.1 12.1 x 103 = 1640 m/s .4 x 10. v2u = Inverse slope of CD = (16.9 16.9 14. 15.3 9. 6.1. A ~B r hu Vp1 Vp2 Fig.5 Source at B Distance of Geophnes form B (m) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Travel time (milli sec) 0 3. Plot the data on timedistance graph as shown in Fig. and the two velocities using critical distance approach and time intercept approach.31. 15 10 vp 1 = Inverse slope of AC ==9.3 11..30) two seismic refraction tests were performed and the data obtained is given below: . depth of refractor at points A and B.35 '.4 Between two points A and B (Fig.8 16.2) x 103 ~ 6603 m/s .' "1600+ 1640 = 1620 2 .30: Sloping layer (example 3. ..1 6.~.1 9.5 Determine the slope of the refractor.0 15.511.4 12. Source at A Distance of Geophones from A (m) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Travel time (milli sec) 0 3. 3. or = Inverse slope of BE = Adopt vpl 6.3 = 1600 mIs. In this figure .112 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations " Example 3. 3.
. " """ 6 " .. ~..75 m 18 D 16 ~ 14 '" I " ".. ........'I ".xcd = 14. 3. .. I I I I .I u CII '" 10 I 8 ..2 x 1O3s. Homogeneous and Isotropic Medium 113 J '~ I Vu = Inverse slope of EF = 35 (16. Wave Propagation in an Elastic.8) x 103 = 2756 m/s T2u. " 4 " " T2di 3..8 sec 2 Distance (m) Fig.. 12 lT2ui ..... = 3....~~.8 x 1O3s. E E . . .I i..53.4  '~.... = 11...........Xcu= 23....31 : Timedistance plot for the data given in example 3.5 m Tu. . .....~~.. ..tCiIJ . ...
75° = 10. (3.TZdivpl 2 cosi pc cosa 3.75° h = TZujVpl u 2 cosi pc cos a 11. 5: True velocIty (Eq. (3..5805) = h = u 2 cos 24. (3.5(1.. 158) xcd {1sin(ipc +a)} hd = 2 cos ipccos a 14.7° cos 10. 3..154b) hd. 3.L = pc vzu .0. Critical distance Approach From Eqs. FromEq.2423) ..2423 .4 m = 2cos24.160). 157) and (3. vzu vZd 6603 x 2756 vp2 = vzu +v2d 2 cos a = 6603+2756 x2 x cos 10..sin (i pc . ..4 m 2 cos ipc cos a 23.5805 vZd 2756 ipc + a = 35. 6603 or ipc . 2.7°coslO.8 x 103 x 1620 = 3.75° Therefore.165).75° Xcu {1.03 m 4. m/se£~ . (3.5° ipc = 24.75° = 3820 " .7° cos 10. or + a) = vpl = 1600 = 0.a)} = 3..159).a) = .' ~I .2 cos 24.7° and a = 10.97 m .. Timeintercept approach: From Eqs." :: .2 cos 24.a = 14° Sin (i pc From Eq.75(10.2 x 103 x 1620 .153b) and (3.sm(i .7° cos 10. v I 1600 = 0.75° =9.114 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundation$..
"". .1) = 1. 200 v = = 611 m/s 7 (1465 1138) x IO~ (ii) Similarly . .. Homogeneous and Isotropic Medium 115 Example 3.0 (cosec 54..:.183). .Sill .5 Following is the data obtained from a seismic refraction test Geophone No.. .16° . I 2vo K' = cot x '0 .182 b) 700 . Zmtu: =." .k' = ~ = 900 = 0. I 500 0 '0 ~ Sill . 671=48.963 1138 1306 1465 1618 1763 O' 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Assuming that the velocity is varying linearly with depth.. ~~= ~~. 611 . Also determine the coefficient 'K' in both cases. GO Gl G2 G3' G4 G5 G6 G7 G8 G9 GI0 Distance from Shot Point (m) .9 ° = 1 0 From Eq.f.. Solution: (i) Initial velocity. = 2 x 500 cot 54.e.9° .54 90 .".995 .. From Eq.' ".~.. (3..(cosec io 1) = 0~::5 (cosec48~16°1)= 172m .'. '0 ..1) = I11m (iii) Similarly v 9 = 200 (17631465) x 103 = 671m/ s . Travel Time (rriilli sec) 0 200 399 592 780 . Wave Propagation i" a" Elastic. vo = 200100 x 103 = 500 m/s Velocity of the wave reaching to geophone G7 i. ~ 500 Zmax= k' (cosec io . (3.. .16 2V o cot io 2 x 500 cot 48.. determine the values of depth of deepest point of the wave paths from ground surface corresponding to the waves reachtng to geophones G7 and G9." . I 500 .
"Foundation vibrations". B. 33. H.65. "Elastic wave velocities in granular soils. McGrawHill. "Principles of appliedgeophysics". Richart F. SMI.E.L. (1962). Inc.." Proc. "On wavespropagatedalong the plane surfaceof an elastic solid. London Math. Lamb. . J. O.O. pp. Trans.ics & MlIchilre Fo""dations zo u Q. pp. "Introduction to geophysical prospecting".. Tokyo. (1960).. vol.N. Trans. (190. Soil." J. Soc. Milton.. Part I. Am. vo!. Rayleigh. Civ.32 : Time distance plots ÎÛÚÛÎÛÒÝÛÍ Hardin. McGraw Hill Book Co. Jr.116 Soil sy.." Dover. . 127 .B. 8638lJ8. pp. 3. Ser.Jr.. (1951). Div.Methuen. 142. Mech. Am./ \1'1 'E . "Stress waves in solids. London. Engg. H. D.F. New York. (1962).:l). and Richart. 89. (1963). Soc.. S. Engg. New York. (1963). 10 ~ E ~ 5 10 15 Distance 20 (m) 25 Fig. 17. Kolsky.". 41 \. Royal Soc. "Theory of elasticity". Civ Engg. and Goodier. A. Soc..S." Philos. 203. Parasnis. E. Found. Timoshenko. vo\. ( 1885). "On the propOlgation of tremors over the surface of an elastic solid. pp.
6 A shot is fired at the ground surface on a particular"location and 'observations fromgeophories gave the fol~owing.0' E:G::~ ~ ~~d 3. .00 c ~~..' ~~..4 What are the informations obtained by a seismic survey? Give its economic aspects.3""Assuming Poisson'S"rntioif(J. Plot the timedistance graph and determine (i) Velocities of two layers (ii) Values of E and G of.50 170. .. . 3. isotropic and elastic medium.00 187. Describe their relative magnitudes. " . . ~ Travel Time "'(MiIli sec) 42. Homogeneous and Isotropic Medium I " PRACTICE PROBLEMS .. .tjastt35'and"denslt)r ofs'oifils1800'kgliri3 . (iv) Depth of layer from.he)V.".7 Prove that in a dipping layer interface trajectory based on tritical angle~ giv~ sho'rt~st' time. .' . data.dete~i~~ vr if compression wave velocity is 450 mls.}. . ?.' 7.1 Explain the generation of (a) compression wave._. (b) shear wave and (c) Rayleigh wave.3. Deteimine the following: (a) Apparent velocities (b) Slope of interface (c) Depth of layer at points A and B using critical distance concept (d) Depth of layer at points A and B using time intercept concept (e) True velocity V2 .time intercept and criticcit" distance .117 Wave Propagation in an Elastrc.. .' .25 ' (iii) Time intercept and critical distance. homogeneous. ' 00 "'  u  . (v) Verification of travel time for 30'm geophone.. " . 0 .2.ave prppag~tion in an infinite.5 Give precisely the three principles which makes the basis of Seismic wave propagation theory.50 215. ~scijb~ t. . ~ = 0.00 127.. :? ... 3. " 3.8 In a dipping interface travel timedistance plot is' obtained as shO\vn in FIg. the two layers assuming .50 85.. 3.~... . 3::n. Distance of Gephone from shot point (m) 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 .50 197...
0001%to 0. such as coefficient of elastic uniform compression CII' coefficient of elastic uniform shear Ct. coefficient of elastic nonuniform Compression C$ and coefficient of elastic nonuniform shear C'p' (d) Damping ratio~. (e) Liquefaction parameters.01% to 0. Since the dynamic properties of soils are strain dependent various laboratory and field techniques have been developed to measure these properties over a wide range of strain amplitudes.001%. and bulk modulus K (b) Poisson's ratio J. if) Strengthdeformation characteristics in terms of strain rate effects.: DYNAMIC SOIL PROPERTIES 4. "/" . and (v) Cyclic triaxial compression test. blasts and nuclear explosions can develop large strain amplitudes of the order of 0. The laboratory methods used for determining the dynamic properties of soils are: ..2 LABORATORY TECHNIQUES (I) Resonant column test. . (iv) Cyclic torsional simple shear test.1 GENERAL The problems involving the dynamic loading of soils can be divided into two categories: (i) Having large strain amplitude responseStrong motion earthquakes. such as Young's modulus E. 4. (ii) Ultrasonic pulse test. and (ii) Having small strain amplitude respon~eFoundationsof the machines have usually low strain amplitude ofthe order of 0.1 (c) Dynamic elastic constants. such as cyclic stress ratio.1%. cyclic deformation and pore pressure response. (iii) Cyclic simple shear test. The soilproperties which are needed in analysis and design of a structuresubjected to dynamic loading are: (a) Dynamic moduli. shear modulus G.
Resonant Column Test.'. 1940.~" :.This test is based on the theory of wave propagation in prismatic rods (Richart.1.."". by adding a mass at the free end.Drnevich.t""' ':. 4.)'. Jynamic Soil Properties' 119 t. it can represent either fIXedfree airangem~nt. 1978). ". 4.=:T  . J / ~ iJ wavtZ //«Y4SintZ ~~/ (0) 8 J/Jo =00 of resonant Hardin... J and Jo are respectively'the polar moment of inertias of the specimen and the added mass respectively.Hall and Richart. (il) Springbase model: Figure 4.'.\ ~ 'r.~~ may ~~~onsideredas fix~dfree.'i{}I.. "".Hardin and Richart. 1967.:.Wilson and Dietrich. ' x 80.'il... ~'I. ::'::::.1 b. The value of the resonant frequency is used in getting the value ofE and G depending on the type of the excitation (axial or torsional).Hardin and Music...:o.:.Either a cyclically varying axial load or torsionalload is applied to one end of the prismatic or cylindrical ~pecimenof soil.2.'m .'Ii..IJ'. . .. . In such a case.. . 1974. the variation of e along the specimenbecomes nearly linear.. ""."":"~'~.basemodel. column (After t 970 and Drnevich. t) Y" :'" X e(l.1 : Schematic As shown in Fig..I . .~". shearmodu. 1938.Woods.Dmevich(19~7)usedthe ~oncePtof addedmasstoobtaina uniformstraindistribution' throughout the length of the specimen.". ~=. '::.lida. 1960. ..traintthe tt'st specimen are available.. " .'.'1'\II "....0. the configuI'~ti.. ". .".t) J / /A I. In this technique the excitation frequency generating the wave is adjusted until the specimen experiencesresonance. " ."f. 1970). . This in turn willpropagate either a compression wave or a shear wave in the specimen. and the distribution of angular rota~on would then be a 1/2cosine wave. IusG and damping characteristics of soils at Iow strain amplitudes. 1937..:.In the case when the springis stiff in comparison ~ospecimen. 4.. e ~l.2 shows the configu~ationof an apparatus which canbe described as the spring.i. A node occurs at the fixed end and the distnbution of angular rotatione along the specimenis a 1/4sinewave.Depending on the stiffness of the spring compared to specimen's stiffness.""'J1J..::". Hall and Woods. . 1976. 1963. t<.Severalversions of torsional resonant column device using different end conditions to'conc.~rfreefreeconfiguration.Lord et ai.. / / ' /.   . Some common end conditions used in developing the equipment are discussed below: (I) Fixedfree: Hall and Richart (1963) described the apparatus with fixedfree end c~ndition."" . . 1963. '.S end conditions Fig. In this arrangement one end of the specimen is fixed against rotation and the other end is free to rotate under the applied torsion (Fig.'.'. The resonant columntest isused to obtain the elastic modulusE. The resonant column technique was used for testing of soils by many investigators (Ishimoto and Iida..Anderson. 1965. .t) / . .1a). a nodewill occur at mid height of the specimen.:L. e (b) with fixedfree t 967) J/Jo=O.. ~ /.''.
without a specimen attachedis a single degree of freedom system. 1972) developed a hollow cylinder apparatus as shown in Fig. .~~ W<zightl<z"sc. the shear strain is not constant but varies from zero at the centre of the sample to a maximum at the outer surface. 4. Hardin (1970) suggested the following procedure of calibration of the apparatus described in Fig.9hil. The configuration of this apparatus is similar to Fig. " " 4. The apparatus used by Hardin and Music (1965) is of this type.if ~ '~ 120 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations ½±²²»½¬»¼ to platen passiv<z <znd platczn Soil sp<zcimen Activll Ilnd platen / f. 4.1.1. .tedclaysupto 1% shearingstrainand Woods(1978)testeddense sandsupto shearing strainof 0.torsional ~ WQ:ightlQ:ss spring torsional da shpot " portion { rigidly of vibration to Q:xcitation platlln dllvicll connQ:ctlld L :'. Anderson(1974) tes. Dmevich (1967. It may be noted that in the usual torsional resonant column test. longitudinal dashpot spring with springbase model (Woods. the variation in shearing strain acrossthe thickness of the cylinder wall becomes relatively very small.Firstly remove the specimen cap and the additional rigidmass. Using Drnevich's apparatus.2 : Schematic of resonant column ~ Wllightlllc.1b and therefore the shearing strain is almost uniform along the length of specimen. Calibration and determination olG and~. 4. connect the sine wave generator to the vibration excitation device and vary the excitation frequency to determine the resonant frequencyf"I of the device..5%. (il) Attach the additionalrigid mass of polar momentof inertia Jo' and determinetheresonantfrequency !"A of the new system. 4.3 showsthe configurationof an apparatusin which the top cap is partially restrained by springs acting against an inertial mass. In hollow specimen.longitudinal Fig.c. 1978) (iil) Fixedpartially restrained: Figure 4.2..1b: (I) For this model the vibration excitation device itself.4 to study the effect of shear strain amplitude on shear modulus and damping.
"'_'__.2. 4.'.rigid mass " . 4. Sp(lcimqn.C~ ynamic Soil Properties 121 Driving for C(l ~ \. 1978) The rotational spring constant (torque per unit rotation). Fig.. specimen and all apparatus.1t 1  J Ai 1"2 n : .3 : Schematic of resonant column with fixedpartially restrained end conditions (Woods.. "Ko . 4...1) InA ( 1nl ) (iii) With the added mass removed and with the specimen cap. ~ . Jo ' = 41tln20 . Ko.0"'_" . 2 = . dis'turbqd non.0 "../. determine the resonant frequency/"0' The value of mass polar moment of inertia of the rigid mass.of the spring about the axis of specimen can be obtained using Eq.(4. ~ Fixqd Ko '" '. Jocan be computed using Eq.1.. .
..: 'I. 1972) Now at resonance cut off the power and record the decay curve for the vibration.:.LVDT . ~ ."" ~.. . . Top 'cap lid " 'I ..' 'J porepressure transdueczr To bae k pressure .: !:~j .:' ".3) = Amplitude of vibration for the nth cycle. em branes .4 : Hollow specimen resonant column apparatus (Ornevich. Sand ".'.(4..°A WT DA .' : . ' .' ~. '" .accelerometer Rot.. . From the decay curve compute the logarithmic decrement for the apparatus....e Foundations Taring spring / Long.. Under steady state vibrations. ~ ..: .~ ' . DAis given by . LVDT Rot . ~'.. 4. "'.: M !:'. the apparatus damping constant.' .. ./ BoHom cap Fig. .(4.': I..I" ' I ".4 .122 Soil Dynamics & Machil.. ...'.. °A' as follows: 0A = log n eA " where AI = Amplitude of vibrationfor thefirstcycle An 1 AI . .. : . ."Ko 10 1t .:. ....
()f. (4. Kt' excite the apparatus successively at frequencies (J2 / 2) /"0' the steady state vibration at each of these frequencies measure the current flowing through the coils. as follows:  .(4. . . (.. ~ .. J=. ' The procedure of obtaining G and ~has been explained in the following steps: (i) Calculate the mass density of the specimen. r. from Eq.. ..1 : Value ofMf Frequency Mf 2 . e in radians.. With the power as Iow as is practical. the resonant frequency of the system'/"R' is obtained by varying the frequency of excitation... (it) Calculate the inertia of the spe~imen_ab<iut its_~xis. (4. the specimen shall be placed in the apparatus with minimum disturbance...fi Ino and 2 Ino' During eKo ~ where Mfis given in Table 4.Oscan be obtained employing Eq. C in amperes. Using this decay curve.. For each frequency compute the torquecurrent constant Kt' as follows: .. 4W f) P= where rtd2f g .. 4 " .(4.'. J.1t pd 1 32 . in radians and the current flowing through the coils of the vibration excitation device.5) = CMf Table 4. After calibration. and the displacement amplitude of vibration.. Now the power is cut off and the record of decay curve for the free vibration of the system with specimen is obtained. The three measured values should not differ by more than 10%... I 3 y 2/110 The value of Kt shall be taken as the average of three measured values.3). CR are measured. p. . the amplitude of vibration.6).(4.fi) 1110  I . the value of the logarithmic' decrement.. . g = Accelerationdue to gravity.1 . eR.6) W = Total weightof specimen I = Length of specimen d = Diameter of specimen .7) . At resonant frequency.~ Dynamic Soil Properties 123 (iv) To measure the torque current constant. A known value of ambient pressure is applied as done in triaxial compression test.
2)...(4. . T ~s follows: 10 Ko T = I 41t21fni where 10 = Mass polar moment of inertia of the apparatus. 4. Ko = Rotational spring constant. 124 SoU Dynamics cl Machine Foundations (iii) Calculate the system factor.H i ' . (4.6 . (4. (4.the dampingfactorof the system.8) = Resonant frequency of the complete system.I 0.8 0.9 1. determine the dimensionless frequency F for the value ofT computed in step (iii)... derIDedby Eq. ....5 value of 0.5.Ds is givenby Ds  " 41t J ftiR ( ~~ 1 KICR' 2 2 2 21tDA ) ..4 0.0 0...... . defined by Eq./)' FnR .... 0.2 I I I I 0.5 : System factor T versus F G = 4. ....:~ .0 .~. '" I I .. 0. derIDed by Eq..3 0.(4..1 0.6 F 0. 4. ..7) fnR . (iv) Using Fig. 100 SO 40 30 20 \ \ f\ i\ "" ~ 'I0 t>I 10 ::I > 0 5 4 3 2  " '" '  " I """"" .(4..1) 1 = Inertia of the specimen..9 (v) For steadystatevibrations...7 Fig.2p (I. ..
4.3 of R 1.2 Value 1. Using Fig. 4. I: '11 !I !I ::I CJ > 5 2 .4 1.7.11) (vii) For the free vibration method.. Then damping ratio is given by ~ = 0. determine the va.5 Fig.1 1. 50 11 20 ~ 010 ~ 10 ~.7 1.6 : System factor T versus R ~  . using Fig.10) 0.lue ofR corresponding to the value of T computed in step (iii).9) 4.6.(4.0  1.5 Os TR . determine the value of mode shape factor Cmfor the value of T computed in step (iii) 100 ii). 4.. 'liS DYllamic Soil Properties 125 .8) (vi) Compute O/T .(4.
4.(4.. a vibration. I ! I: ' I Ii I' 0.. Sound is the result of mechanical disturbance ora material.. a relationship between the speed of propogatiQn and wave amplitude of these waves and certain properties of the media through which they are travelling can be determined as follows: 2(1+11)(1211) 2 G.13) 4.pvs I I r 1 E=pvc (1jl) .15) l .14) .. S as follows: <> f I S = 32Kol 1tC".126 I' Soil DYllamics & Mac/tille Fou1Idatio/ls 100 so I' I1I 1'1 20 lil . 5 ! 0 > I: 11 2 jj I.6 1.~  . The theory of ultrasound is similar to that of audible sound. Ultrasonic pulses of either compression or shear waves can be generated and received by suitable' piezoelectric crystals.02 of CM 1.7 : System factor T versus mode shape factor Cm (viii) Compute the system energy ratio.2.01 value 1. Ultra Sonic Pulse Test.. Using elastic theory.00 1.(4.12) The value of damping ratio ~ is then given by I 1 I I I I ~= ~[Os(l+S)OA 21t S] .(4... that is.2.(4...Gd 4 .. 10 '+0 ~ ::J I I...03 Fig.
.(4..8 : Stress condition on an element of soli below ground surface .. His equipment includes a pulse generator.16) 1(::]' ~ u = where Ao 2. Vc and vs) through sand.Maximum d<zformation io the. The gen_e. ".ratorwas designed such that the pulse interval and pulse width can be varied.Soil element at rest and in mean position B. Stephenson (1978) described an equipment for conducting the ultrasonic tests.(4. Stephenson caITied out the tests on silty clay samples.L. = Poisson's ratio G = Shear Modulus () = Logarithmicdecrement E = Young'sModulus p = Mass density = y /g Ao = Initial value of amplitude An = Amplitude after n oscillations.302 I ogl0n An Velocity of shear wave . and two ultrasonic probes (transmitter and receiver).e. Secondly the strain amplitudes which can be achieved by this technique. are only in the very low region.L= 2 ( Vs ) Vs = . G. le ft C. 4. The drawback of this approach is that it is very difficult to identify the exact wave aITival times. +"t C t A. Lawrence (1963) described the basic apparatus required to measure the propagation velocities (i. The pulse generator deliversa variablevoltage direct CUITent pulse to the transmitting probe simultaneously with a 7 volt trigger pulse to th~ time base of the oscilloscope. xx. One of the main advantage of ultrasonic test is that it can be perfoITned on very soft sea floor sediments while still retained in the core liner. Typical ¨ Í±· × ³¿ ±·´ IZlem~nt """" Bascz met ion (a) Shear wave induced in soil by horizontal Rocl< earthquake vibrations er CJo + er ! 1: .Maxi m u m dlZtormation to tht right B A (b) Shear deformations resulting from propagated wave (for a single cycle) Fig.~~ Dynamic Soil Properties 2 127 I! VC J.17) Vc = Velocity of compression wave p.. an oscilloscope. "..
In a direct shear box test. 4.0%. and Bjerrum and Landra (1966) have described simple shear apparatus. She performed the tests keepingthe'variationof variousparametersas givenbelow: .5%. . The magnitude of induced shear stresses depend on the magnitude of acceleration of the dynamic force. 4. a soil element below a foundation or in an embankment is subjected to an initial sustained stress together with a superimposed series of repeated and reversals of shear stresses (Fig.9). qu= 78 kN/m2) using the same dynamic simple shear apparatus. Roscoe (1953). tst (~of static strength) = 15. The box is provided with two side walls and two hinged walls (Fig.9 : Schematic Hinge (b) arrangement of Roscoe simple shear apparatus Prakash. Wire wound or stacked membrane disks ~ t: '(a) Fig. Cyclic Simple Shear Test. 4.8). Sustained normal stress. The simple shear device was designed to overcome this limitation of direct shear box by enabling a uniform state of shear strain throughout the specimen. During an earthquake or other source of ground vibrations. Figure (4.128 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations 4. The dynamic shear forces were applied by a double acting piston with controlled compressed air pressure using solenoid valves. sustained shear stress and oscillatory shear stress. Kjellrnan (1951).10) illustrates how the end walls rotate simultaneously at the ends of the shearing chamber to deform the soil uniformly. A more systematic study has been done by Dass (1977) on clay of high compressibility (CH.25. The static strength of soil was 36 kN/m2. This simulates the field conditions in a much better way.50.29 = 10. Nandkumaran and Joshi (1973) have also developed similar type of simple shear apparatus which has the facility of applying sustained normal stress. Prakash. on (kN/m2) Sustained shear stress. Nandkumaran and Bansal (1974) have conducted tests on three artificial soils (SM. CL and CH) using oscillatory shear apparatus developed by Prakash et al (1973).60. The Roscoe simple shear device has a box for a square shaped sample with side length of 60 mm and a thickness of 20 mm.26. The salient features of her work are reported here to understand the behavior of soil under dynamic load.2. LL = 65.3.21. Peacock and Seed (1968) have modified Roscoe's simple shear apparatus for dynamic testing. uniform state of shear strain occurs only on either side of failure plane. PL = 28. Hvorslev and Kaufman (1952).
7 Soi I deformation Fig.. Sh ea ring chamber Pian Soil . sample D~==4J ùÄ÷óããð÷ ÅÃóã ==(] \ ~ (0==0 ) End plate rotation Elevation L .. .. 1968) .Dynamic Soil Properties Oscillatory 129 shear stress. 'Cdy n ( kN/m2) = 13.19.22. 4.10 : Schematic diagram illustrating rotation o(hinged end plates and soil deformation in oscillatory simple shear (After Peacock and Seed.25 Number of cycles of oscillatory shear stress = 1to 1100 The oscillatory shear stress was applied at the rate of one cycle per second. The f::lilurecriteria was chosen corresponding to 12mm displacement.
4.13. " ..131 kglcm 2 in '1. As sustained shear stress increases.13 that for a fixed sustained shear stress. 4.11 for "Cd y n equal to 13 kN/m2.12. 4. number of cycles and oscillatory shear stress corresponding to 12 mm displacement have been obtained and plotted as shown in Fig. plots between dynamic shear stress and sustained stress are shown for different number of cycles.. less number of cycles and dynamic shear stress is needed to cause failure. In Fig. the amount of dynamic shear stress decreases as number of cycles increases for causing 12 mm displacement..21 kg/cm2 0. c s:."""" 130 SoU Dynamics & Machine Foundations A typical plot oftest data in terms of number of cycles versus shear displacement is shown in Fig. From these plots.l(S 100 Undisturb(d 1000 on: . 8 OIl 1/1 10 12 Fig. tdyn~ 2 '[sf 0. of normal strength ~ L. 4. Similar plots were obtained for other values of 'Cd y n . 4.12 and 4. Number 1 01 10 of cyo.11 : Shear displacement versus number of cycles " . E E c ~ v OIl '6 1/1 c a. It can be seen from Figs.
1976. 0 20 0 1 10 No.. . In cyclic simple shear apparatus. Cl QI . 100 . 1978).". 1972..2.s::..... Tatsuoka and Takagi..s::... Dmevich. Ishihara and Yasuda. it is not possible to measure the confining pressure and the test is performed under Ko consolidation conditions. 1974. a. This has the disadvantage that the shear strain in the sample varies with maximum at the outer circumference and zero at the centre..4.12 : Oscillatory cycle shear at failure number of cycles 100 1000 stress versus 4... The apparatus used by Drnevich (1972) has already been described earlier and shown in Fig. Torsional simple shear devices have been developed to overcome these difficulties. . C tJ ~ 60 . . 1975. Ishibashi and Sherif.4. III shear of normal strength 2 in percent CIn= 0. This has the advantage that both resonant column and cyclic torsional shear tests can be performed in the same device and on the same sample. Ishihara and Li (1972) modified the triaxial apparatus to provide torsional strain capabilities. 1971... Cl> C . This problem has been minimised by using hollow cylinder torsional shear apparatus (Hardin. .. Yoshimi and Ohaka... Iwasaki.. . ' .. !oO ._.. 4. III > E 'u III 0 . Dynamic Soil Properties ~ 131 120 Sustained stress . Cho et aI. 4. 1973.....21 kg' cm c E ..."... 0 . of Fig...1". . c III III tJ t. Cyclic Torsional Simple Shear Test.. 80 0 c .{ ..
1975. ..11\ 11\ t\I ... 4. The two extremeconditions are: (i) Shear stress varies linearlywith radius as for an elastic material (Eq. 11\ u 'E "20 "" .... 19) ..: " 80 100 str 12 ng t h 0 C >Q 0 0 20 40 60 in percent Su stained sh ear s tress no rmal Fig. I . Undistu r bed 00 RemouIded Number of at cycle at failure 100 0 E ... 4. 1971.It is difficultto prepare samplesfor longhollowcylinder devices..Drnevich. 0 t\I .. The internaland externalradii rl and rz are selected such that the difference in average shear stressescomputed considering two extremeconditions is minimum.Keeping this fact in view. D 0 0 C ...Yoshini and OhOka (1973). Ishibashi and Sherif( 1974).14). 4.13 : Dynamic shear stress versus ~ustained shear stress Some of the above mentioned investigators have used long hollow cylinder to obtain uniform conditions atthe test section (Hardin. .. 1977). 4.Ishihara and Yasuda. C ...01 C t\I ..Iwasaki et aI. 1972..and Cho et al (1976) used a short cylinderin whichthe taper wasproportionalto the insideand outside radii (Fig.s::. 40 11\ . V1 .132 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations ..s::. 18) (ii) Shear stress is constant as for pure plastic deformation (Eq...
i:~~S~.i~:'x'i'~'~i:1ff~f:t.:.:~~i6!. All the factors listed above can be studied lucidly on a triaxial set up.. Magnitude of dynamic stress 5. 133 Dynamic Soil Properties 3 3 4T r2 Tt 'tmoe = Z 2 4 4 31t [ (rZ rt )(rZ rt) ] .21t ( r2 rt .5.consistencylimits. 4.~~:.. Shape of wave form ofloading 8. J . '~~'... . sustained stress 4. Number of pulses of dynamic load 6. . . ."~1~?~~~~~\. One directional or two directional loading In one directional loading only compression of the sample is done while in two directional loading both .19) where T is the applied torque. In general the stressdeformation and strength characteristics of a soil depend on the following factors: 1.."'~i~i :~:{{. t 4 : Crosssection for short specimen 4.. watercontentand stateof disturbance in cohesive soils 3.(4..)!~:~'~.'~::ii~. Relativedensityin caseof cohesionlesssoils.. Frequency of loading 7. Type of soil 2. . Cyclic Triaxial Compression Test.2.(4.e.~~:i~...~. compression and extension is done. Initial static stress level i. ".~w'..r{"~f\ti~.18) 3T I 3 3 tavp . x x ~/~~"~ Boundaries indicated by heavy lines Fig.
The peak load that can be produced by this . 16) utilizes the energy of a pendulum which. and a yoke for transmitting the load from the beam to the specimen (Fi 4.15 : Time of loading in transient tests The falling beam apparatus consists essentially of a beam with a weight and rider. strikes a spring connected to the piston rod of a hydraulic lower cylinder. The hydraulic loading apparatus (Fig.05 to any desired larger value Remarks Suitable for performing fast transient tests Time ofloading was defined as the time between the beginning oftest and the point at which the maximum compressive stress is reached (Fig.4. a dashpot to contrthe velocity of the fall of the beam. This lower cylinder is connected hydraulically to an upper cylinder. A small beam mounted above the yoke counterbalances the weight of the beam. Arthur Casagrande of Harvard university was refered a problem of studying the effect of vibrations created by bomb explosion on the stability of the Panama canal projects. Table 4. 4.2).05 to 0. when released from a selected height. "0 0 0 J Timeof loading I" ~ Time FiOg. 15). 1949) developed the follo~ing three types of apparatus for studying the strength of soils under transient loading (Table 4.apT ratus is much greater than can be obtained by either the pendulum type or falling beam apparatus.01 0. The pendulum loading apparatus (Fig. .18) consists of a constant volume vanetype hydraulic pur connected to a hydrauliC cylinder through valves by which either the pressure in the cylinder or the volUl of the liquid delivered to the cylinder can be controlled. 4.5 to 300 0. 4. which is mounted on a loading frame.134 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations Prof.2 : Type of Apparatus Type of apparatus (i) Pendulum loading (ii) Falling beam (iii) Hydraulic loading Time ofloading (seconds) 0. For this Casagrande and Shannon (1948. 17).
Cyclic Triaxial Compression Test.18) 31t[ (r2 Ij )(r2 r\) 1 ] .r\3 ) where T is the applied torque._.f'~*~~.t.. 4. Type of soil 2.5.2.r{\.~~~. Initial static stress level i. . Shape of wave form ofloading 8. All the factors listed above can be studied lucidly on a triaxial set up. x x ~/~~"~ Boundaries indic a t ed by heavy for short Iin es Fig.. watercontentand stateofdisturbance in cohesive soils 3. 'If.) 4 : Crosssection specimen 4..19) 3T 'tavp = 21t ( ri . One directional or two directional loading In one directional loading only compressionof the sample is done while in two directional loading both compression and extension is done.~~\~~i~:~. 133 t' Dynamic Soil Properties 'tave = 4T 2 r2 r) 2 3 3 4 4 .~' " .( 4. Relativedensityin caseof cohesionlesssoils. Frequency of loading 7.e.". sustained stress 4. Magnitude of dynamic stress 5..consistencylimits. In general the stressdeformation and strength characteristics of a soil depend on the following factors: 1..' d'.. Number of pulses of dynamic load 6.' d~.(4._..~~t{t'~::~J~'~i~1if~f..
The peak load that can be produced by this apf ratus is much greater than can be obtained by either the pendulum type or falling beam apparatus. which is mounted on a loading frame. 15). 4.2). 1949) developed the follo". 16)utilizes the energy of a pendulum which. For this Casagrande and Shannon (1948. 4. ~ Time Fig. 4. 17).05 to 0.15 : Time of loading in transient tests The falling beam apparatus consists essentially of a beam with a weight and rider. The pendulum loading apparatus (Fig.5 to 300 0.134 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations Prof.2 : Type of Apparatus Type of apparatus (i) Pendulum loading (ii) Falling beam (iii) Hydraulic loading Time of loading (seconds) 0. a dashpot to contrthe velocity of the fall of the beam. and a yoke for transmitting the load from the beam to the specimen (Fi 4. .This lower cylinder is connectedhydraulicallyto an upper cylinder. when released from a selected height.ing three types of apparatus for studying the strength of soils under transient loading (Table 4. Table 4.. 18) consists of a constant volume vanetype hydraulic pur connected to a hydrauliC cylinder through valves by which either the pressure in the cylinder or the volur of the liquid delivered to the cylinder can be controlled. Arthur Casagrande of Harvard university was refered a problem of studying the effect of vibrations created by bomb explosion on the stability of the Panama canal projects. The hydraulic loading apparatus (Fig. A small beam mounted above the yoke counterbalances the weight of the beam. strikes a spring connected to the piston rod of a hydraulic lower cylinder. "0 I 0 0 Time of loading J. 4.01 0.:.05 to any desired larger value Remarks Suitable for performing fast transient tests Time ofloading was defined asthe time between the beginning of test and the point at which the maximum compressive stress is reached (Fig.
:!dfj:..'~~W~(.F?'. 1948) Countczrwcz ight Fixed fulcrum .Q$:.. ~ .. 4. 4.~".'.i"'.16 : Pendulum loading apparatus (Casagrande and Shannon. Load gagcz D<zformation gogcz TtZst sptZcimtZn RidtZr Spring Doshpot Fig."f. 1948) .17 : Falling beam apparatus (Casagrande & Shannon.%"~~.'$ffj..tl~i">" Dynamic Soil Properties 135 ~ UpptZr cylinder Adjustable reaction Hydraulic cylindtZr Deformation gage Te st sptZcimen LowtZr cylindtZr Fig.<.r:(\i.
A typical plot in terms of principal stress ratio a failure and time ofloading for Manchester sand is shown in Fig. Using this data. the base of which is clamped to the loading piston. 4. rega rdless of pussure) Filhr Twenty gallon oil resuvoir Hyraulic cylindu 3 inch bore. Table 4.3 : Properties of Soils used in Tests Cambridge clay Natural water Content Liquid limit Plastic limit 3050% 3759% 2027% el113X el11in Manchester sand Grain Size 0. a simultaneous plot of stress and strain versus time from an unconfined compression test with a time of loading of 0. In these figures. 4. with four strain gages mounted on the inside face. . inch) van«type hydraulic pump 100 lb.136 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations pr«ssure r«gulator (pressure of discharge may b.21 mm to 0. 1948) For measuring load. quickly varied by manual control.42 mm 0. in. b«twun 10 and 1000 lb. Similar plots were prepared for other times of 10adll1gand on Manchester sand. 4. 21 a and b respectively. a thin flexible steel spring cantilever is used with strain gages mounted on the cantilever.20b. Out of these. 20a and 4. two typical materials named as Cambridge clay and Manchester sand having properties as given in Table 4. . The transient compression tests were performed with different time of loading both in confined and unconfined states.02 s on cambridge clay is shown. 4. B is Conn«cted to T and vice verso. with Pto T.3 are selected for illustration.AC 1200 RPM Three position nlec tor valve (with Pto A. inch 2.61 In Fig. a load gage of rectangular or cylindrical shape is used. per sq. stressstrain plots were obtained as shown in Figs. 4.88 0. p«r sq. stressstrain curves for corresponding static tests are also shown.18 : Hydraulic loading apparatus (Casagrande & Shannon. For measuring deflection. per min.5 GPM 5 HP motor 220V. and 8 ore blocked) F Iow control valve (valves will maintain A constant flow betwEen Sand 1250 CU. 19. 3 inch stroke (used to apply load to piston of triaxial compression apparatus) Fig.22. Casagrande and Shannon (1948) performed both static and transient compression tests on six different materials. Typical plots of maximum compressive stress versus time of loading (or unconfined and confined transient tests on Cambridge clay are shown in Fig.
.:ill: ~ ~ 2 III III t:i 4.4 0..timlZ of 10ading.02 s. transient 1948) test on Cambridge clay From the typical test data presented above..) . V) .0 2. the strength of clay is approximately 1..0 times greater than the static strength. The strength of sand is almost independent to the time of loading.20 0 0..4 (a) Cambridge clay Fig. 2 0 0 0. )ynamic Soil Properties 137 4 8 3 ISh<zar tailurlZ_N at 0. 75 to 2.Contd. 4.6 kg/cm2 2.... 1...16 0. I 0 0 3 I I I c ..2 1. .46S S a..:: 0 .12 TimlZ~ s 0. time of load ing 0.8 stress.19 : Time vs stress and strain in an unconfined (Casagrande & Shannon. S (j') 0 4 d Transi<znt test.24 Fig.. Transient strength of sand increased only about 10 percent.08 0.. tJ) .. ..04 0.. it may be concluded that the strength of clay decreases with the increases in time of loading and for time ofloadingequal to 0. 20 : Stress vs strain curves (... 4..~&. 0 2 static t<zst.02 s 6 0 E u Cl ..02 s 6 7 8 0 0.
x 0 1..50 0..Contd.0 1. 1/1 tII IJ'I IJ'I tII >  1/1 1/1 tII .138 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations 0 static te'st. 20 : Stress vs strain curves N u .2 2. +' (/) 0 2 .4 1. E 0 u ). time of fa i lure 2100 s Shear fa i lu re .2 0 E ::J E .0 1000 100 10 1 T i m q of 10a din g.03 s 4 5 6 7 0 0.0 ..75 1.6 2. 4. 4... I Transiqnt test tim~ to failurq 0.01 Fig. a.c 3 .00 stress.... kg/cm2 (b) Manchester sand 1. E 2.4 2..75 Fig.21 : Maximum compresslve stress versus time 01 loading for Cambridge clay (.) .1 0..6 C7' oX .8 0.8 1. s (a) Unconfined compression test :E 0.
6 E 4.. ~ 4.01 loading compressin I S (b) Confined Fig.6 ": 1000 /1 10 of 1 0. modulu.0 ::J E 3../ I 1 hili 100 Time I IIIII1I I ~ 3. ...2 ~ E 4.°. 4.0 E X E .1 0.8 tr oX v E et 5.8 . lA III ~ 111\1 I I .Ill' I I 11111 'I' 1111\. In case of sands. .sof deformation was found independent ~othe time of loading.. 4. 5 I 4 11111 1000 I I 0 0 0 ~~ .0 [TlTIIII N :1\11111 illll I I 5.4 0 > ~  4.21 : Maximum compressive test for Cambridge clay stress versus time of loading 7 .. .22 : Maximum for Manchestor Modulus of deformation is defined as the slope of a line drawn from the origin through the point on the stressdeformation ~urve and correspon~ing to stress of onehalf the strength. modulus of deformation in fast transient tests was about two times that obtained in static tests. 5.x 0 V 0 / I I I IIIII I I I I II ...0 ::J +0 .2 5. 0 (1 v 0 0..4 ...8 /V / / // / 0 " .1 0.~ 0 vCO ~ bM 6 00 0..0 / / / 11' 11' ~ I b 4..01 sand Fig.)ynamic Soil Properties 139 I I I I 1111 I I I 6. 100 principal 10 Time of loading.6 5... S stress ratio versus time of loading 0... It is found that in case of clays.
J1 Air pressure Fig.23 : Apparatus for oscillatory triaxial reservoir test (Seed and Fead.""'}f><. Under earthquake loading conditions.ba Ion c e for loading yoke Deformation gauge Dynomometer Triaxial compression ceH Air pressure equal to desired confining pressur on specimen r. 4.ct. 4. ..EI. in transient loading test..tor Countczr to record number of load applications pressure cylindar Bellofrom seat Loading piston yoke I J r. Seed and Fead (1959) developed the oscillatory triaxial apparatus as shown in Fig. Ipre ssu re fr ~gauge :re9ula. none of which would necessarily cause failure by itself. 1959) '"'"'. Counter. Soil specimen in rubb(zr membrane I Compressed ' .sure . .C 140 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations As evident from above discussions.icalconnections : I I I Air . but the cumulative effect of which is to induce failure or significant deformations.""' '. an initially unstressed sample of soil is loaded to failure in a short period of time. 23 to study the effect of number of stress reversals and other factors on the deformation in soils. to timing unit air Air pre c. an initially stressed soil element is subjected to a series of stress pulses..
It pertains tQ the sustained static stress of2 kg/cm2. 1960) The deviator stress versus strain curves similar to as shown in Fig.. Deviator 0 4 st res s) kg/cm 2 3 0 1 2 4 5 str<z.fat factor safety.0. 4.0 . Transient strength of the soil corresponding to 0.ormQI strength te st 8 . 16 20 \ SO 100 70 .X <X:  \ \ \ 24 28 32 36 Transient strll"gth for time of loading 0.70 kg/cm2..0/2. Fig.7). S =93%) for studying the effect ofvarious factors on its dynamic strength characteristics.5 10 during earthquake load ing "i Strain induced a a 12 \ c: .0 to 2.0 kg/cm2 is also ~hown in the figure.02 s Fig. It may be noted that at point 'B'.02 s t~meof loading was found as 4. 4. A typical stress strain. In this figure. 25 shows the effects of single transient stress applications of the various intensities for initial factors of safety ranging between 1. one should examine whether these strains are within permissible limits.Dynamic Soil Properties 141 Seed (1960) performed tests on Vicksburg silty clay(wn = 22%. 40 and 60 percent of the initial sustained stress..24 : Stress versus strain for Vicksburg silty clay (Seed.0 = 1. The upper curves show the increase in deformation caused by single transient pulses corresponding to 20. ..I I I Stress strain curve for sample after earthquake loading B \ stress curve for sample in normal str<zngth test Confining pressure.1. Hence in design.. The shaded portion of the figure shows the deformation of the specimens induced at stress levels corresponding to the different factors of safety in normal strength test.ssinduced du ring ... B represents the point which is obtained after 100 cycles of loading.0 kg/cm2. The magnitude of dynamic stress was 35% of the sustained static stress.relationship is shown in Fig. It gives the magnitude of dynamic stress as :t 0. the strains are increased but factor of safety still remains more than unity (3.0/2.. The static stressstrain curve indicating the static strength as 3. Figs .24 were drawn for different values of sustained static stress and dynamic oscillatory stress..24. 1.. 4. 4.'l kg/crl 0 .5. \JI .. Therefore the initial factor of safety for this typical case will be 3. It means that failure will not occur but the strains may become excessive.
.26 and 4..142 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations 4. It is interesting to note that for this soil a single transient pulse equal to 20 percent of initial sustained stress causes no appreciable deformation even though the factor of safety may be as low as 1. 4. The significance of increase numbers of stress pulses in producing increased deformation of soil is readily apparent from these figures. 1960) It may be seen from Fig.. 20 .. For single transient stress pulse the combinations of sustained and transient stresses would have to approach about 140 percent of the normal strength to induce failure.. failure)..:: 0 Sing!(z transient pulse IncrllaSIl in strain dull to transillnt stress Simulahd earthquake: 30 pulses at 2 cycles p /lr se c . ~ 16 III 0 strain induced during si mu lated czarthqu a ke load ing 14 12 10 x <t Transient stress 'in c rlla se = 60°/. 1960) Fig.27. .4. 4. In c r/lase In stre ss during simu lated earthquake = 60 °/0 = = 40 °/0 20 °/0 20 c .0 18 16 14 18 ..25 : Soil deformations induced by various combinations of sustained and transient stresses (Seed.e.28 shows the combination of initial stress and earthquake stress intensity causing 25% axial strain (i. 30 28 26 2l.25.1..0 Fig.However it may be seen that a series of 100such pulses for the same initial factor of safety will cause an increase in axial strain of 10percent.26 : Soil deformation induced by various combination of susbined and vibratory stresses for 30 pulses (Seed.0 6 4 2 0 1. = 40% .. 22 .....24 that in a normal strength test the maximum resistance of the soil is reached at an axial strain of about 25 percent. + 0 ... 4. If this strain is adopted as a criterion of failure. Figure 4. For earthquake inducing 100 majQJ. .pulses failure would occur when the combined stresses totalled only 100 percent of the normal strength. 4. .27 show similar data for a series of 30 and 100pulses.26 and 4...0 2. then a variety'of combinations of initially sustained stress and earthquake stress intensities which will cause failure of the soil may be obtained from Figs. . .)( III 12 10 8 et 6 4 2 01.
... failure occurs in sensitive soils at considerably lower stress level than that in compacted soils... . . 28 for compacted silty clay do not in any way represent the characteristics of conditions producing failure in other types of soils.:~t~. . Here.:~. \ Simulated earthquak e: 100 pulses at 2cycles per sec .28 : Combination of sustained and vibratory stress intensities causing failure in compacted silty clay (Seed.29b)..0 18...27 : Soil deformation induced by various combination of sustained and vibratory stresses for 100 pulses (Seed. On the same oscillatory triaxial test set up Seed and Chan (1966) carried out more elaborate study on different types of soils. g 0 40 20 2 0 1...er. For example in sensitive undisturbed clays.c'j} .Inerescz in stress during simulatczd .+..':i' '~:'i... 16 .. repeated deformations will lead to increase in pore pressure and a resulting reduction in strength.. The strength exhibited by undisturbed Silty clay was greater than that displayed by compacted soils.c: ."%?r~~~t.0  Fig.~f&~. 4. 4. Number of transient pulses stress 1/ / :: 40O} / :: 20°/01 0 0  . earthquake =60ol 160 .. ::1.i... 29a compares combinations of sustained and pulsating stresses that induce failure in soft and compacted clays in one transient pulse..~~~}. 1960) Seed (1960) reported that the conditions producing failure shown in Fig.i0't~~'~£~~~:!.. 4...~~{~. Consequently a series of transient pulses is likely to induce failure at lower stress levels than for the silty clay.. As the number of pulses increases to 30 (Fig. c 11\ 11\ 80 0 11\ 14 12 x <{ . 4. few typical results are presented. Figure 4. 60 10 8 6 4 ~ :x I . 1960) Fig. ~ Dynamic Soil Properties 143 30 28 26 24 22 20 c: .
For comparison.144 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations 160 160 c . total stress versus total strain is somewhat higher than the stress strain relationship of a normal test.. 1960) pulse to rm . A typical total stress versus total strain curve under pulsating loads is shown in fig.I 11  "I 120 . 140 . '" 20 StrClss pulse torm  a.. 00 20 40 60 80 100 Su~tain<Zd stress . 60 0 80 t. if there are 100 stress pulses. '" 40 undisturbed ::J 0 silty clay 20 stress 0 0 20 40 60 80 1 Sustained str~ss/O/o of normal strengt (b) For 30 pulses causing failure fo...... 140 CJ\ C c:I L:. III '" C'I C 0 . '" 40 C'1 C . Figure 4...010ot normal st rength (a) For single pulse Fig.I . .... 0'1 C t.. different soils (Seed and Chan..5 and 2. the stress strain relationship obtained from normal strength test is also shown. ::J a.. 4.... 0 0 t '" c:I .30. Further it was noted that with an initial factor of safety between 1... + '" '" '" " 60 .. Below the dotted line drawn at 45° from origin the stress conditions in oneor twod:rectionalloadings are same since the pulsating stress is either smaller than or equal to sustained stress. and 30 pulses of dynamic stress. the relationship between total stress and total strain will coincide almost exactly with the normal stress versus strain relationship. 0 E " ~ 120 0 Compacted silty clay g 100 ~ 0 100 Compacted sandy clay 0 0 +0 c 80 . 4. Typical results with San Francisco Bay mud are shown in Fig. The longer dwell period under maximum stress for the flat peaked pulse causes larger deformations and induces failure in a smaller number of stress applications than in comparable tests using the triangular pulse form.29 : Comparison of stres£ conditions Symmetrical stress pulses of two directionalloadings resulted in a reduction in strength of all the soils tested.. It may be noted that in situations involving 10 stress pulses.. 4.31 shows the results of pulsating load tests with onedirectional loading on duplicate specimens of San Francisco Bay mud using the two forms of stress pulse. this is slightly below the normal plot.32.
10 100 1000 10. ...stress pulse I Fo rm of stress pulse ~'. ... .. 0 100 .000 100. 4....... 1ft C'I .30 : Combination of sustained and pulsating stresses causing failure in one.....Dynamic Soil Properties 145 180 San Francisco WatflT cont~nt Str<zss puls~ form '1r Symm~trical  Bay mud ~ 91 °/0 stress pulses ... III III .80 .. .1ft 1ft c. 4. C 40 0 1 0 1ft :J £l.I.M.. a. III Cl> C .000 No. 0 III 40 :.... 1966) Fig..... of static strQn9th Fig....Nonsymm~trical i)r stress puls~s (no axial exhnsion)  0 120 E 0 c .31 : Effect of pulse form on number ~.and two..C'I CCt:..directional loadings (Seed and Chan. c.I . 20 00 20 Sustained 40 60 80 100 strQ55. 1966) 200 0 E '160 g .. . ~ 120 For m' of . Cl.I ... C 0 San froncisco boy mud Wo te co nten t ~ 91 0/0 Unconsolidoted undroined te sts 'Contin ing pressu re = 1 kgl cm2 No sustained strczss '.. of pulses to couse foi lure of pulses causing failure (Seed and Chan.. _. 0 80 60 .o/..::.
stress vs.:: E .::'.Y. 0  601 I I Total stress {initial + pulsating)for initial factor of safety betweczn l.:::.." 0 ~"'. .:'.. The range of strain amplitude over which each technique is applicable is shown in Fig. The laboratory techniques discussed above and more common in use are listed in Table 4.... Table 4. C\ C ..J: . Final Comments on Laboratory Testing.:~:..4 : Laboratory Techniques for Measuring Dynamic Soil Properties (Woods...0 vs....S and 2.6.:.... 4.. 1978) Techniques Shear modulus column pulse x Young's modulus x x Material damping x Cyclic stress behaviour Attenuation Resonant Ultrasonic With adaption )( x x x x x x x Cyclic triaxial Cyclic simple shear Cyclic torsional Shear Dynamic 1 D compression x x x x   I" ~ .'t. total strain after 10 pulsczs 0'0.total strain after 100 pulses IJ\ IJ\ t.' ~".: ~::'"J:.0 vs..:: 1" ..'.:.. .. III ". 2 Con f Inln9 pressure" 1 kg/cm Stress pulse form J1.'~ 120 ." .... 0 C '+0 80 I .' 100 .o'\' (::~::.:. U1 40 I: San Francisco Bay mud Wo te r co ntent z 91 % Un conso Iidatczd und ra ined te st ' ..r 20 00 2 4 between 6 8 strain. The specific soil properties measured by each test are also indicated. 146 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations 140 Total stress (initial+pulsating) for initial factor of safety between 1.. 1966) load conditions 4. .Et:. strain relationship in normal compression tczst o ". 33. 4.32 : Relationship total stress and total strain (Seed and Chan." '.:".  0 ':":::.. 10 12 under pulsating 14 16 18 Fig...5 and 2.\.I .4.r....2.c/.' '£"" '.
The cyclic simple shear device is suitable for determining shear modulus and damping characteristics of soils. amplitude 102 I . The following methods are in use for determining dynamic properties of soil: 1.j'~" . The cyclic triaxial test is more suited to obtain the Young's modulus of the material.) 10' I 111: 147 Shearing 104 Resonant 103 I strain column (solid samples). . Q%!III!'It. Cyclic plate load test 8. the above listed field methods have been described briefly along with the typical test setups and methods of interpretation.. 4. Ty pie a I motion Properly machine designed foundation I cha racteristics strong ground shaking from earthquake Closein nuclear explosion (Woods. Horizontal block resonance test 7. Vertical block resonance test 6.. 1978) I I Fig.Dynamic Soil Properties BIll DZI! !!IB\Im . Seismic downhole survey 4.. :am (°/.33 : Shearing strain amplitude capabilities or laboratory apparatus Each laboratory test has some merit when compared with the other. Standard penetration test In this section.. Seismic crossbore hole survey 2. The resonant column device is better suited for determining shear modulus at Iow strains and the hollow cylinder device at higher strain levels.3 FIELD TESTS Field methods generally depend on the measurement of velocity of waves propagating through the soil or on the response of soil structure systems to dynamic excitation. Seismic refraction survey 5. Seismic uphole survey' 3.column shear (hollow (hollow samples) samples) Cyclic triaxial Cy cl ic simple Shaking r Resonant Torsional Pulse methods  sh ea r table .  III. 4.
3. three or more boreholes arranged in a straight line should be used.'" and the time of travel of the shear wave from this borehole to another at known distance is measured. . Reciver boreholes ~ Source borehole o~ 0 (a) Plan ~o view Oscilloscope Input 0 Ver tical impulse ~ @ Trigger Vertical velocity transducer Assum ed path of bo dy waves  ~ / ~ Generation of body wave s 3D velocity transducer wedged in place (b) Crosssectional Casing grout view and Fig. 1972) As discussed above. 4. Shear wave velocity is then computed by dividing the distance between the boreholes by the travel ~e. seismic crossborehole survey can be done using two boreholes one having the source for causing wave generation and another having geophone for recording travel time. SeismicCrossborehole Survey. However.148 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundatio!q l 4.1. A source of seismic energy is generated at th~ bottom of one borehole. Figure 4.34 : Multiple hole seismic crosshole survey (Stoke and Woods. Thismethod is based on the measurementof velocityof wave propagation from one borehole to another.34 shows the essentials of seismic crossholesurvey as outlined by Stoke and Woods (1972). for extensive investigations andbetter accuracy.
1978)..aB/ .developing high amplitude shear waves. (iii) Boreholes should be spaced as close as possible within the time resolution characteristics of the recording equipment. In general any borehole 10 m or more in depth should be surveyed using an inclinometer or other logging device for determining verticality (Woods.... (iv) The seismic source must be capable of generating predominantly one kind of wave. 1978). (i) The diameter of the boreholes should be small to cause least disturbance in the soil. 1973) III _1. (v) The receivers must be oriented in the shearing mode and should be securely coupled to the sides of the borehole. the following points should be kept in view... Also this arrangement of bore holes in a straight line overcomes problems of site anisotropy by examining one qirection only at a time.. Large spacings can lead to difficulties with refracted waves arriving before the direct transmission through the intervening soil. Further it must also be capable of repeating desired characteristics at a predetermined energy level. p.35 : Seismic uphole survey with SPT (Goto et al. Dynamic Soil Properties !Ri!. eliminating most of the concern over triggering the timing instruments and the effects of bore hole casing and backfilling (Stokoe and Hour..II .°'" ". 149 In this case the wave velocities can be calculated from the time intervals between succeeding pairs of holes. Void spaces around the casing should be filled with weak cement slurry grout or dry sand. For better results. It consists of a falling weight which impacts on an hydraulically expanded borehole anchor. (ii) Boreholes should be vertical for the travel distance to be measured properly. Casing in the boreholes will provide good coupling with the soil and transmission of waves. Miller. \ .. 4. 1978). Troncosco and Brown (1975) have described a source which is capable of .. Wfl ight Rod Shot detector Recorder l / / / / / / SPT / S wave sampler Fig. Spacings as close as 23 m can be used satisfactorily (Woods..
the receiver is placed at the surface.. . or between the receivers.2. The major disadvantage in seismic uphole survey is that it is more difficult to generate waves of the desired type.36 : Seismic: downhole survey (Woods. Seismicuphole survey is done by using only one borehole. In this method.3.3. Figure 4. and shear waves are generated at different depths within the borehole. R<zcord<2r W<zight f Expand<zr pump Rubb<zr <zxpand<2r . 1978) (. 4. . 1977).t . and travel times of the body waves between the source and the receivers which have been clamped to the borehole wall at predetermined depths are obtained. 4. Seismic Downhole Survey.Back plate wooden plo te 3componqnt gQophonq Fig.4. The main advantage of this method is that low velocity layers can be detected even if trapped betweer layers of greater velocity provided the geophone spacings are close enough. This method gives the average value of wave velocity for the soil between the excitation and the receivers if one receiver is used. The arrangement used in seismic downhole survey is shown schematic ally in Fig. In this method. Seismic UpHole Survey. 4. This also requires only one borehole.36. seismic waves are generated at the surface of the ground near the top of the borehole.150 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations 4.35 shows the schematic presentation of the arrangement used in seismic uphole survey (Gote et al.
4. According to IS 5249: 1984. and the dip angle of each layer as long as the wave velocities increase in each suceedingly deep layer.75 m T ~ . The oscillator assembly is mounted on the block so that it generates purely vertical sinusoidal vibrations.3. Foundation bolts should be embedded into the concrete block at the time of casting for fixing the oscillator assembly. 4.37. (a) sectional to 1 view i 4.. Concr(te (M 150) For V te st Adc e le ra t ion transduc Cl rs 77777// /.. The line of action of vibrating force should pass through the centre of gravity of the block.1 I C:Jj ~ 2.wave velocity in each layer.4. Seismic Refraction Survey. 4.5 m x 0. The vertical block resonance test is used for determining the values of coefficient of elastic uniform compression (C).37 : Set up for block ~esonance test  . Vertical Block Resonance Test. 1.75 m 1m min (b)' plan view". "'. A schematic diagram of the set up is shown in Fig. a test block of size 1.. . Young's modulus (E) and damping ratio (~) of the soil. It enables the detennination of elastic.5.". The details of this method has already been described in Art.10 of chapter 3. Fig.3. the thickness of each layer. 4..5Qm 1 m min 0. . 3.Dynq. Motor osci \lator assembly " . The seismic refraction survey is frequently used for site investigations.37 such that they sense the vertical motion of the block.mic Soil Properties 151 4.75 m x 0.75 m and depth equal to the proposed depth of foundation..5 m x 2. Two acceleration or displacement pickups are mounted on the top of the block as shown in Fig.70 m high is casted in M 15 concrete in a pit of pIan dimensions 4.Sm 1&:::11 .
and the acceleration of the oscillatory motion of the block is monitored.f..15). The amplitude of vibration (A) at a given frequency lis given by aA. At any eccentricity and frequency the dynamic forceshould not exceed 20 percent of the total mass of the block and oscillator assembly. JBL . Amplitude versus frequency curves are plotted for each eccentricity to determine the natural frequency of the foundationsoil system (Fig..25) C =~ u 4 1t2 1.e.(4. The Eq.. 4. m From the value ofC U obtained from Eq . (4. n~~. Hz m = Mass of the block oscillator and motor. (4. at different eccentricity (i.. 2.38).~ 2) . mm/i f = frequency. The coefficient of elastic uniform compression (Cu) of the soil is then determined using Eq. The natural frequency...(4..(4. The coefficient of elastic uniform compression (Cu) is related to the elastic Young's modulus (E) by Eq (4. (4. the value 01 Cu obtained for 10 m2 is used.26) = Cu V A.n2m A . (4. For areas larger than 10 m2. Kg sec2/m 2 A = Base contact area of the block. The force generated by the oscillator is given by Fd = 2 mee CJ.26) CuI rE .25) where fnz = Natural frequency of foundationsoil system.(4. As evident from Eq.25) for the test block of contact area A the value ofC u I for the actual foundation having contact area A I may be obtained from Eq. force level) is different because different forces cause different strain levels of the block which may be accounted for when appropriate design parameters are being chosen. The oscillator frequency is increased in steps. (4.(mm) = :. Hz.26) is valid for base areas of foundations up to 10 m2..23) The oscillator is fIrstset at a particular eccentricity (e).27 where ~ = Poisson's ratio B = Width of base of the block L = Length of base of the block Cs = Coefficientdependingon LIBratio . and the signals of monitoring pickups are recorded.2  .(4.=.27) which is in the form of Boussinesq relationship for the elastic settlement of a surface footing E Cu Cs = (1.) 2 .23)higher the eccentricity more will be the force level.24) 41tf where az = Vertical acceleration of the block..152 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations The mechanical oscillator works on the principle of eccentric masses mounted on two shafts rotating in opposite directions (Fig. It is then operated at constant frequency..
.il Properties 153 200 150 Vertical vibration .. cps " . " 100 ::J . So..0/8 0 III ~O' 0 0 e A : 35 c: 0 ~ tt It e : 70° v ~ 8 : 1050 '8 : 1400 E I:r . 45 50 Fig~ 4~38 : Amplitude versus frequency plots from vertical resonance test  . a.amic.. E ~ QI il rso 8 4 15 Frequency...
0 1. shown in Fig.. The signal of each acceleration pick up is amplified and recorded. (4..39. Horizontal block resonance test is also performed on the block set up as shown in Fig. In this test.is a problem of two degrees o( ' '' " " f . the mechanical oscillator is mounted on the block so that horizontal sinusoidal vibrations are generated in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the block. (4.5: Values orcs (After Barkan.0 The value of damping ratio 1. .29).0 Cs 1.3. . .13 122 1.28) ~=f2f1 2fnz A . 4. " . A = ~ x ax 2 4n f .0 10.6.06 1.0 5. 4.(4. 1962) lJB 1. .09 3.28) where f2.(4. .flLl of the block soil system as done in vertical resonance test.29) where ax(mm) = Horizontal acceleration in the direction under consideration in mmli f = Frequency in Hz Amplitude versus frequency curves are plotted for each force level to obtain the natural frequency. .. The oscillator is excited in steps starting from rest condition.. I.41 ~is determined using Eq. A typical frrquency versus amplitude plot i~.07  1. .. . It may be noted that the case of horizontal vibrations.6.5 Table 4.37. Similar testscan be performed by exciting the block in the direction oftransverse axIs. 4.154 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations Barkan (1962) recommended the values of Cs for various LIB ratios as listed in Table 4. Three acce~eration or displacement pickups are mounted along the vertical centreline of the transverse face of the block to sense horizontal vibrations (Fig. The amplitude of Horizontal vibrations (Ax) is obtained using Eq. Horizontal Block Resonance Test.37a). 4.Jj = Two frequencies at which amplitudes is equal to Amax hzz If = Maximumamplitude = Resonant frequency This is also illustrated in example 2. Rest of the procedure is same as desqribed for vertical block resonance test.5 2.
lie Soil Properties 155 )m..00  . Q..:..!ffl~'$(>" .:~ '..I. then natural frequency corresponds to second moc [. III C 0 'u E 200 Q..40. 4. 4o40b.39 : Amplitude versus frequency plots rr~m honzon~al resonance test . 4. .£{'.. E cd: ::J 1~ ~8t 1.2:. Typical plots are shown in Fig. If the plot correspOl ~ncycorresponds to first mode or lower natural frequency.~~{. lIB i2.I ~ . On the ( g. 100 010 1 15 20 25 Frequency 30 I CpS 35 40 [.:r'.. The mode of vibration is obtained by plotting amplitude versu: :y of the system from the analysis of data from the pickups mountt block.5 Fig.
.
34) . motor etc. In Eq.30) 2 Ct= (Ao+Io):t where Mm r = M 1110 ~ (Ao+Io) 4rAolo hx = Horizontal resonant frequency of block soil system Ao = A/M A = Contact area of block with soil M = Mass of block.3 fnxl . oscillator.. (4.. 4. The coefficient of elastic uniform shear (Ctl) for actual area of foundation (At) is given by C" ~C..(4.33) .'amic Soil Properties 157 The coefficient of elastic uniform shear (Ct) of soil is given by the following equation: î î èï¬®·³æ .thickness and varying in size from 300 to 750 mm with chequered or grooved bottom are used. etc.nt is same as used in static plate load test. . negative sign is taken when the system vibrates in first mode and positive sign when the ystem vibrates in second mode.. For the size of the block recommended in IS 52491977 and for first natural frequency.0 Ct Ccp = .31) In Eq.. motor. about the horizontal axis passing through the centre of gravity of block and perpendicular to the direction of vibration Mmo = Mass moment of inertia of the block.. I = Moment of inertia of the foundation contact area about the horizontal axis passing through the centre of gravity of area and perpendicular to the direction of vibration.31).(4.(4.7.30) 'educes to 2 Ct = 92. A typical set up is shown in Fig. The equipment is assembled according to details given in IS 19881982. The equipme... Cyclic Plate Load Test. Circular or square bearing plates of mild steel not less than 25 mm. The test pit should be at least five times the width of the plate.~AAl IS 5249 : 1977reconunends the followingrelations between Cu' and Ct.5to 2.sperformed in a test pit dug upto the proposed base level of foundation..32) .(4.3. (4. The cyclic plate load test i. Ccp and CII': Cu = 1.30).41. about L1ehorizontal axis passing through centre of contact area of block and soil and perpendicular to the direction of vibration.46 I/Mmo Mm = Mass moment of inertia of block..(4.35) 3. oscillator and soil 10 = 3.46Ct CIjI= 0. (4. the Eg. Ct is in kN/m3... oscillator.(4.75 Cu 4.
S.0m 10 m + 0.1" I 158 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations' Sand reaction bags to give a of SOOkN ò ðòêð³õó 1. 3nos R. The load is then released to ~ero and the plate is allowed to rebound.Sm Plate 300 mm x 300 mm elevation 100mm L J. It is then removed and dial gauges are set to read zero. each incremental load is maintained constant till the settlement of the plate is complete.9 Foundation level fSectional 1. 300mm x lS0mm ot LoOO mm clc top row of joists not shown in pion Plan Fig. a seating pressure of about 7 kPa is first applied to the plate. 4.30mxO. on either side Prov jng rl n. The reading of fmal settlement is taken.15m 2n05.60m4 Wooden sleeper 2m xO. The load is then in .J.Sm . Load is then applied in equal cumulative incrementsof not more than 100 kPa or of not more than one fifth of the estimated allowable bearing pressure.4t : Set up for cyclic plate load test To commence the test. In cyclic plate load test.
""II\~ !IIiI  III mic Soil Properties 159 .~ Load intflns ity. s per IS: 21311981. which . \1\ C C:II ~ C "0 l~iSe4 r' " 0 J p _t_SflS Elastic rflbound. Standard Penetration test (SPT). The data obtained from a cyclic plate load test is shown in Fig. s.l is recorded. and the slope of the line is coefficient of elastic JITn compressiOn. Ý ã (kN/m) Í» ïï Ð í .8.. >~ a... l_rz2 1j__Sfl3 . The bottom of the borehole is cleaned..(4.. This test is carried in a bore hole using a split spoon sampler.:. The cycles of unloading andreloading are continued till the required final load is reached..43. 4."..42 : Load intensity versus settlement in a cyclic plate load test Fig. 4. . The next increment of is then applied...36) where ° ã Load intensity in kN/m2 Se = Elastic rebound corresponding to p in m. p pz .. steps involved in carring out this test are as follows: (i) The borehole is advanced to the depth at which the SPT has to be performed. From this data.p 3 p.. The load is then reduced to zero and the settlement reading taken. .ed to next higher magnitude ofloading and maintained constant till the settlement is complete..fTr~ .43 : Load intensity versus elastic rebound from cyclic plate load test 3.42. 4. the load intensity us elastic rebound is plotted as shown in Fig. Sfl fFig.. The standard penetration test (SPT) is the most extensively used situ test in India and many other countries. 4..
Ý ã (kN/m) Í» ïï Ð í .42. 4. The next increment of isthen applied.ºæ®¬¢òò¢ô¢óó """ . l_rz2  pz 'p 3 4J > a.J 0 0 p _t_S<zs Elastic r<zbound.~ Load int<zns ity.(436) where ° ã Load intensity in kN/m2 Se = Elastic rebound corresponding to p in m. 91: III mic Soil Properties 159 . The load is then reduced to zero and the settlement reading taken. The bottom of the borehole is cleaned. This test is carried in a bore hole using a split spoon sampler. The cycles of unloading andreloading are continued till the required final load is reached. . The data obtained from a cyclic plate load test is shown in Fig. s.. steps involved in earring out this test are as follows: (I) The borehole is advanced to the depth at which the SPT has to be performed. the load intensity us elastic rebound is plotted as shown in Fig.. Standard Penetration test (SPT). 1j__S<Z3 1 \11 C C:II 4J C "0 _tSe4 r' .... p p. which 1is recorded.ed to next higher magnitude ofloading and maintained constant rill the settlement is complete. 4. The standard penetration test (SPT) is the most extensively used situ test in India and many other countries.42 : Load intensity versus settlement in a cyclic plate load test Fig. .43 : Load intensity versus elastic rebound from cyclic plate load test 3.43. 4. s per IS: 21311981.. From this data. 4.8. S<z fFig. and the slope of the line is coefficient of elastic Jrm compreSSiOn.
~
160
mE
Soil Dynamics & Machille Foulldations
i
(ii) The splitspoon, attached to standard drill rods of required length is lowered into the borehole and rested at the bottom. (iii) The split spoon sampler is seated 150 mm by blows of a drop hammerof 65 kg fallingvertically and freely from a height of750 mm. Thereafter, the split spoon samplershallbe further driven 300 mm in two steps each of 150 m. The number of blows required to effect each 150 mm of penetration shall be recorded. The first 150 mm of drive may be considered to be seating drive. The total blows required for the second and third 150 mm of penetration is termed the penetration resistance N. If the split spoon sampler is driven less than 450 mm (total), then Nvalue shall be for the last 300 mm penetration. In case, the total penetration is less than 300 mm for 50 blows, it is entered as refusal in the borelog. (iv) The split spoon sampler is then withdrawn and is detached from the drill rods. The split barrel is disconnected from the cutting shoe and the coupling. The soil sample collected inside the barrel is collected carefully and preserved for transporting the same to the laboratory for further tests. (v) Standard penetration tests shall be conducted at every change in stratum or intervals of not more than 1.5 m whichever is less. Tests may be done at lesser intervals (usually Q.75 m) if specified or considered necessary. The penetration test in gravelly soils requires careful interpretation since pushing a piece of gravel can sreatly change the blowcount. 4.3.8.1. Corrections to obsetYed SPTvalues (N) ill cohesionless soils. Following two types of corrections are normally applied to the observed SPT values (N) in coh~sionless soils: Corrections due to dilatancy: In very fine, or silty, saturatedsand, Terzaghi and Peck (19~7) recommendthat the observed Nvalllesbe corrected to N' if N was greater than 15 as 1 ...(4.37) N' = 15 + 2 (N15) Bazaraa (1967) recommendedthe correction as N' = 0.6 N (forN > 15) ...(4.38) This correction is introduced with the view that in saturated dense sand (N > 15); the fast rate of application of shear through the blows of drop hammer, is likely to induce negative pore pressures and thus temporary increase in shear strength will occur. This will lead to a Nvalue higher than the actual one. Since sufficient experimental evidence is not available to confirm this correction, many engineers are not applying this correction. However this correction has also been recommended in IS: 213 11981.
Correction due to overburden pressure: On the basis of field tests, corrections to the Nvalue for overburden effects were proposed by many investigators (Gibbs and Holtz 1957; Teng 1965; Bazaraa 1967; Peck, Hanson and Thornburn 1974). The methods noffi1ally normaly used are: Bazaraa (1967) For 0"0< 75k Pa 4N 1N = 1+0.040"
I
D11IIII

~.
161
miiYL~.M£!,,:
Dynamic Soil Properties
For aa> 75kPa
4N N' = 3.25+0.01ao Where a 0 = Effective over burden pressure, kPa
...(4.40)
Peck, Hanson and Thornbum (1974)
...(4.41) N' = 0.77 N loglO 2000 ao Figure 4.44 gives the correction factor based on EqJ..4Al). Use of this figure has been recommended in ~2 1311981. In this figure,
~
0.4 0
0 CL .:.:.
. 2000 = Correction factor = 0.77log10 ~ ao
...(4.42)
correction
0.8
foetor
CN
"
1.2
1.6
2.0
.
... t>1
'
100
:J III
III t>1 'Co
200
C t>1 ,;:)
.0 t>1
:J .D 'e:,I >
>
'
300
t>1 '4'tW
t
400
500
Fig. 4.44 : Over burden correction
There is a controversy whether the correction due to dilatancy should be applied first and then the correction due to over burden pressure or viceversa. However in IS 21311981, it is recommended that the correction due to overburden should be applied first.
A typical set of o~~eryed Nvalue~ are shown in Fig. 4.45. C_orre~t~d ~values as per IS Code recommendations are also shown in the figure.
.H
.
c,,: ..;..i.:.,,:;~:t,'4':~',:V'c,:e;\.;~';:'.:,,:;:f.l'!.:;.:;X!!::*,:~,/'::":t ::\i"l//</";'::\i',!"".b~..';;":~;!';"'":."~";';'.of"t.:'.'
~',,;;"..{"':"i:."<'" ':.,'.L"
. ,""'c',','?,,,,:.. ."" ;'"
,"~j,htc\.U~~.:.v
f
162
Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations
0
0
4
Standard' penetration 8 12 16
resistane. 20
N 24
28
32
",
It = 20 KN1m2
2
,,
Yl~sub = ~OKN 1m2
"\
\
Obse rved Corrected
.."
3
"""'\
\ \ \ \ \
4
\ \t "
"
5
E
.s:: Q.
Cl
""
"
"""')
6
0
I 7 I I I I
I
8
9
10
11
Fig. 4.45 : Typical SPT data
.
'
~_.
III .~
y"amic Soil Properties
163
The SPT is es.sentiallyundrained test for the duration of each blow and the energy generated by the PT hammer isprincipally shearing energy.Therefore the test maybe useful to predict the dynamicbehaviour fsoils. Seed el et. (1983) presented.correlations between SPT and observed liquefaction. Ohasaki (1970) escribes a useful Japanese rule of thumb that says liquefaction is not a problem if the blow count from a
;PTexceeds twicethe depthof sampleinmeters~
.
Imai (1977) reported the following correlation between N (observed) and shear wave velocity, Vs mls): Vs = 91 ~.337 ...(4.43) Bowles (1982) has given a number of equations to obtain stressstrain modulus Es on the basis ofSPT md conepenetration test (CPT). These equations are given in Table 4.6. Table 4.6 : Equations for StressStrain Modulus Es by SPT and CPT (After Bowles, 1982) SPT Sand CPT .,~ = 2 t04Qc 2 Es = 2(1 + Or )Qc
Es = 500(N+ 15) Es = 180oo+750N Es = (15000to22000) inN Es = 320(N + 15) Es = 300 (N + 6) Es = 1200(N+6)
Clayey sand Silly sand Gravelly sand Soft clay Using the undrained shear
strength: CIt
Es = 3 to 6Qc Es = 1 to 2Qc Es = 6 to 8 Qc
Ip > 30, or organic
Ip < 30, or stiff
Es = 100 to 500 Cu Es = 500 to 1500 Cu Es = 800 to 1200 CII Es = 1500 to 2000 CII
I < OCR < 2 OCR> 2 Notes: 1.Unit ofEs is KPa in correlations with N. 2 Es will have the same unit as of Qc 3. Es will have the same unit as of Cu
4.4 FACTORS AFFECTING SHEARMODULUS,ELASTICMODULUSANDELASTIC CONSTANTS Hardin and Black (1968) have given the following factors which influence the shear modulus, elastic modu.lus and elastic constants: (l) Type of soil including grain characteristics, grain shape, grain size, grading and mineralogy; (ii) Void ratio; (iii) Initial average effective confining pressure;
'}
164
Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations
(iv) Degree of saturation; (v) Frequency of vibration and number of cycles ofload; . .
(VI) Ambient stress history and vibration history; (vii) Magnitude of dynamic stress; and (viii) Time effectS; The shear modulus G, elastic modulus E, and dynamic elastic constants (ClI' C<I>' Ct and C\jI)are related with each other directly as evident from Eqs. 3.9,4.27,4.34 and 4.35. Therefore the factors listed from (i) to (viii) will effect G, E, ClI' C<i>' Ct' C\jI in similar way. Keeping this in view, the effect of the factors have been discussed only on dynamic shear modulus G and damping ratio, Soil behavior over a wide range of strain amplitudes is nonlinear and on unloading follows a different stressstrain path forming a hysteresis loop as shown in Fig. 4. 46. The area inside this loop represents the energy absorbed by the soil during its deformation and is a measure of the internal damping within the soil. At very low strain amplitudes « 0.0001 %) the soil acts essentially as a linear elastic material with little or no loss 9f energy. The s~ear modulus under these c.onditions is maximuI? but as the strain amplitudes is increased, the shear modulus decreases and the damping within the soil increases.
ñ îð
0 CL
.:tr.
/
10 /
/ 1
¶ Ù³¿¨
I I I I I I
, I I I
lOO cyc les la cycles 1 cycle
/
~
óïð
10
L
Y x 104
mm/mm
Dry
cl~(jn
G 57
I
sand
<z =
Fil!. 4.46 : Stn'ssstrain
ac
= 25 kPa f)') M po
Hoadll'Y, 19115) w' ~' "'11!' '., .i " J
20
Ù³¿¨ =
111°1)and points
at 1st, 10th and 100th cycles of lo:ldin~ (After
>i>t
'.tt!,;
namic Soil Properties
165
Ishihara (1971) presented Fig, 4.47, which shows strain levels associated with different phenomenon in ~ field and in corresponding field and laboratory tests. Prakash and Puri (1980) presented the data ofG )m different insitu tests as shown in F~. 4.48. It is evident from this fi~e that G decreases significantly :tenstrain amplitude is higher than 10. . For lower strain amplitude«10.5), G may be considered constant.
Magnitude of
Phenomena Mechanical character itics Constants
train
wav
6 '9
1
5
10
4
10
I
3
10
2
10
I
1
propagation. vibration Elastic
Cra cks,ditferllntia se'ttlczmcznt Elasticplastic
I compac tion, liquifacation Failure
S[ld1
Shear modulus,
poisson's
ratioJdamping
Angle OT ratio inNmal friction, cohcsion

seismi c waye method ::::J W In situ E W ... test vibration
+"'
c
I
I
I
,..,.,
.,.
'
c::::J
g
E
c
III
RcpIloted
load ing test Iwavtl propa\)ation
te st
R sonant
I
I I I
r
J
>
...
0 W
+'
o:J .a'"
0 """W
E
column loading
test test
levels associated
I I
tests (After Ishihara, 1971)
0 0 ...JCII
Repeated
E
Fig. 4.47 : Strain
with different
insitu laboratory
The machine foundations are usually designed for very low strain amplitudes so that the behaviour of soil is elastic under vibrations, It is to avoid the building up of any residual strains in the soil due to the operation of the machine, Large strain amplitudes may be developed by commercial blasting, earthquakes, nuclear blasts, pile driving operations, compaction devices or excessive vibrations of the machinery, The subsequent discussions have been made under two heads (i) Shear modulus for low strain amplitudes, and (ii) Shear modulus for large strain amplitudes. 4.4.1. Shear Modulus for low Strain Amplitudes in Cohesionless Soil. In the case of cohesionless soils, shear modulus G is dependent on effective confining pressurecro and void ratio e. The effect of other factors on G is negligible (Hardin and Richart, 1963). They have reported the results of several resonant column tests in dry Ottawa sands as shown in Fig. 4.49. Straight lines have been fitted through the test points corresponding to different confining pressures.,Similar results are also shown inFig. 3.12 (of chapter 3) as solid lines. In order to 'extend the lines for wider range of void ratios, 'dotted liiiesnave been drawn in Fig. 3.12 to represent the results from tests using clean angular grained materials. The peak to peak shear strain ~.~r : i~,d.~~en ~en, t Of the ampli~de for the~e tests was 10.3rad, It can be seen from these figr. es t v,~ and gradatIon and gram slze'dlstnbutlOn. The effect of confinIng press fi m<rramron"\:i/antfG lSXSI
. .
~~
"
cant .
',
'
.ff",'. I?"!"""'j'.!' . ..' . . . . ,.11. I, ", .J . ", ',..".."t, ',,' Ic."""""V,.." 1_"i:.'>J """ """" .)."$O""",,,~ '' ~ .co': .
..
S
/i,~
.t1
y
' .~:~,.,., ,','.:; f \ I :"C>" ':i.j>;""Aj ,:.;~;"", '""",..; ,,7."J '..' .;/ \:00.>" '.,.7 " ",,;;I
)ynll1ltic SoU Properties
~~~"UIIII
~~
&
167
,Sy'm.
Void. ratio Max. Minl
' , 0.495
.
0
A I 390 360
u
0.71
0.89 0.66 0.76
0.54 0.32 0.42
11
>
11\
::.
" ,
'H' ,
E
330
300
(J'
0 .. 3
..
11\
.. A OOk",/ 'h 2
>.u
0 
..
270
240 14
> > 0
...
et
0
.I:. If)
210
e,
So kN/tr] 0
2
180
150
"
.
0.65 Void ,0.75
120 0.35 ratio~ e
Fig. 4.49 : Variation
, '
.
of shcarwa\'c
. "
ve!ocity
J,','
wit,h void ratio for various
.
confining 1963)
'..
pressures.
grain
SiLl'
and gradation
:,.i"':' .~,"';';")'
in dry' OUa\V8 sand (Hardin
ô÷òò¢ôøþò¢þòò·ååÖùæùå '"," ,'",
and Richart,
C,"',' "',',,;",:';,
""
C'""','
.',
,',
".
0' ,", ,> ,,'
~.
168
Soil Dynamics & MachiIJe ,Foundations
Following empirical expressions have bp.endeveloped for Vsand G for roundgrained sands and angulargrained crushed Quartz (Hardin and Black, 1968).
'
For round grained sands (e < 0.8)
Vs
= (11.365.35 e) (ao}O.3
...(4.45) ...(4.46)
2 G= 6908(2.l7e) ,l+e For angular grained sands (e~0.8)
Vs 2
(a )°'
0
= (18.436.2e)(ao)0.25
l+e
 e) Ca )°.5
0
...(4.47) ...(4.48)
G = 3230(2.97
where
Vs
= shear wave velocity in m/s
G = Shear modulus in kN/m2
a 0 = Mean effective confining pressure in N/m2 for Eqs.(4.45) and (4.47) ; and in kN/m2for
Eqs. (4.46) and (4.48) e = Void ratio . Hardin and Richart (1963) have shown that the effect of degree of saturation on Vs is insignificant (Fig. 4.50).
420 360
~
~
300 270
~ 240 >.~ u 210 0
; 180 > ISO
. Dry
. Drained
0 Saturated
SO
120 ZO
70 Pressure,
100
150
ZOO
500
cr, kN/mZ 0
Fig. 4.50 : Variation of shear wave velocity with confining pressure for a specimen of Ottawa sand in the dry, saturated and drained conditions (Hardin and Richart, 1963) Seed and Idriss (1970) have suggested G the following
lOOOK (ao)05
equation ...(4.49)
=
where G is in kN/m2units, K is an empirical factor which varies according to relative density of sand. and cr0 is the mean effective confini~g stress in kN/m2 units. Table 4.7 gives some values ofK obtained from field measured values of shear modulus.
vnamic Soil Properties
169
Table4.7: FieldMeasured.ValuesofK (Seed and Idriss, 1970) Soil Loose moist sand Dense dry sand Dense saturated sand Dense saturated silty sand Dense saturated sand Extremely dense silty sand Dense dry sand (slightly cemented) Moist clayey sand
.
K 7.5 10.0 13.0 14.0 16.0 19.0
.36.0 26.0
~.4.2. Cohesive Soils. Few investigators (Lawrence, 1965; Hardin and Black, 1968; Humphries and Wahls. 1968) have performed tests on cohesive soils using resonant column devices to get the shear modulus. On he basis of analysis of experimental data, Hardin and Black (1968) have ootained the variation of G with e
md cr 0 as shown in Fig. 4.51 for normally loaded clays. They have also reported the shear modulus tor some lndisturbed clay specimens collected from the field. The following relation has been suggested:
G=C Nhere Cl is constant; Equation
(2.971 l+e
0.5 er (cr ). 0
.,
...(4.50)
and G and <10 are both in kN/m2 units. suggested by Hardin and Drnevich 2
.
4.51 has been
(1972b)
k
«
for both clays and sand.
= 3230(2.97e) G (l+e)
Table4.8:
(
OCR)
1 )0.5
0
...(4.5 
where K is function of plasticity index (Table 4.8), and OCR is over consolidation ratio. ValuesofK
. .
(Hardin and Drnevich, 1972b)
Plasticity index PI 00 20 40 (j) 00 > 100
k 0.00 0.18
.
030 0.41 0.48 0.50
170
Soil Dynamics & Machille Foundations
552,000
.
0
Tap wahr
kaolinite kaolinite
A Salt
flocculated clay
Di spczrsed
420,000
o~:
v Flocculated
clay
,.. 0 Cl..
oX
'' V\ "'0 0
::J ::J
E
.... 0
280,000
(i\ ~ .
(6QO)
\
"'W:' ...: ,'... '
"~:.
.\
.J:.
If)
0 0.5
0.7
1.1 0.9 Void ratio e
1.3
1.5
Fig. 4,5 t : Experimental values of G for some normally consolidated clays (Hardin and Black, t 968)
Hardin (1978) has suggested the following expression:
0.5
G=
625 (OCRl
O.3+0.7e
2
( Pa)
ao
where Po is the atmospheric prt:ssure in the same unit as of ao' G is in kN/m2units.
I ; j \
'amic Soil Properties
171
For clays, Seed and Idriss (1970) suggested an equation of the form:
Glcll = K
...(4.)3)
~reCllis the undrained shearing strength of soil. K is a constant whose value lies between 1000 and 3000. Ohasaki and Iwasaki (1973) developed a relationship by correlating the shear modulus obtained in a sshole survey (SCS) with SPT 'N' values. G = 12000No.8 ...(4.54) . ere G is in kN/m2 units, and N is the Nvalue recorded in standard penetration test. This equation applies both sands and clays. t.3. Shear Modulus for Large Strain Amplitudes. Figure 4.52 shows a plot between shear stress (t) and ~arstrain (y) . The stressstrain curve is approximated by a hyperbolic function defined in terms of initial :ar modulus Glllax and a reference shear strain Yrwhich is defined by Eq. (4.55)
1max
Ì
'"Cma
Yr
=
...(4.55)
Gmax
'. .
X
 ,  , I max I J /1 I
//
,J I 16
.If..
/I
11

.//
//
san d
(.\0'/
.

I I
y/
//
+ }>
¥'
'; /1
'/
/
1/
V
I
t
r;
~ /
I
I
:
T=
/
1
I
6maxI'max
'¥r
Fig. 4.52 : Hypcrbolic strcssstrain relationship (Hardinand
y
Drncvich. 1972 b)
The reference strain is equal to the strain at which a line drawn through the origin with a slope equal to
imaxintersects the horizontal line at t
= tmax:tmax
is the shear stress at failure in the soil. It can be obtained
1the following manner. Figure 4.53a shows a soil element at a given depth being subjected to vertical and orizontal effective stresses of ery and Ko cryrespectively.Koisthecoefficientofearthpressureat rest.The lohr circle corresponding to stresses cryand Ko cryis shown as circle 1 in Fig. 4.53c. From the geometry of the circles 1 and 2, we get ...(4.56)
'm" = [{~(l+Ko)cr.Sin++ccos+rH(lKo)cr..n
172
erV
""(
cv
max 'tmax
KoO=v
Ko erv .~.'t,
I..
( a)
(b)
.'
~
,
U\ III <:)I
+' III
'
Koov (c)
Fig. 4.53 : Determination of
ay
E f f <z c t i VIZ
nor mal
¬®» er
'tnl2x
Gmaxis the value of G applicable for very low strain amplitude, and therefore can be obtained using the appropriate equation from Eqs. (4.46), (4.48) to (4.54). Thus the value of reference shear strain Yrcan be evaluated. The hyperbolic stressstrain curve 'which defines the initial loading curve and also the end point of the
complete stress reversal loop is given by Eq. (4.57).
't = As 1 +Y 1 'Y max
~;
...(4.51)
Gmax G='t
,.
...(4.58)
ft,
r
l+l
Yr
Combining Eqs. (4.55), (4.57)and (4.58), we get G
G = 1!!illL ..
)ynamic SoU Properties
173
Using Eq. (4.59), one c~n obtainthe value of G at any strain amplitude, y. For every small strain ampliudes, Y/Yr = 0; and the Eq. (4.59) reduces toG=Gmax' "4.4. Estimation of Dampling Ratio. Hardin and Drnevich (1972) presented a relation betWeendamping
'atio~andthemaximumvalueof dampingratio~maxasbelow:
~ = ~max
Combining Eqs. (4.59) and (4.60), we get,
max ) ( 1 GG
...(4.60)
l
.!: .,
=~max ;;;1+I
Yr
...(4.61)
Yr
Typical values of ~max are given in Table 4.9. Table 4.9: Typical values of~max (Hardin & Drnevich), 1972) Soil type
Clean dry sands Clean saturated sands
Value of~max
,,
331.5 (log n) 281.5 (logn)
Saturated Silt Saturated cohesive soil n  Number of cycles
26 4 a~2 + 0.7/12 1.5(logn)
31(3+0.03/) 1/2 112 ao + 1.51 1.5(logn)
a 0  Mean effective principle stress, kg/cm2
1 Frequency
of loading, Hz
Forcohesionlesssoils, the valueof ~max is dependentonlyon thenumberof cyclesof loadingn while
for silts and clays;the frequency of loading/(Hertz) and the mean eff~ctive principal stress (ao in kgf/cm2) influencethe maximum damping ratio.
ô
þ¶¢
":'~;~2;;:\ æå¢¢áå¢æ·¢¥·º¬ùï·ô¶æ¢¢¢îæ¢¢åô¢æ¢¢¢ô¢¢¢¢¢¢·¢¢Û·Ð¢Öëæù '.':2:~~:'; ··¢ù æùæ
å åùôæ£å·ø
~~eIit
174
Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations
I~USTRATIVEEXAMPLES Example4.1
,

A soil specimen was tested in a resonant column device (torsional vibration, Fixed free condition) for determination of shear modulus. Given a specimen length of90 mm, diameter 35 mm, mass of 160 g, and a frequency at a normal mode of vibration (n = 1)of800 cps, determine the shear modulus of the specimen. Solution:
I. From Eq. (3.47) Cl) =1 (2n 1)1tvs
n
2
/
, .+t;,
" .:>
n=1
VS
=
2/ro n  2.(0.090) .(27t.800) = 288 m/s
7t 1t
2. Mass density of Soil in the specimen
p=
7tø
òðíë
î ðòïêð
÷
ã ïèìèòékg/m3
2
.0.090
3.
G = pv; = 1848.7.2882
=
ïòëíí
x 1O8N/m2
Example 4.2 A vertical vibration test was conducted on a 1.5 m x 0.75 m x 0.70 m high concrete block in an open pit ha\'ing depth 2.0 which is equal to the anticipated depth of actual foundation. The test was repeated at different settings (8) of eccentic masses. The data obtained from the tests are given below:
ÍòÒ±
è (Deg)
º´¬Æ
Amplitude at Resonance (Microns)
ïíòð îìòð íîòð ìðòð
ïò
íê éî ò ïðè ïìì
ìïòð ìðòð íìòð íïòð
îò íò ìò
The soil is sandy in nature having angle of internal friction,
= 35° and
saturated
density Ysa/ = 20 kN/
m3.The water table lies at a depth of3.0 m below the ground surface. Probable size of the actual foundation 4.0 x 3.0 x 3.5 m high. Determinethe values ofC", E and G to be'adopted for the design of actualfoundation. Limiting vertical amplitude of the machine is 150microns.
,~b: .,'."
174
Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations
×
¢ËÍÌÎßÌ×ÊÛ EXAMPLEsj
Example 4.1 A soil specimen was tested in a resonant column device (torsional vibration, Fixed free condition) for determination of shear modulus. Given a specimen length of90 mm, diameter 35 mm, mass of 160 g, and a frequency at a normal mode of vibration (n = 1) of800 cps, determine the shear modulus of the specimen. Solution:
I. From Eq. (3.47) (J) =1 (2n 1)1tvs n 2 /
"
dt;
'. n .::>
=1
2/ffin  2.(0.O90).(21t.800) 1t =288m1s
vs = 1t
2. Mass density of Soil in the specimen
p =
0.160 2 = 1848.7kg/m) .035 1t( 2 ) .0.090
3.
G = pv; = 1848.7.2882
= 1.533x 108N/m2
Example 4.2 A vertical vibration test was conducted on a 1.5 m x 0.75 m x 0.70 m high concrete block in an open pit having depth 2.0 which is equal to the anticipated depth of actual foundation. The test was repeated at different settings (e) of eccentic masses. The data obtained from the tests are given below:
SoNo
e
(Deg) 36
/nz
Amplitude at Resonance (Microns) 13.0 24.0 32.0 40.0
1. 2. 3. 4.
41.0 40.0 34.0 31.0
.
72 108 144
The soil is sandy in nature having angle of internal friction ~= 35° and saturated density Ysa/= 20 kN/ m). The water table lies at a depth of3.0 m below the ground surface. Probable size of the actual foundation 4.0 x 3.0 x 3.5 m high. Determinethe valuesofCII' E and G to be'adopted for the design of actualfoundation.
Limiting vertical amplitude of the machine is 150 microns.
'"
,\ ,}" :~~ >'it .iji.;,'f,Ij.
,~~
"m:t.~
mic SoU Properties
175
tion:
1. Area of block Mass of block Mass of oscilator and motor Mass of block, oscillator and motor
2
= 1.5 x
0.75
= 1.125 m
2
= (1.125 x 0.70) x 2400= 1890 kg
= 100 kg (assumed) = 1890+ 100 = 1990 Kg.
2
2.
C
U
,
=41t
4
fnzm
A
2
2
C =
U
1t fnz'
1.125.1000 = 71.1 fn~ kN/m3
1990
The calculated values of Cu for different observed resonant frequencies are listed in column No. 5 of ',e4.10. l.13E 1 Cu = (IJl2)'.fA
Assuming Jl
=0.35
F = .JiJ2s(10.352) 1.13
G= E
,
Cu=0.8236 Cu kN/m2
= 0.8236 Cu =0.3050C kN/m2
2(1+0.35)
,u
2 (1 + Jl)
For different values of Cu (col. No. 5), calculated values ofE and G are listed in Cols. 6 and 7 of Table 4.10
)ectively. 3. Correction for confining pressure and area
'
The mean effective confining pressure aO! at depth of' one half the width below the centre of block is en by
crO!
= cry (1 + 2 3Ko)
where
cry = cr~l+ crv2 ,cry! =, Effective overburden pressure at the depth under consideration
",
crv2 = Increase in vertical pressure"~u~t() the weight of block
Assuming that the top 2.0 m soil has a moist unit weight of 18 kN/m3, and the nex~ 1.0 m soil i.e. upto ter table is satUratedthen ."c '
.,. i . '' 0 70 . . '
~,
. I " ;~j, ,: : '::", ,,; ',f' ;: ) : ') " ':.
;;; .", " , :~vJ; :::;:..J.~~~8iZ+aO.x
";,' ,T~"'I'J,r;~'
~~
=~3 ~~m2\,)
~ ,..'
"
.'
176 From Taylor (1948):
Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundati'ms'
4q a  
2mn~m2+n2+1
v2  41t m2 +n2 + l+m2n2
. 12mn~m2+n2+1 .m2+n2+2 +sm
m2 +n2 + 1
[
m2 +n2 + l+m2n2
]
L 12 1.5/2 ³ =2=0.70/2=2.14 B/2 0.75/2 n = 2 = 0.70/2 =1.07 q = 24 x 0.70= 16.8 kN/m
2
[Assuming unit weight of concrete Substituting the above values of rn, nand q in the expression of av2' we get
= 24 kN/m3]

crY2= 13.44kN/m cry = 43 + 13.44 = 56.44 kN/m2 Ko = 1  sin <jI = 1  sin 35° = 0.426
2
0'01
= 56.44 ,
(
1+2 x 0.426
3
2
) =34.84kN/m
For the actual foundation aYI = 18x2.0+20x 1.0+(2010)xO.5=61kN/m2 4.0/2 m = 3.012 = 1.334 3.Q/2 n=3.0/2=1.0
q = 24x3.5=84kN/m
2
Substituting the above values of m, nand q in the expression of crY2'we get
crY2
= 63.76 kN/m2
av
= 61+63.76= 124.76kNIm
2
cr02 = 124.76 (1 + 2'x] 0.426) =77.01 kN/m2 Area of actual foundation = 4.0 x 3.0= 12.0m2 (> 10m2)
.
.
Cu2
= E2 = G2 =
El Gl

05
0'02
.
~
( A2)
05'
= 77.0
05
1.125
05'
'
Cui
( 0'01)
( 34.84) ( 10 )
= 0.4986
The values ofCu' E and G of the actual foundation at different strain levels (= amplitude at resonancel width of test block) are given in cols. 8,9 and 10 of Table 4.10 respectively. The corresponding values of sn:ainlevels are listed in col. 11.

iitfIIJ
"" ~' .. ~
'~
.
.
10 x 104 kN/m2 Table 4.81 1.427.84 9. 4.No.37 2.62 = x 104 k1~/m3 E = 2.04) x 0..37 .5 x 104canbe obtainedby interpolation.) I.10 x 104kN/nl Hence the response of the proposed foundation block should be checked using Cu = 3.100.62 x 104kN/m3 E = [3.47 2.500.67 3.38 8.83 E x 104 kN/m2 (6) 9.0 = 0.64 3.40) ( 0.80 G x 104 kN/m2 (10) 1.) In.533 .25(1.98 x 104 kN/m2 G = [1.67 4.10(4.~ynamic SoU Properties 177 4. . at resonance (microns) Cu x 104 kN/m2 (5) 11.10 3.533 . 150 x 106 4 Strain in Actual foundation = 3.40 E x 104 kN/m2 (9) 4.95 11.25 1. continued (2) 36 72 108 144 (3) 41 40 34 31 (4) 13 24 32 40 For Actual foundation Cu x 104 kN/m2 (8) 5.77 5.80) x 0.0.6886=3.173 0.103.90 4. e (Deg.04 Strain level x 104 (11) 0.51 2.37 .96 5. 2. Strain level Correction .(3.10 : Analysis of Data for Cu' E and G For test block Amplitude S.427 Thevaluesorcu' E and G corresponding to strainlevelof 0.2.5 x 10 0.7 x 0. ) x 4 10 = 4.73 1.427 0.62 G x 104 kN/m2 (7) 3.320 0.251.84 6.98 x 104kN/m2 G 1. 3.6886] x 104= 1.6886) x 104 = 2.08 ( I. Cu = 4.22 6.
103.100.96 5.6886] x 104= 1.67 3.No.67 4.40 ) ( ) x 4 10 = 4..Iynamic SoU Properties 177 4.38 8. 3.62 x 104kN/m3 E = [3.25 1. 2.5 x 104canbe obtainedby interpolation.10 3.62 x 104kN/m3 E = 2.98 x 1041cN/m2 G = [1. .427.533 .5 x 10 0.427 0.320 0.37 2.73 1.10.173 0.) In.83 E x 104 kN/m2 (6) 9.6886=3.84 9. continued 5.95 11.77 G x 104 kN/m2 (7) 3.10 x 104 kN/m2 Table 4. Strain level Correction .427 0.08 ( \.25(1.0.81 1.22 6.62  For Actual foundation Cu x 104 kN/m2 (8) 5.533 !' .10 x 104kN/m2 Hence the response of the proposed foundation block should be checked using Cu = 3.) (2) 36 72 108 144 (3) 41 40 34 31 (4) 13 24 32 40 \.90 4.40 E x 104 kN/m2 (9) 4.37 2.84 6. Thevalues ofCu' E and G corresponding to strainlevelof 0.( 4. Cu = 4.500.80) x 0.37(3.98 x 104kN/m2 G = 1.6886) x 104=2.64 3.0 = 0.80 G x 104 kN/m2 (10) 1.7 x 0.251. 4. 150 x 106 4 Strain in Actual foundation = 3. at resonance (microns) Cu x 104 kN/m2 (5) 1\. e (Deg.47 2.04 Strain level x 104 (11) 0.51 2.04) x 0.10: Analysis of Data for Cu' E and G For test block Amplitude S.
As in example 4. .:~~tt~r~~tii\Wi': ~~. 5 of Table4.~~' . Two cross borehole tests were conducted at the site to determine the values of shear wave velocities in the small areas around points A and B.5546+0. Determine the values of dynamic shear modulus G for points A.0 333 x 104 ' Therefore.07 333 6 2.66 0.t.6194 x 0.. 'r. = 0.03(2.4986 Ct! The values ofCt for the actual foundation are given in col. the value of Ct for actual foundation = [ 2.4 The soil profile at a site is shown in Fig.133 0.9926 x 106 = (1.0 " =... 5.11. The corresponding strain levels a re listed in coL7.!.'2 kN/m3(Second mode) (b) Ct=92.5546 x 0.03 1.3/..3 In~1 The Calculated values of Ct for different observed resonant frequencies are listed in col.~.280 ] x 104= 1.oiJ(ii~~7"I. I If. < Ct = 92. C' 1f.6194f. B.d Amplitude " 'Ct (Hz).~~'f~. C and D. (2) (4) 36 25 23 21 19 ' 10 16 21 28 100 x 10 .88 '4.'\ kN/m3(First mode) ~ Ct = 19.No.t~~.280 0373 72 108 144 S tram m actuaI ~ lound atlOn = .i.87 2. (3) (microns). 3. 1c~h~ "~'K(".3 1.11 : Analysis of Data for C't S. x IQ3 I~(0.213 0...5546+0. 6. "e (Deg. Table 4.9926)2 3 3 x 106 4 x 0.9926) 2 48. 4.i:j~. .5283):t(0.'.77 4. . The average values of shear wave velocities were obs'ervedas 11Omlsand130 m/srespecnvely.2.3730..9989) x 10 N/m Therefore. x 104kN/m2 (5) Ct x 104 kN/m2 (6) Strain level x 104 (7) " (I) 1 2 3 4 .030.43 2.856 ht'( .54 .) fn.333 3 L66) x 0. ' .'.3730.(.87 x 104kN/m Example 4. 8~2xO.j. . "iizinic Soil Properties' 2 nx 179 c t = (0.
0 .81 X(110)2=2. .0m ~ 86 = ~L 1.7X 1.4) G = P v.0m 2.4. .0 to .0m f if = 18 kN 1m3 Ae + c.i~ 104x1.0 m .4. 18 G= 9.0 m) Observed shear wave velocity at point_A vS = 1l0rn/s .4. = 1. profiles (example 4.0 m Fig. Fine grained soil stratum (0.~247 " if.0 2. t 21 kN/m3 Satu re ted san d 1 .2xl04kN/m2 G1'A = 18x 2 = 36kN/m2 ave = 18x 3 = 54 kN/m2 ~ (G) G 05 54 05 = ( g:~ ) = (36) .0 m 1.180 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations 0. (G)c ~ i.Qm L Fine grained soil f1.04kN/m2 .54: Soil Solution: 1.2247=2.10.
Determine the value of shear modulus of the soil at depth of 7. . Yd = 17= 2.' ~~f~~'f"!!t&[~\~.6x 104 x ( 104) .. The direct shear :st gave the value of <I> as 36°.34) 2 .0.0 ~104kN/m2 crvD .0~to ~ to..t a particular site.(68.olution: 1.:.0 m below the ground surface. .57 ' = 17 x 6.j:Jr vnamic Soil Properties 181 ..57) 1+ 0. Saturated sand (.0m soil is medium grained sand having dry unit weight as 17 kN/m3..0 m below round surface.~:~it\i~:~\~h..6 = 68.The water lble is 6.6 x 104kN/m2 (G~ = 9~~lx crvB= 18 x 4:0 ~21 x 1. x 1.3.0= 126kN/m 26 = J.{kt.6 kN/m3 1+0..610) .OO m) (vS>B = . .j.67. From Eq..i'"t\tr"~. " .0 = 112.412 ' .f~"".17 .57) x 10 = 20. = 104+ (2110) x 2.:.)l~t]~.5 . (G>O =2. "" .e) G = .: . .' '9/~f. 2 0.:'~} j.170.57 Ysat= (O'vhOm .".46)°.3 x 10 teN/m .4.\:cf~~7W.0+(21 10) x 1..412 x 0'0 . (2.2. >':: .r(~1+1~it~i.'~:.67 x 10 l+e e = 0..' 4 2 = 9.6kN/m Ko 2 ' = Isin<l>=Isin36°=0. The value of specific gravity of soil grains is 2.5 .67 + 0. 130mls (130)2 =.t.~ViY.5 .1+2Ko ' _ 1+2XO. .57 ..( 3 ) .) ~ft~i~~\.0+(20.~t~f.:' . ( 0'0 ) l+e 2 ' G~' 6908(2.crv ~ ( 3 ) 112..96 x 104kN/m2 'xample 4. (4.46 kN/m 2 2.5 6908 (2. the top 10.
Tokyo Imp. 131144. "Research on stress deformation and strength characteristics of soils and soft.." Harvard Soil Mechanics Series No. & Richart. "Vibration modulus of normally consolidated clay". R. (1948a). pp. Div. Jr. Ann. Goto. Soc." McGrawHilI. B. pp. Univ. Hall. A. Jr. Jr. (1968). 2. ASTM. 1.. Tokyo imp. Journal of the soil Mechanics and Foundations Division. (1963). Kagami. Bjerrum." Bull. H. Bull. Drnevich.. Dass. 2756. (1962). (1938).L. Am. Vol. Univ. E. . Earthquake Res. pp.. 8. Chapter of a book on Analysis and Design offoundations for vibration. Earthquake Res. ASCE 89 (SM 1). P. P. D Dissertation. rocks under transient loading.. Y. USAE Waterways expo Stn. Ser. (1963). Vol. O. Civ. Hardin. STP 392.D. 16. 89 (SM6). 9th Int.... D. 285312. A. "Dynamic modulus of cohesive soils". K. . K. & Ohta. W. A. Am.( 1977). pp. pp. Ph. D. mech. Philadelphia. J. 18. "Program of simple shear testing of soils"... R. 31. 5574. Barkan. "An easycapable and high precise shear wave measurement by means of the standard penetration test". Civ. Ph. Hvorslev. "Measurement of dynamic soil properties". Ann. 3365.. "Effect of strain history on the dynamic properties of sand". Hardin. pp. (1985). W. (1974). Inst. pp. pp. " Casagrande. "Behavior of Clayunder oscillatory loading"..... M. Roorkee. 2752. and shannan. Civ. J. . J. 1(1952). pp. Bull 38. (1977). Eng.. P.'(1966). Casagrande. W. Found. Second Int Conf. 2934. university of Michigan. "Velocity of Pand Swaves in subsurface layers of ground in Japan". B. "Stress deformation and strength characteristics of soils under dynamic loads". Soil.. C. IS : 5249 (1978). . (1940). Soil Mech. N. Hoadley. Conf. Div. D. Eng. Imai. University of Michigan. U. "Apparatus for vibration of soil specimens during the triaxial test.L. and Kaufman. "Torsion shear apparatus and testing procedure". Soc. F. Arbor. "Saturated sand and cyclic dynamic tests". O.. 26(1). and Shanan. G. (1972). "Elastic wave velocities in granular soils". Expo. Foundation Engg. Cony. (1977). 171176. "The velocity of elastic waves in sand. B. (1967). 94 (SM2). and Richart. 114. K. 257260. Dissertation. R.E. and Humphries. Geotechnique 120. O.. 1. Y. 1.182 SoU Dynamics & Machine Foundations ÎÛÚÛÎÛÒÝÛÍ Anderson. F. Iida. pp. Prepr.. V. pp. Soil Mech. L. 176. K. Proc. & Music. Ann Arbor. "Deterrrtination of dynamic propertIes' of soil"." Instruments and apparatus for soil and rock mechanics. Sol Mech. Cho. Meet. Engg. B. 807825. Univ. soc. Am. B..C (1971). Soil Mech. . pp. "On the elastic properties of soil particularly in relation to its water content". O. Tokyo. Hardin. Ky. T. ''Direct simple shear tests on a Norwegian quick clay".675690.. 98 (SM8). Found. New York. Thesis... "Dissipation of elastic wave energy in granular soils". ASCE.. M. "Dynamics of bases and foundations. Found. lida. W.. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations division.. Proceedings sixth world conference on earthquake engineering. (1965). E. Hardin. pp. Proc. Shiono.Rizzo. P.. (1976). and Landra. rA. & Black. No. Inst.L (1948b). Drnevich. 5. pp. V. "Undrained cyclic shear of saturated sand". 349420.
. pp. (1977). "Geotechnique. F. B. (1983).. "Sand liquefaction under cyclic loading simple shear conditions". N.. Conf. hihara. Chan... Eng.. eed. Proc.. /' . pp. R. Inst. Soc. Soc. ~acock. Geotech. "Vibrations of soils and foundations. and Chan. K. 689708. J. 15(1). K. "Shear moduli of sands under cyclic torsional shear loading.. and Yasuda. 101112. V. "Method for standard penetration test for soils" hibashi. Eng.\ " . Bangkok. 2. and Koemer. Proc.. (1953). Found. soc..~". Indian Geotech. 5ilver.. S.M. Geotechnical Engineering Division. 1. Englewood Cliffs. (1972). (1971).. (1960). H. ASTM. K. himoto. D.. 1... 225232." Tech. "Liquefaction of saturated sand in triaxial torsion shear test": Soils Found (Jpn. 943963. and Sherif. "Soil strength during earthquakes". S.~ . Asian Reg. oscoe. Soil Mech. H. (1937). Civ.. (1951). vot. H. P.. (1976). 3rd. C. V. Eng. 1939. Proceedings of the conference on in situ measurement of soil properties. (1968). pp.. Div. Am. "Soil liquefactionby torsional simple shear device". pp. H. 60 (2). Found. "Behaviour of soils under oscillatory shear stress".. rakash.vol.. and Joshi. (1974). pp. and Puri. vo!. Engg. 186191.f" ~"a". T. pp. Geotech. Testing of shear strength in Sweden. "Method of load test". pp. Earthquake Res. M. S. Soc. R. C. "Design and performance of an oscillatory shear box". K. Div. jellman. "In situ impulse test for dynamic shear modulus of soils". no. pp.. H. pp. Vo!. W. "Evaluation of liquefaction potential using field performance data".. eed. New Jersey.n. (1963). "Factors affecting dynamic properties of soil". Earthquake Engg. M." ". "Sand liquefaction in hollow cylinder torsion under irregular excitation". Proc. Philadelphia. pp. Eng.. & Brown. Soil Mech. Eng. I. . 458482. Memo. 1. Vo!. F. (1970). Div... 67. 1. Am. P. No. Soil Mech. ASCE. Ministry of Construction. Div. rakash. K. K.. "C~c1ic triaxiatstrengtllofstandard . M. awrence. (1981). and Seed. V. 94 (SM3).. J. Jr. pp. J." PrenticeHall. eed. 107 (GT7). B. ".). Soil Mech.. 4559.MIT Research Report. pp. Conf. H. 4th. R. (1974).. hihara. Soc. Troncosco J. 5378. 1. Am. (Jpn. " : '. 1. 15.. (1975). and Woods. 1.. Curran. 871888. "Dynamic properties of soils from in situ tests". Geot. Y. Acoust. Div.ic Soil Properties 183 : 1888 (1982). P. North Carolina. "Clay strength under earthquake loading conditions". Eng. Japan. Publication No.W. . ASCE. and Takagi. ASCE. : 213I (1981). (1976).. (1959): "Apparatus forrepeated load tests on soils. Soils Found. B. 1. and Li. H. Found. and Arango. Univ. ~ed. S. SM 2. vasaki. A. R.. 511523. Found. Idriss. and Joshi.. Civ. Div. V01. and Fead. ichart. yth Symposium on Earthquake Eng. E. Raleigh. . I.A. Nandkumaran..) 12 (2). I. . Roorkee. (1966). M. aT 5.. / 102. 92. vo\. L. 1264. Int. Tokyo Imp. filler. 2. W. B. R. rakash.. Jr. "Determination of elastic constants of soils by means of vibration methods". pp. F.. Eng. ChibaShi. R638. ord. Eng. S. K.. 1.. L. et a!.. Public Works Res. Zurich. Civ. pp. Soc.. . V. Tatsuoka. H. Inst. Second World conf. Hall. W. Eng. 1. 10112. Am. and lida. hihara. "New transducer system for determining dynamic mechanical properties and attenuation in soil". 109 (GT3). H. F. F. Jr. testsand". Specialty conference. K.. I. p. 517520." Proc. Geotech. pp. civ. Am. 183194. 319335.. 3 (2)." SpecialTechanical 20~. Nandkumaran.' . (1975). "Propagation velocity of ultrasonic waves through sa. 100(GT8). "An apparatus for the application of simple shear to soil samples. (1973). Bull.
CO. Earthquake Eng. R. Eng. Pasadena. I. Am. 501506. "Soil mechanics in engineering practice". Soc. Terzaghi. Boulder. (1967). Conf. Soc. (1948): "Fundamentals of soil mechanics:' John Willey sons. Conf. Soil Mech. STP 654. R. Earthquake Eng. John Willey and Sons. (1978).. Spec. Vol. (1972). Vot. ASTM. Am. Civ. J. Proc. Proc. 2. I.~ 184 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations . H. and Peck.. J. J. Civ. D.D. "Ultrasonic testing for determining dynamic soH modulii".... Eng. K. R. 419435. Soil Dyn. (1978). am. Int. CA. H. Proc. (1960). W. (1978). 91180. Conf. 98 (SM5). (1973). pp. "In situ shear wave velocity by crosshole method".D. Stokoe. "Measurement of dynamic soil properties: StatecftheArt". Soil Dyn. R. Eng. and Woods. Civ. R. Pasadena. H. 443460. Inc. D. K. Taylor. and Hoar. Conf. Spec. Eng. CA.. New York. Woods. Found.. New York. ' Stephenson. r:> " . Found. Civ. R. "Variables affecting in situ seismic measurements". Denver: Dynamic. K. "A ring torsion apparatus for simple shear tests". Diy.. Geotechnical testing. Soil Mech. and Dietrich. Soc... Am. vot. Shear Strength Cohesive Soils. Soc. 2. Eng. Stokoe. S. pp. Pt. Yoshimi. Moscow.. W. 179195. pp. Proc. B.. and OhOka.. Y. "Effect of consolidation pressure on elastic and strength properties of clay". 1I. /< Wilson. pp. pp. Res.
Explain with neat sketches the effect of dynamic stress level. initial factor of safety and number of pulses. 2. " ' '. freefree end condition) for determination of shear modulus.. column apparatus. >ynamic Soil Properties 185 PRACTICE PROBLEMS  I 4.. 1. mass of 180 g. . diameter 36 mm. . Cu for confining pressure of 100 kN/m2 and base contact area ~f 10 nl.' 4. 'n leyL~.' .. 30 4.4 List the factors affecting shear strength of cohesive soils under static and dynamic loads. The data obtaint:. ye'" . /nz (Hz) 41 40 34 31 . . (i) 0. 'How is calibration done and the I value of shear modulus determined? . and a frequency at normal mode of vibration of 900 cps. ..C " .75 x 0. 4. 4.d is shown in Fig. . ".K~~il.Amplitude at resonance (microns) 13 24 32 " 40 36 72 108 144 Determine the value of co~fficient of elastic uniform compression.".2 A clayey soil specimen was tested in a resonant column device (torsional vibration.5.5 Draw typical transient strength (single impulse) characteristics of sandand claytestedfor the following time of loading: ' .5 x 0. determine the shear modulus. Determine the value of coefficient of elastic uniform shear. C r "'"'~"" ' C'. " . .5. Given a specimen length of 100 mm. 4. What is the principle involved in oscillatory shear box test? Give the salient features of a study made on clay under dynamic loads using oscillatory shear box. Also give the values of strain levels at different eccen tricities... c 8 (Deg) ".8 A horizontal vibration test was conducted on a M 15 concrete block 1. .:" ' .. 4.75 x 0.7 A vertical vibration test' was conducted on a MI5 concrete block 1. '. of a resonant.0.02 s (ii) 0008sand (iii) Static 4. The data obtained are given as follows: SoNo.1 Describe the salient features..6 Describe briefly the following: (a) Seismic crossborehole survey (b) Seismic uphole survey (c) Seismic downhole survey 4.5 x 0.7 m high.70m high using different eccentricities (8) of the rotating mass of the oscillator.and the"cbrres "ortding$ . . 4.3 Explain the difference between simple shear and direct shear tests.
10 Discuss the factors affecting shear modulus and damping....04 0 10 15 20 Frequency 25 30 35 (cps) vibration test Fig."""". Illustrate the procedure of obtaining the shear modulus and damping at given strain amplitude from Gmax and ~ma)(' . 4..h..1.20 E =0..'. Cu for a foundation block of base area 15m2.08 0."'.....'c:i."' ...32 e = 1050 0.. ~ "'C E 0.>.""f.'c.\ ..'.I"'.'.'':<"""il""s.'"".:'.:'...<'N. Using this data..:t"""':. 4...16 « a.J.12 0.>.i". '" . E 2 0 .~~ 186 SoU Dynamics & Machine FoundlJtions 0.".24 .28 0..55 : Amplitude versus frequency plot obtained from a horizontal 4. '!'{.. The elastic settlement corresponding to a loading intensity of80 kN/m2 was 2 mm...' C"'... '.>"z. " .~'." ..: DD < H '..9 A cyclic plate load test was performed on a plate of 600 mm x 600 mm size.....:3I'.'..':. determine the coefficient of elastic uniform compression.
3 8n r f roe Ct 2 2 = (Ao+lo):t ~ (Ao+Io) 2 4rAoIo Moment of inertia of the base contact area of block about axis of rotation I = 0. . 3 2 = ==0 m 1990 I.hineFoundations (a) Determine the expressions of coefficient of elastic uniform shear.9 =0. + mL2= '455. !. " .375)2 ' .125 .0.5546x 10 m !kg 0. (b) Determine the value ofCt for the foundation mentioned in example 4. Solution: (a) Value ofCt is given by Eq. e (Deg. 1.) 36 . 72 108 144 Pelmissible value of horizontal amplitude is 100 microns. if the block tested in hori zontal vibrations give the following results: S. tested wider horizontal vibrations.18422.2109 3 2 10 = 3.375)2 = 735. A 735.702 Mm = 1890( 12 .3750.75 x.29+ 1990x (0. C'!:in temis of resonant frequency for the block of size 1. " .52 + 0. 4. ~ Mill ==455. 11/0 1. Mass moment of mertia Mm about an axis passing through the combined centre of gravity and perpendicular to the plane of vibrations is given by .2109m4 Height of combined centre of gravity of block.5 m x 0.13 K gm2 ' r A 0 . 1890 x 0.375m The e. J + 1890(0.56=455. oscillator and motor from base.29 Kgm2 M/nO = MIn.13) = 0.78 :xample 4.9926 x 10 m /kg ..46 ( M ) = 3. .29 MI1/0.15 m from the top of the block. 3.No.2.55 + 1. 2..35)2+ = 431.53 =0.46 ( 735. 4.75 x 12 1. .13' = 0 6194 .35 + 100 x 0.850. 100(0.g. of oscillator and motor is assumed at a height of 0.85 L = 19.3 Soil Dynamics & Mat.\(Hz) 35 34 30 T7 Amplitude at Resonance (Microns) 10 16 21 28 1.70 m high..
2 PSEUDOSTATIC METHODS 5.:". MononobeOkabe (1929) modified classical Coulomb' evaluating dynamic earth pressure by incorporating the effect of inertia force./. the retaining walls are subjected to dynamic earth pressure.: This becomes more essential if the frequency of the dynamic load is likely to be close te frequency of the wallbackfillfoundationbase soil system.consists in writi equation of motion of the system under free and forced vibrations.""+~. firstly various methods of computing the magnitude and point of at: dynamic earth pressure based on pseudostatic analysis have been discussed.1:}".1 GENERAL In the seismic zones.. MononobeOkabe Theory. Since a dynamic load is repetiti there is a need to determine the displacement of the wall due to earthquakes and their dama....   ..'' ~::.~. ". This requires the inform distribution of backfill soil mass and base soil mass participating in vibrations. pseudostatic analysis is caf!ied out for getting dynami sure.""" ". ~ ':"~ DYNAMIC EARTH PRES  5.. This essentially..." 'i'.".%/I'. the magnitl is more than the static earth pressure due to ground motion.':"h"'.2.. more often....:""..1 : (a) Forces acting on raU!'re wedge In active state (b) Force Polygon (c) Dynamic earth pressure versus wedge angle 9 plot .:F'..'.!"". It is follow methods of predicting the displacement of the retaining wan: 5.. It is ofter assess these..'L  ..h ton~=1:toLv B (0) + (f») Fig...<. 5..i.".~..9' Wt(t :totv1 ol. the dynamic force is replaced by an equivalent static forcl In this chapter.::.i. Ct Wl ::jj 'o1h Wl ' ~.. ':'.'. ':'.."'l .1. Therefore.""<7'%"4"..~J".. In this method.
~li..' : ~. """ . ~ .. v g For the failure condition the soil wedge ABC. are obtained...: Figure 5.!'> . During an earthquake the inertia force may act on the assumed failure wedge ABCI both horizontally' and vertically. '. ' 1 (PA)dyn..' . 5.". The maximum value of P is the dynamic active earth pressure (P A)dyn' :. "1:.... '.~".:'!'" "." .... Mononobe and Okabe (1929) gave the following relation for the comp~tation of dynamic active earth pressure [(P A)dyn] : . .or ' .~.ai. '" = tan ( ah l:t:av " .:r.~{. Weight W I and the inertia forces W I all and :f: WI av can be combined to give a resultant WI' where W.5> ' ". . ".. WI . .i)' . [ (l:t:av) +a" . is the value of dynamic earth pressure corresponding to the trial wedge ABCl'~ More trials are made and the values ofP2. (iii) Soil reaction R...5) where (KA)dyn is coefficient of dynamic active earth pre~~ure and given by : ' .F'" '. BCI is the trial failure plane which is inclined to vertical by an angle 8. " I....~:~.$ .) acting at the centre of gravity of the wedge ABC.. WI being the weight of the wedge ABCl' During the wor~t condition...1 shows a wall of height H and inclined vertically at an angle a retaining cohesionless soil with unit weight yand angle of shearing resistance cjI. " . ah/g acts towards the fill and W. '"..!C"i":~. 2 (KA)dyn .(5.PJ etc. 5.1 b.'  . If a" and ai.~"" 1""'.~.... . '.. Variation ofP and 8 is shown in Fig. .3) . are respectively the horizontal and vertical seismic coefficients. The backfill is inclined and making an angle i with horizontal.. . .. . inclined at an angle cl» to the normal 011the face BC" (iv) Horizontal inertia force (W."""""" """"'". " . "' ' " " .. Therefore the direction that gives the maximum increase in earth pressure is adopted in practice.... such that 0' . '" The directions of all the three forces WI' P I and R....2) a=.~'.":.. is in equilibrium under the following forces: (i) W" weight of the wedge a~ting at centre of gravity of ABCI. . . P..1c.. . is known.~r ) ...". If ah and av are the horizontal and vertical accelerations caused by the earthquake on the wedge ABCp the corresponding inertial forces are WI . inclined at an angle 0 to normal to the wall in the anticlockwise direction.(5. aig may act vertically either in the' downward or upward direction.="2 yH .(5. (v) Vertical inertia force :f: W I av acting at the centre of gravIty of the wedge ABC . '"~ '. '~ The resultant W. ..(5. . .:.. J... ." .. are known but the magnitude of only one force W. .188 SoU Dynamics & Machine Foundations 1\ . .<./. .:~//:."U " .' . is inclined with vertical at angle '1'.J IIIiI:S . <~ ah = g ... "tf i. . The magnitude of the other forces can be obtained by considering the force polygon as shown in Fig..: (ii) Earth pressure P. Gig horizontally and WI . . a/. " '. then ah ..< .c'...~... ajg vertically.. 2 2 1/2 ] = W.""""1 ::~5.
a + \V) 1I (1:t ay) cos (~+ a . (ii) The value of 'V shall be taken as .6) The expression of (KA)dyngives two values ~dependingon the sign of ay.?) where (KP)dyn is coefficient of dynamic passive earth pressure and given by : 2 (Kp)d n = 2 x y cos \jI cos a cos (cS . . 5.lO) 5.2 189 (K) A dYII = (l:tay) cos2(~'V al 2x COS'V COS a COS(cS+ a + \V) ( A.. the dynamic active and passive earth pressures during earthquakes shall be found with the following modifications (IS: 189319. For design purposes the higher of the two values shall be taken.(5.2. Effect of Uniform Surcharge.. The additional active and passive dynamic earth pressures [(P Aq)dyn and (PPq)dyn]against the wall due to uniform surcharge of intensity q per unit area on the inclined earth fill surface shall be : q H cos a (P Aq)dyn = cos (a . For submerged earth fill.'Y ah = tan  r 'Y s .1) 1:t ay . ' s I ..8) srn ( ~ + cS)sm ( ~ + l . th~ saturated unit weight of soil shall be adopted. .\V + a + \V) } { cos (a . Mononobe and Okabe also gave the expression for the computation of dynamic passive earth pressure (PP)dynwhich is 1 (PP)dyn 2 = 2 rH (KP)dyn 2 .. Hydrodynamic"pressure on account of water contained in earth fill shall not be considered separately as the effect of acceleration on water has been taken indirectly...2.Dynamic.' ) 1+ srn 'f + ~ srn 'f l ...(5.Pressure .3..II) where 'Ys= Saturated unit weight of the soil..84). 1 ..i) (KA)dyn .(5.a + \jI} For design t'urposes.2.I) cos ( cS . Earth .i) cos (cS. s:: ) ( A. (i) The value of 8 shall be taken as 1/2 the value of the 8 for dry backfill. ~. Effect of Saturation on Lateral Dynamic Earth Pressure.(S.(5. the lesser value of (Kp)dYIIwill be taken out of its two values corresponding to :!:ay.\V ) { cos (a . For saturated earth fill.." 1/2 . 'V .\V) 1 112 ..~~ .i) (KP)dyn .9) q H cos a (PPq)dyn = cos(a .(5. . (Ui) Submerged unit weight shalJ be adopted.
.4.integrating it in the portiop above water level and below water level separately. The ratio of lateral dynamic increment in active pressures to the vertical pressures at various depths along the height of wall may be taken as shown in Fig. .2 The pressure distribution of dynamic increment in active pressures may be obtained by multiplying the vertical effective pressures by the coefficients in Fig...~ f:f'::>:/:"'~'. " . ~.hwz'. " I 0)(: . :.ondingdepths' r. . !.2) ': (P) AIDyn = r(Hhw)3[( K ) K' ] .'. '. . A ' H .190 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations 5..2 at corresp. By doing this we get (Refer Fig. The value of lateral dynamic increment in active ca~e'can be obtaineq by. . 5.HZ Ö± Adyn. . z1 dz' . Partially Submerged backfill.' . 5. 5. . . 'H' .z dz + 'h~ 3[(KA)DynKA]hw. h'W [1 (H  hW> + 1h . 5.: .:.2: Distribution of the ratio' ve!1ical effective ~ressure with height o(wall .' '". ".2.3 [(KA)dyn  KA ]\ z / / / / / / / / / I 7 1 / V H Z I 1/ / hw I I / / / / I ' 3 [(KA)dyn  KA] H hw I / / C KA and (KA)dyn a re th Cl values of KA and (XA)dyn in submerged condition lateral dynamic Increment Fig..
(5.  ~ = 0 and 8 as ~ in Eq. . . KA (KA)dynKA  By putting aft = av = 'If= 0 in Eq.2.. A)dyn K].fJ. 5. (5. cos a .6) By putting ah = .. .1' ~ .hw)+ Ybhw] 2 . + J0 H cos(a:i) cos (aI) 3q cos a = cos (ai) 2 2 qdz' 2 [ H .6) Eq.12) 1 h2 (PAI)Dyn = Lateral dynamic incrementin active case hw = Height of water level above base of wall KA = Coefficientof static active earthpressure in dry/moist/saturatedcondition (KA)dyn= Coefficientof dynamicactive earth pressure in dry/moist/saturated Condition..11 in Eq. and 'If given by. Modified Culmann Construction.B) ] A similar procedure as described above may be utilized for determining the dynamic decrement in paSSIvepressures. Kapila (1962) modified the Culmann's graphical for obtaining dynamic active and passive earth pressures.y )2 (H +2hw) + [(K~Jd ynKA1'~ H [3 Y (H . hwz'. 5. (5..(5.5. (5. (5.6) (KA)dyn  By putting 8 and ~.6) as described below. hw {(KA)dynKA}' 2H +{(KA)dynKA}'2H .Eq. .(5. KA (KA )dyn = Coefficient of static active earth pressure in submerged condition = Coefficient of dynamic active earth pressure in submerged condition Y = Density of soil above water level Yb = Submerged density of soil Values of active earth pressure coefficients shall be obtained using Eq. cosa cos (ai) A 'q Hz H dz ftw3[(KA)dynKA]hw.Dynllmic Ellrth Pressure 191 = [(KA)d yn KAT 2 where 1 (Hh H W..hw .6) The additional dynamic increment due to the uniform surcharge of intensity q per unit area on the inclined earth fill shall be: (PAqI)dyn =J (H"':hw) 0 3 K [( .
Fig.8 . of.W)below BS.:th:Hyn~c.' 192 Soil Dynamics & Machine FollndtitiollS it ~i "1 I~ A Cl Cz C3 Modified Culmann's line 1 !~ 1! H s 1 ~ .W) with the horizontal. (iv) Intercept BDI equal to the resultant of the weight WI of first trial we.~.<X . (iii) Draw BL at an angle of (90 . (ix) Draw a line parallel to BS and tangential to this curve. The other steps for constructionremain unaltered(Fig. Next Draw BL at (90 . 5. as trial wedges. (vii) Repeat steps (iv) to (vi) with BC2. 5. (viii) Draw a smooth curve through BEl E2 E3' This is the modified Culmann's line. 5.8 .W)below BS. The maximum coordinate 'm the direction .BL isq1?tained from the !Joint of tan~ency ~~4 i~..dgeABCl and inertial forces (:I:W I <Xv and W I <Xh)' The magnitude of this resultant is WI' f 2 2 WlV(l+CXv) +CXh wI = (v) Through Dl draw DI El parallel to BL intersecting BCl at El' (vi) Measure Dl El to the same force scale as BDl' The Dl El is the dynamic earth pressure for trial ~~. t I: . ' '~.<X .3 : Modified Culmann's construction for dyna~ic active earth pressure Different steps in modified construction'for determining dynamic active earth pressure are as follows (Fig.4) 0 'd' ! .3) (i) Draw the wall section along with backfill surface on a suitable scale. (ii) Draw BS at an angle «1> . BC3 etc. .i. {PA)dyn' For determining the passive earth pressure draw BS at «1> ~'V) below horizontal.activeearth pr~ssure. .
5. . wedge in active state for seismic condition ~nc+ soil C? .Cl» Soils.>ynamic ~~rlh Pressure 193 cu Imann s line . Dynamic Active Earth Pressure for c . 5.5 : Forces acting on failure.6. 1966 and Saran and Prakash. A general solution for the determination of total (static plus"dynamic) earth pressures f~r a c . 1968. plane of rupture (.2. q/Unit :. The solutions so far discussed consider the soil to be cohesionless.4: Modified Culmann's construction for. 5. s Minimum pas~ive pressure vector Fig.area ho Hl H B Fig.dynamic passive earth pressure Effect of ~niformly distributed load and line load on the back fill surface may be handled in the similar way as for the static case. .cl> soil has been developed by Prakash and Saran.
. 5.19) '~ = [(n+l) tan a + tan9t1 [cos (91 +~)+ah sin (91+~)] . substitute for Wand Q from Table 5. sin (p + 0) .. 5.16 by sin (91 + $)... Weight of wedge 2 r 2 'Y H (tan IX+ tan 81) ABCI°1 2. .15) ..cos J3sec IX+ cos ~ sec 91 .) P I sin (IX+ 0) cHtan81 c' H tan IX RI cos (81 + q.15 by cos (91 + $).h 0 ) = nH . The soil retained is horizontal and carries a uniform surcharge.5) Designation Vertical Component Horizontal Component 1. All the forces acting on the assumed. . 5.1?) where ~ = 91 + $ + <X Introducing the following dimensionless parameters: (Nac)dyn (Naq)dyn 4 < . .1 .18) . ah sin (91 + $)] + qH [(n + 1) tan <X + tan 9d [cos (91 + $) + <Xh sin (91 + $)] . Eq..(5. C = c H sec 81 3. EC I being at depth h0 below AD I ..c' H + qH (tan <X + tan 91 + n tan a) = PI sin (a + 8) + RI sin (91 + $) A summation of all the horizontal components gives cH tan 91 + c'H tan a + (W + Q) ah = PI cos (a + 8)'+ RI cos (91 + $) .16) Multiply Eq.194 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations Figure 5. sin(J3+o) .cH . .1: Computation of Forces Acting on Wedge AEB Ct Dt (Fig.(5. Table 5.. assuming c = c'.1 . and adding. we get PI sin (~ + 8) = 'YH2[(n + 1/2) (tan <X + tan 91) + n2 tan a] [cos (91 + $) . Inertia force 7. Soil Reaction RI 6.'Y n H (tan IX) 2 cH c'H q H [tan IX+ tan 81) + n H tan IX] RI sin (81 + q.(5...1 along with their horizontal and vertical components...) (W + Q) IXh P I cos (IX+ 0) A summation of all the vertical components gives 12 2 122 2" 'Y H (tan <X + tan 9I) + 'Y n H (tan <X + tan 9 I) + 2" 'Yn H tan <X .'. Cohesion.1.(5..(5.14) = Total height of retaining wall H = Height of retaining wall in which backfill is free from cracks In this analysis only horizontal inertia force is considered. i'. Ca = c' H sec 4.. Adhesion. Surcharge 5. failure wedge AEBCIDI are listed in Table 5.5 shows a section of wall whose face AB is in contact with soil.(5.ho is given by expression where HI h0 = n (H I . Earth pressure PI 1 ~2 2 + 'Yn H2 (tan IX+ tan 81) + ... The inclination of the wall AB with vertical is <X and inclination of the trial failure surface is 9 I' AEC 1D 1is the cracked zone in clayey soils..cH [cos ~ sec <X+ cos $ sec 9d .
5. .:' { . Eq.ts : '. " . . or given parameters of wall and soil.. .tat ecm ac aqm ( b) aq arm (c) . (N) = [(n+1)(tana+umel)]cos(el+<\) aqstat sin(~+() [(n+1/2)(tana+tane)+n (Nay)stat 2 = sin(~+8).. '.... '" (N) ay dyn = [(n + 1/ 2)(tan a+tan el) +ntan a][cos (e1+~) +ah sin (e1+<1»]sin(~+O) . ' (P A)dyn = yH (Naym)dyn+ qH (Naqm)dyn .'. (b) (N. . z (Narm~t (Nacm) o.~.21 can b~ .22) For static case. 5... <1>.. ' ' . . e3 etc. the earth pressure corresponds to dynamic active earth pressure. + cos ~ sec el sin (~+8) .25) Minimum value of (NaC>stat' and maximum value of (Naq)statand (Nay)statcan be obtained in similar manner as illustrated above for getting the ~tatic earth :pressure coefficients. The variation of these coefficient with respect to wedge angle e are hown in Fig. " )"" 0 0 +loO .~ vnamic Earth Pressure 2 195 . 5..23) .(5.' ...(5.6: (a) (Nac)dyn versus e plot. .vritten as 2.. .h= 0.::.q)dynversus e plot.cH (Nacm)dyn ...21) 'here $Nac)dyn' (Naq)dyn and (Nay)dyn are earth pressure coefficients which depend on a. 0 . (5. et.r>dyn versus e plot For such condition. (c) (N.20) We get (Pl)dyn = yH2 (Nay)dyn + qH (Naq)dyn. 0 ~ eT 0 Z "1.\ u 0 Z (Naqm )5~t .il'\0""1 c'" (N aqiit'ldyn' ' .cten~~JrQmP1efollowing constaq..6. the values of (Nac)dyn' (Naq)dyn and (Ntrf)dyn are computed for ifferent wedge angles e2..(5..)stat '. and the maximum values of (Naq)dyn and (Nay)dynand minimum value of (Nac)dyn are btained.. earth pressure coefficients then become cos (Nac)stat = ~ sec et.. .d. ." .... er (0) Fig. AI = (N{I~". It is found convenient to obtain the dyna~~c ea~th pressure coeffi.24) tana]cos(el +$) .'. n.cH (Nac)dyn .... '.(5. '..1'. ..(5. () and e1..
5 ::J .~.. Nacm both for the static and dynamic case is same and bas' been plotted in Fig.ed (Fig. Secondly. It is therefore recommended .20° with the vertical..~11 '~II of n. ~ .4 respectively..'~ I i! ~..7 for different inclination of the wall varying + 20° to . Machi"e . . 5. These" plots consider the inclinationof the wall from + 20° to ... ..'.5 " . the ~s?ape ofthe curves ~or.:.! . " ..12 an~ 5. 1 same (Prakash and Saran. (Naym)dyn.. . . .' .9 and 5. andSanln and Prakash.'. . '~CJi " . . "'. 1968). .~. " ..0 .Plots of (NaY11l)stat for the same range of n. " .. ~ t)I a.. I ..$..27) ' '. Hence o~ly one value ofA(= Ali=~) is J recomm~nd..' 'c " " . It ISobserved that Al and A2are almost...O ~i " " . Nacmfactor is also independent ...(i) dynamic and (ii) static .5 0 s 10 t~ lS 20 r/J (deg) 25 30 35 40 45 ~ Fig.. .S ~.0.'f .0 0.0 1. 1966 and Saran and Prakash.different f!h values indicate . Since.7: (Nacm)statversus ellfor all n (Prakash and Saran.10 show plots of (Naqm)stat versus. the rate of decrease of one in relation to the other..} Figures 5. 1968) .~ is the . 0 u t)I .(5.. ~..c +' w . '~~~ ~ ! .. 0 1. <1> and Clhave been drawn in Figs. As evident from the Eq.!'. It is found that the values of Al and A2 alter. 5:14).F oundations!1 ~t 1 .. 2.~3.~i . . '" '~~:::"'\::'..'J~ . that the effec~ of n on Al and "2may. " . and both the ~oefficients decrease with <1>. 2. 196 Soil Dynamics & "~. J~ case. +' 0 +III " 3. slightly with incr~a~e in n. . . .otbe considered.0°.ratio o~:e~rth."2 = (N arm. 5.<1> for n of 0..8.i ('f .... ) stat . 5~11. t)I u 0 Z E 3. .:: ".I'.5 .23. 5. " . '..2. . 5.. 1966. " '":. .2 and 0.. ~ ' ~ " .pre~s~re~oeffic~ent~' in.. ~' ' .
197 .. 0 .. ..8 .. I0 w 0.... ..qm)stat versus ellfor n = 0 (Pr&kash and Saran.' for n = 0.' '25 . 1968) .9 : (N8qm)....'J'":>i':~'" .' 'C/J {d q g) Fig.21 .. ~ u ~ 0..:. ".. ..4 c... :. 0 W ~ L 0 5.2 " 0 L c..c .'".iuisb':and Saran.#:!~. III  E 1...2 (pta.:.0 0 ' E er 0 z 0.:.6 " :J ::: ~ I 0. _.. 1.:..h. 30.0 er 0 z ti 0 U n =0 0.35 .r~... .. . 1966 and Saran" and Prakash..rJynamic Eart" !ressure 1.. .~'~....t8t versus' :fJ '.8: (N. " 10 15 r' ' 20 " ... 5.6 :J I 11\ 11\ ~ 0... ~ .. 5.. ' 40 .2 " .~...ii". 1966 and Saran and Prakash.1 'r.8 n =0..t:'i"i'~i:...v'"'.J'Y. 1968) . .'~'..4 0.. 0 0 5 10 15 20 15 30 35 40 45 (/J{dq'g) Fig.45 . . 0..: '."!o{.
4 (Prakash and Saran....<]m). .s::.4 E er 0 Z 0. .t Fig..4 a. 10 1S 20 ~ 2S (d~Q).198 SoU Dynamics & Machine Foundations f ~I . 5... ..0 (Prakash and Saran.8 n=O 0.. ... . t 966 and Saran and Prakash.'versus ~ for n = 0.'.8 . .. 0 LIJ 0...11 : (~II'JII1)Jt.. :J III III ~ 0. t 968) 1. .2 0 0 5 10 15 20 </J (deg) 2S 30 3S' 40 4S Fi~.0 ~ 0 ~ 11' )0 E 0 Z .2 L0 UJ 0 0 10200 0 ~ s . 0.. 1968) i i .. 5.6 .to: (N. 1>1 ~ Col 0...... 30 3S 40 4S J . t 966 and Saran and Prakash.r::.. .6 : v ~ L 0.4 n =0... 1. ~ 0 0.4 :J 11' III ~ L a...t versus' for It = 0.
..r. 1966 and Suan and Praliash.mamic Earth Pressure 199 1 . :J 11\ 11\ ~ . J"~.2 +' . 041' a. 'r'. ':\J 15 20 ': tI. .".'.. III E ~ 0 0.4 (Prak~sb and Saran.."" ..4 a.'. ... 1968) 1.} .. 0... 10 C: :1.. .8 >0 0 0 E n :: :..'.0 +' ...'."':"'~ Fig:5. .. .12 : (Naym)statversus 4jIfor n = 0.6 u ~ .I ~ 11\ 11\ ~ . 0 lLI 0 0 5 10 1S 20 2S ~L~ ' 30 35 40 4S ~ (deg) Fig..2 0 1. .....13'~ {N'~).vers~..r. t: 0... ... ... ':...'. ~ 0. for n'" 0.2 0. 3S 40 4S .. 5.6 t:.... "'" . .. . 1966 and Saran and Prakash.1.2 (Prakash and Saran.\. 1968) . ..'fJ 25 '30 . ..> ....  5' ..2 0 UJ 0 0 " ".0 + ~ 0.. .8 n:: 04 z .""'. 0. (dczg) .. ~ 0 u :z 0.).
200 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundtltio.2.05 { 10 20 rjJ I 1.10 { 1 . According to Indian standard (IS : ~8931984) specifications. and Saran.7. subtract the static pressure obtained by putting ab = ay = O.3 1.4 1. the pressures are located as follows: From the total pressures computed from Eqs. 5.0 1.8 1..9 1 .0 I 0 30 (deg) (prakash 40 so ~. ~J Fig.14: A. . 1966) 5.1 . 5.5 1.6 A 1.? and 5. The remainder is the dynamic increment in active case " and dynamic decrement in passive case.. 0.versus. 2.9 or from graphical construction. The Static component of the total pressure shall be applied at an /. Point of Application.2 r 0.
""'. .. Newmark (1965) proposed a basic procedu~e fer evaluating the potential Jrmation that would be experienced by an embankment dam shaken by an earthquake by considering sliding blockonaplane mode as shown in Fig.. 1. it has been used by Richard and Elms 79) to compute the displacements of retaining walls.15 a). 'c :.15 b). it was isaged that slope failure would be initiated and movements would begin to occur if the inertial forces the potential sliding mass were reversed.i" i' 'mic Earth Pressure 201 I' ltion Hl3 above the base of wall.1S: (a) Forces on sliding block (b) Rigid plastic stress strahi behaviour ora materia" . S.10 shall be applied at above the base of the wall. The static component of total active and passive earth pressure due to uniformly distributed surge on the backfill surface obtained by putting ah = av = 0 in Eqs. The proceedeveloped by them is described below. (5.. velocities and mately the displacements of the sliding mass could be evaluated. (5. Though method was developed for a sliding analysis of an earth dam. . 5. " This analysis is based essentially upon the rigid plastic behaviour of materials Fig. and integrating the effective acceleration on sliding mass in eXcess of this yield acceleration as a function of time (Fig.(/'I / w strain .15 c).::mentshall be assumed to be at an elevation R/2 and 2R/3 respectively above the base of the wall. They are.... (iv) Nadimwhitman modd (v) SaranReddyviladkar Model. t .. " . . In this important development. (i) RichardElms Model based on Newmark's Approach (ii) Solution in pure Translation (iii) Solution in pure rotation . FaHu r~ sf re ss III III ~ k(t)w . Thus by computing an acceleration at which the inertial :es become sufficiently high to caus~ yielding to begin.. . '(a).. ~>. They have proposed a method for design of vity retaining walls based on limiting displacement considering the wall inertia effect. '<l.rj 'H re are very few methods available to compute displacements of rigid retaining walls during earth<es. The static and dynamic active earth pressures due to cohesion only (q = y = 0) are same. RichardElms Model. " . The point of application of both the dynamic increment and dynamic ement in this case shall be assumed to be at an elevation 2R/3 above the base of the wall. . 5. The point pplication of this pressure shall be assumed to be at an elevation of R/2 above the base of the wall.9 and 5.. DISPLACEMENT ANALYSIS .:/(b) Fig."" . . The point of application of the dynamic increment and dynamic .
u 0 ti > rJk. f< ~:' Fig. IJ' " .15: (c) Integration of effective acceleration time history to determine velocities and displacements Timq H Ww< 1 :t d.7. 5. . n « u u >. Time +' C ti E ti U 0 a.jji ~ ~ 202 Soil Dynamics & Machine FolUUlati4 D ~t )t:~ .iT:'i. '!....) '4. . . >coX :~..'. 5. VI 0 (c) Fig.~ :i "  T . ~if Ti mq .:h t'\' " q.' <)~: ...v) \ I F ' h Ww .16: Forces ~n a gravity 'wail . \d ...
5.ay Ww + (PA)dyn sin (a + 8) t slidding T = ah Ww+ (PA)dyn cos (a + 8) ~ = N tan <P b DIving Eqs.. we get ..(5. 'l'b tan ~b ~b .. ..... (l:tav) (tan ~b tan \jI) .. we get W w (PA)dyn[cos(a +8) .37) FI n Eq...39) W ~=F W ..29) .a) tan 'V.e. (5.(5.36) rherefore.28) .h'av = Horizontal and vertical seismic coefficients PA)dyn= Dynamic active earth pressure..31) can be written as 2 Ww = 2" yH = 1 (KA)dyn' CIE \jI) ...Earth Pressure 203 ravity retaining wall is shown in Fig. (KA)dyn .35) .. (5.36)..sin (a + 8).(5. tan ~b "here CIE (l:tay)(tan~btan .C 2 A I where Cl .1 y H 2 K . cos (a + 8) .(5. the weight of wall W is given by : W=.(5.29) and (5.31 ) N = Ww :t:.16.30) <".(5.33) ~orstatic condition.. Wall InertIa factor T F=F I w = tan <Pb . 5..38) ..(5.(5... md FT = Ratio of earth pressure coefficients in dynamic and static cases (KA )dyn FT = =:= KA ..30).5.28).(5. tan ~b] (l:tay)tan~bah 'utting (P A)dyn = ~ yH2 (KA)dyn and ah = (1 :t:. (5.5 a = Inclination of wall face with vertical 8 = Angle of wall friction <Pb= Soilwallfriction angle at the base of the wall N = Vertical component Qf the reaction at the base of the wall T = Horizontal component of the reaction at the base of the wall . KA (l:tay)(tan ~b tan \jI) . Eq.34) + 8) .. .sin (a + 8).sin (a tan J..(5.mming the forces in the vertical and horizontal directions. .(5.. (5. >ubstituting W ~= W ... the eq. along with the forces acting on it during an eartht1this figure various terms used are : Ww = Weight of the retaining wall lJ.32) cos (a + 8) .. tan = '.
. . ~ ~. From this figure for t. Figure 5.. ~.~$i the critical horizontal acceleration corresponding to F w = 1.2 0. if the wall inertial factor is considered. which may prove to be uneconomical.6 " ~ Fig.5 W..::: ~ .::..==~. 3' . ':. .10.= .5 .y. 14 fw 12 '" 10 i .. the value ah works out to be 0. 8 u. F( = 1. and Fw with ab (Richards and Elms.17: Variation of Fr F. .5 is equal to 0../ ññóä 2 FT = 1.105.. the weight of the wall has to be increased by a considerable amount over the static condition. However. j I I I I . u:. oD 0.' .18 0. 1 F w is factor of safety applied to the weight of the wall to take into account the effect of soil pressure ~ and wall inertia.5.18. . Hence for no lateral movement..105.17 shows a plot of Fp F: and F w for v~ous values of ah. the actual design is carried for some lateral displacement of wall.1 i ~ . 5. 197?) . .0 and Fw =1. the wall will start to move laterally at a ~alue of ah = 0. . Keeping this in view.105 I I I .~ . Thert:fore... i . if a wall is :' I designed such that W w = 1.1 0. u: 6 4 / L"/ y T . 204 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations~ .
31). .S. .5. 19771 ahd .(5. The walls do undergo reasonable displacements before the limiting equilibrium conditions (active) develop and experience very large displacements before the passive conditions develop. 1981): ~hese are: 1~ The soil is assumed to be a rigid plastic material. ahd of avd may be taken as 2' Earth t pressure (p) Active C + BF nt (a) Di sptaceme ". Solution in Pure Translation. The physical properties of the system and its geometry (particularly its natural period) are not considered. rather than on the assumption that the wall will not move at alL Such procedure is as follows: (i) Decide upon' an acceptable maxilllum displacement. 3. (5...tS: (a) Earth pressure (P) versus displacement of wall . A method for computation of displacement in translation only. to Ww' There are three limitations to RichardElms analysis (Prakash.ah ( d )  5ah * . d. . Fig.zm. .40) where ah = Acceleration coefficient from earthquake record d = Maximum displacement in mm (Hi) Using ahd' determine the required wall weight. (ii) Determine the design value of ahd from Eq. Walls may undergo displacements by either sliding or tilting or both. (5. Ww by substituting it in Eq.2. The value / (iv) Apply a suitable safe~y factor. although it is logical to conclude that displacements computed by this method are in sliding only.c Eartll Pressure 205 Richards and Elms (1969) have given a design procedure based on a limited allowable wall movet. of d retaining wall under dynamic loads had been developed by Nandakumaran (1973).40) [Franklind and chang. 2. say 1. This method does not apparently consider this difference in their physical behaviour.
Pp and the base resistance. I I . variation of base resistance with displacementis given. In Fig 5. I . 5.18a shows the variation of earth pressure with displacement. 5. 5.~B (d) Fig. 5. The net force away from the fill is the differenceof active earth pressurePA and the base resistance.PA) J Displacement / (b) H I oX Displace m ent (c) x . RBA(Fig.18c). 5.F. versus displacement (d) Simplified bilinear forcesdisplacement diagr.18c).18d and is characterized by the following parameters: t I . The net force towards the wall is the sum of the passive earth pressure. The forcedisplacement relationships considered in this analysis are shown in Fig.18b.. : I Base friction {B.Ot B "2 tan T ~ .F.am (e) Computation of base resistance (e) 11.°2 z X.18: (b) BaseFriction (B.18. The resulting bi1ine~rforcedisplacement relationship is shown in Fig.'.FJ RBP. RSA (R8A.) versus displacement (c) Resultant of'P' and B. Fig.t I I .206 tJ G (Rep + Pp!r~ x. RBP(Fig. 5.
~«(Pn+1 +2\Vn) . The ground motion is considered to be a sinusoidal motion of definite magnitude and period. Zy For the resistance of the base... where z = (x . Yield displacement for a given wall can be determined by considering the forcedisplacement relaonships. The mathematical model is shown in Fig.43) ~~ ~. 4) damping in the system.8 times the mass of soil on the Ranking failure wedge. . C ratio = 2~Km ~ = Damping For ease in computations. and 5) parameters of ground motion.. 5.19) : .(5.y). 2) period of the wallsoils system. (i) Slope of force displacement relationship on the active and passive sides as Kl and K2 respectively.41 b) Z + 2 11~i 4112z = . 1973) The vibrating mass of the system consists of the mass of the wall and that of the soil vibrating witL e wall.41 a) rnx + C (x . it is assumed that a column of soil of height (B/2) tan $ provides all the resistance in a passive case (Fig.(5... 5. B being the width of the wall at its base. rn. the relative displacement on the tension side at which the resistance becomes constant (yield displacelent) to obtain the following relations: 2 'l'n+_1 = 'l'n + 'i'n: t + t6 (\jJn1+2\j1n) ~n+1 = . 5.42) .. 112= Kfm where K has been defined as the stiffnesson the tension side and . The equation of motion can be written in the following form (Fig.y) + K (x . Nandakumaran (1973) conducted vibratory tests on . The parameters that are needed to define the system r displacement analysis are: 1) the mass of system. 18e).translating walls and found that for the lIposes of matching the computed frequency of the wall with the measured natural frequency. c~n be divided by y. x xy Fig. where K2 = n . ºÖ´ñ×ùºþþùºþòòô K m .19.y) = 0 rnl + Ci + Kz = .. the soil ass participating in the vibrations is 0.my .. c y = Y sin GJt z = . Kt. ~63) to be satisfied at each instant of time or at the end of each time interval selected.41 c) .:(5. (ii) Yield displacement.(5. 5. 3) yield splacement.(5.namic Earth Pressure 207 ..: " .. all the three equations obtained by linear acceleration method (Biggs.19: Mathematical model considered for the analysis (Nandkumaran.y .
aJ1d10. j .0. 0.44) . 5. j :~.5.3 s ..0. '1'='1'= Zy Z Zy Z ..(5.(5. where \Jin+\ =YIl21l~ Z \Jin+\1l2. The response of the system wherein slips take place has been plotted in Fig. 0.0.. the analysis is performed for the range of variables listed in Table 5.E 4a. 3.21. 200 and 300 0.0 To study the response characteristics of the system.9..3 s 12 Zy = 200 mm Tt.3 5 Tn = 0. and 0.(5.K.. 2.(5.~ .20 : Response of an elastic system with different stiffnesses of tension and compression sides (Nandkumaran. 10. Yield displacement (Zy) mm Range of values 100.5. two cases were considered.47) Zy With these relationships. 5. This shows that even when plastic deformations occur..2 Table 5.46) '1'=. ! \J..Zy('I'n+ I) . 2 : Range of Variables Considered in DisplacementAnalysis in Translation Variable Ground acceleration amplitude (a) gals Period of ground motion (T)s Damping (~) % Natural period (TII)see. Figure 5. . j\ I ! 208 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations .3 and 0.JI. = 2.0..3.0.2 1. It is evident from this figure that steady state conditions are attained in about 6 cycles and also that displacements on the tension side are larger than those on compression side. f Fig.. one in which plastic deformation does not take place and the other in which it does.. 12 8 E E +' C ~ ~ u 4 0 Tim<z ~ (5) E . a sort of steady state is achieved in the sense that slip per cycle becomes a constant after about 6 cycles.1 5. 5.0.20 shows the response of the elastic system.0 Damping = 10°/0 L. III 0 8 I t A =300 ga[5 T = 0.45) . 15 1.t .2.1973) I 4: .
J \11 . . 1973) . 0'. 0.21: Displacement versus time (Nankumaran..4.3 5 8 'E "0 I C Zy= 10 mm n = 2.55 SO A 0.S 0. Fi~.2 0..5 r .39. 5.. n =2. 1973) 80 Zy 70 n . 209 0 c 0 '" c 12 A = 300 gals .3)0. Q..0.8 Natural ptlriod.1 .39 IT .0 toI E ~ alii 30 0 20 10 I 0'29.'namic Earth Pressure .0 = Smm Zy =10 mm ~ =10°.Q 4 ..22: Natural period versus slip per cycle (Nandkumaran.T = 0 3 5 Tn = 0. c: 0 ~ 4.3s ..0 Damping 4 =10% +C E u 0 c 0 a.0. =10°'0 =2..6 0.4..6 Fig.3  0.0 60 E E ~ u > u A 1 T 0. 0. 5. 0 Tima (5) i 0.
.. . . If fully active conditions are assumed to develop at a displacement of 0. suffers from thefact that the tilting of the wall has not been considered.25% of height of wall.5 H average displacement ( 100 ) .(5.mm. (vi) The stiffness values computed in (iv) and (v) remain unchanged during phases of wall rotation towards and away from backfill respectively.0 mm.3. Determine the yield displacement. however. (iv) Soil stiffness for rotational displacement of wall away from the backfill may be computed corre~ sponding to average displacement for development of fully active conditions. 5. the natural period of the wall and the ground motion considered..(5. Determine the natural period of the wall using the following equation: T=21t~ where K = stiffness on the tension side and In = mass of soil and the wall. Determine the slip per cycle from Fig.1 1 » . (ii) The earthquake motion may be considered as an equivalent sinusoidal motion having constant peak acceleration. A method of analysis for computing the. Figure.~ 1 K I = KpyH2 . Solution in Pure Rotation. 3.49) t 'f Ii 1.48) 2. This method of analysis is better than the one proposed by Richards and Elms (1979) in that (i) definite procedure for determining the natural period of the soilwall system in translation has been formulated. ~= 10% and n = 2 for different ~round motions. 5. Any problem can be solved with the following stepes : 1. then soil stiffness Kt in active state is giv~n by . The ground motion is considered to be an equivalent motion of uniform peak accelera:ion of well derIDedcycles. The mathematical model base upon these simplifying assumptions is shown in Fig.'1"""' . and (ii) physical behaviour of the retaining wall is considered in developing the forcedisplacement relationships. (Hi) Wall may be assumed to rotate about the heel.KoyH2 2 2 PoPA = 2. 5. . and 10:0 . 5.!10 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations Fig.23a.22 or similar other plots corresponding to the yield displacement.3. . The method.22 shows typical set of results in the form of slips per cycle versus the natural period of the NaIl in seconds for the yield displacement Z= y 5. (v) Soil stiffness for rotational displacement of the wall towards the backfill may be computed corresponding to average displacement for development of fully passive conditions. Compute the total slip during the ground motion.. (vii) Soil participating in vibrations may be neglected. rotational displacement of rigid retaining walls under dynamic loads has been presented by Prakash etal (1981) and it is based on the following assumptions: (i) Rocking vibrations are independent of sliding vibrations and the rocking stiffness is not affected by sliding of the wall.. 5.23 b shows the scheme for calculation of side resistance corresponding to active and passive conditions. 4.
.(5. b Fig..perpendicularto the plane ofvibra.I'CPA ..50) 2.'namic Earth Pressure 211 .5 % of wall height. the heel of.Ko rH 2 2 Pp . CP~ . .Po K ..average displacement ( 100 ) where:: PA Pp Po = Active earth pressure = Passive earth pressure = Earth pressure at rest .." U' .(5.KA = Coefficient of active earth pressure Kp = Coefficient of passive earth pressure Ko = Coefficient of earth pressure at rest The rotation resistances of the base..' '.. 'i'n!>d':~1. B ~ ti'..b t t ..: .SH . 5.5H lOO. MRP .51 b) n which C... z . 1981) Similar if fully passive conditions are assumed to develop at 2. soil stiffness Kz 1passive state may be computed as : Z z Kp rH . u //R<ztaining wall \ Backfill kA Lf"[ .2SH F. I ."t 100 (b) ~ Di splacement (b) Scheme for computation of spring stiffnesses (After Prakash et al. :::J IJ' Ut +' C C:>I kp I I ~ L.the!walland..x L.:.t: +' 1 U ~ C:>I 0 . '1'. ...' 0: = c..23: rotation 1 (a) (a) Mathematical ~ model for rotation of rigid walls.):~ "!'. Z. ~ . in active and passive states (MRAand MRP)may be given by M~A=.(5. is coefficient of elastic.51 a) .C.nonuniform compression. . I is moI1!e~t'ofin~rtia ~fthe base about an lxis through. I I r.'. ' t=a. Q.. I J (kA or kP) H a..tiQns.an~~A and CPB itre angles )frotation'away and towards!he~backfill.
I ) Z 4>A= M (t) . Nadim. g) when slippage is taking place.0. .. thus causing change in wall acceleration. 5. Displacement of top of wall due to rotation found by this analysis was 147 mm.. The equations of motion for rotation of wall away and towards the backfill are respectively: . I 3 J 4>p = M (t) .3 0...25 and C$ equal to 3 x 104kN/m3. 33. 5. 4. The contribution of rotational displacement using the above approach was compared with the sliding displacement for a 3 m high wall with backfill having angle of internal friction. 7. Nevertheless it shows explicitly that in some cases neglecting rotational displacement may seriously underestimate the total displacement.e. But once the backfil1 beings to slip. towards the backfill and away from backfill would be different.(5. 10.(5. SoU Dynamics & Machine Fou1tdtztio1$ !$ .0. KzH and Mmo Ij>p+ ( C..3 s. .. 1j 5. 15 4 3. 5. the period of the wall for the two conditions i. compatability of movement requires the backfill to have a vertical acceleration.53) where n = Number of equivalent uniform cycles of ground motion H = Height of Wall Based on the above. 36 0.. This illiustrates that the rotational displacement may not be negligible and an attempt should be made to account for it. a parametric study was made considering the range of variables listed in Table 5.. 4>.H ..(5. 6 and 8 (x 10 ) 1/3 horizontal seismic coefficient CJ.  ~~ ? ~ ~ I .212 . Table: 5. This would result in different values of 4> A and 4>p for each half cycle of motion and net rotational displacement of (4> A .3 It was observed that the contribution of rotational displacement may be significant.whitman Analysis..h equal to 0.. equal to 36°. period of ground notion of 0. The displacement analysis for rotational displacement is highly simplified.52 a) i.3. In actual practice it may be essential to account for combined effects of rocking and sliding that will affect the overall response of the system. K H2 13 " Mmo ~A + ( C.52 b) Since the stiffnesses Kl and Kz are different.  .5 and 10. .h .4.3: Range of Variables considered in Displacement Analysis in Rotation Variable Height of wall (m) Angle of internal friction for backfill (degrees) Period of ground motion (5) Damping (~) C$ base kN/m3 Base width/Height of wall Range a/values 3.0 30. The total slip in 15 cycles due to sliding was 213 mm. The maximum displacement of wall for any number of cycles may be computed as : 4>T = n (4>A  4>p) . The Richard Elms model assumes a constant value of wall acceleration (C1.4>p) for one cycle of ground motion.
k~ :r I .:'!'>' ":".wall and the backftll wedge separately and.112 Uniform G w. are slightly lower than those computed lith the Richard. 5. the dynamic active earth :essure and the acceleration of the wall.satisfied le continuity requirements at failure surfaces as shown in Fig. given the input of horizontal and vertical ground accelerations.kn S I :1 1 A= 0... An iterative procedure was devel?ed for computing the instantaneous values of the inclination of failure plane. Generally. Iso. Rigid boundary '4m sea le ~ Cn = 1E 12 kN I m/m Cs = 1E S kN/m Im Cn = Normal stiffness C~ = Shear stiffness of slip elements of slip elements (b) Fig.24a. '. Dynamic tests on model retaining walls performed by Lai (1979) sh~w lat Zarrabi's model predicts the movement of the wall more accurately than Richard. '1: <~ ':i. displace:nents computed with Zarrabi's model. Slip element with. obserVed. he horizontal acceleration of the wall and the inclination of failure plane in the backfill are not constant I Zarrabi's model. Lai.24: (a) Force resolution of wall and soil wedge in Zarrabi's model (b) Retaining wall and its finite clement idealization (c) Effect of ground motion amplification on permanent wall displacement (Zarrabi. Later pn.Zarrabi 110del has been modified to have a coiistanHncIlnationof failure plane 'in the b~ckfilt> . .~ w Ww Rw tan ~b Rw (a) 3 f 1f1 (c) Contact element Slip element with Cn=lE8kN/mlm C5=0 with Cn=lEBkN/mlm.2 1 \ N = 0..1979) . ' ~ . .Elms model. a single rupture plane in the backfill in contrast to Zarrabi prediction.C5=12SkN/m/m .. 7 6 I W..ynamic Earl/. 5.Elms model.2 R ~ WJ w. Pres~ure 213 Zarrab~(1979) considered the equilibrium of the.
mass of. cro ~~ ':' section pf rigid ret~iiningwall vari ~s'to cl great exte!l. the results of finite element mesh us. It can be seen that effect of amplification of motion on displacement is greater when I I is greater than 0. the wall undergoes only translational movements.Okabe analysis to calculate the lateral thrust for which the wall is designed. I.24 b. The . increase A and V by 50%. 5.strain finite element model for computing permanent displacements taking into account the ground motion amplification. increase the peak acceleration. . Reddy and viladkar Model.at high frequency. f ' I. . it can be said that large values off If. 5.3. Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations .t~J . '\:IJ. made by lumping the.3 The FE model predicts zero permanent displacement . Thus.25.plastic behaviour of the backfill material.. = VI/4 H where H = Height at retaining wall in m VI .40) given by Richard . In this figure.. .~' Areas<?n~ 1?leappro~j.rk. neglect the amplification of ground motion. typical results are shown in Fig. 5.. In their paper.(5."" 'i 214 The Richard.f . Hence amplification' of motion cannot be taken into account in these models. is between 0. . V of the desjgn earthquake by 2530%. '11 'I. . The slip element at the .5.Saran. Nadim and Whitrnan (1983) used a two dimensional plane . Saran et al (1985) have chosen the mathematical model in such way that it results translation and rotation simultaneously and therefore it has two degrees of freedom. If I II.Elms model for getting ahd for known value of the displacement. In practice.. is in the vicinity of 0. 5. tion is.edby them is shown is Fig. are not of great p'ractical interest because displacements are very small. However.b~ckfin soil is replaced by closely spaced independent elastic springs shown in Fig.Elms.5. of the backfill fQf the d~sign earthquake using onedimensional amplification theory by using the following equation and estimate the ground motion frequency. the input acceleration is not constant. Ifll I. because in the analysis only three cycles of base motion are considered during which steady state conditions can not be achieved. ". Hence the input ground acceleration is constant throughout the backfill. " ' . (iii) Use the value of ah from the previous step in the Eq. (5..tQ . But due to moreorless elastic behaviour of soil at stress level below failure. Obtain ah as A/g.plastic (Richard . Nadim and Whitman (1983) suggested the following simple procedure for taking into account the effects of ground motion amplification in the seismic design: (i) Evaluate the fundamental frequency I. (iv) The value of ahd estimatedin step (iii) is used as the value of horizontalseismiccoefficientin the Mononobe . .54) = Peak velocityof earthquakein m/s (ii) If I Ifl is less than 0. thus restraining the wall from vertical and rotational movements relative to its base. the rigi~ retaining wall at its centre :<?fgravity.Elms or Zarrabi's) model. . A and the peak velocity.base of the wall has been assigned a very large v<llueof normal stiffness. .25. R is the ratio of permanent displacement from the FE model to the permanent displacement from rigid . To understand the effect of ground motion amplification. I.24 c. theref6~e.:~.model and Zarrabi's model assume a rigid . . ". is the fundamental frequency of wall and I is the frequency of 'ground motion. value of vertical seismic coefficient may be taken as a~d . .7 and 1.
." " . .. I ¢ ¾ ¢ .. equal to the 'height 'of retaining w~ll. actionsat different points are evaluated treatIng this'beam'to . TIlt .11It.' spring constants vallies' at"~a:fiou~'ciivi'si~h p'oTnts\vould'oe a~'~n~~r. . Dynamic pas slve . For linearform of variation.. P. j  ï ¸ F=F I Kn" 0 sin wt .4: Rangle of. . '200300 400600 8001200 '40060d' 8001200 1600~2400.values of Modulus of Subgrade Reactions 1h' .height ~Ji..)... Value of 11ft also )ends on the type of movement namely (i) wall moving away from backfill (active) an (ii)'wall moving lards backfill (passive. Jr the retaining wall of height H~d'ivided into ~ t6nvenienf~~mber ot ~qual ~egrI{erits' of.k =:.. but remains lstantwith depth in case of over consolidatedclays. Treating this load to be acting on abeam of length..QC tlve " . . .25: Mathematical model for displacement analysis under dynamic condition To determine the spring constants soil modulus values have oeen used" The s?~l modplus depends on type of soil. Fig. It varies linearly with depth in sands and n?rmally consolidated clays. Earth PresslIre 215 t°'t hl hl Retaining K. 5.. In case of soil modulus linearlyvarying with depth. 504 ' Table 5. ill Dynamic"'" .' h. in cohesionles . the soilreaction is assumed'to 'act as a loading tensity. I position wall I . K..' .the be siniply' suppo'ited:at tIi{spring points. ~ I I I I X J I I I I Inltla . nic.soils is given in Table.rpbable range of 11ft...  Displaced position I K.. the 'actions hence'the. I I I :IT h. where 11ft he constant of horizontal subgrade reaction and h is the depth below ground surface. KNlm3  Soil 'Active Loose 'sand Medium dense sand Dense sand passive .
The earthquake motion may be considered as an equivalent sinusoidal motion with uniform peak acceleration and the total displacement is equal to residual displacement per cycle multiplied by number of cycles.8 times the mass of Rankine's wedge.55 b) .(5.(5.. Soil stiffnesses (or spring constants) for displacement of wall towards the backfill and away from the backfill are different. In case of soil modulus constant with depth. By adopting similar technique. '. the reactions at different points are evaluated treating th..(5. equal to the height of retaining wall..55 a) .'.6 l1h (1:1 hi k2 k3 . the soil reaction is assumed to act as uniformly distributed loading intensity.56 a) . However. Soil participating in vibration. the method gives higher displacements and the solution is conservative. Then it is added to the mass of the wall to lump at centre of gravity'and the analysis can be carried out' without any changes. iI ~..(5..4) T\h(1:1 h) ki kn = "'6 . Neglecting this mass. 2 k(l:1h) The method is based on the following assumptions: 1.55 c) . It is difficult to determine analytically the soil mass that would participate in vibrations along with wall when it undergoes translational and rotational motions simultaneously. ... . the spring constant at my division point 'f. de S) 5.55 d) lar en.. For any intermediate spring. ki. 2.... da: W2 de ha se dr IS = l1h (1:1h)2 = 2 l1h (1:1 h)2 = (i .. Assumpations 1 and 2 are usually made in such as analysis while assumption 3 needs justification. 3. .(5. )"~J I  .56 c) k. Nandakumaran (1973) has conducted experiments to determine the vibrating soilmass and concluded that itcan be taken equal to 0.(5.1) l1h (1:1h)2 1 2 (3 n . .. The spring cons'tants would be as under.. k = 1 1 k (1:1h) 2 .56 b) . For the bottom most spring.1 1 .~ #' 16 Soil Dynamic. the mass of vibrating soil can be found out by carefully conducted experim ~nts.(5.. the soil mass vibrating along with rigid retaining wall under combined rotational and translational motion~cim be found out.(5. = k (1:1h) 1 kn =.s & Machine Foundations Dj' k .55e) where kl and kn are the spring constants at the top most an bottom most points... u For the top most spring. damping of soil and base friction are neglected..isbeam to be simply supported at these points. For the case of pure translation. Treating this uniformly distributed load to be acting on a beam of length.
In case of walls in alluvial and' at the waterfront..=\ "f.. the walls may edominant rotational motion.=\ n . But in general for any type of foundation soil. Analysis of an elastic system active condition.=\ "f..[x+{Hh)(iI)LlhJ 11 9) (Hh)(il) LllzJ]=0 . translation'al'motion.62) .JL a . For'rigid retaining walls.etting : ... The equations of motion of the retaining wall )' Alemberts principle can be written in general terms as .(5.61) n kj {(H ..:. I. Neglecting even this smaller damping... study the response characteristics of the 'system.(5. .. two casoesare considered.= '. ~\ . Therefore smaller .tional and rotational motions simultaneously. . values would be appropriate.[x+ 11 .60) .. . is predominant. refinment of the model by including vibrating soil.kj {(Hh)(il)L\h} M . ~ displacementof .h ) . damping of soil and base friction ~d so that the analysis can predict displacement close to the actual displacements. "1T F .k.(5..=\ :'(' + Lk.h }.(5. retaining wall pos'ansl.In some other cases. retainingwall is greatly influencedby base friction. wever.(5. bsorption in the form of plastic displacement of the wall has been considered. . the analysis will lead to an overestimation of the displacement.11& III it 0' Earth Pressure 217 oils.=\ {H h)(iI)Md 9] = Fa sin (J) t . the displacement of the this method will be more than the actual displacement..59) 4 M =a a ..mass. it is customary to consider valUes of damping such' as 15% 'or 20% of critiCal in view of ergy absorption compared to other engineering structural materials... the stability is mainly ts gravity.(5.57) + Lk. hence base friction. one in which plastic ations do not occur (elasti~ system) and the other in which plastic deformations do occur (plastic ).follows...58) here M = Mass of reitaining wall J = Polar mass moment of inertia of the wall about the axis of rotation (J) = Frequency of the excitation force H = Height of retaining wall h = Height of centre of gravity of wall from its base x = Translatory displ~cement e = Rotational displacement . =b .) '\ ~ J =c .(i  . In the present analysis however.1)6. n ..'. '! '2 t ' .
.as~ .68). . ". .. = Mr2.67) and (5..independentof each other. ' " '" e + ca where J = ..' 2 2 .73 a) .6'8) (ch c) ~ ~ (:.'(5... . ' . " .00 )Tb sin rot .)x " Solving Eqs.(S.. .6?).... .. .{S.65):and (S..<0 I = X + (H . . ".'.72) Therefore. we get = b~ + ao' "'. .. (S.Substituting Eqs. .64) .can be called as coupling coeffici~ntbecause if b.64) .. . we get ao X = (a 2 . (c002) e= a0 2 1'2 (a002) ( c.sinro( .b } 2 2  or "" x top = (S.h ) e r (cro) +btHh) . .70) Hence the solution becomes X = (a002) ao .(S. ..::r I 218 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foun~ The equations of motion of the rigid retaining wall cai1thu~ be written.64) can be written as X = X 'sinro t . ( "7 ) x'.2. be+ b' 'A" sih ro l' ". (.. (5.' The solutions of Eqs. the displacement of the top of rigid retaining wall is given by Xtop . . ' (am Hcoo )b b u " .. where X and e = ~ are arbitrary constants.73b) ! I t..66) in Eqs. r being the radius gyration and 'b'..=.. ..(S.. 0.. .o. .63) and' (S.(5.':.(02 + a) X ~ sin .(S.69) ) ..63) and (S.2 ( c ao ~= .:.(S'. .6S) " "'.(S. ro( 2 2 2 2 0 { ( aro ) (cro ) r.(5:67) ".7!) 2 b2 .(S~66) . (0 1. " the two equationsbe~ome. "" . ' : x' + ax ~ ..00 ) b2 2 00 .ii . (S. .(S. a srn . .' .
.. (a+c)+J( c.(5.. nce in the passive condition.(5. .(5.74) ...79) .~.. :dba b  .(5.82) b 2 OOn(a+c)OOn+QC... . ) =0 00. Under free vibration condition. Passive condition.81) ~ Equating. band c change and these can be given by : a = n (a)a b = n (~)a C = n (c)aThe solution for this condition is similar to active condition described above...(5. 9 + ca = ( .78) . the values of a. .(5...a r +(~ r I .B .83) oon2 = 2(a+c)J r (y.77) a = B sin ron t ~ A and B are arbitrary constants ~quations 5. the equations of motion are: . 'x' + ax .(5.75 become: (00.(5.75) J x ubstituting the solution: x = A sin ro nt .~.84) .76) ...(5..85) .(5....3..(5.80) ~ (:.+c)B From these we get.(5. ..(5.. 4 2 ( ~ \r ) .87) .\ = 2 .) +() ca 2 b 2 . + a) A (<o...(5.... and' = b .74 and 5.!icEarth Pressure 219 ? Natural frequencies...)A b a OOn 2 2 A =B .. b ~ (::) coo 2 aoo. ( and solving we get.5...86) . The ratio of stiffnesses on the compression and tension sides is denoted by n..
(5..... we have Zy = xe ey = ee C = x . we get t2 x = (b ey . the values of a.(5.92 a) .(5.. C2 . change and these can be given by: a = 11(a)a b = 11(b)a c = 11(c)a . Let xe' xc' ee' 8e be the values corresponding to time te and can be calculated by using the equations developed for elastic system.3.(5.xete + (bey ...91) Let 'fe' be the time after which displacement of top of wall (yto~ becomes greater than yield displacement (Yd) and plastic system starts.89) ( r2 ) y Integrating the above equations twice..88) ..5..(5....92 b) ...(be . band c.. + a Zy = b 9y + ao sin Cl) t ..98) Displacementof the top of rigid retaining wall is given ~y = x .(5.(5.Z y .96) 00 .(5.~ 220 Soil Dynamic'S & Mad<ine F.. ao sm 00te = xe ...5.. The ratio of stiffnesses on the compression and tension sides is denoted by n Hence in the passive condition.99) 5.(H .100 c) l' I.(5...(5.(5..90) e = (? Zy coy ) "2 + C3 t + C4 ..95) leao cosoote .(5... b e + ce = .(5.(5.93) ..97) ..a Z ) t + I e y y e . Passive condition.5.. The following boundary conditions can be applied to evaluate the constants of integration: (i) t = re' X = xe (ii) t = re' X = xe (iii) t = re' 8 = 8e (iv) t = re' e = ec Therefore..4...92 c) .. .(5.100 a) .a Z) b T t2 ao sin Cl) t 002 + Cl t + C2 . Assume that Zy and 9yare the yield displaceme~~\: " occurring simultaneously in all springs: the equations of motion can be written as: x.3. Analysis of a plastic systemactive conditio... .(5.n..100 b) .(5.94) a cos Cl) t 0 Cl) 2 te e .92 d) ..h) e .8 t ZZyCey _ e ( ) 2 .(5.a Z) T+ e 002 C =8 3 _ te ( rb2ZyCey ) C4 = 9 ere x top b t..d_~ I 5.
..1 = . ~in most of the cases plastic system for l"assive case is not considered.26 for Culmann's graphic.0° with'\.modified Culmann's graphical construction. .05 . 'V = tan I . determine total active earth pres sure using Mononobe's equation and. lILL USTRA TIVE EXAMPLE~ mple 5. The backfill surface is sloping at an angle 10° to the horizontal.05 2 2 .= . 1 H 2 cos2 cos = 2"1 a «I> a+ a) cos (8  1/2 2 sin ( <I> + 8). Static active earth pressure 2 PA .i) cos (8 + a) ] x } = cos2 (3320) ~ x 18 x 6.= 0. Ds Es gives ~ total active earth pressure.\jI ) 1I2 2 } { 1+ [ cos (a . sin ( <I> .44° with . = 5.0 x cos220 cos (20+20) 2 1 I + sin (33 + 20) sin (33 10) [ cos (20 10) cos (20 + 20) ] { 1/2 2 } = 168.ay . . (a) Determine the total active earthpressure using Coulomb's theory and Culmann's graphical construction. the displacements for achieving yield condition are very large. 1/ = 1~_KN/m and 8 = 20°)..i) cos ( 0 + a + \jI) ] Assuming a v ah 0. ' .1).1 sin ( 4>+ 0) sin ( 4>.1 . ay and = 6.42 kN/m Refer Fig.:..1 1:!:0. 0 m high retainin~ wall with back face inclined 20° with vertical retains cohesionless backfill 33°.i . . (b) If the retaining wall is located in a seismic region (ah = 0. ltion : .i) { I + [ cos (a .ah l~av' = tan I  0.. ".alconstructionfor getting static activepressure.a)( I:!: ay) ' 2 cos'I' cos a cos(8 + a + 'I') x . PA = 17 x 10 = 170 KN/m (b) Dynamic active earth pressure (P)d A yn  1 1 H 2 col «I>2 'V .0 ) I .nic Earth Pressure 221 'he solutiOltissimilar to the above procedure for active condition except the values of Zy and ay" In ression side (passive condition). .
.05 kN/m Therefore (+) ay case governs the value of dynamic active earth pressure.26: Culmann's graphical construction Value of (f A)dyn with (+) ay 2 = . Hence.26 kN/m Value of (P A)dynwith () ay 2 . 2 . cos6cos220cos(20+20+6) 1/2 2 } = 198.0m Linear scale .1 : 100 F'orctZ Pr~ ssurtZ I i n~ scaltZ.4420)(1+0. Machine. Refer Fig.!. 4.44cos 20 cos (20+ 20+ 5. : i i. '.44) 2 1I2 2 I + sin (33+ 20) sin (33105. sure . " for getting .26 kN/m . 6. '0 'w.44 ] } = 214.05) 1 X ' 2 A.05) x x 1 1+ ~in(33+20)Sin(33106) [ cos (2010) cos (20+ 20+ 6)] { . 5.Foundatioi$' .222 Soil Dynamics & . cos 5.:. 1mm = 10KN Fig. (PA)dyn = 214.1 18 x 6 02 cos (33620)(10.44) { [ cos (2010) cos(20+20+5. .27 for modified Culmann's graphical constructi9n dynamic active earth pres." 18 x 60 2 cos (335.
[j = 1.ample 5.".0 kN/m2 There is a superimposed load of intensity 15 kN/m2 on the backfill.earth pressure. Compute the dynamic active earth pressure and decmine the percentage increase in pressure over the static earth pressure.1.. 5. Solution: . = .0 x. The wall is located in seismic gion having horizontal seismic coefficient of 0.0 m high is inclined 200 to the vertical and retains horizontal backfill with following aperties : y/= 18 kN/m3.ic Earth Pressure 2'3" m Lin~ar.2 retaining wall 8.~ 2c 1 1. ~ =300 and c = 6. scalCl 1 :100 Forc~ scalCl 1mm:10KN Fig.sin 30 where KA = l+sin30 1 = 3' (i) ho = Y ~KA 2x 6. (PA)dyn = 21 x 10 = 210 kN/m .27 : Culmann's graphical construction D sEs gives the total dynamic activ~.15 m 18 .
512 and (Nacm)stat= 1.7 to 5.} .0 kN/m (i ii) For <I>= A. .85 x 1.01 Example 5. '.Yr = 18 kN/m3and 0 = 20°).= :. Determine the weight of the retaining wall. Solution: (a) .= 18 x 6. 0 cos (8 +a.167 = 0.609 and (Naym)dyn = 1.For static condition .0 m high retaining wall with backface inclined 20° with vertical retains cohesionless backfill «I> = 30°.33 + 15 x 6.20°and n = 0.512 = 0.2 2 (PA)stat.852 x 0. «(1)For static condition. a. = .18 x 0. (Naqm)stat = 0..00 x 100 = 22.23 give: (Naym)stat For <I> = 30°. . Fig.'" . 5.15 = 6.6 x 6.33 = 0.14 gives = 1. '.393 . sin (30+ 20) sin (3P15) { 1+ [ cos(3020)cos(20+20) I/2 2 . dh = 0.0 . (Naqm)dyn = 1.85 x 0. ] } . 6.18 Therefore. a. . (ii) Figs 5.393 (PA)dyn= 18 x 8.85 x 0.10282.2 = 282.167 .16 n=1[==0.6225 .85 x 0. H = 8.1.18 x 0. The backfill surface is sloping at an angle 15°to the horizontal. 30°.85 x 1.) 1 ] ..33.18 kN/m (iv) Percentage increase over static pressure 282. = 0.224 Soil Dynamics & Machine FoundatiiiJl.85 m ho 1. cos2 (cp  a) { 1+ [ cos(a 1 Sin(cp+O)Sin(cpO l/2 2 KA = cos2acos(o+a)' cos(3020) = cos2 20 cos (20+ 20) .512 . . (b) For zero displacement condition under earthquake loading (c) For a displacement of 50 mm under earthquake loading.609 .2 = 345.3 A 5. .15 x 6.4 % = 345.1.85.6 x 6.' .20°.
524 .05) (KA)dyn = cos6cos2 20cos(20+20+6) x .05) 1 x (K) Adyn = cos5.tanSAM = 1.44cos220cos(20+20+5. (5. (5. (5.6840 Thus from Eq.1 = 1:t0.6840 = 9765 kg/m (b) For zero displacement condition (KA)dyn = cos2(~cos \If cos 2  \If ~ a) x 1 sin ( ~ + 0) sin ( ~ .20)(1 + 0.36) With + ay : W 0.05)( tan 30 .!amic Earth Pressure 225 From Eq.00with With + ay cos2 (30.6225 x (1+ 0.05 ay  = 5.440 with + ay and = 6.34) 1 W 2 = "2y H KACl = .05 I ah \jI = tan l:tay 0.6225 x 0. 1/2 2 ~in(30+20)Sin(30156) [ 1cos(20~15) cos(20+20+6) ] { } = 0.8311 With .i .!.5.8311 tan30  W = 0.7727 From Eq.35) Cl = Cos (a +0) Sin (a +0) tan ~b tan ~b tan 30 = Cos (20 + 20) Sin (20 + 20) tan 30 = 0.44 . 2 x 1800 x 52 x 0.\If) { 1/2 2 a cos ( u + a + \If ) 1+ [ cos (ai) cos(o+a+\jI) ] } Assuming ay = a2h = 021 = 0.44) { 1+ [ cos(2015)cos(20+20+544) 1/2 2 ] } = 0.44) sin(30+20)Sin(30"""155.ay: cos2 (30620)(10. 1 .
'd '" = Tan [ 10.84cos220cos"(20+20+1. 78) 1+ [ cos (2015) cos (20+ 20+ 1.1[ 50 ] = 0.0.84 1+ [ cos (2015) cos (20+ 20+ 1.01581) (tan 30tan 1.1 .01581] I ahd 1/4 5ah With (+) avd I '" = 0.05)( tan 30. (5.0.84)J  2 } = 0.1581 2 2 0.143 4 .01581] = 1.78) J 1/2 2 } = 0.672 Therefore.780 cos2 (301.78 cos2 20 cos (20+ 20 + 1.3162 = 0. for (+) ve a.03162 0 It gives = cos2(301.7727 x tan 30 !!.'n cos1.596 Therefore Ww = 1.84) x { 1 1/2 sin(30+20)sin(30151. Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations With .01581) (KA)t(. .'d Ww .6225' (1+0.40) a"d = ah [ cl ] 5 x 0.84 I 0.8420)(10.03162 = Tan [ l+ahd ] = Tan [ 1'+0.av : W = 0.684 Tan30 W . 226.596 x 9765 = 15585 kg/m (c) For displacement condition. d = 50 mm From Eq.684 With () a.20)(1 + 0.tan 6) = 1.cos 1.0.~.78) x { 1 sin (30+ 20) sin (30 151.6225 (1.03162 Assuming avd = ahd = 0.78 .78) = 1.01581) (K) A dyn . W 0.0.
wedge" = 30° .2 g = 10 "r = 5 mm.5 = 23377 kg (Earthquake condition . tl. then " .0m ~ " 1'Ranki'ne's 6.5 is used.84) = 1. Ww W = 9765 x 1.672 .28 :'Section or retaining wall" .~ackfill properties as shown in ig.5 = 17020kg/m (Earthquakecondition .)ve avd Ww  0. ..zero displacement) " Ww = 11347x 1. f 3.162 x 9765 = 11347 kg/m "' If a factor of safety of 1.m . . xample 5.~t " I ~ 0/2 "K.:am.I I .' 227 For (.4 ompute the displacement of a vertical retaining wall baving section and.162 " Hence ww = 1.0.28.4s Fig.. Tan 30 W .c EarthPressure"" .0. .6225 (10.5 = 14647 kg (Static condition) ~ = 15585 x 1. ". " I 'tt ="18 k N I in3 . .50 mm displacement) " It may be noted that the weight of wall gets re~uced significantly if the wall is designed for some splacement. n= 2 and ~ =10% ". .0 m " .50 s Average ground acceleration Number of significant cycles Yield displacement = 0. 5.01581) (tan30tan 1. 5. The characteristics of the ground motion are: Period = 0.
1 3 (Fig. Consider the backfill characteristics.55 and are given below in Table 5.61x 103 kg 1 288xO. ~ . for Zy = 5 mm.30. The mass of retaining wall is assumed to be lumped at its e. 5.23 m above the base (Fig.8 x 2" x 6. 5.5s.26 1 Weight of wall = 2" (1. m = 437. The wall is divided into foul equal number of segments with 11ftequal to 0.g. = 44.0 + 3.6 kN .~.0..6 KN 3 ( x 6.4.2 g Slip per cycle = 24 mm Total slip = 24 x 10 = 240 mm Example 5.. A = 0.18d) = 12960 kN/m = 1290 x 103 N/m T=21t~ n VK. 5." ~~if'. 5. 5. Y= 18 kN/m2.6xI8xx62 K = 2 1 0.368 s.005 .0 x 18 = 149. n = 2. 5.t?~f~ .61 x 10 V 3 T = 2 1t n 12960 x 103 = 0.75 m and the backfill soil is idealized by using springs as shown in Fig.6 . .228 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations Solution: (i) Refer Fig.30). 44.0. 5. T = 0.0 x 24 = 288 kN Weight of soil vibrating along with wall 30 1 .5 Determine the displacement of a model wall shown in Fig.6xl0 9. which is at a distance of 1.3 s Solution: 1.0 Tan 45T ) Total weight = 288 + 149. = 0.0) x 6. 2. The ratio of stiffnesses in passive and active states is taken as 2. the spring constants in active and passive cases determined using Eqs.6 = 437..' .368 s (ii) From Fig.25 g Time period: = 0.22 (a).29 retaining medium dense sand ($ = 36°.81 Let the coefficient of base friction = 0. TII= 0. and T)h= 520 kN/m\ The wall is subjected to following dynamic conditions: Yield displacement: = 6mm Ground acceleration: =.
'::.'...1.'..:~'.:~\r{<. 3.m.' .'.'il. c I b = 1.nic....'~'..I .'..o~'.~.J.:'.:'...~..'.'.{:.'.'.~':. I I I = 18 kN 1m3 7th: 520 I<N/m3 M~dium dense sand ."'.'.3m~ : .~:"..:!tP1(F't. I .X .(...i~ !t=~"/i.~'. f4 1.~ ....'i~'~.'0 0 ..'iH~'..~ "ii14:Wf'....'.30 : Mathematical model adopted for solution .Ji.." .. I I I I 0 .':~'r.'::'1'r'.. I I I I I I re ."~t.'>c'.:.~"". 5..'c::?0t~~.'t:~'.'. A. ...:.::~'~Yf~'~t*~11~{!'. :i°..'":': ::~.?ll."i"""'~i.0 m i c v Fig.''.. 5.0 m M ~ a = a 0 sin wt io .'.~'rt'. Earth Pressure 229 y I I ..'~.~:.+. ~".29 : Section of retaining wall H = 3.:'. I .'!.:''.~.0m '" I 0 '( = 36 0 Retaining I I .'::.:':.~".:.\q~i01..~~:r~i..':t'.~.'!.. ¢ ..0 m Fig.".<'"':'.:i'.
J = Mr2 = 3.3 L kj = 2340.7 12 36 X3+.27 .0 = 0.0 3 1.58. 3xO.3 .0555 = 1..1 L k.g. from BC = 1+0. from CD = 0.g.3 + 1. 3 m .675 + 0. +xO.285833 + 0.~ 4.I 77.Spring constant active case.23 f .0 877.0(0. to c.~ . ' ..321155 + 0.!. 5.00675 + 0.95 m2 r = ~ 1.3x 3. " 230 Soil Dynamics &' Machine Founilations Table 5.525 + 0.3560.4277002 m4 A = 1+2°.5 585.15+0.0(1.8556 m '" M = (°:3.. x 103'k~ .35 x 103 kgm2 .+0. Spring constant .7X3X 2 0.0 1755.3x3.".. l.0330194 = 0.0.5x3xO.51.3 x 3 12' 3 .8 292.3X3.01065451 m4 Ixy = 1.g"hj (m) KJ K2 K3 K4 Ks 1.6 585.7x3x(1.0 1072.°) x 3.~~~7 = 0.356 0.231) 2 I = 0.15)2+0.r.3xO..0381924 + 0.48 1.~ = 0.23)+ .0 x'3 = 1.77 1.4 : Values of Spring Constants Spring Spring location w. 2 x 3.7 0.2 3. f .6 2 DIstance of e. kj (KN/m) passive case.29) . 2 x 0.1065451 = 1.321155 m4 3 . .1 .0 1170.02 0. 1.5 536.56 Ivv .7 Distance of e.3+ 1. .0 = 1. 3 2 I YJ = 0.7 0.'.6 x 23.XO.7 x 3 36 3 ( 0.3 x3+0.~~~03.6 = 4680.06561 + 0.5°. 'kj (KN/m) 48. Equation of Motion The quantities required in the analysis are calculated as shown below (Fig.056 ( 3 ) = 0.3+3 ) 2 = 0.3 = 1.13.
94 = . The two main parameters of lY ground motion are the amplitude of acceleration and the number of zero crossings in unit time. I.'<' I11III .j'. Tnl = 0. 2 (235.ro2 ) = 2.:'. .25 s Tn2 = 0.903..76 = . we get The natural time periods are therefore.94')j. ro= 0.45 .: () b 2 Puttmg the values of a = 510.14..:'::.2. A ~ry simple and convenient form of ground motion including the above two parameters.3 s . band c in the active and passive cases can be detennined as below: Active case Passive case I.46 rand/s ) +..94 rad/s oon2 = 18. b = 115... h. b =2.2 (c .02 b = I I = 117."'r:i.'.393 = 451.1021.0 x 451..".51 and c = 451..7448 x 103 m 0. sinusoidal ground motions are utilised in the present study.76.2. Given ao = 0.76 J 3. is a sinusoidal otion.. eed and ldriss (1967) contended that any given accelerogram can be considered equivalent to some efinite number of cycles of loading of equal magnitude.25 g = 2.02)' = 1..8556 (903...3 = 20.51 M c = .5220.51 =235..i'.. Moreover.'C":':.20.iL.0 x 117.k. Because of the above advantages..".94 rad/s a = 2.'j. . Such idealization have the advantage that after tudying the effect of two parameters.k. active case) are given by : ' 2 1 ca 2 oonl. I h~ I = 1513.2 =2(a+C)I~ ( 2 00/11= 24. k.88 a = L = 51094 M ..e.. lmic Earth Pressure 231 The values of a.(1021.94 t) Predictioll of Displacements ill Elastic System The displacements in passive case (t = 0 to tpl2) can be cal~ulated as shown below: x = X Sin Wt e = ~ Sin Wt where X = (aro2) ao 2 b . the effect of a probable earthquake motion at any site.45 mIs2 21t T p = 0.[!'.0 x 510.88 .52 c = I. while proposing a method for analysing the liquefaction potential of sand deposits.942) .45 Sin (20.34 s Earthquake motions are erratic and no two accelerograms are similar.. a = . can be nalysed..35 The natural frequencies of the wall by considering the tension side (i.
0375 0.76.'../"."".:..1.J.""~'.':'.94') .2.' """.94 t) The computed values of displacements from time 0 to 0.74 .:".)':'.: e = 2.1. :.1125 0.20.. to tp) can be calculated as shown below x = X Sin rot  e= where ~ Sin rot ao / x= (am2)\ b2 .H' """"'i'..'.1.c .'...94 .0750 0.{k.'< ':":""":.75 .51 ...9420. r (a ro).94 ¬÷ \i .~. we have ao ..\...15 Translational displacement x (mm) 0 .85562 (451.52 Total disp..45 2 óî ãóîòïçé¨´ð ra ¼ .0.4.:.817 x \03 m ~= = Hence.n'"':{!\.942) °ig~561 x =1.25' 0.75 2.745 x to3 Sin (20.1740 x 104 .~.0..5 Table 5.5 : Values of Displacement in Passive State (ElasticCondition) Time t(s} 0 0.:~'.45 = (510. 117..'. (~10. of wall at top due to rotation xe (mm) 0 .94 » ¬÷ îòìë óì î ãóìòïéìï ¨ ïð ®¿¼ øóïðîïòèèóîðòçìî÷ ¨ øóçðíòëîóîðòçìî÷ðòèëëêòóøóîíëòðî÷ óîíëòðî ã ó ìòïéì ¨ ïðóì Sin (20.J.52 .( 451.' '. we have x = .2 cm2 2.74 .\i.942) 2 ~1..0.817 x Sin (20.94 t) 117. """ .2. '""~'..7620.15 s are given in Table 5.. '" '.C..::.23 0 0 Rotation IJisp.1..:. e (rad) .."".1.9510 x 104 f) 0 0 Ì¸» displacement in active case (t = t.20. ..:.23 ."..197 x Sin (20.(cro) b b 2.942).".'.'A" i 232 Soil Dynamics & Machille Foundations Î ó ¬óù ó ù ¿± ø¿ó³ ÷¨ø½ó³ ÷óó¾ ¾ î î î ® ã Hence. at top xro/mm) 0 .48 .9510 x 104 ..
III 30 0 20 10 ~=Ji.0 . 5. after any number of cycles.29 0 Rotation 'namic Earth Pressure Time t(s) 0.1875 1 0.31 which indi:ates that the slip (permanent displacement) after one cycle of ground motion is zero.2250 1 0.3000 Fig.02197 0 Disp. at top xla/mm) 0 28..  5 0 0.!!'. c: ti 0 E to> u 0 a.1500 Time.76 40.1125 1 0.76 0 The dynamic response of the retaining wall under elastic system is shown in Fig. the residual displacement would be zero.1875 0. 5.6: Value of Displacement in ActiveCondition (ElasticState) Translational displacement x (mm) 0 1..2625 1 0.71 28.3 e (rad) 0 0. Table 5.15 0." 0 ~ 40 . It can be concluded :hat in elastic system.0375 0.28 1.89 mm 27.2250 0. 70 ~ 60 50 E E .233 The values of displacements in active state considering elastic condition are given in Table 5..!!'.48 mm 0 Total disp. s 1 0.48 mm 38.01552 0. of wall at top due to rotation xB (mm) 0 27..82 1...31 : Dynamic response of retaining wall . ..2625 0.6.02197 0..0750 0..
In passive case.94x 0. In' active case.1631= 0.4429 rad/sec Cl = 0.7: Values of Displacements in Active Condition (PlasticState) Time t(s) Translational displacement x (mm) Rotatiol! Disp.94 117.817 x 103 sin (20.9388 x 103 x 0. = 0.0.8676 [.4429 x 0.3663(117.. te.94 t) .45 cos (20.302 t2 + 0. yield displacement (Yd)is so large that plastic conditions do not arise and elastic system is considered.0.51 x 5.0.04 29.72 " 74. Table 5.32 50.8676 = .9116 x 104) 0. 65.0173 a = .9116 = 5.94 x 4.9116 x 104 0.1875 0.8556 3 ] = 5.94 x 4.9116 x 104 451.1489' .0.76 x 5.0.1.2.94 le) = 4.2625 0.) f .9388x 103510.8624 x 10 0.31). a line has been drawn cof!"esponding to Yd = 6mm (Fig.1531 0.1631 sec ' xe = .1489 t .16312+245 sin (20. 20.0.9388x 103 510.129 x 103 .396 103 37.1631 2 . to identify the time 'le' afterwl}ich plastic conditions. 5.234  Soil Dynamics & Machitie Foundtitions  Check for Plastic Conditions When the displacement ()fwall (Xtop)is greater than yield displacement (Yd)' the system would be plastic. at top x/(JP (mm) e (rad) 5.2250 0.1631+(117. .01 63.2234 [2 .94 x 0.0173 C3 = 0.512 x 4.=0.97026 x 103 16.5.50 51.5.33 .94 le) ae = .44 .6.4247) x 0.0015 x 103 8.18 0.10 .1009 Hence the governing equations for displacement become.28 67.1631 x 2. Based on the analysis. m ay xe " ae = 5. of wall at top due to rotation Xo (mm) Total disp.1631) = .9388 x 10 + (0.77 10.45 cos (20.587 x 103sin(20. 41. Z\.1631) ?' 20.1631 = .2963 0.4429C4 [ 0. x104 .94 C2 = 4. x = 0. =x e =4.94 20.3663 m/s ae = 0.94 x 2 0.26 " 11.9388 x 104 m.1009 From time 0.exist.2963. ' x 103 rad.3663 x 0.1.197 x 102 sin (20.9388x 1O3rad.47 1.1631+ 2.57 28.69 .1631) 0.9116 x 104) x 0. the computations of displacement are given in the following Table.51 x 5.. It gives. Therefore the equations of plastic system should be used.O.9116 .t .1631 s to 0.2.
23 42. 74. The 'final translational displacement and r~tation of the retaining wall are therefore known.6.09603 = AI 20.2963 s to t = 03 s.3 s the equations of displacements will be : xe = .2963 to 0.6459 A4 0.2975 0.1139A3  + 1. A4 = 0.slational displacement x (mm) .6.002710 sinro t + 0. we get .385 A4 = .01448 cos ro t ee = 0.'" Therefore for range of tp from 0.445 A4 . .3109 74.062 x 103 74..6459 A2 + 20.5979 A2 + 29.2963 0.0.39670 .0.34 67.267 AI + 1. The total displacement after n cycles is e'qual'to n times the slip.0786 AI .0.10 .mm and it can be called as slip.31.00187 sin ro t + 0.003'65 sin rot + 0.33 67. Values of displacements in ~lastic condition from time .7. sin ro t + 1.0144~ . at top XI (mm) op 67..' e (rad) 41.the. of wall at top due to rotation xe (mm) 74.0. l t.0.02171 A3 = .0.8 Table 5.0.3 TraJ.299 0.9679 A2 .0.0.0418624 = .0.29 67.02099 cos ro t .075 A3 + 1.916 Total disp. cos ro t + J sin ro t + 1.98 Rotation Disp. the disphi~ement ~sequal to 67.875 AI + 1.00187 .133143 = 20.2963 s to 0.0.21 . 8624 x 103 41. cos ro t e = AI m m m m Putting boundary conditions. xe sinrot+A2 cosrot+A3 sinrot+A4 cosrot A A A A e = 1.From t =e.02107 cos ro t . Hence it is fo~rid that after 'one cycle.191 .094 A3 + 2.0763 AI . x 103 103 41. Therefore Constants AI' A2' BI and B2 ::orrespond to the mode when system is vibrating with wnl' and A3.3 s are given in Table 5..0.00376 A2 = .0786 A3 + 0. 5. Pressure 235 . A4' B3 and B4 for the second mode.00376 sin ro t .displacements 'are computed using the expressions obtained by olving the equations of motion under elastic condition taking boundary conditions satisfying the previmsly computed values t = 0. The complete solution can be expressed as : Xe = A I sm rot + A 2 cos rot + A 3 sm rot + A 4 cos rot = BI sin ro t + B2 cos ro t + B3 sin ro t + B4 cos ro t I '11 I I.2963 s.98359 x 103 .21 .02171 cos ro t .0320 x 42.9969 A2 + 0..4498 .0.77 .298 0.0.)ynamic Eartl.0067669 0.10 74. l ee Superscripts of A and B indicate the mode of vibration. The displacement curve in palstic state is also shown in Fig.7.6. .8 : Values of Displacements in Elastic State Time t(s) 0.9969 A4 = 0.85 .33 67.
(1866). "Sliding of gravity retaining wall during earthquakes considering vertical acceleration and changing inclination of failure furface". Saran. Vol. University of Roorkee.A.239. Coulomb.N.j J 4 . New York. (1981). J. McGraw Hill Book Co.. 449464. p..M. and Prakash.D. 103147. pp. Prakash S. Nandakumaran..' . Journal. M. Zurich.. Earth. GT4. Ithaca. S."i:.. No. Jour. (1965). Richard. K. Report. New York.. "Die graphische statik". Int. Proceedings. S. Engg. "Effect of earthquakes on dams and embankments". (1970). Paper No..i. ~ . M. No. 7. No. Louis U.. press..... Thesis. "' 236 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations ÎÛÚÛÎÛÒÝÛÍ Biggs. K. 3.:.. Japanese Society of Civil Engineers. 12. " :. (1981). S. disversavants. Puri. 1. Vol. Lai. V. 9. of Geot. Jour. pp. Reddy. of Indian Soc. ASCE. Proc.' . vol 7. (1966).8t. Louis.. . < . Roorkee. 3rd Symposium 011Earthquake Engineering. D. Universityof Roorkee. and Elms.. Conf. "Static and dynamic earth pressures behind retaining walls. (1776). July pp. H.S. "Design of earth retaining structures tor dynamic loads". 3. U. Earthquake Engg. Seed. (1979).. No. K. Geotech. USA. "Earthquake proof construction of masonry dam". and Whitman. roy. DiYn.. Thesis. 275.":. (1968).. Saran. vol. 2. S. C.rtif~. Ohde. and Found. B. New Zealand.'. ASCE Speciality conference on Lateral Stresses in Ground and Design of Earth Retaining Structures. 109. St. University of Canterbury. IS 1893 : I. Engg.A.~. pp. (1979). Zarrabi. Paris. Nadim. Engg. acad. World Engineering Congress. "Earthquake resistant design of retaining walls". (1929). 91926).. Int. (1979). University of Roorkee. "Essai sur une application des regles des maximis et minimis a quelque problems de statique relalifs a I'architecture".'r:. "Introduction to structural dynamics". U. "Prediction ofdisplacements of retaining walls under dynamic conditiOns". MIT.. Conf. . V. Vol. Tokyo. 295310. k. M. Roorkee. Vol. Journ. F. Mem.. Indian National Society of Soil Mech. V. Vol. "Dimensionless parameters for static and dynamic earth pressures behind retaining walls". (1973). pp. Culmann. Ph. Divn. Mononobe. Tech. and Viladkar. P. S. A. N.ASCE.'. St.. G.~'d~~. 105. 129160. Symposium in Earthquake Engineering..... N. (1983). "Behaviour of retaining walls under seismic loading". Geotechnique. "Behaviour of retaining walls under dynamic loads". and Soil Dynamics. 277288. "Seismically induced movement of retaining walls".S. (1985). C. P. M. Vol. "Rocking displacements of retainingwalls during earthquakes". on RecentAdvances in Geotech. Japan. 915931. Bull. Newmark. pp. "General theory of earth pressures". S. Vol. 3. R. (1962).. Prakash.:. S.S. E. vol. on Recent Advances in Geotcchanical Earthquilke Engineering and Soil Dynamics. and Khandoker J. R. k. I. No. (1963). Roorkee.. and Saran. R./:{. S. "Analysis of rigid retaining walls during earthquakes". 15. 22." Proc. Prakash.. "Seismic behaviour of gravity retaining walls". and Whitman R.
al. = 0.. would you recommend its inclination towards or away from the fill. 5.10 .~~. DD .:. .[.Okabe's approach." Dynamic Eartlt Pressure 237 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 5.0 m from the base of wall.:. 5.: . and Culmann's graphical construction. 5. .7 The backfill of retaining wall (Problem 5.8 Compute the displacement of the wall (problem SA) f~r the following condition: Period of wall = 0. Estimate the increase in static and dyn~mic earth pressures.':'.The wall is located in a seismic area where the design seismic coefficients are ah = 0.0 will not exceed 15.25 s = 5.3 Explain the salient features of the following: (a) RichardElms model (b) NadimWhitman model (c) ReddySaranviladkar model for getting displacement of rigid retaining wall.t!fi . 5.05 Compute the static and dynamic earth pressure on the wall using both modified Coulomb's approach.2 How is the effect of partly submerged backfill considered in computing dynamic earth pressure? .The backfill is inclined to the horizontal by 15°. and (b) Modified Culmann's graphical construction for getting dynamic active earth pressure.4) is carrying a surcharge of 50 kN/rn2.. 5.4 A vertical retaining wall is 8m high and retains noncohesive backfill with y = 18 kN/m3. i~'w'~~f~il!¥~~ j' .i.~ >. Estimate the total pressure on wall both in static and dynamic cases. 5.0 mm Period of ground motion = 0040 s Zy Equivalent number of cycles in an earthquake o~ magnitude 7... . .:\r£.6 The backfill of retaining wall (Problem 5.4) is submerged upto 4.~.~:~~~ <:v~?'. Justify your answer fully.. 4> = 30° 8 = 20° .:J~1~.1 Explain with neat sketches the following: (a) Mononobe.. 5.5 If the retaining wall (Problem 504)is to incline at lO° with the vertical.~\.
(ii) punching shear failure and (iii) local shear failure (Caquot. 6. 1943. Terzaghi. It is usually denoted by quoThis load may be obtained by carrying out a load test on the footing which will give a curve between average load per unit area and settlement of the footing. Abrupt failure is indicated by the pressuresettlement curve (Fig. dense sand and stiff clays). the procedure of detennining bearing capacity. DeBeer and Vesic.4. The maximum load per unit area that can be imposed on a footing without causing rupture of soil is its bearing capacity (some times termed critical or ultimate bearing capacity). 6. It is preceded by brief description on fundamental concepts involved in bearing capacity analysis. pseudostatic analysis is first presented and it is followed by dynamic analysis.3 BEARING CAPACITY OF FOOTINGS 6. s. Based on pressuresettlement characteristics of a footing and pattern of shearing zones. .t DYNAMIC BEARING CAPACITY OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS . In Secs. 6.inclined loads ha\'e been prL'scnted. These forces in combination of static forces make the foundation inclined load.3. equivalent seismic forces evaluated. values of horizontal and vertical seismic coefficients. three modes of shear failure have been identified as (i) general shear failure. failure is sudden and catastrophic and bulging of adjacent ground occurs. Usually in this type. In this chapter.1. 1958. 1934.:ttlement. Design of foundations of different types of machines have been given in detail in chapters 8 to 10. tilt and horizontal displacement of shallow foundations subjected to eccentric . bomb blasts and operations of machines. Horizontal dynamic loads on foundations are mostly due to earthquakes.g.2 PSEUDOSTATIC ANALYSIS Pseudostatic analysis Adopting appropriate can be conveniently subjected to eccentric is more commonly used for designing foundations subjected to earthquake forces. 1973).1a).1 GENERAL Foundations may be subjected to dynamic loads due to earthquakes. Vesic.3 and 6. 6. Basically there are two types of approaches namely (i) pseudostatic analysis and (ii) dynamic analysis for getting the solution. This type of failure occurs in soils having brittle type stressstrain behaviour (e. well defined slip lines extend from the edge of the footing to the adjacent ground. In general shear failure. Modes of Shear Failure. The dynamic loads due to nuclear blasts are mainly vertical. 6.
::":'~...:"Y""::'" "J:'.r.. Well defined slip lines immediately below the footing extend only a short distance into the soil mass. 6. 6..1 b).r. .. There is a critical value of (D/B) ratio below which only punching shear failure occurs..I lI'I I .d. In Fig.>...'" "'" "". "".t~A"... 6.'.~"f"':"".. ." '<::. The pressuresettlement curve does not indicate the bearing capacity clearly (Fig..."d:"~'tX.2. ..g."". This type of failure occurs in soils having plastic stressstram characteristics (e.~'f.':""'0."~'. +C .~~.""..". 1973).1 c).. +  Load c <::..I (a) (b) . / <::. ':"':'<"". (b) Punching shear and (c) Local shear The local shear failure is an intermediate failure mode and has some of the characteristics of both the general shear and punching shear failure modes.I .... 6.' Load (c)  ".I If) E  Fig.1 : Typical modes of failure (a) General shear...:':}..' ". ..'[:". The pressuresettlement curve indicates a continuous increase in settlement with increasing load (Fig.I ++<::.  Dynamic Bearillg Capacity of Shallow Foulldatiolls 239 In punching shear failure.:".'"~~:"~:" w.~......" <::. types of' failure modes that can be expected for a footing in ~ particular type of sand is illustrated (Vesic. This figure indicates that the type of failure depends on the relative density and depthwidth ratio (D/B) of the footing.I +<::.I +<::. there is vertical shear around the footing perimeter and compression of soil immediately under the footing. loose sand and soft clay).1'." .. with soil on the sides of the footing remaining practically uninvolved.'. + E <::.: I .0..~.I Load c <::. E " ..I..
(6. a. 1943. It is defined as the maximum net intensity of loading at the base of the foundation that the soil can support before failing in shear.. In the design of foundation usually net bearing capacity is computed' and used. 240 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations 0 0 Relative density.1 : Identification of Type of Failure Type of failure 1. .2. q u = Ultimate bearing capacity .S.S y . 1951) is extended to consider variations from the basic assumptions by applying modification factors that account for the effect of each variation (Hansen.75 6.d'i.r' w f q q q q q w 2 ..6 Or 0."qnu'Therefore qnu=quYIDf where.b c c c eel + y .. 0.55' 0. 6.. 1970).(6.0 elcc . It is denoted by..0 !'t: Pun ching shear fai lu re zone 10 Fig.d y .3.i y . 5 '"0 > .b y . General shear failure Local shear failure or punching shear failure Relative density Dr (%) 70 S 20 (Deg) 36° S 29° Void ratio e S 0. .2 : Region for three different modes of failure The criteria given in Table 6.2 04 0...1) The equation of net bearing capacity developed for strip footing considering general shear failure (Terzaghi.D . It may be written as : q nu =cN.2) 1" .J::. (N 1 ) óÍò¼ù·ò¾ò® +'Y 2 'B.8 Gen eral sh ear failur( zont 1. 2.N y . Generalized Bearing Capacity Equation.1 may also be followed for identification of type of failure: Table 6. Meyerhof.
2 B/L 1.66 18.2 B/L 1.39 10. iy = Inclination factors b c' bq' by = Ground inclination factors rw' r:v = Ground water table factors 6. 76 762. Table 6.41 27 I.98 14. 1943.2.14 6.2.83 20. 1967).00 0.3.3 : Shape Factors S.20 134.31 138.2 Sy 1.30 64.00 1+ 0.12 75.89 Ne 5.3 1.00 10. dy = Depth factors ie' iq.47 3.' Deg 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 1.2.94 6.40 33.4 B/L 0.3.6 .57 2.07 6. Approximate values of shape factors which are sufficiently accurate for most practical purposes are given in Table 6. Ny = Bearing capacity factors Sc' Sq.88 22.14 46.3 Sq 1.89 .65 5.8 0.3.00 Hy 0.1.40 10.No.2 1. Sy = Shape factors for square.40 48. Table 6. Bearing capacity factors.35 10.00 1+ 0.22 2.2 : Bearing cp " Capacity Factors Hq \.. Terzaghi and Peck. Nc' Nq and Ny are nondimensional factors which depend on angle of shearing resistance of soil (Terzaghi.45 1. Their values may be obtained and circular foundations from Table 6.Nq. Shape factors.88 319.Dynamic Bearing Capacity of Shallow FoundatioJIs 241 where qllu = Net ultimate bearing capacity c = Undrained cohension of soil B = Width of footing Df = Depth of foundation below ground surface Nc.88 266. rectangular dc' dq.72 30.2.03 109. . (i) (ii) (Hi) (iv) Shape of footing Continuous strip Rectangle Square Circle (B = diameter) Se 1.49 8.
Qh .If the load has double eccentricity (eL and eB) with respect to the centroid of the footing then the effective dimensions of the footing to be used in determining the bearing capacity as~ell as in computing the effective area of the footing in resisting the load shall be determined as given below: L' = L A' = Lt  2 eL eB X ..3 a) . 6.\7 '«'\~1\Z2?r" ""':""""""'..5) The use of depth factors is conditional upon the soil above foundation level being not significantly inferior in shear strength characteristics to that below this level.3....3 : EccentricallyObliquely loaded footings (a) One way eccentricity . Two way ecc?ntricity (Fig. whereby D d = 1 + 0.3.If the load has an eccentricity e.. with respect to the centroid of the foundation in only one direction. If this upper 'soil zone possess significant shearing strength. DJ B (6.8) B' = B2 B' Qv G. I " .. : .6) .2.. depth factors are applied.7) .sin <1» .2.t"'.""" . 6.4) dy = 1 . J. For this case.( 6. then the dimension of the footing in the direction of eccentricity shall be reduced by a length equal to 2e.. The modified dimension shall be used in the bearing capacity equation and in determining the effective area of the footing in resisting the load.2 does not consider the shearing resistance of the failure plane passing through the soil zone above the level of the foundation base....:'::"""':""~ .(6. ~ Fig." ". Depth factors.& Machine Foundations 6. 6.3) d = 1 + 2 tan <1>(1 .3 b) ..4 L C B 2 .. the ultimate value of bearing capacity would be increased (Meyerhof.. 6." :":'.3. The effect of eccentricity can be conveniently and conservatively considered as follows: One way eccentricity (Fig.4 Factors for eccentricinclined loads.242 Soil Dynamics.(6.W'«) .(6.. " .....'. ::. B or L t . q .(6. The bearing capacity factors given in Table 6. ~ e I I .:~.::~ . 1951).
' .' .... effective width (B') and e_ffe~tive length__(~? will be used in place of total width (B) and total length (L).a :..) 'q~cq: ~' ...11) O.:)981.14) " . ~ for B..13) (ii) If the angle of inclination is in the plane of the Baxis ....'eccOentricity' should be limited to onesixth of the foundation dimension to prevent the condition of uplift occurring under part of the foundation.cNcBL (when <I> = 0°) where Qh is the horizontal component of the load Q acting on the foundation at inclination i with vertical..'" ( ..are give. 6.  ly  [ 1 Qh" ' ..':640].9) m ..(6.and depth factors for eccentricallyobliquely loaded footings.. Iq Q = [ 1 h Q + BLc cot <I> ] . .:tlfernclination factors ~:..~... . '.' 2+oB 1+B L) ( L) .. . . y m'= 0" ~'.. For a design.3 : EccentricallyObliquely loaded footings (b) Two way eccentricity In computing the shape.Q + BLc cot <I> ] .(6......' .12) = 1 mQh .10) V iq .!:f Dynamic Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations 243 .(6...  ~. Inclination factors Following inclination factors may be adopted in design..axis Fig..". ..(6.' " As P~!)~.... m+l ..:::".n"by~~:..(6.[N:~~$] (when p ./..(6. Values of m are taken as given below: (i) If the angle of inclination i is in the plane of Laxis 111 =(2+~) (1+~) .' .
. '" 0 0 ..." .  u 0 ~ d 0 co 0 °0 11 0 ID Col V Z 0 ~ 0 N 11 0 M 0 N t>I V Z 0 N 0 0 ~ '0 ~ 0 0 N 0 0 0 t 0 ~ 0 N 0 0 0 ( 6~p) <t> (6~p) et> .'. .1 ..~ 244 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations . '" " 'E 7 ""': .Z Col V 0 0 M 11 0 0 N N .Z tII V 0 0 .0 '"  0 ID 0 Lt) 0 00 11 ~ 1J '" 0 ~ 0 ~ ..0 0 0 0 t 0 ~ 0 N 0 0 (6~p)q..::.0 & 0 ~ 0 ~ 0 N .." . (6~p) cp ..
.0 tIJ eT 0 0 N Z \ 11 .'.. Dynamic Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations 0 1..... '\.. Ir: '... tI 1 Z °g 0 r....o.. . <P .. 0 M 0 N 0 10 0 er '" :: '" (60p) (6<>p) cp ''"' .0 '" I ~. 0 0 0 18 "" "0 0 .... 0 \J') 00 tI 1 0 tIJ C') eT Z I '" ...t C') N 0 0 II '..::> '" 0 1 I '" .u.. <P 0 0 0 ~.. et) ~~ 0 N 0 .. o.. . 10N Z eT tIJ 0 0 ~ . "0 i 1 00 C') 0 N 1\ to. l i u 00 11 1 .......0 .. . O£ 7.... 0 0 N 0 '0 et) (6<>p) (6<>p) et> . "}:Jl 245 .
....... °0 N JI 0 .. 246 0 N Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations "...t '1f) M 0 M 1f) N 00 N øê¿°÷ et> (6ap) et> ..Z C:.:t 0 . ".....t'I M 0 M 0 (6ap)cp (6ap ) et> 0 U) ~ '" :::I ~ ..t 0 0 t I..t 0 M 0 N 0 0 b ..I 0 "N 0 .......t'I N 0 N 0 0 0 0 ... . 0 '" 0 N °0 JI C:. 0 00 _° "tJ ..0 ')0 Z M " C:. u 0 U) z 0 co .t I. 0 ..t 0 N 0 ::> .I )0 .c .> .~ 7...t .t'I M 0 M I. 'c: ~ ~ '. 0 M °0 JI ° .I )0 ".""..
the pattern of rupture surface beneath the foundation will be different from the pattern that develop beneath the level footing carrying a vertical load (Meyerhof. ic = iq = ( 1 ~ . 6.' ... Values of these bearing capacity factors are substituted in (Eq.q 1 57..(6. 1953).' .2) in place of Nc' Nq and NI for getting the bearing capacity of eccentricallyobliquely loaded footing. J)ymimii: 'Bearing 'CapJCity"of'Sh~llow Foundations .ID .(6. '" .. These factors have been obtflined by carrying out a theoretical analysis based on limit equilibrium and limit analysis approaches'.18) .q fer tP > 0°..17) Use of Eqs.19) " = 1 0. ~'Yei . ::': '( .20) ~ " _'0 " rJ .3. as shown .(6... ":. .0067 a .in Figs.. then inclination factors. bealing capacity fa~tor:.u$ed.b~... ..(6. 6. 1.0 ) .(i' 'f" '. .<' . .~ tan'" " :.15) .< . b = b = (1 . footing '. For this condition base inclination factors as given below may be used: . 6. b =' b .(6.5.2.' ..ed.7). B '.16) iy= (1 ~J For more accurate estimation of bearing capacity of a eccentricallyobliquely loaded footing." ". c q N e tantP ' . bearing capacity factors (Nyei'Nqei and Ncei) depend on <j)... qnu = cNeei . Se ..6 developed by Saran and Agarwal (1991) may .The!efore the mod~fiedbe~ring capacity equation will be as given below: ' ~. i and e/B.'[' the angle of the base inclination in degree with horiz~ilta1.7 : Inclined. for 4>= 0° 2 where a represents .(6. .6..6 to 6. ' . dq ..4 to 6.~ s ... 171. If the base of foundation is inclined from the horizontal and an applied load acts nonnal to the base (Fig.16 make more'cons~rv~tiveqestimate of~he bearing capacity.c Fi~.. 6. factors is made..r"'. (lb) . S1' dy' r'w . de + YiD! (Nqei 1) Sq . 'r w + 2"'Y2 . If use of these bearing capacity.. ~":": As evident from these figures. 6. Base inclination factors.3 If ) . " "247 2 . and reduced dimensions of B' and L' for accounting the effect of eccentricity and inclination are not us.'.t.
Water table factors. Z O...~ B) ..0. :' . ' ~ . "'" B Footi ng vwot."..0 ~ 0 Of .8 ." 0..7 ..8 j.8 ~.21):' " (For. db = B i. u c: ? 0. u '0 tI ::J 0. 1.B 0.5 position of water level at depth more than B.0 .. (c) factors 'cor position of water table ... rw = 1.8. "".8 1...:: 0.. .7 .(6. rw Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundatitnu . .3.9 0 . do = 0 i.5 Df d' (For da ~ DJ Y .6 ¼¾ñÞ 0.2.. 6.6.6 ..:.I ..: 248 6. .8 : Correction a: 0. For the position of water level 'below the base of footing."~ . .. u .6 tI Cl: c 0 0..~ 0. " 'f . ' da = 1. '~ .f .0 ". 6.5 + 0.6 do/Of (b) Fig. and for the r~ = 0.. .~). u ::J '0 0.J. db . (Fig.(6. ~ " Correction factors r w and r'w may be computed using following Eqs.rzr Of ' do t Irzvel tB I I I water ' I I (rzv<z1 db L L______J (0) I \! L ~ 1.e. 0. L. ~'. 4 0.5 0 o. where do and db represent the position of water table with respect to the base of the footing as shown: in fig.22} .0 0.9 0 .0 L.4 0.'~.e. 6.. r'll' = 1.~ L.
5 to 3. methods. the ultimate pressure is less and the settlement is greater than for the condition of general shear :'ailure..26) In Fig... . Terzaghi (1943) proposed empirical adjustments to shear strength parameters c and <{I to cover the case of local and punching shear failure. A factor of safety is used as a safeguard against (i) natural variations (ii) assumptions (hi) inaccuracies in shear strength of soil. .3. 6. 6. of Ny for .. J. A factor of safety of 2.24 ) where (Nyrn)$ = 29° value of Ny factor for <{I ::. Therefore its value will be obtained using Table 6...(6. Ho represents the horizontal displacement of the footing.34° ) .ases.~II1I~.~ ~_.' <. The assumption that the soil behaves as a rigid material s satisfied for the case of general shear but is not appropriate for punching and local shear. Local and Punching Shear Failure. then linear interpolation is done to evaluate the value of bearing capacity factors.. Therefore qnF = qnu F 6.29°..3.1.23 a) <{Im = tan 1 (~ tan ~) For example.C 3 . made in theoretical of empirical methods and (iv) excessive settlement of footings near shear failure.For design purposes.1) indicates that.23 h) If the failure lies between general shear and local shear failure. 6. .0 is generally used to cover the variation or uncertainties listed above...(6. Comparison )f the relative pressuresettlement curves (Fig. Shear strength parameters cm and <{Im should be used in the bearing capacity equation and the bearing capacity factors are obtained on'the basis of <Pm instead of :j>.  ID ~.( 6. It is denoted by qnF' ' . ~= 34° will be (N ) (NY)4> = 34°= (Nym )$ = 29° + 'Y 4>=36° (N ym ) CP=29° 36° . The net bearing capacity of the soil is divided by a safety factor to obtain the net safe bearing capacity. local shear and punching shear failures can be identified 1Sper the criterion given in Table 6.2 for <1>m = tan 1 [(2/3) tan 29°] = 20. value " . for punching and local shear failure . Iynamic Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations 249 ). TILT AND HORIZONTAL DISPLACEMENT . If' t' is the tilt of the footing.. then Srn is given by : Srn ' = Se + (BI2 .3..:29° considering local shear" failure condition.(6. Factor of Safety.9.29° x (36° .4.. where' c III 2 = .(6...e ) sin t ' .9 in which Se and Sm represent respectively the settlement of the point under load and edge of the footing.25) An eccentricallyobliquely loaded rigid footing settles as shown in Fig. 6.4 SETTLEMENT.~"". the general shear.
.11). 6. plots of SeI So versus e .0.A" ~ 1 ... I ../ "" ( q.~ e!I e/2 1 .~..' " .(6. pressure.48 ( ~. for a pressure increment observations were taken to record Se' t and Ho' Effect of relative density of sand was also studied. ..6. I Band Sm IS o versus elB were prepared for different load inclinations (Figs.settlement and pressuretilt characteristics of eccentricallyobliquely loaded footings resting on clay and Sand beds were also obtained using nonlinear constitutive laws of soils (Saran & Agarwal..' ....29 .74 ..~... 2 ~ r ) Bo = I . In addition to these tests. . " .3( .51 + 147 (~ )+5.82 (~)' . tilt and horizontal displacement of eccentricallyobliquely loaded footing Agarwal (1986) carried out modeltests on eccentricallyobliquely loaded footings resting on sand Footings of different widths and shapes were used.:(6.e. .9: Settlement..4S( I '. " E Srnl ... 1989).56 (~ )0. 3. elB = 0 = i) and obtained corresponding to the pressure intensity giving the same factor of safely at which Se and Sill values are taken.. .. So represents the settlement of the footing subjected to central vertical load (i. (e/2~) I i ' ' I ~ l_. I. ) ".38 . " " .250 Soil Dynamics &.I I Se 5.10 & 6. Final position' . ~..\.(6... (~ )lZ."'IQd(Zi.0.0 l:HD~ ' " . ~ 4.l.. From the model test data and results of analysis based on constitutive laws.Fig.(6.28 where.. factor of safety. ' . size and shape of footing The average relationships can be represented by the following expressions: ~e 0 =  Ao + AI (~)+A2(~r .".31 " . In each test..(63 A.67( ~)' A.~) ~ E ~~el1. Machine {1: Foundations ~ . These plots were found independent to the type of soil...27 ~:=Bo + BI (~) ..(6.
2 '.. 0.3 = 15° Fig.2 e/B : Sm/SO versus elB for i15° 'Co):. 0.11 ..8 Srn  So 0.2 .10 : 8/80 versus e/B for j 1.94 W.L63( ~)' i ::150 .33) 0.8 0.{.1 ù´×Þ 0. " < :. ."""'" ilntlmic Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations 251 B\ ~ ~ 1.(6.6. 0.1 0.2 0 ~ 0 0...i_h. ..6 Se So .~Fig. 04 0. ..4 0 0 .. 6.3 . 0 I = 15 0. '. ..8~ + 0.
Cunny and Sloan. 1961. 6. The effect of eIB was found small and the displacement value decreased little with the increase in eccentricity: This effect is neglected considering the results slightly on the safe side.34) The above correlation is also found independent to the type of soil.. Fisher. I 0. Triandafilidis. Johnson and Ireland. and by Chummar (1965) for transient horizontal load have been presented. Mckee and shenkman.L  w WCO5~ Fig.12 : Illustrations of mode of failure. 1965.682(~) +1. and consolidation test data in clays in conventional manner.20SB/rr I . 1965). In this section the sailent features of th~ analysis developed by Triandafilidis (1965) and Wallace (!961) for transient vertical load.121 (~)0.7 . Chummar..01(~) B . 1961. factor of safety.43 8 rupture surfacll ZPrandtl's ~ r. and dynamic equilibrium of moving soil mass . ~ 8 qu ~ : (enter I of rotation T (Fczllllnius) . .(6. size and shape of the footing.252 SoU Dynamics & Machine Foundations Values of So can be obtained using the data of plate load test or standard penetration test in cohesionless soils. B \ ~ r C Ilntllr of rotation (Fllllllnius) q u I'. r =2.5 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS . Ho i i 2 i 3 i 4 =0. 1962. 1962: White. 1963. . 6. 1964. Similarly a unique correlation was obtained between Ho / B and i/~. The dynamic bearing capacity problem attracted attention of the investigators in 1960 when the performance of foundations under transient loads became of concern to the engineering profession (Wallace.. All analytical approaches are based on the assumption that soil rupture under transient loads occurs along a static rupture surface.99(~) +2.
6.43 B above the ground surface... 14) (iv) The influence of strain rate on the shear strength is neglected.."" ')ynamic Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations 253 5. 6.35) = Over load factor = qo .ted to vertical transient load. The restoring forces consist of shearing resistance along the rupture surface. TriandafiIidis's Solution. The rupture surface is shown in Fig.12 with centre of rotation at point 0 loc~ted at a height of 0. C:II . The analysis is based on the following assumptions: (i) The failure surface of soil is cylinderical for evaluation of bearing capacity under static condition (Fig.5. (iii) The forcing function is assumed to be an exponentially dec~ying pulse (Fig. the inertia of the soil :rp~sspa~icipating in motion and the resistance caused by the ~isplacement . Triand~rllidis (1965) has presented a solution for dynamic response of continuous surface footing supporting by saturated cohesive soil (I\> = 0 condition) and subjec. U\ v . . 6.(6. t/) E 0 0 c > '. 6. .. (ii) The saturated cohesive soil (I\>= 0) behaves as a rtid plastic material (Fig. qu ". The only disturbing and restoring force is an externally applied dynamic pulse. 6. strain Fig.14: Transient vertical load Let the transient stress pulse be expressed in the form = q e~ I = A.".. . . q e~ I qdoli where. (v) The dead weight of the foundation is neglected.13 : Assumed stressstrain relationship Analysis rima Fig. 6.13).1. The equation of motion is written by equating the moment of the disturbing and restoring forces taken about the point O.12) . . "0 er CJ\ CJ\ I. qd = Stress at time t ~ = Decaying function q u = Static bearing capacity of continuous footing qo = Instantaneous peak intensity of the stress pulse A... U\ U\ C:II ~ .
42 a) . The resisting moment Mri due to the rigid body motion of the failed soil mass is Mri where.111&1::..(6.68g [.205 B 1t By equating the moments of driving forces to those of the restoring forces. 3g O.. Mrw = W r sin e Mrw =Wre . Mdp = "2qd B ..41) The displaced position of the soil mass generates a restoring moment Mrw ' which may be expressed as For small rotations....(6. B= Width of footing The static bearing capacity of a continuous footing along the failure surface (Fellenius.42 b) .36..(6. Cu = Undrained shear strength Resisting moment Mrs due to shear strength is Mrs .g e .36) where.36 g W = Weight of the cylinderical soil mass = 0.(6.31 Y1tB2 Y = Unit weight of soil WB2 .Polarmass moment of inertia .(6. Soil Dynamics ~ Machine Foundations of c~ntre of gravity of soil mass.. Therefore..54 Cu where. we get .. The natural frequency and the time period of the system are given by co. ..45) is a second order.43) r = 2. nonhomogeneous.(6.39) ..38) . Mdp = Mrs + Mri + Mrw Sub'5tituting for moments and rearranging.44) q ""e .(6. = Joe Jo = .1] . 254 r..46) T ~ : .47) .WB2 1. linear differential equation with constant coefficients....(6.. Driving moment MdP due to applied dynamic pulse is I 2 .~ 2~ ~ ~ .. ~t. .. where. qu B2 . 1948) is qu = 5.37 b) An applied pulse imparts an acceleration to the soil mass.(6.. the following equation of motion is obtained.. ~ e +e= 1tB ...(6.(6..37 a) = ...(6.(6..45) [ W ] u Equation (6.(6.40) = 1.... ~. Mri .
. /<' .."" OQ1...45) gives the following relation W (8) == 'T2 41t2+~2T2 0.50). (6.0 .T J3t ~ 21t 0 .. .Fpundatiolls ~.0 F' " 5.." .(6. ...15.oT 0 . DynU'tJic Bear./ / .rload Fig.T ..' /" .15 : Relationship between overload ratio and dynamic load factor for continuous footings 0./". / " /".. with). " 1. ).' 5 I ...) "0'. '0 0 0 / 3 10 I..48) The ab<?vere1ation can be used to trace the history of m~tion of the foundation... 4. [ ]. ' " " f.i .~2T2 SIn 41t2 ] .0 ~. +0 B 0.5 and 3.1. I . 3.e T . ~ . = 15 and 10 ~= 050 s1 N V\ ~ 10 .16 a~~ 6.68 of time t in Eq.0 >.0m. 50.0 " = O..(6. / I0 +0 u 10 2 .. ~" 0 .u 10.. 5..f g 2.49)is equated to zero.i7 give the values of K (s2) for B = 0. By using small increments t = le can 'then (W/0.41t2 } cos ( )+sm (T 21t' 21tt ~). .. Since 2 1tT/ (41t2 + ~2 T2) :t=0 '\ [ /\. [ ] T 21tt ~1tT +cos T .'" . / ...0 ratio»" _. 6. Eq..68gqu ~(e) ~ 21tT 4~2+~2r AI [{ + ~ATcos ~2T2 Sin .49) side of For obtaining the critical time t = te which corresponds Eq. respectively. 2~t\ T J +). (6. (6.Gm .'' ''.48) the value of le can be obtained.6 m wide ... 1..f 0..' / "u 6 10 10 7' . .0 .. f ... .48) can be differentiated with respect to time./ '/ /'  / I /' /" /' "/"'" . (6.::::.. Figures 6...1 .....~)'T eJ3t { T } 21t { T } 21t 41t2. Thus 0..50) .. ~ 1. 6.0 en 2. 21t t ~).68gqu' [{ 1).. 0 E 10 '10 4 1.. ..~2T2 óóóï 41i2 . .. ] .+ ~2T2 .} ] to 8 = 8max' the righthand 21tt 21tt .n~ C9pacity of S~lllloHJ..~'{!: 255 Solution of Eq.0 .0 Ov(Z. u 0 c . .6. For determination of the maximum angular deflection 8.0 . in to Eq. (6.(6. known values of ~.. and This value of B' to obtain ' be substituted with g qll )8max = K..>.'h .e f}t . 1 .""""'" ~~ . dynamic load factor.5 1..JI..
. . .0 0.. 2.1111 2.0 Qverlood 107 1.... '.Sm t 0. 6..:.0  .....2:..16 : Relationship between overload ratio and dynamic load factor for continuous footings 1.~~~  256 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations' 10 10 N 10 III I . '/' .. However.' '/ '/ /.'/ .::::'::===:../: /. .0 =0 CQ.2.0"'u CQ.' ".... ' ' ..00"" 5.'.0 .u.. 9 ton r: ro t ~ <' Fig..0 / 050. ..0 Fig..' /' 0 u e 0 0 2 t 10 10 1 {/ 'I / ' .../ / / .' B = 3.0 50./" . This is shown in Fig.0 m wide 6.0 0./' ."'" . ~ 105 10 7 ...0m .' /' . " 0. 10.0>0. 6.0..... 10 / f: I./ f/ ' "/ ..' "/. ~B .'' /. " ' . +~ i../ '0 10 3 /0./. Wallace (1961) presented a procedure for the estimation of the vertical displacement of continuous footing considering punching mode of failure. ~ . 6.5 m wide Fig. The analysis is based on the following assumptions: Solution."'" ' ./ .10..' " ".....  c / ~ I0 >o. " . ~~.'// ..=~ .!!!../ " S'=1.5.18 : Failure surface ./.. it is possible that a foundation may fail by vertically punching into the soil mass due to the application of vertical transient load. . 5.. 2.'..18..17 : Relationship between overload ratio and dynamic load factor for continuous footings 3..1../r 10 1../....0 .~ 10 E 0 c l."" . 6.5." "".::. 105 10 I .'." .::. N III ~ 10 I u 0 00 i 0 0 102 .0 ~_. """ /" """.::. Wallace's Analysis presented by Trianadafilidis (1965) is based on rotational mode of failure./ " .. (i) The failure surface in the soil mass is assumed to be of similar type as suggested by Terzaghi (1943) for the evaluation of static bearing capacity of strip footings. 0 0 0 10 2 I I I '" .::.5001J.O ...//. "'" ..:." " .
54)... Since the function is discontinuous at time td' two equations are necessary For 0 ..54) OB (Fig...18) <p = Angle of internal friction .19). 6.. 6. It is defined by the Eq..Dynamic Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations 257 (ii) The soil behaves as a rigid plastic material (Fig.19).. (1 . t .0 :J .. c: 0 '" c: (y CT\ . .c: c: .18. . 13) (iii) The ultimate shear strength is given by s=c+crtan<l> where.. BD is an arc of a logarithmic spiral with its centre at O. 6.....! = Distance ... 6.J '. The peak load q is expressed in pressure units.(6. q "t:! . Tim e Fig....(6.... 0 "U (1 0 . 6....(6.J (1 0 . 6...19 : Loading function Analysis The applied load is assumed to be an initialpeak triangular force which decays to zero at time td (Fig.. Peak >.(6. .51) strength = Normal stress <p= Angle of internal friction (iv) The dynamic load applied to the footing is initially peak triangular force pulse (Fig.. r where..52) . intensity.. s = Ultimate shear c = Cohesion (j .53) For t ~ td' Loading function = 0 In Fig. (6. (v) The footing is assumed to be weightless and to impart uniform load to the soil surface..... "0 = ro ea tan' . td' Loading function ~ qB (1 ~) .
0853 '0.12\3 0.3843 0.8100 1.7124 5.1922 ..4.7922 5.0 7.9698 5 ._Uu_~  _'. Obviously the correct value of K is that which yields the minimum value of the bearing capacity.6500 1.0 1.0125 1.4128 5.3126 5. Nq' NI' NR) <I> (deg) K (2) Ny (3)  Ne Nq (5) NI' (6) NR (7) NI (8) (1) 0 (4) 5. Table 6.0.6435 10. The value of K locates the centre of the spiral which is the centre of rotation.7500 0.6086 2. The values of N"{'Ne and Nq for various values of <I> .05 10 .3205 5.00 + 0..05 0.6366 5.5700 8.6419 1.1445 0.2299 2.2699 9.1945 0.5723 . Fig.3553 53.5096 5.0.IQ .6617 1..7828 2.4233 0.05 0.9958 14.8179 10.1786 0. 6.0000 0.0.and K are given in columns 3.8108 5.3154 0.2344 0.4155 2.5604 2.0786 0.6805 1.35 ..18.7116 5.4291 7.55 . 2.9750 6.0.2552 2.7258 79.0332 4.9674 5.25 0.0.0 1.05 0.O.7778 7. K being 2 (Distance OA)/H.6099 5.6255 29.::'77~  I IT' < 258  Soil Dy~ic$.3755 0.0633 0.4969 2.55) where.5887 5.0.5394 4.0.5127 0.0.1553 0.0000 0.0799 .1481 0.0339 1.00 + 0.9076 6.2280 0.0.2855 0.4547 2. and Ny = Bearing capacity factors The bearing capacity factors depend on <I> and K.0897 0.6460 5.0020 5.8985 1.0829 0.0.0.6088 3.1120 2.8163 18.0881 0.60 . 4 and 5 of Table 6.65 .9491 1.4288 2.0833 0.2330 7.(6. Nq.0.50 .6523 2.3580 7..40 .7087 1.9664 3.0000 0.5629 7.3469 11.4122 5.30 .qu for such a' failure surface is given by ¯« ã ½Ò½õ¯Ò¯õóþøÞÒ§ 2  1 .1579 0.1454 0.1007 7.8709 5.45 .9723 1. It is obtained by trial and error for each set of problem parameters.60 .6437 1.20 .6619 2.0631 0.9433 8.1655 0.0.2585 0.1011 0.15 .2580 8.(6.8636 5.2\31 1.0633 0.0.0809 0.3366 7.7277 5.56) Ne.0793 0. c = Cohesion q = "(DJ "( = Density of soil DJ = Depth of footing .4 : Bearing Capacity Factors (N'Y'Ne.9005 5.0785 0.4362 5.3483 0.1699 3. & ¥lIchine Foundations  The static bearing capacity .
4550 13.0.6419 33.4620 .5342 1.&572 """.2. 11.2175 6.5072 . 9.1383 ' .0492 " .4563 17..45 3.0779 0..0947 0..40 .1071 5.4368 "".053.2986 1.0. "'.8411 : 259 7..8253 0.1622 6.~:3243 25 '.5706 4..1076 ' 0.0673 3.2345 ' 9..0833 '.6127 0.Dynamic Bearing Capacity OfShallow Foundations .0.3381 .0696 0.5645 0.4462 :'4.7672 '.3483 16..0.6983 13.10 0.6745' 46.1101 0.8766 3.7596 5.0807 1.1783 18.0707 0.05 1.9932 6. O~OO.9941 7. '.0.0923 5. 0.4579 '4..4968 4.0.05 0.J7.1458 4.4.0.8533 .~~~l.1768 15 .0.35 .5266 16." :.0790 0.8151 27.9267 4.~.4187 8.7994 5.~~tt~:l.5264 3.0.00 + 0.2781 6..6049 2.7 .7067 23. 7.6540 1.0.0767 0. ..0360 7.5832 0.8730 2.6804 "". .8613 '12..6445 6.4552 6.8778 "35.1008 5. 0. ':.6905 4.519830.J742: 17.1629 '.1825 2.:0. .2677 4. '0.45.5806 1.1704 5.0. ' 4. '.0.8418 3.0.6324 8.4587 6.~" 0.25 4.0.0294 3.?'r"".0166 2.0901 3. "..00 +" 1.15 0.8837 3.0.20 .6658 3. .2759 20 .9684 8.5823 2.0734 '0.05 0.1194 .2038 19. 5.23469.4'5 . '" '::" .50 .1183 0..4499 '.0582 4.7167 ' 2..~p{~2.1361 5. . ~ 0.40 . .2992' ' 0.0. 5.7008 0.4722 14. 3.6903 . .' . "'.9258 6.5161 ' 5.0.3564 '4.0386 5. .05 :.9713 .1844 5.' ' '.10 .77 '1.7520 .6936 0.50 3.1282 0.6099 ' .'.0773 0.7361 .8986 13.0.0858 4. ' "'.8868 2.9388 5.9384' l:~. .".0.5473 23.25 .0.0750 1.0.8046 2. 8.\.0.0796 0.6990.0.:.9952" . "'.4724 9.7586 .0.9309 0..1717 .1228 6.0149 4.0625 3.0755 0. .1214 6.5398 . :4.8095 3.7503 . " .4638 7.0881 '0.0501 12.4903 7. .3067 5.~5..7004 10.3542 6. ' '7 :6f.8477 .1189 3.1470 5. 5.1870 .8322 3.3539 13.4463 9.55 0.1125 ' 0:0935 4.9199 7.5380 7.0..0970 i " .'~.1124 7...2238 3.7177 4.1. '"..0542 19. \r/j~89 73.'.0080 2. ' .7084 5.~486 ..9863 '9.1802 .8168 9.2298' '8.1020 0.0821 0.0707 0.0757 0.6352 9.9964 15.8273 6.7.0~77 ' 5.5360 0.3257 13..1053 0.0.20 ..0. 5.9474 0.6521 0.3881 10.55 .<lt5.2310 7.0369\"7~9289 . 0..3710 2.10 0.0823 0.?678 ..0999 3.989 .7730 13.2413.< 0.'..".9413 4.5961 6.9669 3.50 .0948 0. .8991 " 2.1848 9.'tS"t.6676 .6943 3.6194 3.35 ' 3.3068 .8232 3.:6.0.9746 5. ': "8....0.1948 .0732.5462 1..9012 20.25 . .15 ~ 4.2884 .17:~542 :~~'.4031 11..5961 5...9945 ' 6.50 .0.0.35 . 2'i.0886 ." ': .0604 5.!l.4569 3.8732 4.2008 3. .3323 3.30 .8481 7.5267 .0728 0.9048 12..' '.8645 6.5'S75 20.15' 3.6313 46.30 .0. 5.§r.20 .8825 3.1147 3.9337 12.40 :0.5588 28. '0.5542 5.5665".30 .1325 0.
2825 5.9887 60.8303 5.2095 5.0."J'\ ~  '.4470 52.3127 37.3481 0.3597 38.0494 9.6872 37.6214 6.15 .3017 23.9989 57.3139 0. 0.8760 9.2753 8.5541 8.0. 51.7584 6.1094 0.4558 22.0..1127 17.1345 25.4981 13.' ~.3718 19.0773 .4810 46.3426 27.7107 9.9511 45.00 + 0.1761 7.2639 13.7864 6.7539 57.2706 40.9462 7.4021 8.1787 0.8330 22.3676 67.10 .25 .35 .5708 14.0.2895 16.7356 48..3230 9.2044 4.2116 0.6687 4.3473 9.8993 29.1315 19.1064 0.0.1254 0.0.7911 4.0.0.5339 6."':~~!.45 .20 .8644 62.' ".0404 .0.4398 41.0397 71.05 30 .5457 0..9984 26.0.1084 13.470<: 0.20 .1527 0.7663 31.6199 6.9662 24.1533 6.05 0. 8.25 7.0.35 .0.8738 9.40 .15 ..5548 46.8199 57.7297 7.9640 57.3727 47.~: ~'i""\ . 0.3291 7.05 0.940 20.0970 19.3599 8.2223 6.6720 13.7226 24.6392 10.4237 0.0.10 50.5703 6.2323 0.0.0580 31.1887 0.1882' 0.8159 37.0.0.2309 25.4705 7.3926 58.6458 6.5175 4.05 35 .1750 26.2d'i~:!.5404 6.1506 0.8661 5.2926 134.2569 13.:~{~~r~.9079 19.7594 47.0515 18.1437 0.2745 14.15 .7315 27.7518 7.0954 0.8363 6.0.1646 0..2874 42.4837 59.2148 0.7423 8.3844 . .'1frY~/*~. 260 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations ..4979 5.4427 45.1887 21.7097 112.  115.5309 95.'.6296 72.5178 5.3114 13.0835 0.3419 5.7803 5.1052 43.2849 0.:~:' '/. .3229 . .9441 11.20 .2024 12.1446 9.05 '40 ..0.0529 62.0./~.00 + 0.8231.25 .00 + 0.c.0503 8.5884 146.9566 23.45 .3023 100. 6.0.9814 17.5029 14.9356 53.0710 9.40 .2942 45.'t.8568 61.45 .1681 25.9084 25.7056 34.8208 40.3542 12.6609 83.9017 6.0.8868 1..805 I 66.7205 12.l'.9436 4.3095 19.6067 42.8871 IQ.0748 5.2775 0.30 .05 0.35 .40 .. .4452 10.7778 37.0539 31.4308 52. 1624 37.40 .'".1267 0.3728 8.5533 25. .3123 9..3456 0.4041 0.2500 0.1018 4.2119 15.5646 11.6.5133 0.3512 24.4569 5.2944 0.".3540 .2451 20.5786 15.2180 80.5145 .7428 0.0529 .0704 9. .10 .0.5425 22.7654 12.4429 7..0.2445 0.4477 73.0899 9.30 .4998 12.1862 41.4075 6.1015 28.0081 10.6113 41.'" .3977 13.4095 19.0015 14.'.9157 12.3884 22.0.0161 .0.30 8.0.6191 0.0.0.
~. and its values are listed in column no.7361 174.9409 36.6536 " .7669 3.2605 456.58) and K.6263 81.0475 57.9732 .) .4971 393.4447 1.7125 22.5069 96.0.5559 5.'~ .6630 96.4.. 7 of .0628 3.0769 202.t man!1er.20 0.35 .1634 53.3965 40.5791 323.7837 189..6607" 5.2748 259.20 115. .2499 7.8515 .7473 424.2851 172.8083 4. qi " ._.Dynamic"Bearing .'" setup".1051 82. to z~ro..05 2.td' " "'.9868 153.57) where.6576 0. " equati~~s "".8568 5.15 '.0775 172. and the increase in moment will be proportional to the displacement provided the rotation is not excessive.0.7386 4. .5096 3.7840 190.1"""..10 .8576 104.1570 26.. .0772 203.4943 329.3565 2. depends on cl> and K. coefficeint NR also depends on .1177 492.8611 1. "'.".40 .4804 373.6724 32._~~uatingtheJour .35 .839 178.3038 4.~Y. " .7496 49.3914 4.05 0. ' Any acceleration of the soil mass ACDBA due to the downward movement of the footing will cause inerti::1 forces which will resist jmch movement. . 'vetiCalfo~ces \". ..0.30 . ~ == Displacement NI == at any time t Coefficient of dynamic inertial shear resistance The coefficient NI..0317 3..".5450 1.7709 173.9741 4.7619 25.2709 81..1345 224.Capacity of Shallow Foundations 261 119.1349 225. Its values are listed in column no. .4763 141.4062 4.9729 21.0.5195 0.15 .0124 111.2846 4.6173 30.0866 95.8450 175..1176 327.8181 81..9784 3.2199 94.3358 180.0.7358 173.4295 6.3346 142.0.0. .0168 1.0.2572 1.00 + 0.(6. 6 of Table 6. .~i~fteF >titpe id' sin~e the loading ~uncn~m is def11}edin !ha." m~st be ~ separ~te equation.. .9752 339.2323 97.1138 21. Displacement of the soil mass within the failure surface due to downward movement of the footing will increase the restoring moment about the point 0. Table 6.0. .6386 121.05 45 .." .05 0.0.0.8870 2.2843 88.6781 325.1451 164.." U.2853 173.8070 45.0778 0.2904 0.8935 85.5875 127.(6. ">.25 . The effective total inertial force is obtained by combining the inertial forces on ech separate mass using energy considerations.2752 260." J ' . The differenti~J" '.8175 1..' ) ForO " <t < .h' 'J..0:30 .6077 23.00 + 0.4107 0.10 .2961 37.s for be(qre!lP.1194 1.5504 117.1879 134. If ==NI Y B d dt " .4067 62.7472 100.0303 322.1002 123.There .3973 104.4.' " . 0" ~~"" ".3468 42.3361 181.0.7924 7. It is expressed as RF = NRB Y~ The '..8599 0.8627 354." are .8817 5.0.4650 5. The inertial forces are directly proportional to the acceleration of each individual soil mass and thereby dependent on displacements. ..6 I52 4.1701 6.~".25 .0113 38.8452 176.. 2 The inertial force is given by.7775 28.
yBt!. NR t!. The' values obtai~ed are given .. 6.siticedoWnward niotion ceases at the. A = C3 cos (K't) + C4 sin (K't) .. The maximum displacement from Eq.(6.59 b) " NI yB r+NR dt or.(6.. ( qu . 6. = . The'se data aI6ng' .60 (b) is the predicated permanent footing displacement.59 (d) are found to be t!.60 a)  and. in which K' ~ ~ ~~~ . ] ( NRytd ) !kNRy t . these coefficients were evaluat. . For t ~ td 2 d2A ¼î¬ÿò õ¢¬ÿò ¼¬î Ò×Þ ã ó¯ó¯« Ò×§Þ Ò×§Þ¬¼ ¯ ô ¬ .ó óÁò ô ùóóóùó þþôù óîêî Soil Dymimics &: MaclrineFouniJiitions ùî ò î¼¬ÿòô ¼Ö Ò×§Þ óóó®õÒÎ§Þ¬ÿòõ¯«Þó¯Þ£óó ô ó ùò ôó ¬ ø óô ¬¿ ÷ ãð ..20.60 c) (N:. C2 C3 and C4 are coefficients of integration.59 (b) and Eq.of~~rifu'fdl~pIac:ement are giv'e~ ID'Fi~''6. ...(6.ith th'etim~s'~.. Solution and substitution of the coefficients yield nondimensional Eqs..60 b) respective! y..in Table 6.(6...60 (a). 6. The coeffIcients C3 and C4 are evaluated by the conditions of displacement and velocity at td as defined by Eq.+qu B =0 " .59 c) d2t!.ed.æ÷ ÖÕù Í·ÑøÕþ¼ÝÑÍøÕùId) + [JK' {1COS(K"d)+in(K")1 .(6.) For t ~ td = LI ( qu ) [ICOS(Klt)]+ tdq~/[Sin(K1t):(K1t)] .60 (a) and Eq.. q NR "t t!.. 6.60.(6.4for every fifth degree..59 a) or. = Cl cos(K't)+C2 Sin(K't)+ ¯ó¯«  q ( NR"t.60 d) The coefficientsNY'Nc' N q.time'ofma?ci~Um displacemetit'imd rebdund is not  ~onside~ed. For 0 ~ t ~ td .(6. Y) ~ ~ \(1... NI and NR are dependent only on values of <I> and . The coefficients Cl and C2 are evaluated by the initial conditions.. 6.and ~. K. 6. The forms of the particular solutions ofEq..59 d) d t2 NIB NI YB The solution of the differential equations will yield equations of footing displacement versus time. Using magnitudes of <I> from 0° to 45° and ofK for the region where the ultimate static shear resistance could be a minimum.qu +.(6...
.. '" N 0 U\ .. U") +c to' to' U 0 I.~~ "amic Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations 263 (p\) 0 JlZ =i~ Pl UO!~OJ np pOO1 IOUO!SU2>W!PUON 00 .' 0 :0 00 ( P~ ) lLZ = >I P ~.... 0 7.... E ::I E :: '" . . er .:!! "0 ..x: 0 E 0 c 0 ."0 0' <'. E . OD ~ d d N 0 0 . . .~ ..uoHoJnp POOl )OUOISU2>WIPUON . U") 0 ci .. : :J = '" c. 0 N x C1 .0 0 Z 6  \l' N  U") 0 U") .. E :J E ..If' .. ' ~ \\ ')..."'0 C 0 .~ C to' . 0 E a.. '" C...i c ... ~ . <I E ~ ...
strain characteristics. Chummar (1965) presented a solution for dynamic response of a strip footing supported by c .3. The analysis is based on the following assumptions: .21)..61 B = Footing width and equal to the initial radious of spiral y = Unit weight of the soil Ne and Ny = Bearing capacity factors fOl:the assumed type of failure . /c Re~u1tant friction Fig. Q ~ . The failure surface is a logarithmic spiral with its centre on the base corner of the footing. AQ r C2 Log spiral r = ro eetan ~ .. (iv) The soil exhibits.. (ii) The resulting motion in the footing is of a rotatory nature. Chummar's Solution. Analysis The static bearing capacity of the footing is calculated by assuming that the footing fails whe' acted upon by a vertical static load. (i) The failure of the footing occurs with the application of ~ horizontal dynamic load acting at .. c = Cohesion c 1 BN + 2y y . (iii) The rotating soil mass is considered to be a rigid body rotating about a fixed axis. The ultimat static bearing capacity qu is given by qU =cN where. which causes rotation of the logarithmic spiral failure.. 6.4>soil and subjected to horizontal transient load. a certain height above the base of the footing. 6.h is also the centre of rotation (Fig. whic.21 : Transient horizontal load on a continuous footing resting on ground surface.(6.5. rigid plastic.)~f 264 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations 6. stress .
37t tan <I> ' + 1) ....... we get N = 4 tan 4> (eh tan~ + 1) y 9 tan2 4> +1 and. .(6. the centre of rotation: .67) With a suitable factor of safety F.22.(6.69) where Qd (max) = Maximumvalue of horizontaltransientload per unit length actingat height H above base of the footing A = Over load factor . 265 2 ' (~:' "..63 b) = Angle of in~ernal friction B2 0 Moment of qu about = qu 2 u = q  MRC + MRW . M RW tan 4>(e37t tan tjI+ 1) = 'YB3 tan 4> (e31ttan<l> + 1) = E 'YB3 9tan24>+1 .(6... 6.68) Q = ~(cNc+i'YBNy) The variation of dynamic force considered in the analysis is shown in Fig...1 tan cl> .I . MRC = 2 tan cl> (e 1) = 'I' C \jI= ( 27ttan~ 1) e 2 tan cl> .62a) d Moment where 2 .61 and 6. In tnIS Qd (max) = AQ .(6.(6. cB 27ttan~ B ue to cohesIOn c.62 b) Moment due to weight W of soil wedge.(6...(6.65) 9 tan2 4>+1 Combining Eqs.63 a) where.64) It gives....(6... c tan 4> (e 21t tan <I> . .(6.':m Clmic Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundatiolls Considering moment of the forces about 0.. E = 4> 2 9 tan 4> + 1 .(6.65....1) + 2'Y B tan 4>(e '.66) N = c e27ttan~ . the static vertical force on the foundation per unit length can ~ gIven as . 6.
.~~~ ...R cos 11 .'~..~ ~.. When ex is small..X 'Y B2 (i It tan $ where W is the weight of the failure wedg~.74) can be written as /1 X = (R sin 11)ex ... and R = QCI (Fig.( 6 . Moment of the force due to displacement Figure 6. Moment due to the vertical force Q M = I 1 Q B 2 t .. 6.22 : Loading function For considering of the dynamic equilibrium of the foundation with the horizontal transient load. Soil Dynamics & Machine FolJndations "U 0 0 . 6. (6. 6.(6.ex) ..... Eq.21).71 of the centre of gravity of th~ failure wedge (C' .1) (4 tan cp) /1 X = R cos (11. the moment of each of the forces (per unit length) about the centre of the log spiral needs to be considered: 1.. = W d... Moment due to the horizontal' force Qd at any time t Qd(max) Ht M2 where Md (max)= Qd (max)H 3. ~ 166 ..630.~ P E c >Cl 0 Pmax ~ td Timq ~ Fig.70 2."="~'. Moment due to the cohesive force acting along the failure surface is given by 'Eq.. Moment due to weight of soil mass' in the failure wedge is' given by Eq.. and given by W= .(6. 5..21) from its initial position: M) = Qd H = td Md(max) td ."'~.620 4. 6.(6.'.( 6.(6.
.(6. 'M\ + M2 = MRC+ MRW+ M3 + M4 . .87)  k .Substitution of the 'proper terms for the moments in Eq.86) (~'t~)+ K' a where ~ A [( Md.(6.(6.. QBE] ..(6. ..80) where.~"r:~!)" Oynamic Beating Capacity of Shallow Foundations 267 However..(6... Substitution of Eq.(6..85) .(6. Now for the equation of motion.79) ..(6.fj: ..(6.")} .. .83 ) 16 tan ~ . where..1) . R X = ~(x)2 + ("2)2 4 B tan 2 <1> ( e31t tan cj)+ 1) .... (6. p =(e31ttan~+1) 3 ( ~9 tan2 <1> +1 ) ...85) gives .81 ) 6. (6. pass through the ce'ntre' of log spiral.72) .78) .84) Moment due to the frictional resistance along the failure surface will be zero as its resultant will.4 g d [2 where ~c = (e41ttancj)I) ..Ilj...(6.78) Combining Eqs.62) into Eq. .81) yields d2a M = ~c 1 B4 ..77) = (9 tan2 <1>+ l)(i1t tancj) 1) z =  4Btan(e31ttan~+1) 3( ~9tan2 <1>+l)(i1ttan~l) .(6. (6.76) .. (6.(6.(6..(6.A=~ gp sin 11 ~c B .. M3 = PB 3 (sin 11)a .82) and g is the acceleration due to gravity.89) E = \jIC132+ E 1 B3 .... Moment due to inertia force of soil wedge: d2a M = Z J 4 ( d[ ) where J is the mass moment of inertia of the soil wedge about the axis of rotation J = 1 B4 [ 16gtan<1>] (i 1t tan $ .(6...88) (1 B4 ~c) ..
.2 Q B) cos (k Id) .4.90) a = ( ~ ) [G 1 k cos (k Id) .1 Proportion an isolated footing for a column of 500 mm x 500 mm size subjected to a vertical 10 of 2400 kN. The earthquake force results a moment of 4 kNm and shear load of 360 kN at the base of the footing.92 A 1 G2 = k' EQB ( 2 ) . A Md(max).0 Settlement (mm) Solution: 0.t U4~O ) = 8. G I = 2" k and. 1 degree and 25 mm respectively. ! ILL USTRA TIVE EXAMPLES I Example 6.. tilt and lateral displacement 2 240 Pressure (kN/m ) 0. 480 720 1200 1440 960 5.. A .1667 m ~ tan. e = ~ = ~OOOO = 0. The soil properties are as follows: C =6 .0 23.(6.(6.G 2 sin {k td) ] cos ( k t) + () ~ [G 1 k sin ( kId) . A A Md(max) cos(ktd)+ sm(ktd)Z' k ~ k ~ .0 2.86)] with proper boundary conditions yields the following results: For I ~ Id a =For I > Id 1 EQB k2 2 A ( ) cos(kl)' A Md(max) k3 td .5 3' Inclination of load ~ i ~ tanI ( ~:) .. The permissible values are 50 mm..91 Gz COS(kld)]Sin(kt)+(~ )(~QBE) h were.3" k Id Md(max) srn ( k Id) + A Md (max) k 2 z .t 1 srn(kt)++QBE kZ ( Id 2 ) . The structure is located in seismic region.0 (i) Safe bearing capacity Eccentricity of load. (6.0 16..93 The procedure of computations have been discuss~d in example 6.(6.5 12.0 7.(6.III'II:~ 268 Soil Dy"amics & Machine Fou"datio"s Solution of the differential equation of motion [Eq. 1 A Md (max) . ( E .0 l( 2 settlement.. kN/m z .. <I>= 39° and y = 18 kN/m 3 A plate load test was performed at the anticipated depth of foundation on a plate of size 600 r x 600 mm and a pressure settlement record as given below was obtained.
.79.85 kN m iI q =(2+~)(1+~) . and B' = B2 e = 2 .438 = 0.~67)= 5.667 (2) (6) cot 39 ] 360 = 0.438.(liq) e q = 0.2T B' Sy = IOAT Inclination and factors: = 1+0}2 .67 = 1.~n 269 Dynamic Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations Let the size of footing is 2.2426.667 m L' = L = 2 m . qnu = [e Ne Se de ie + YIDlNq .438) 70.1+ 0.79 tan 39 m+1 Ne tan <I> .~67)(1+1.13 and dy = 1 Br 1.sin 39)2 1.667 = 1.2~ 1.1) Sq dq iq rw + 1. .4~ Q = ~Q~ + Q~ = J3602 + 24002 = 2426.195 m Therefore.85 + 1.667 = 10.1.85+ 1.667 . For <1> = 39°. Ne = 70. = (2+1. [ Q Q + B' Le cot <I> ] 360 = [ 1.2 (0.667 Sq = 1+0.1667) = 1.4 I3'"" .71 Depth factors are given asfailure.667(2)( 6) cot 39 ] and 50195 = 0. 1.167 = 0.4 1. 2 Y2B NySydy iy r'J Since <1> = 39° it is the case of general shear Ny = 100.167 = 1. Nq = 59.428 i =i .(10. 2 DJ 1+2 tan <I>(Ism°<l» I3'"" = 1+ 2 tan 39 (J . Hence.62 and DJ ~ " de .374 .0 m depth below ground surface.2T 0" B' = 1+0.1+ 0. 'y  1 [ h Q + B Lc cot <I> ] " Q 6.0 m and is located at 1.0 m x 2.667 Shape factors are calculated as : Se = 1+0.195 = 1 [ 2426.24 dq = .
61)(1) = 503.53" 46.374) (1) = 263.083.167) (1. ~ = 0. = 10° q N .76 = 2259.".13) (0.167) (1.=.428) + 18 (1) (5~.53.6677) (1) (0.4 to 6.53° 70.1) (1.84) + I (18)(1.97 53.083 and i = 8.06 + 609.53° For i = 8.0 144 68 88 (Fig. 6.64 44.90 ) = 0.79) (1.1g67 = 0.43 In this case .167) (1.79) (1. 6. 2 I 8.50 40.438) (1) + (0. and also sa y Y1 = Y 2 hence.6) i = 10° 58 41 48 = 0.13) (0.4 to 6.62 and Ny = 42.82 .53 2 = 0.74 kN/m2 From charts  (According to Saran & Agarwa1.82) + 18 (1) (59.167) (1.c Hence for ~ = 0. qllll = CNe Se de ie +YI Dj (Nq 1) Sq dq iq rw+~ Y2 B Ny Sy dy iy r~ qllll= 6 (70.71)(0. Ne = 50.85 32.92 = 1249.98 + 614.88 .09 i = 0° Ny N . and i = 8.62 .( 1~ ( ) ( = I .99 + 1140.667)(100.10 42 30 37 (Fig.667)(1)(0. 2 853 2 1. Iy .1) (1.24) (0.61 ) = (139) Therefore.43 kN/m2 According to Meyerhof" le =Iq = 190 . 1991) <I> = 39° .7) (0.6) i = 8.=.' 270 Soil Dynamics & Machine Follndation~ Assuming water table to be below the ground surface at a depth greater than (Dj + B).=1 e q y B =2m .24) (0.89.45 + 376. hence = Y r '" = r' '"= 1. = 0° 75 47 58 For =0. Nq = 34.667) (100.62 .5) (18) (1. ql1l1= 6 (70.[As effect of eccentricity and inclination has considered already] .
3) (1.3.22 kN/m2 From plate load test data corresponding to pressure 1425.sin 39)2 ~ = 1.2 = 37. 6.56 kN Factor of safety = 7...2)(1. = 3..8. Dynamic Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations Depth factors will be : D de = 1+ 0. Sp = 22..2 = 0.33)(1.2 and Sy qnu Thus = 6 (50...will be = 453~~667 = 1425.S..2187 . value of qnu from charts lies between values of qnu obtained by Eq.39 + 2703.43) (0.8 (As footing is square) .2 mm 2 ...11) (1) (1) + ~ (18) (2) (42.6 = 4503. ~ .22 kN/m2.11 dy = I and shape factor will be< S e = 1. !.8) (1) (~) (I) = 823.17 and Meyerhofs method.1) (1.39 x 2 x 2 = 7573.0.2) (1..4"2 = 1.33 + 806.68 + 1606.4 £ = 1+ 0.. Bf (Bp+30) (B f + 30) ] = [ Bf Thus settlement of footing when it is subjecting to central vertical load will be 200(60+30) So Now.39 . Sf Now smce Sp .77 mm . 1 dq = 1+ 2tan 39 (1.07 + 610.62 .99 = 1893. . Hence Qnu = qnu x Area of footing Qnu = 1893.39 kN/m2 Therefore.only. Sq = 1.89) (1. in that case e / B = 0 and i = 0 For '" 't' = 390 'e N = 88'yN = 144 and Nq = 68 thus qnu =(6)(88)(1. (2) Settlement computationWhen footing is subjecting to a central vertical loa~.16.67 kN/m2 Pressure on footing corresponding to a F.2) (1) + 18 (1) (34.11)(1)(1) + ~ (18) (2) (144) (0.53.16 > 3.8) (1) (1) (1) = 476. 271 .~'~<I!! .2)(1) + 18(1)(681)(1.:t~6 = 3.. Therefore foundation is safe against shear..O. = Sf = [ 60 (20 + 30) ] 2 x 22.
56 (0.0101(2000) = 21.67(0.2187)2 = 0..21 mm"< 25 mm (safe) Example 6.7296 Srn = 0. The soil supporting the foundation is saturated clay with Cu= 60 kN/m2.48 = o 0049 2000 .67)+3.23.917 ~ 4.2187)2 = 2. = 4.67) = 0.2187)4 B = 0.838 AI ~ 3.38(~)12.843(°.516 i: sm t .1. Determine the maximum angular rotation of the footing might undergo.38 (0.82 (0.63(~)' = . ~ 1.77 = 23. ~166.94(~)+1.82(~J = 1 .67 (~)' =3.'! ~ 272 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations .917(°.2187) + 1.1.1.0.0101 Ho = 0.94 (0. .843 Se So = Ao+AI () ( e B) 2 2 Se = 0.1.28° < 1° (safe) .80+0.45 (0.7296 (37. The unit weight of soil is 19 kN/m3.47 (~ )5.2187) .2187)3.99 (0.6216 So ~ 0.0.80 + 0.77) = 27.856+(1.6216 = 0.63 (0.2187)2 = 3.856 B.48 ³³ ¢ and ÞÜ ïóðòìèÉóÑèîø¢® = 1 .56.1.67) = 0.8382.48 (0.51+ 1.2187)2 + 1.0.7 t = 0.01 (0.516)(°.82 (0.12.2187)2 = .2 A 1. .741.5 m wide strip foundation is subjected to a'vertical transient stress pulse which can be given as qd = 650 eIOt kN/m2.0.45(~)' e B +A2 .51 A2 + 1.12 (0.2187) . Hence AD ~ 10.47 1.7296 So = 0.56 mm < 50 mm (safe) = S m S B e Te and H 1l = " 27.2.I I  I .47(0.2187) .2187)2 = 0.682 (0.2187) ..6216 x 37.0.0101 B = 0.2187) + 5.56WO. ~ Bo+BI(~)= 0. = 0.
td = 0.= 1.05 .20 .~~".54 Cu= 5.0.40 .0.30 .0. ~ = 30° and c = 50 kN/m2.955 and W ~ = 10s1 ( 0.5: Computations k of qu for Different Values of k 2 qu (kN/m ) 5765 4553 3910 3533 3304 2512 2204 3070 3080 3118 3181 . qu =.311tyB =0.4) 41.81 x 332.54 x 60 = 332.955 2 2.0.68 g qll ) 8max = 0.16.05 .5.5.3 A 2.5 Ny '.5)2= 41.0.5 m wide continuous footing located at 1. The properties of the soil are y = 18 kN/mJ.= 332. .10 .158 rad = 9. Reffering Fig.3s). These are given below in Table 6.1° Example 6.61 kN Therefore.0.45 .00298) (0.68 x 9. Table 6.4. = 50 Nc + 27 Nq + 22.61 = 0.35 .5 m below the ground surface is subjected to a vertical transient load (qd (max) = 3000 kN/m2.5 Ny The computations of qu are done for 'I>= 30° and different values .0. Calculate the maximum vertical movement of the foundation. For A. qu = CNe + y DJ Nq + 2" y B Ny 1 = 50 Ne + 18 x 1. 8max = (0.311t19 x (1.4 kN/m 650 A.00298 2 W=0.00 +0.. of k by taking Nc' Nq and Ny factors from Table 6.0. 6.0.< Dynamic Bearing Capacity of ShaUow Foundations 273 Solution: 1.25 .5 Nq + 2" x 18 x 2. Solution: 1 1.4 = 1.15 .0.
c = 30 kN/m2. A = 0. Fig. Also compute .22 = 1.N = c e21t tan. <I> = 32°.566 For qd (max) = 1.034 t:. Solution: (i) Determine Q using a suitable factor of safety (= 2.4 s applied at a height of 4. qd (max) 3000 ~ 2~5 = 5.0081 x 18 = 0 08174 qu k' 2204 ~ ~~~~ x  ~~~ . Soil Dynamici & Machine' Foundations The minimum value of qu is obtained at k = 0.15 and <I> = 30°.034 max 0.416m. 6. . = 0.8303 . NR = 10. x 2.0 m from the base of footing.0).4.20 gives qu Y NR 'Umax qu Therefore.the rotation at time equal to 0.566. tan ~ 1= e21t tan 32° .0081 and .274 '.5 m wide continuous surface footing is subjected to a horizontal transient load of duration 0.4. = 5. NR Y = 10. . . . Example' 6. ~ . from Table 6.36 and td k' = 1.5 x 200)= 8290 kN . Determine the value of the maximum horizontal load that can be applied <I> on the footing.8303 3. Y = 17 kN/m: md B = 2.: .22 1.36 qu = 2204= td K' = 0.6 s. {N. = 79. 2.15 as 2204 kN/m2.4 tan 32° . c = 30 kN/m2 and = 32°.4 A 2. The properties of the soil are y = 17 kN/m3.0.3 x 5. For k = . .08174 =0.5(30 x 79.1 . V~ = 5.5 m . 4 N = 4 tan~ (e31ttanljl + 1) = y 1 + 9 tan2 ~ Q tan 32 ° (e 31t tan 32° + 1) = 200 1 + 9 tan2 32° =! B 2 = ( c N c +! YB N 2 y ) x 17 x 2.
V= E=  2 tan ~ =2 = 39.1 79.. SIll 11 ~~:~ = 2.Dynamic Bearing Capacity of Shallow' Foundations (ii) Determine '11.5) = 807 . = 'IIcB = 39. ~= e31t tan. ~x2+z2 = 0.. " A = E g = 9.81 x 56.85 B . + 1) (1 + 9 tan2 ~) = 200 = 50 4 e 41t tanl\» .7 + E 'YB 3 x 30 x 2.2 B) 39.7 tan ~(e31t tan.0 m td=O..' 4B tan <I>(e31t tan cl» + 1) 3[ ~9 tan2 <I> + 1] (i1t ta~ cl» 1) = (2B) .85 B = 2.0000577 . + 1 " . 9. 1) 50 = (.4s i1t tan' .6 3[ ~9 tan2~+I] X '. E.52 B z = .53 = 20700 kN . . A and E.~ x 256 3 = 0.85B)2 (iii) Determine k. /le' 275 ~ and sin 11 H = 4.52 + 50 x 17 x 2.75 ~(2.4 .75 k ~ ~g P lleB = sin 1] (256x 2. " = Z.2.6 x 0.7 ~.52B)2+(2.81 'YB4 Il 17 x 2.1 ~c = 16 'tan~ = 256 =' 56.= 4Bta~2~ (e31ttan'+I) (1+9 tan2~) (i1ttan..
.3228) = .2 A k (E óóÏÞ ) cos(kt).. sin (kid)] cos(k 'd )+G}GI + E ~ ) (.94 x 0.0.QBK2 2 k sin (kid )G.94 A. = 0.948 = 0.8685 . .00005377.948 = Aa (vi) Determine Md (max)for Md(max)= (vii) Determine Gland A A.2346 . = (v) Determine A.3228) + 2.5 cos (0.2 Q.0.948 + 2.8070 x 0.0474 . = 4 x 8290 A.40 2 = 0. = 0.807 . + 0.834 For a.79 = .5 .948 = 31436kNm G2 A G1 = 2 k ( E.4) 0.crwhich corresponds to a.sin (0.8072 ( 0. A.9. = . 33~~~A sin (0.807 sin (0.!.60 + 2.2.9159 x 0.4 + 1. x 8290 x 2.20700 ] 0.cr 33160Acr = 33160 x 0.k EQ. k3 td A k2 Md(maX)1 [ td õóÏÞóÛ] 2 1 For t = td a. 33160 A x 0.00005277 20700.Q A. cos(k 'd)] sin (k I) .807 ( 2 ) 0.B 2 .4.8070 x 0. A Md (max) td A Md (max) ( ) sm(ktd)' k2 cos(ktd)+. k td sm (k td ) +2 k M d(max) = 0.94 x 0. x 8290 x 2.05 A.9.9159 1 A G2 .05 (viii) Determine a.1 x 0.6 s .0.276 (iv) Determine Md (max)in terms of Md (max) = Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations A.9181 . A = 0.B cos(ktd)r 1 ) A Md(max) . for t = 0. 33160 =0 sm(kt)+ a. = A.948 x 0.948 CL ~ G }GI k cos (kid) G.89 x 0. .807 cos (0.4) 0. k2 td = .!.0000577 . 2 1 A Md(max).3228) + 2.10 A.9159 cos (0. Qd (max) = H . H.6.1.+ 0.3228) = 0.
Ph. (1934). No. 11. and'Sloan R. ' . I. B. Vol.. (1989). "Etude experimental de la capacite portante du sable sons des fondations directed etablies en surface". K. W.4) + 4:05 sin (0. and Agarwal R. K. G. (1965). "Experimental studies of dynamically loaded footings on sand".841] x 0. pp. J. M<:. Fisher. and Ireland H.Kee. Danish Geotechnical Institute. A. D.285] x 884 + 0. 301331. Meyerhof.. 7. De Beer.inclined loads". Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station.807 x 0.807 [0.V.175 . Journal ' of Geot.W. (1970). Vol. University of Roorkee. 117. (1961).9159 x 0.0.2346 . Fellenius. E. Chummar. Paris. . "Behaviour of shallow foundations subjected to eccentric .D. No. "Dynamic bearing capacity of footings". A. 3. Soil Mechanics Series No. and Agarwal R. K. Engs. and Vesic. IS : 6403 (1981). " ' des massifs a frottement interene". Third Int. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. "Equilibre of Roorkee.!&~t' Oynamic Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations 277 " 1 = 0. ASCE. Soil Mechanics Series No. 440445.T.05 cos (0.9159 = 2. Annales des Travaux Public . Caquot. W.3. (1951). E. . Master of E'ngineering Dissertation. GanthievVillars. India.6) + 0. W. 28. pp. T. Foun. "Bearing ~apacity of eccentrically obliquely loaded footings".4) .5. India. "Code of practice for determination of bearing capacity of shallow foundations". No.4. (1962).6) + 0.0. 6577. A. 4th ed.59 (3). (1958). E. Saran. Saran.8229 º¿¼ ' ' ' . Zurich. (1963). Johnson. (1962). Final Report to Armour Research Foundation. Hansen. Thesis. Illinois Institute of Technology.0000577 0. Meyerhof. (1986). Ernst Und Sohn.2. Special Technical Publications.701 + 1. S.M. No. "Eccentrically obliquely loaded footings". "A revised and extended formula for bearing capacity".520700 [2 ] ' 1 1 = 0. University Cunny. . (1948) "Erdstatische bcrchnungen".466 . 6.4)] sin (0. No. Report to U. University of Illinois. "The bearing capacity of footings under eccentric and inclined loads".807 [0. (1991).807 x 0. "Tests on clay subsoils beneath statically and dynamically loaded spread footings".082 .4)] cos (0.. Journal of Geot. "Design and analysis of foundations for protective structures". 16731680. pp.807 [0.. C. vol. R. Conf. 4. 16691690. Proc. S. . (1953).. pp. 115. pp 558. and Shenkman S.~e Delgigue. Copenhegen. 11.8072 1. Vol. x 8290 x 2. 0 ÎÛÚÛÎÛÒÝÛÍ Agarwal. 2.807 x 0. . Symposium on Soil Dynamics. O.. Engs.S.807 x 0. G. Berlin. G. R. Engg.07 [0. Geotechnique. S. K. pp.807 x 0. "The ultimate bearing capacity of foundations". AS~E. Soil Mech. Bull. Report to U.807 sin (0.9159 x 0.. "Dynamic loading machine and results of preliminary smallscale footing tests". University of Illinois. A. S.807 x 0.9159 = . G.807 cos (0.
4573. Triandafilidis. A 2. University of Illinois. <I> = 32° and c = 30 kN/m2. Using Wallace's approach. 1st Ed.~~. ASCE.' (1961)... 4. (1967). 5. Illinois. D. ASCE. Vol. . "Theoretical soil mechanics". Found. A 2. The properties of soil are y= 18 kN/m3. E. S. White.". . "Analytic~l study of dynamic bearing capacity of foundations". The properties of the soil are y = 17 kN/m3. The unit weight of soil is 18 kN/m3. td = 2 s). S. Vesic.2 sand 0.. Vol. K. Also determine the rotation of footing after 0. 2. "Static and dynamic plate bearing tests' on dry sand without overburden".~~~'. Urbana. 87. "Displacement of long footings by dynamic loads". SM5. B. J SMFD. (1961).0 m wide footing located at 1. SMI. 'G. Wallace. G. pp. U. R. "Analysis of ultimate loads of pp.4 s' DD . PRACTICE PROBLEMS 1. New York. Triandafilidis. The soil supporting the foundation is Clay with Cu = 50 kN/m2. Describe the method of obtaining the maximum horizontal dynamic load that can be applied on the footing. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division. Conf. Proc. (1943).'. Determine the maximum angular rotation of footing that it might undergo. Soil Mech. E. K.". A 3. Give the salient features of anyone. "Dynamic response of continuous footings supported on cohesive soils". A. New York. 205 .:. Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory.L.0 m wide strip footing is subjected to a vertical transient pulse (qu = 600 est). Ph. W. Give the expression of determining the rotation of the footing. Engin.0 m below ground surface is subjected to a vertical transient load (qd(max) = 2000 kN/m2.3 s.>. (1973). (1965). 3. C. sixth Int. determine the value of maximum horizontal load that can be applied on the footing. shallow foundation". determine maximum vertical movement of the foundation. and Peck. "Soil mechanics in engineering practice".0 m wide surface footing is subjected to a horizontal dynamic load having duration 0. Thesis. 4568. 6. 99. Describe stepwise pseudostatic analysis of designing footing subjected to earthquake loading. John Wiley and Sons. <I> = 35 and c = 20 kN/m2."' '  278 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations Terzaghi. R.208. Terzaghi. Report R 277. Using Chummar's approach. 2. John Wiley and Sons. Montreal. (1964). Differentiate between Triandafilidis and Wallace analyses of dynamic bearing capacity of footing subjected to transient vertical load. pp.'.
: :. 7. 1942).1 GENERAL \1any failures of earth structures. Koppejan.or because the soil dilates. Initial Liquefaction with Limited Strain Potential.' i' . ! J. however. pore pressure buildup leadng to true liquefaction of this type may be due either to static or cyclic stress applications. the applied .1. and a large number of such fountains have Jeen observed during Dhubri Earthquake in Assam in 1930 and Bihar Earthquake in 1934(Housner. The failures of Fort Peck Dam in Montana in 1938 (Casagrande.2.soil todeformatio~ . the development of initialliquafaction has no implications concerning the magnitude )f the deformations which the soil might subsequently undergo. it defines a condition which is : useful basis for assessingvariousposs. It denotes a coI1ditionwhere.Corps of Engineers. 1939. a structure resting on it simply sinks into it. . 1967).nd property.2 DEFINITIONS 7. 1965.'. during the course of cyclic stress applications. Classical examples of 'iquefaction are the flow slides that have occurred in the province of Zealand in Holland (Geuze.' .. It lenotes a condition _inwhich cyclic stress applications develop a condition of initial liquefaction and ubsequent cyclic ~tress applicati?ns c~u~e limi~ed strains to develop either because of the remaining esistance ~f the .. Cyclic Mobility or Cyclic Liquefaction. When soil fails in this manner. . 1939). slopes and foundations on saturated sands have been attributed in the literature to liquefaction of the sands. the pore pressure drops. he residual pore water pressure on completion of any full stress cycle becomes equal to the applied 'onfining pressure. Japan (Kishida. 1920) and the Lower LaB \Jorman Dam during the 1971 San Fernando Earthquake (Seed et al. . '. Dunn et al. 1966). The best known cases of foundation failures due to liquefaction are [hose that occurred during the 1964 earthquake in Niigata. c' c. Middlebrooks.958.ibleforms of subsequentsoil behaviour..' . 1948) and in the point bar deposits along the Mississippi river (Waterways experiment 'itation.3.2.2.LIQUEFACTION OF SOILS . 1975) in California provide typical ~xamples of liquefaction failures of hydraulicfill dams. The nost recent Koyna earthquake of 1995 is an illustration of liquefaction phenomenon causingcatastrophic Jamages to structUres and resulting in loss of life a. ('i. due to the buildup and maintenance of high pore water Jressure which reduces the effective confining pressure to a very low value. 7. Liquefaction often appears in the form of s~nd fountains.2.loads. et al. the Cal~veras Qam in California in 1920(Hazen.Liquefaction. 1948. and the soil tabilizes under. . It denotesa conditionwherea soil willunde~gocontinueddeformationat clconstant ow residual stress or with no resIdual resistance.. ~ j'.. 7. Initial Liquefaction. I.
()I > " ...~="~~  .:J \J)  0  ()I Ftow at con stant volume L i que fa c t i on E 'TI '. . At void ratios above Q the sand grain are not in close contact at all times. During undrained flow. . (dense) I state may reach B) I I I Cyclic or monotonic Loading {of dilative soil s1 arts here . u .. The void ratio at the steady state is the same a:>the critical void ratio. highly contractive (loose) sand.. A simple means for understanding the difference between liquefaction and cyclic mobility as observed in the laboratory is through the use of the state diagram. IL at Ive I I Monotonlc Load ing /. 280 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations In laboratory undrained cyclic tests (triaxial. The quicksand condition that is so familiar through the use of quicksand devices for instruction il soil mechanics is depicted by points on the zero effective stress axis at void ratios above Q. 'ne . .C I I : ()I Cl.. 7. <~. 11 . Contractive soils (loose) > <C 00  I J B I I D . . the soil remains at Point A in the state diagram.""~<. 1967. I I I : I . 1976) LIquefaction is the result of undrained failure of a fully saturated. In this state sand has zero strength and is also neither diiative nor contractive. Larg e strains and D. 1976).1s q[ states in which a soil can f1owOa(c~onstant effectiv. . 1966). direct simple shear and gyratory shear) on saturated sands.1 (Castro and Poulos.. 7.' 1\"1 example starting at Point C and ending with steady state flow at constant volume and constant <1) a' Point A.1: Undrained tests ~n fully saturated sands depicted ODstate diagram (Castro and Poulos. OJ Fig.x.~ ~~ ""'~ "7 Ih.(\) (\). softening caused soiLs by cyclic loading.::. 'TI C d _0 Q . ()I 0111\ 0 I. J I  . cyclic mobility has been ob8erved to develop and to result in large strains (Lee and Seed. Seed and Lee.. The axes are void ratio and effective minor principal stress" The steady state line shown represen~sth~ 10c1. which is shown in Fig.I  0 C3t ( During) flow  <Tic Effective minor  03c principal stress.erilinor principal stre"ssa)'and constant shear stress.u 0 c d I.1:.~ I sta t e Cyclic mobility ( ..~. It is controversial whether cyclic mobility occurs in dilative sands in situ during earthquakes to the same extreme degree as has been observed in the laboratory.
7. the type of test. Subsequent application of undrained monotonic loading moves the . because the average void ratio is held constant and the pore pressure rises due to cyclic loading.e.IDi1!1iII ~' Liquefaction . If the starting point is below Q.of SoUs 281 The mechanics of cyclic mobility may also be illustrated with the aid of Fig. then the zero effective stress condition (i.erage conditions in the specimen eventually reaches zero effective stress at Point B each time the hydrostatic stress state is reached.1 can liquefy if the load applied is large enough. 1976).1. The pore pressures that build up and the strains measured in the lab~ratory are due to the formation of such loose zones (Castro and Poulos. ' In summary then. The further to the right of the steady state line that the starting point is. and the soil type. If one now starts a new test at Point D. In that case the point on the state diagram may move slightly to the left of Point D but then it will move horizontally towards the steady state line as load is applied.1 is fictitious in the sense that it represents average conditions. one can follow the behaviour by plotting the average void ratio and the effective stress each time the applied cyclic load passes through zero. will be dilative during undrained monotonic loading in the triaxial cell and the state point will move to the right. Near the top of the specimen. and if a large enough number of cycles of sufficient size are applied. The magnitude of pore pressure build up in the cyclic test will depend on the magnitude of the cyclic load. For example. the number of cycles. In particular. the void ratio increases. If enough cycles are applied. 7.. for example. initial liquefaction) can ultimately be reached in the laboratory. Saturated sands starting at points on or below the steady state line. If cyclically loaded the state points will shift to the left as strains occur and the specimen softens. to name a few variables. In saturated state it may be expressed as (Fig. the strength after liquefaction will be. zero. and the resistanceof the specimenincreases. one can say that the specimen has developed . Thus the horizontal line DB in Fig. but this time applies cyclic loading. 7.kw) cp = Angle of internal friction .r when a fully saturated dilative sand starting. S = Shear strength of sand on = Effective normal pressure on any plane xx at depth Z = Yhw + Ysub (Z . Y = Unit weight ~f soil above water table Ysub= Submergedunit weight of soil . specimens that lie above the steady state line on Fig. . Adequate evidence has been presented to show that most of the strains measured in cyclic load tests in the laboratory are due to internal redistribution of void ratio in the laboratory specimens. .1) S = on tan cp where. Consider first the behaviour in Fig. 7. the strength after liquefaction will be small but finite. the greater will be the deformation associated with the liquefaction. 7. 1969). state point to the right toward the steady state line. : During cycling in the test described above. and near the bottom the void ratio decreases.. it has been observed in the laboratory that intriaxial tests for which the hydrostatic stress condition is passed duvng' cycling. if they are large enough. In this case the state point moves horizontally to the left.(7. 7.2). strains develop and the specimen becomes softer. the state point for t1w d'\f.~yclicmobility. at the completion of such tests the void ratio at the top of the specimen is much higher than at the bottom (Castro. If the initial point is above Q. If these strains are large enough. and if the hydrostatic stress condition is passed during each cycle. at Point D is loaded monotonically (statically) in the undrained condition. Such liquefaction can be triggered by monotonic or cyclic undrained loading. .3 MECHANISM OF LIQUEFACTION The strength of sand is primarily due to internal friction.
e.under vibrations U~yn = Excesspore water pressuredue to groundvibrations $dyn = Angleof internal frictionunder dynamicconditions It is seen that with development of additional positive pore pressure.3) can be Yw... Sdyn= Shear strength of soil._.. x # 1 Fig. 0. Sdyn.0 "..2) where. ...'.... = (an .. . the strength of sand is reduced.ndations 282 Ù®±«²¼ Surface hw t '(sub .~. ". i.."0_"""". hw and Y5ub as (G  1/1 + e) Yw' the Eq... G = Sp~ific gravity of soil particles e = Void ratio '. In sands. . Thus..'Yw'Z l+e or h Gl 1f. (7. ~[z  ~ 1l. Soil Dynamics & Machine Fo!. ier er . Sdynis zero. The strength may now be expressed as.Udyn= 0 (Jn = Udyn Udyn = 1 an .e.". .2: Section of ground showing the position of water table x If a saturated sand is subjected to ground vibrations. or or a" .(7.(7.. .Udyn)tan $dyn . .hw =1 Gl.. $dynis almost equal to $. .(7. . angle of internal friction in static conditions. ==i Z l+e where. 7. if drainage is restrained the tendency to decrease in volume results in an increase in pore pressure. it tends to compact and decrease in volume.4) = err Heal hydraulic gradient. For complete loss of strength i.3) written as : Expressing Udynin terms of rise in water head.
liquefaction of the upper layers of a deposit may also occur.stress reduces. resulting in loss f strength. . . a condition analogus i:1 earthquake problems to soil response under essentially level ground is considered. an important feature of the phenomenon of liquefaction is the fact that.w at some depth below the ground surface. . If the hydraulic gradient becomes sufficiently large. depending only on the state of sand and the induced motion.. soil elements can be considered to undergo a series ofcyc\ic stress conditions as illustrated in Fig. but because of the development of liquefaction in an underlying zone of the deposit. Field Conditions for Soil Liquefaction. because of increase in pore water pressure the effective. In case of complete liquefaction.6 . Once liquefaction develops at some depth in a mass of sand. the excess pore water pressure in the liquefied zone will dissipate by flow of water in an upward direction. 7. Liquefaction of sand may develop at any zone of a deposit. which is equal to <Jvi'and horizontal effective stress Ko er.1. Thus the structures resting on such a material start sinking. In the case of sloping ground. The presence of the initial shear stresses can have major effect on the response of the soil to a superimposed cyclic stress condition and in general..5. not as a direct result of the ~roltnd motion to which they are subjected. Transfer of intergranular stress takes place from soil grains to pore water.4. if only partial transfer of stress from the grains to the pore water occurs. resulting in what is known as complete liquefac.iquefltct. the upward flow of water will induce a quick or liquefied condition 111 the surface layers of the deposit. The rate of sinking )f structures depends upon the time for which the sand remains in liquefied state. 7Aa). its onset in one zone of deposit may lead to liquefaction of other z~nes. resulting in closer Jacking of sand grains. 7. Due to ground shaking during an earthquake. 7.4 LABORATORY STUDIES 7. However. Thus. the effective stress is lost and the sandwater mixture behaves as a . "(hi(Fig.itu density. where Ko is the coefficient of earth pressure at rest (Fig.3b). Hence. Such a zone may be at the surface . 7. Thus if this 'ansfer is complete. During earthquake..3a). where the necessary combination of in. There is no initial shear stress acting on the element. there is complete loss of strength. The actual stress series are somewhat random in pattern but nevertheless cyclic in nature as shown in Fig. Since the most critical conditions are likely to be those associated with no initial shear stresses on horizontal planes. 7. .oll of Soils 283 It is seen that. there is partial JSS of strength resulting in partial liquefaction. An element of soil located at depth Z below the horizon tal ground surface will be subjected to vertical effective stress er.on. surcharge conditions and vibration characteristics occur. the stresses on the element will be as shown in Fig 7Ab. the presence of initial stresses tends to reduce the rate of pore pressure generation due to cyclic stress applications. However. followed by surface settlement. which would have remained stable otherwise.iscous material and process of consolidation starts. a cyclic shear stress "(" will be Imposed on the soil element (Fig. an element of soil will also' have initial shear stress.
~i ~.'" ".. ..' ' .'" ".~ .'...".. ~.//~.2'" 'YI "" ~ 0= OVi Jh. FOUlJdlltioll. / "" "" """"" + " '/' ./ Stresses on element 8 (b) Earthquake loading Fig.. 0= OVi . _....i}:.. ~ ~.2...."'.\'~ ..:. if ."". ..~ /~ H' '/"/' f~ . /" '" "'. ""..  28~ Soil Dynamics & Marhine =+ .. rh 'L OB Ko 0~h "" . ""'."" ..'"'. ~ <w<' " " !J OVi= ohw + lsub (zhw) z '1 DA Ko () '//1'/1'1' 1////1' "'1' Ill' " " Stresses on element A (a) No gr.". 7...' "' ../ .'..ound shaking =+ z óóóóó.~. '..".':>'.3 : Stress conditions for soil element below horizontal ground in cyclic loading conditions . '..:.
.Liquefactiollof Soils / 285 () = Uvi ! . 7.I"/ 0'" " "" / / r " / I KO (0) No ground shaking Stresses on element A cv= av i I' =r= DB L r. h Chi 1HDHPo ~ '" >"'+"O' uu" (b) Earthquake loading Stresses on element B Fig.I'" ".:hi DA .jor/ / / .4: Stress conditi ons for soil ele me nt below sloping ground in cycliiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiii .
c=Jt Initial t t 00 C C_t K0 0..~\ Ko 00 t stresses sequence Fig. I I I . I I I I I r r l 101. J . 1970).. 14.. N I 40 1:max.... (3) Cyclic torsid~al shear teSt (Yoshimi and OhOka. I k . table test (frakash and Mathur. 11 IIIm . Simulating cyclic shear stress conditions. . 286 /I' /l1I/'" Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations \ """V/I\I' "A' 11/'\\ I I J I 00 1I I 00  I .. 7.5: Idealised field loading conditions I . . 11  1!KoCTO Cyclic toad t +. 1967). Finn et aI.6 : Sh~ar stress variation determined by response analysis 7.me (5) 18 24 30 Fig. Yoshimi. Different Laboratory Tests. 1 r .0m 20 E Gav z  10 0 I.30 óìðÔ 0 6 12 Ti. Seed and Peacock. (4) Shaking..\\ ..4. 1967~Finn et aI. 1966. I . I!Io . 1970.2. 1971). 1968. following types of test procedures have been adopted for liquefaction studies: (1) Dynamic trhixial test (Seed and Lee.I I I . I (2) Cyclic simple shear test (Peacock and Seed. 7. Typical studies 011above mentioned laboratory tests are described herein. Ishibashi and Sherif. 1965.. t.. 30 Dept h:. 1I1 11 JI ili li' ai ffi ill . Lee and Seed. 1974).
.
8: Typical pulsating load test on loose saturated Sacramento river sand (Seed and Lee.L.87. o. Similarly the desired stress condition 11can be induced by reducing the vertical stress by ad' and simultaneously applying an increase in all round pressure equal to ad 12 (Cols.8.7. They used the concept of developing cyclic shear stress on section xx of the soil sample as shown by the stress conditions I and 11on the sample given in Col. DR = 38%) are shown in Fig.The test data in Fig. 7. 7.297 mm. 0  0 I . emin = 0.' . 7. 'Time . 3 and 4 of Condition I). deformation and porewater pressure with time.61).2 kN/m2 was applied with a frequency of 2 Cpg. 1 QfFig.OkN/m2 Time '" h 38.... ::J 100 ' E ' .03. f sec. The stress condition I is achieved by increasing axial stress on the specimen by an amount ad' keeping lateral stress a3 constant. In this testthe initial allaround pressure and the initial pore water pressure were 196 kN/m2 and 98 kN/m2 respectively.. a. Soil Dynamics & Machine 'Foulldations 7. t Fig. 0~ )( <C ~ I/)N L. The results of a typical test in loose sand (e = 0. It may be noted that during testing the pore pressure should be corrected by reducing it by ad 12 in condition I.. 7..8 shows the variation of load. thus giving the value of effective confining pressure as 98 kN/m2. 2St0 'H::L Extension 6 '15 E L. The cyclic deviator stress ad of magnitude 38.2E  Compression Time "0 E.z ~x.5 DYNAMIC TRIAXIAL TEST Seed and lee (1966) reported the first set of comprehensive data on liquefaction characteristics of sand studied by dynamic triaxial test. and increasing by ad 12 in condition H. . "0 ~ 8 I/) 01.. 3 and 4 of Condition II). OJ=98. The grain size ranged between 0. 1966) . and simultaneously reducing the all round pressure on the specimen by an amount adl2 (Cols. Seed and Lee (1966) performed several undrained triaxial tests on Sacramento river sand (emax = 1.288 .S z DR~38°/o 1 eo=0'87.149 mm and 0.2 kNjm£  0""" "3 Go ~ 100 0 100 .
z d E 0  confiningeffective pre ssure 10°rInitial '" a.0kNjm . . 0 10 « C:X ten sion )( 20 .atCJd.9 : Typical pulsating load test on loose Sacramento river sand (Seed and Lee.. L. .. 7.. a. 2 .SO .L. of cycles L.::J ~ ::J en\/) C III d ~ £. 0 .. . atOd =+38. 4 10 20 40 100 Number of cycles (c)Changein porepressure and numberof cycles Fig. c ' 10 04 o' L.. 0.. \/) ~=... ::J en\/) C \/) 50 .S InitiaL e tfe ctive ..#.. L... confining pressure 50 ...~N 150 100 d E ~ ~z L. ::J c .i... 98.  2 at Od =(+)382 kNj m at Od = 0 2 .I:.30 1 . 0 1 2. 1966) .2 kN/m2 at Od :38'2 20 40 kNjm 2 ua. 2 100 2 4 Number at Od =()38'2 kN/m I r 10 20 40 of cycles (a) Axial strain versus number .Juefactioll of Soils 289 :ompression 30 0 0 201 .=O . """N L.  OR = 38 °/0 ..~ ~ L. 4 Number 1°' of cycLes lOO (b) Observed change in pore water pressure and number of cycles 150 L. ua.
7. 30 20 10 0 d ~ Q. 1966) Test data obtained on dense Sacramento river sand is shown in Fig.10. 30 100 to cause faiLure 300 1000 Number . 0/0 I.9.. 1976). during the first eight cycles of stress application. the axial strain exceeded 20% and the soil liquefied. indicating zero effective confining pressure. and the pore water pressure changes correct~d to mean extreme principal stress conditions with number of stress cycles have been plotted in Fig.of cycles Fig. 38 eo ::.11.290 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations From this data. During the tenth cycle. As discussed earlier this corresponds to cyclic mobility (Seed. It is evident from this figure that number of cycles of pulsating load application increases with the decrease of the value of 0" d' N z ~ E 60 OR ::. variation of axial strain amplitude. however the axial strain amplitude did not exceed 10% even after 30 cycles.d~formati()n although porepressure increased gradually.' 50 . ~ ~ ~ 087 0\ 40 . . 7.OkN/m2 III ~ d c: III :) Cl. Similar tests as described above were performed by Seed and Lee (1966) for different values of 0" d' The relationship between O"d against the number of cycles of pulsating load applications is shown in Fig. 03= 98. The pore pressure became equal to O"} during the ninth cycle. th~ sample showed no noticeab!7. This is due to the fact that in dense condition soil dilates. It may be noted that the change in pore water pressure become equal to o"}after about 13 cycles. the observed changes in porewater pressures. 3 10 :~ . Castro. 7.It was observed that. 1976. and the pore water pressure reduces which in turn stabilises the soil under load.10: Relationship between pu~s~tingdeviator stress and number of cycles required to cause ~ailure in Sacramel1to river sand (Seed and Lee.. . 7.
.\:r.'" at Od = +68'7 kN/nf d x L111 0 ..68'7kN/m 2 100 40 (a) Axial strain versus number of cycles ~ :::I 111 111 ~ L 150 0.. 7...5 :10 15 1 " at Od = 0 « tension .s. 100 L~ ..t::~ 0 68. 2 4 Number 10 of cycles " 20 " ' "at Od = ~. U . the stress causing liq'uefaction) against number of cycles of stress in loose and dense sands.1'" ". d Initial effective confining pressure AA..68'7 kNim2 ..iquefaction of Soils 11 P re 291 0 .a A~at Od =0 u at Od = ~N ~ E ~ ...x c<:I) CJ) c d £.0 0 c: sSlon 15 OR = . The initial liquefaction corre spondsto the conditionwhen the pore waterpressurebecomesequal to the confIDingpressure 0')" Criterion for complete liquefaction is taken corresponding to 20% double amplitude $train...7 kNjm2 uat Od ...' ..0)= ' 78 0/0 ' _9~'. Figure 7. '. With the  " ...11 : Typical pulsating load test on dense Sacramento river sand (Seed and Lee. The figure indicates that in loose sand. 7.12 shows the plots 'of peak pulsating stress ( Le.0~N/m~r " ".. initial liquefaction and failure occur simultaneously (Fig.. 1966) Lee and Seed (1967) have extended this work for studying the various factors affecting liquefaction and identified the followings : Relative density.. 12a)..50 1 2 4 Number 10 of cy cl e s 20 40 100 (b) Corrected change in pore water pressure Fig.. 50 0 Z o....
::J 100 c:J ..12 shows the plots . .#".7kN/m at Od = 2 100 40 (a) Axial strain versus number of cycles ~ 111 111 c:J 1.:\:r:st.at Od 68...' ..11 : Typical pulsating load test on dense Sacramento river sand (Seed and Lee.78 0/0 ' .. 7..'....5 " « :10 tension 15 1 2 4 Number 150 '. initial liquefaction and failure occur .7 kN/m2 c c:J 0'1 C 0 L:.of peak pulsating stress ( Le..x 50 u at Od = .68... Figure 7. 0 Initial effective confining pressure AA . 111 .. a. simultaneously . 1966) Lee and Seed (1967) have extended this work for studying the various factors affecting liquefaction and identified the followings : Relative density.." at Od = at Od = 0 c: . 7.K"" +68'7 kN/m2 \.. The figure indicates that in loose sand..50 1 2 4 10 Number of cy cle S 20 40 100 (b) Corrected change in pore water pressure Fig... the stress causing liquefaction) against number of cycles of stress in loose and dense sands. ~.iquefaction of Soils 291 TtpreSSlon 15 0 0 10 OR = . 12a)..0~~/m~r."0 Z a. . 1.. U 0  u .0 0 )( 5 O I . ...:~ 68.".6~at Od =0 ~N c:J E 1... The initial liquefaction corre sponds to the conditionwhen the pore waterpressurebecomesequal to the confming pressure 0"3'Criterion for complete liquefaction is taken corresponding to 20% double amplitude strain. .7 kN/m 2 . 10 of cycles " 20 " . With the  " .~.:03'= _98.a. (Fig..
. \I) ::J . .. a..'. Z E L. ... ._.. x 0 .. 0 1 10 100 1000 Number of cycles (b) Dense sand 10...:.~ .12: Peak pulsating stress venus number of cycles (Lee and Seed........ eo = = 0 87 38 0/0 strain OR 111 OJ = 9 8....~..... Foundations "':'~'" incre~se in relative density.... .....0 . 0 .. . x 0 a. . ::J ~ tIJ 80 .000 100. 7.. . E 200 160 \ \ Initial z x eo = 0....... the difference betWeen the number of cycles to cause initialliquefacticin and'~ f?ilure increases.000 N  .. ....r '. """_0"' Soil Dynamics ~ Machine ...000 100..000 Fig. \I) 0'\ 120 80 40 \~ ._.61 OR= 1000/0 OJ = 98'OkN/m2 '" VI c 0 VI L.N .. 1967) L \.... .100 11' " '~. 0 0 10 100 1000 Number of cycles (a) Loose sand 010.0 k N/ m~  0 VI a. 0'\ C '.0292 "O""''O~~"'""'o"""o~"' "o ....... Liquefaction " ... .
:". 10  1.~... 1967) (.t.:...!". 0 ' d a..?" i'. 100 of cycles  500 OO ' 10.) ..t~~l't.. Figure 7.[que/action of Soils 293 Confining pressure.r...e:26% strain.61 l5' " ...~.000 100. 10 & 4 ..ft"'. 180 'OR 120 eo =7 8 0/0 = 0.. . .!. .... 7.....Y""f..!1...N E ~ .' '~ii" .. 500 I 100 10 100 1.'.".. the number of cycles to :ause initialliquefaction tFigs:7:B"u and b}orfai1ure(i.~ .Contd.".  ...~("i.13: Peak pulsating stress versus number of cycles (Lee and Seed.:..000 .~k1t~. ~f~:ii:'....'i.'~""....060 . z  '500 OR = eo = 100 0/0 0.f.":8"'.~ 1. <. '.. At all relative densities for a given peak pulsating stress. .':"~. CTI c: .000 Number of cycles' 10~000 100...+...!"J)'. OJ (kNfm2) 1500 0 ' 500 :J 0 Co a.......(. Figs:7:i3 c and d) increased vith the increase in confIning pressure . CTI 1000 c: .:t.71 DJ (kNfm2) 1500 L.000 (a) For initial tiquefaction in medium dense sand N E 2000 . I '...'....> 'b\':..13 shows the influence of confIning pressure on initial liquefaction md failure conditions.:"""'.'. Number (b) For initial liquefaction in dense sand Fig. 60  ~~ Co :J' It 0 1 .f ".  'A I A .
VI t.I .pulsating stress versus . 0 1 10 100 1.. .294 N.' (d) 20% strain (i.. CS VI c: ~ (kN/m2) 60 1500 500 10°1 10~000 0 1 10 CS t.1967) Peak pulsating stress. . I . :J a.." ... . . :J Q 0 500 500 " C 1:>1 'Q.Z 180 ... Figures 7..13: Peak ..e.0.000 .e... .¥ .000 100 100.000 Number of cycles L10.000 (c:)20% strain (i. E . E z " ~ ~ III III 1:>1 1500 OR = 100 °'0 eo = 0. i~ H' "' OR : 78°/0 120 .' ~ . failure) in mediumdense sand 2000 N .. while for 20% axial strain condition. ~.... 7.... :.'.61 .14 a and b show respectiyely the vari~t!onof peak pulsating stres~ Odwith confining pressure for initial liquefaction and 20% axial strain in 100 cycles. It may be noted tha for a giverirelative density and number of cycles ofload applicafion. VI 0'\ SoU Dynamics & Machine Foundations . . 100 Number 1. number ofc:yc:les(Lee and Seed.I a.71 ".".eo :..'~. failure) in dense sand Fig.000 of cycles 100.: 1000 III C7I c: III . ".'.the"odmcreases linearly with 03 fo initial liquefaction. "" " .. similar linear trend exists only in loose sand5 . . .
" '"..' N E Z 1600 . 0 0 400 .)e6 0 '61 0. .. \11 01 C oX . \11 \11 ~ .71 800 .) void eo 0..tiol void ratio.14 : Influence of pulsating stress on the liquefaction of Sacramento river sand (Lee anti Seed.:: 1200 Initial ratio. ::s: 0'81 d ~ Cl... 400 (:........ ..) Cl...x d \11 :J a.. 0 0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 03 (kNjm2) (b) 20% strain in 100 c)'des Fig. 7.Liquefaction of Soils 2000 ...'.. 1967)  . N z 1600 oX E \11 ~ 1200 .' ......61 \11 ' d 800 400 0 71 ðóéè :J a... 800 1200 3600 2000 03 (kNfm2) (a) Initial liquefaction in 100 cycles 2000 .L..".0 01 C Ini. \11 ..
80% and 90% giving the sand in loose. 068 = Initial confining pressure. . 7.15 : Record of typical pulsating load test on loose sandin simple shear conditions (Peacock and Seed. The oscillatory shear stress was applied at a frequency of 1 cps or 2 cps keeping the normal stress constant.OV Frequency ã ï Ø¦ 500 kN/m2 ¢ Äïï 40 I' \11C>lN Äïïóòòòòòòòòò î0 f' 20 40 I . 296 Soil Dynamics & Machine FOlllldations Number of cycles of pulsating stress. if) (a) Applied cyclic shear stress 0 . emin = 0. They performed tests on Monterey sand (SP. Peacock and Seed (1968) reported the first set of comprehensive data on liquefaction studies by using this test.. If) 2u Fig.54 mm).one can conclude that for a given p\llsating stress. Initial Initial relative void density eo = °R=50olo ratio.:haptet 4:with a mention that it simulates earthquake. 7.0 11d \11 0 10 j 124. From the Figs.1 0 20 I c . The samples were tested at relative densities (DR) of 50%.: E 1.Z d C>I ~  0 1111 cum I mum M . 7. medium dense and dense states respectively.83. The sample size was 60mm square and 20mm thick. condition in a better way.I:.6 CYCLIC SIMPLE SHEAR TEST The cyclic simple shear test device is already described in C..eyc: le s (b) Shear strain response 1ftttt C>I . t 968) . DIO = 0.J::..".53. emax= 0. number of cycles needed for causing initial liquefaction and failure increases with the increase in relative density"and confining pressure.~ _u_.12 and 7~13.
(Fig. During the twentyfifth stress cycle... there was no significant shear strain of the sample during lle application of the first 24 cycles of stress..15 show the variation of shear stress.I5b.0 1 Qy 800 (kNjm 500 ) 100 1. and the soil had essentially liquefied.c C x 'III~ cnZ E 111" ~N a 60 '\. ~Q. 1968) The typical test data in Fig. 11'1 I/) ~ 80 1 ~ 90°/0 11'1 1.17. At this point the resulting leformations became extremely large."e clear presentation is shown in :ig. 10 "'" 2""""'". _ . Figure 7.. :J Q .iquefaction of Soils ~ 1:J \11 297 ~oz4 ~~ ~ 1:::::> 0 0.16 : Initialliqu'efaction of cyclic simple shear test on Monterery sand (Peacock and Seed. Similar trend was also oberved in triaxial test..15 : Record of typical pulsating load test on loose sand in simple shear conditions (Peacock and Seed.000 Number of cycles Fig.. 40 ". ' . 2 Cc V . 7. 7. . 7.r . Pore pressure increased .enIy increased to a value of about 15% and become 23% in the next cycle..000 10. As evident from Fig. 7. >eackock and Seed (1968) have also studied the effects of followll1g factors on liquefaction: Relative density. From this 19ure it can be concluded that for a given value of confining pressure and number of cycles of stress lpplication..::c a ~ Q .lr" f "" '" 0 (c) Pore water pressure response Fig. 1968) .16 shows a plot of peak pulsatingyress (1:h) dJUsmg initial liquefaction \ith number of cycles of application for different relative densities and confll1ing pressures. 7.15e). A mo. a .radually until the effective confining pressure is reduced to zerc. 7.c. 1h increases with the increase of relative density'..E 1LN 11'1 ' 0 60 W . shear strain and pore water Iressure with time.. the shear strain sud.
.... o~ ~ '1 ~ 0 1 10 100 1000 Num b e r of c... N E For 100 cycles of pulsating stress ~ ~ \/I \/I .. V)N L..... L.. } ~ Cl.. pared as shown in Fig.. 2 ) < . For a given value of DR and number of cycles increases linearly with the increase in av' \/I III ~ L..17.18.. I. 7. 1968) Confining pressure..18: (a) Cyclic stresses required to cause initi~lliqueraction at different confining pre~sure . 7... III c ". E 0"..t 'j "If Fig. :J oX en 0 III 0...17 : Effe~t of relative density on cyclic stress causing initial liquefaction (Peacock and Seed. 75 \ \ Initial relative. From the data presented in Figs... 1..0 DV (kN/m 800 500 300 .....298 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations 100 . 20 I 0 0 20 Relative 40 density 200 100 (°/0) Fig... density.68 ~~ :J 0...y c l e s to I{t ...... plot of'th versus aI.16 and 7.!: Initial 50 void ratio eo 0... 0 Cl. was pre of stress application.. 80 60 ±ª (kN/m2) 800 40 .. DR= 50°/0 = ~Z \II~ enN c . 7. t....
: 0 11\ ::J ~ '1:) 0. (Seed and Peacock.. it can be seen at for a given value of and relative density DR' a decrease ~f "Ch requires an increase of number of des ~o cause liquefaction.r= ~I'J Q.x 0'1c: N OR =50% eo = 0.) decreases Ith the decrease of K0 . 1968) Peak pulsating stres!> and number of cycles of stress application. 2 Hz.299 uefacti~n of Soils . Tests were rformed at frequencies of 1 Hz.la...E ~z ' 0.19 shows a plot of stress ratio .)  ~ 0 s::. Figure 7..ycles 50 100 cycle 25 ..4 1 Number 10 ot cycles 100 causing '. Further for a given value of "Ch:"number of cycles of stress application quired to cause liquefaction increases with the increase in relative density DR and confining presre 0"v . and 4 ~.68 10 c.18: confining pressure (b) Effect of confining pressure on cyclic stress to cause failure in 10 cycles and 100 cycles (Peacock and Seed. 7. and the effect of frequency on the stress using liquefaction was found negligible.1 OCR:" Ko : 0.0 ...... Seed and Peacock (1971) have studied the feet of coefficient of earth pressure (Ko) on e peak pulsating shear stress "Ch causing liq:faction in cyclic simple shear test.19 : Influence of overconsolidation ratio (OCR) on stress causing liquefaction in smiple shear tests . 0...2 OCR: 8 1/1 1/1 ~ ~ ko : .75 OCR: 1 Ko : 0.x 0 . 7.. 1I\. Frequency ofload application.4 It) 0. 0 0 100 200 300 400 effective 500 600 700 800 (kNfm2) Initial Fig..16... 0 ~ 0.II\N 75 '.) with number of cycles of stress appli. J" 0.000 10.. Ko depends on the overconsolidation ratio )CR). 11\ 11\ ~ '. the value of ("Cia. The value .. 1971) .. 7.000 initial liquefaction ~ 0 Fig.tion for different values of Ko' For a given lative density and number of cycles of stress 'plication. o"v From Fig.
. 7.. E ~ ..20 and 7. "" ..\CTION UNDER TRlAXIAL AND SIMPLE SHEAR CONDITIONS .. .20: Cyclic stress required to cause liquefaction of Monterery sand at different confining pressures in triaxial and simpl~ shear tests (Peacock and Seed.'\ 300 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations 7.. IfI """"~ 50 '\ eshear 300 test results CJ) .21. OR = 500/0 eo = 068 0 1 10 DV (kN/m2) 800 500 300 lOO 1000" Number of cycles 'i Fig.. " oX a ~ 0..JL: lI\ lI\ ~ ~ IfI La ~ ...7 CO~IP ARlSON OF CYCLE STRESSES CAUSING LIQUEF~.... c " . a VI :J a.iJ. 7... PeaCock and Seed (1968) performed both cyclic triaxial and cyclic simple shear tests for liquefaction studieson Montereysandwith a relativedensityof 50%and confiningpressures (cr3or crv) of 300.... 150 N .. Simple 500 (. Rbults are plotted in Figs.J::.. 1968) . 500 and 800 KN/m2.. 800 l5' ~ '~~ 100 0 . It may be seen fro~ these figures that the cyclic stress required to cause liquefaction of loose sands under simple shear condition ("Ch) is about 35 percent of the cyclic stress required to cause liquefaction in triaxial condition (crd/2). .. Triaxial test results OJ{kN/m2) ~ z ~ N ..1... .
..21 : Comparison of pulsating shear strength of I~ose Monterey sand under cyclic loadingsimple shear and triaxial conditions (Peacock and Seed..22)..' '.. 1968) 7. 7. 7. ad "th == .68 U\ U\ ~ 100 U\N . . where. ~. .~ U\ E 0~z LCJ'I .eo =0.. Seed and Idriss (1971) developed standard curves between cyc lic stress ratio (crd/2/a)) versus mean grain size (Dso) for 10 and 30 number of cycles of stress application for an initial relative density of compaction of 50% (Figs.~: .on of Soils 301 2: 150 ~ Le Relati ve density} OR = 500/0 ~ . Cl = Correction factor to be applied to laboratory triaxial test data t? obtain stress conditions causing'liquefaction in the field " ".7.S  10 cycles 50 0 U\ ::) a. ~ 100..5) \. 7.". . Initial void ratio.(7. "'. estimated from the result of simple shear tests. The values of stress ratio ("th/a~.21 and 7.CI ( av ) simple~hear ( 2 cr)) triax.20.~.8 STANDARD CURVES AND CORRELATIONS FOR LIQUEFACTION For evaluation of liquefaction potential.£:. "".quefact.c.)causing liquefaction. The two stress ratios may be expressed by the relation. Initial 200 effective 300 400 confining 500 600 700 800 pressure 03 or OV (kNfm2) Fig.. 100 cycles ~ 0 ~ Q. have ~hown that the value of"th/av is less than the corresponding value ofad/2 a) (Fig. These curves were prepared by compiling the results of various tests conducted by several investigators on various types of sand.22a and b).:" .
. 7..0 50 °/.. No.30 & Machine Foundatiolls  . lfo Soil Dynamics 1:5' 0.01 Fig.15  0 v Field value at Ch/ay causing lique taction esti mated tram re su Us ot sim pie sh ear tests G d If) :J d 0 10 u Relative 0 05 density cycles = 50% = No... ..22 : Stress conditions causing liquefaction of sands (Seed and Idriss.. ~ U >u c: . mm (b) In 30 cycles 003 0...3 Mean grain 003 050' mm 0.302 N './203 at liquefaction 9 :J (J) 0.20 Triaxial compression data for 0Ct /2 CJj at liqu e ta e.01 size (a) In 10 cycles N 0.05 ..30 .1 Triaxi cl. C>i :J CT (J) c: . of stress 0 2.. d 0. compression test data for Ode. \fI \fI C>i L.1I1 :J d \J 0  15  0 ...c: 0 .C 1I1 0. 1:5' . 0. Field value at7:h/r:sv causing liquefaction estimated from resul ts at simple shear tests Re lative densi ty 0  10 0 ..u C v .1 size 050. cycles =30 = (f) 03 Me an grain 0. 025 >u 0 C 'V c: 0 0..25 ~ r ..tion test u d .20 C>i 0 . 1I1 1I1 C>i 0 1.. 197\)  ...  tj' u M 1I1 C>i ....0 0. of stress 10  L....
~max= . The initial stress conditions of a specimen in simple shear device are shown in Fig. 7.7).Ko ad /2 .reealternativecriteria of obtaininge 1 : (i) Maximum ratio of shear stress developed during cyclic loading to the r.23 : Maximum shear stress for cyclic simple shear tests (ii) Ratio of maximum shear stress to the mean principal stress. 7. that the maximum ratio of shear stress to normal stress in cyclic simple shear stress is 't/Ko ay. now = ad .23 b.(7. Therefore./~.) ~ s:::. ..2"?a. 7. ~ Koal.23 d....  QV NormaL s t re...6) 2a3 .. 7.(7.. _. VI Normal stress (d) Fig. 7.ormal stress. It can be seen from Fig..7) //e 1 = 'th ai.. " . = 'th' I av K ... GV V1 tfI ~ L KoOV . a3 'th I oal. if) a KoOV . Figure 7.. V1 L (a.Ko) J . This ratio in triaxial test is ad/2a3 (Fig.23 c and d show respectively the stress conditions on the soil specimen during cyclic simple shear test and corresponding Mohr's circle.. In simple shear test (Fig. (1. the corresponding Mohr's circle is shown in Fig.ss (b) ay Ko CYy rh .. V1 L V1 V1 ~ L (c) Th ~ a s:::. + [~a.Liquefactioll of Soils 303 Seed and Peacock (1971) have proposed the followingth. 7.23 d) Maximum shearslress..
L 20'3 .12) [~crv(1 + 2 Ko)] 'th  It gives = .55.(7.{0" (1.18) Values of Cl computed from the above equations are given in Table 7.~ 1 \ 304 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations Mean principal stress during consolidation (F'ig.16) .K )} .(7. "rh Ja.(7. .L 1 ( O"vJ . .(1+2K 0 )2_. (1970) have shown that for initialliquefactiQn (1 + Ko) Cl = 2 . .14) (Hi)Ratio of maximum change in shear stress to the mean principal stress during consolidation. It gives [crv(1 +32Ko)] Finn et al..(7.(7..In normallyconsolidatedsands.5 which in turn gives the value of Cl varying from 0.(7..11) Minor principal stress = "r2 0"3 h 2 l + .23 a) .. 2 v 0 = ..(7. Therefore. ..!.valueof Korangesfrom 0.13) Hence Cl = ....3 to 0.(7.0" (1 + 2 K ) 3 v 0 ...[3) .. ( 2 0'3 )~ 9 ..1    ="3 [O"v + Ko o"v + Ko O"v] 1 =.. 7.. It gives the value of Cl as Cl .(7.) a3 (1+2 Ko) Cl = 3 of normally consolidated sands .(7. .9) In Triaxial test Maximum shear stress =J a 2 . .10) .(1Ko)2 4 2 1 2 /(ad/2a3)2 . '. ...... ./(I+2Ko) 9 2 (IKo) 4 /(ad/la3) .:!.:!.!. ..17) Castro (1975 has prop<?sed that the initial liquefaction is better repr~sented by the criteria of the ratio of the octahedral shear stress during cyclic loading to the effective octahedral normal stress during con solidation.1 Weighted average values of C I are given in the lastcolumnof the table.. .l5) .45 to 0... 2 (1+2 Ko) (3. .
..' i1.(."'.t".j.6 0.(7.7 0.(7. the peak pulsating shear stress causing liquefaction increases almost linearly with the increase in relative density.5 0.(7.90 Equation 7. It can be expressed by the following relation: "Ch ( cr ) C "Ch " v field ~. there is always some nonuniformity of stress conditions..5) and (7. upto a relative densitY of 80%. 3 triax. 0'".80 0.77 0.20) where Cr = Cl Cz Seed and Idriss (1971) suggested the values of Cl' as given in Table 7.8 0.:.73 0.I'A\:. This causes specimens to develop liquefaction under lower horizontal cyclic stresses as compared to that in the field....6 0.. we get "C a a 1:L =C C IL =CL I z ( 20' ) r ( 20' ) ( cr ) v field 3 triax. . .45 0.78 0.( cr ) .C. .75 0.~.2. Seed and Peacock (1971) demonstrated this fact for a uniform medium sand (DR = 50%) in which the field values were about 1.A.17 0..68 0. r 50 ( 2 0'3 ) .85 0..22) .'.'i.ih""".1)< : ". DR triax. = . the following general relation is suggested: "Ch ( cry) field DR ..92 1. '" Liquefaction of Soils 305 Table 7.65 0..55 0.3 0.5 0.00 Average value 0.61 0... 0..16 0.87 using Equation 7..II1II . ..7 0.4 0.3 0. (7.19).(7.'.8 Equation 7.25 0.7 0. Table 7.4 2 0'3 In simple shear test equipment.2 : Values of Cr Relative density OR (%) Cr .. 7.7 0.'~:<... '..67 0..1 : Values of Cl Value orc! Ko 0.71 0. .from Fig. ..68 As evident .53 0.19) v simple shear where Cz = Constant to account the nonuniformity of stress conditions in simple shear test Combining Eqs.:'<.'.2 times the laboratory values.83 Equation 7.17.85 0.57 0. Keeping this fact in view.69 0.54 0.""'"..".21) 050 60 80 0.60 .5!L .18 0.14* Negative value Negative value 0.6 0."~'"...87 * For  ad = 0. 50 .4 0.<.53 0...8 Equation 7.
the maximum shear stress 'tmax at a de p th h is g iven by 'tmax rh . liquefaction will occur if shear stress induced by earthquake is more than the shear stress predicted by Eq. Assuming the soil column to behave as a rigid body.22.306 where ~h Soil Dynamics & Machine Follndatiolls ( crv) field OR 5!iL ( 2 cr3J triax.22. 'tmax rh rd ( g ) .24) = Stressreductionfactor . 7. . : Unit cross sectional ¿®»¿ : .. ('tmax)act is taken as ( where.. In a sand deposit consider a column of soil of height h and unit area of cross section subjected to maximum ground acceleration Qmax(Fig.23) where g = Accelerationdue to gravity r = Unit weight of soil ¿³¿¨ .:':I h ~ Tmax=("(hf9) amax. Qmax  .24 : Maximum shear stress at a depth for a rigid soil column Since the soil column behaves as a deformable body. 7. By comparing the induced and predicted shear stresses at various depths. ..( g ) .~~::~. It can be determined using Fig.. 50 = Cyclic shear stress ratio in the field at relative density of DR percent = Stress ratio obtained from triaxial test at relative density of 50%.rd.' . 7. . iiquefaction zone can be obtained. . rd )   'tmaxact . 7.9 EVALUATION OF ZONE OF LIQUEFACTION IN FIELD At a depth below the ground surface. the actual shear stress at depth h.omax .(7. Fig..(7. 7.24). '.
10 20 30  ~ . 1971) The actual time history of shear stress at any point in a soil deposit during an earthquake will be as shown in Fig. ....~ 8 .6 1'0 6 Average value £.25) The corresponding number of significant cycles Ns for 'tav is given in Table 7. In this figure the range of rd for different soil profiles alongwith the average value lpto depth of 12 ni is shown.(7. 12 Range of different soil profiles 18 24 30 Fig.rd g rh . 7.on of Soils 307 Seed and Idriss (1971. Q..3: Significant Number of CyclesNs Corresponding to 'ta\'..65 . = 0. M Ns on Richter's scale 7 7.25 : Reduction factor r d versus depths (Seed and Idriss.~ '. Tabl~ 7. . 7. 7... The critical depth for development of liquefaction is usually less than 12 m.)recommended the use of charts shown in Fig.amax . rd 0 0 0'2 04 0...qllefact.25 for obtaining the values )f rd at various depths.Earthquake magnitude.3. According to Seed and Idriss (1971). ..6.. ~ 0 E . The average equivalent uniform shear stress 10\' is about 65 percent of the maximum shear stress 1max'Therefore 'tav '.5 t.
Oepthof water   liquefactionJd "'.....'.~ 308 Soil Dy/tamics & Machi/te Follllda/i~ns The procedure of locating liquefaction zone can be summarised in following steps: (i) Establish the design earthquake..I ~ . ~ 0 .  Critical . depth for..". (ii) Using Eq.. 7.26 : Zone of initiai liquefaction in field .22.. 7. ...26.I Zone of initial Lique faction £..' '..' c::. peak shear stress ¬æòææòþæóææþóþôô¢ôô .. .. 'GWT . th ( crv) field OR for the relative density DR of the soil at site. 7. (iv) Using Eq. ~I £. L Equivalent cyclic due~ a." . 'tav > 'th (v) At depth h..22.:: 0 ~ U :J \11 "0 C :J 0 ~ 0'1 c::.~. c::. one can obtain the value of shear stress required for causing liquefaction.... Equivalent .... liquefaction will occur if (vi) Repeat steps (ii) to (iv) for other values of h to locate the zone of liquefaction.I shear stress \ Peak cyclic shear stress needed to cause liquefaction in Ns cycles Oaboratory) developed 0 . 7. determine the value of .. (iii) Using Fig.'.~. determine the value of «Jd/2 <J3)for given value ofDso of soil and number of equivalent cycles Ns for the relative density of 50%. ' earthquake cycLes inN°s \ Fig..tab~~ . . determine 'tav at depth h below ground surface...25. and obtain peak ground acceleration amax'Also obtain number of significant cycles Ns corresponding to earthquake magnitude using Table 7. . 7. 'tav and 'th can be plotted as shown in Fig. Multiplying 'th th ( crv ) field OR with effectives stress at depth h.3..
Ji conSlslsofa rigid platform on which the test tank (LOSm x 0. 7. .Horizontal shaking table (. (iii) Deformation occurs under plane strain conditions.27 sho:ws atypical setup of a horizontal shake table available at University of oorkee.a large specimenof saturatedsand is preparedin a tank which is placedon a bration' table~fig. 1. . 4.N l TABLE STUDIES vibrationta~le studies. The table is then excited with the desired amplitude and acceleration. 'Fig. .. .6 m x 0.Amplitude .. " .. The platforin is connected with motor and brake assembly for imparting vibrations. prepared and consolidated under anisotropic conditions.27 :. Some rnportantcharacteristicsof the table are: . [he procedure of carrying out test is simple. Variation of pore pressure with time and number of cycles are then noted.Frequency Acceleration ~  010 mm 020 Hz 020 g Facilities are available for measuring pore/pressures at different depths in the sample placed in tank.~Contd. (ii) It is possible to trace the actual porewater pressure distribution during liquefaction. (iv) Visual examination of sample during vibration is possible. 3.on two pairs of rails anchored to le foundation.0VIB~TI9. Firstly the sand is placed in the tank under saturated conjition. Horizontal shaking table with a tank mounted on it. he platform with wheels' rest~ on four knife edges being rigidly fixecl. . . Vibratory system 2.) . The main advantages of vibration table studies are: (i) It simulates field conditions in better way as the size of sample is'large.fuefaCtion of Soils 309 1. PorePressure measuring system (a) General view .6 m high) is mounted. Settlement measuring Device. 7.
Critical acceleration is not unique property of sand.~. (v) Entrapped air. the amplitude and frequency of oscillation and the overburden pressure (Maslov. even small drainage surcharge wil reduce the time of the liquefied state tenfold (Fig. the liquefaction starts from the top and proceeds downward (Florin anp Ivanov. Tests have shown that. 7. Revoluation counter (b) Vibratory system Fig. the whole stratum liquefied at the same time. The important conclusions drawn from vibration table studies are: 1. Connecting rod 6.1961). Finn. . 1957.27 : Horizontal shaking table Since 1957. Fly wheel 7.'.Pulley 3. while under steadystate vibrations. 1970).. Matsuo and Ohara.28. Florin and Ivanov. creased (Fig. many investigators have studied lIquefaction characteristics of sand using vibration table on different sizes of soil samples and dynamit: characteristics of load. Motor 2.. the number of cycles required to cause liquefaction 'in. Crankshaft 5. It depends on the type of sand. The effect of the following aspects have been studied: (i) Grain size characteJ:istics of soil. Hand break 8. 7. 3tO Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations ~". If sand is subjected to shock loading.e. 3. (iii) Initial stress condition i.29.. 1961). 7. 2. . 1. As the surcharge pressure incre~sed. (iv) Intensity and character of excitation force. 1960: Florin and Ivanov. overburden pressure. For a given sand placed at a particular density. its density. there is sudden increase in pore pressure at a definite acceleration. This is termed as 'critical acceleration'.1961). Eccentric wheels 4. (ii) Relative density.
' C 0 15 q 1/1 v ::I tT 0 c 10 C>I /:~... i961i  ~ .. ..5 20 ..67 z ~ oX. 2 20 6 50 100 .k mem brane First liquefaction for old container results A a . . 28 ~ 0'1 First liquefaction thi c. tr )fj( 0 0 25 50 of impacts 75 100 Number Fig.6 0. I:J VI VI ~ Frequency eo ~ 42 First liquefaction thin membrane 6 A Ia.25 9 2 Hz 0..~r .. E ...c I:J I.  1972)  22..' le/action of Soils 311 . 7.29 : Influenceoftbe intensityor dl'alnlng~w:cbarge on tbeperiodof1lme within which the sand remain liquid (Florin"and Ivanov. . 7. 70 Ac c el era tron 5.000 " table studies (Finn.28 : Effect of surface pressure on resistance to Initial liquefaction In vibration 10..' q (k NI m2) ~ E '" 5 C}() O..f'I \J I x 1000 to first liquefaction 100 Fig..
ases with the increase in initial relative density (Maslov. so that there is practically no indication that the phenomenon of liquefaction occurs in coarsegrained soils.8 1.0 '63.".8 mm) 50. ? 04 "12 200 E u L::I ':: <:I} <:I} Accl.... <:I} ñÌ»²«¹¸¿¬ sand Obra sand Ukai sand L e ll...15 mm).Omm) 51.5Hz '..". "'66. The maximum pore water pressure developed in about 6 to 10 cycles.31'shows a typical test data indicating the effect of relative density on an increase in pore pressure at 10 percent g for Solani sand (Gupta.& mDJ.5 62.... The time during which the ~iquefiedstate lasts is much less for coarser grained soils than for fine grained' sbiiS (Fig: 7.'' . Gupta.5 64. ' ' '.' 52.}i (it) Obra sand (Dso = 1.." ' '... '.. .'.sa.'. 1979). In this case.0 .  '" 312 .s 0'2 20 0.5 62.0 Ukai sand (1. /"."7" .it"re~ained c9nstant for ~bout 35s: thu~ .. It started dissipating immediately after attaining maximum valu~.Sotani. 1979) Intia/ Re/ative Density Acceleratioll . 1979).4 : Initial Relative Density Beyond .. .~ :.'30.4!).0 62. ~" 10 155mm depth L a.4 .'l979).0 ..So.. 0 1 Number 40 of cvcles 200 400 600 1OC Fig.0 mm). The total time required for dissipation was about 6s for Ukai sand...'."~. " .~.0 t . . Time. which no Excess Pore Pressure Develops (Gupta. . .5 60. .4 beyond which no porewater pressure was observed. 10010 9 ...Gupta.il Dynamics & Ma~hine Foundaiiolls'l 4.l.". . 5.0'.'.>ra and Tenughat sands.47 mm) and Solani sand (Dso = 0.. ' 0.5' (g) Percent 10 20 40 50 TefJughat sand .. .. . no porewater pressure increase was observed when initial density became 62 percent.. The corresponding value for Sohmi sand was 12Us.:::'!. the liquefied masses of soil have no time for displacements... (iii) Tenughat sand (Dso = 0.0 61. Obra sand p.'..5 59.<:~~{O.. He carried out liquefaction studies on four sands namely (i) Ukai sanq (Dso=. " .the time required for. 7.15m'!IL 62.~ld 65Q(O. Figure 7.~'~ '.0 ":'.. 1979) Since the liquid state lasts for only a short time. The excess porewater pressuresdec!e.2 '.. .5 64'.. Table 7.. and 20s for 01.) 65.. 1957.. Tests performed on other types of sand with different accelerations gave the values of relative densities as listed in Table 7.... dissipation decreases with the increa~e in coarseness.S 66.sand.~ .30: Pore pressure versus number of cycles for different sands (Gupta..So/ani...:" .
. 7. is is a similar conclusion as obtaine~ by ~eed and Peacock (1971) by cyclic simple tests.. In shake table IS.. .. """ . 0 0 Oepth(mm) 60 280 ~ ~. '~ " "CA.0 u ""'0. la) and number of cycles required for causing liquefaction as shown in Fig. "C\ Excess pore pressure 0 \~ L.(7.is.7..am g where W = Tot~l p~essure exert~d OJ?the bas~ of t~nk p~ac_ed on t!1eshake table 00am = P~ak ac~eleration of die uniform cyclic mQtion ...... efaction of Soils 313 360 15 32 " ~. " 155 250 1. It indicates that for iven value of'th' more number of cycles are required for liquefying a sand having more relative density. W ' o'tho=. E E ~ " 240 " u/CTv /> 1 complete liquefaction ay 05 '. the value of'th is given by : .. 1979) DeAlba. Seed and Chan (1976) presented the results of shake table tests in the form of stress ratio . 200 160  ::J Ifj Ifj u/ov a...31: Pore pressure vs. 120 80 40 0 20 30 Initial 40 50 relative  60 density 70 (°/0) 80 90 Fig..26) . a Cl.. ~ L..32.initialrelativedensityin Solanisand (Gupta...
a 0. Acceleration pickups are placed at regular intervals from the blast point to record horizontal and vertical acceleration at the time of blasting. Seed and Chad.Cu ='2. . Field data using small explosives at some depth at the site alongwith pore pressure and settlement observations for predicting liquefaction potential are available ir literature from few investigations (Florin and Ivanov.20 m Fine sand Clay Silty sand mixed.2 u u ~ L.. porewater pressure and ground settlement at the blast point are then obtained by extrapolation. 1961. The hole is later filled with sand and the casing ~swithdrawn. Gupta and Mukerjee (1979) performe< blast tests in a river bed having the soil profile as given below: Depth 04 m 4m7m . gelatin etc. °50 = 0. Lead wires from detonators are connected with blaster so that the charges may be fired at any desired moment. 1976) 7. with kankars 2160 (increases. Kummeneja and Eide. Special gelatin (( percent.mthe source point. Description of Soil Average Nva/ue '5 . The data is then interpreted to obtain the liquefaction potential.r::. 0.dls~ances from sourc~ point were measur at 2. One of the main purpose of carrying out blast tests is to ascertain whether the soil at the site will liquefy under simulated earthquake loading."..5m depth from the ground surface. ' .12 mm Position of water table near the surfal Cu = Uniformity coefficient 7 m . 1968. Krishna am Prakash. 11'1 111 a Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations 0... 2 kg) was installed at 4m depth in 150 mm diameter cased bore holes. with depth) The critical hydraulic gradient of top loose sandy deposit works out. ù . ¢ ee. The porewater pressures at vari~us .11 FIELD BLAST STUDIES In blast tests.8.47.314 +0 L. 1978.) with electric detonators is installed at predetermined depth in a cased bore hole. 1961. The depth of each acceleration pickup was 200 IT below the ground surface.3 ' .  Remarks . Gupta and Mukerjee. Accelerations.1 1 10 Num be r 0 fey 100 cl e S J Ns 1000 Fig.32: Corrected 'Ch/cry versus Ns for initial liquefaction from shake table studies (DeAlba. Similarly porewater pickups and settlement gauges are placed at certain distances from the blast point to record the increase in pore water pressure and ground settlements. êè 54 ~ P 0.to be 0. Arya et aI. 7. Prakash and Gupta. .4 OR (0/0) ~ ~ 'U ~ . 1979). Horizontal surface accelerations were measured using acceleration pie ups placed at various distances fro. Blasting was done wi the help of an electric exploder. For examining the chances of liquefaction at barrage site. predetermined charge (like ammonia. . L. 1970.
shown in Fig.tan~~' from blast point are shown respectively in Figs.iIIIb. . Variation of maximum horizontal accelerajon and porewater pressure' with dis.34: Surface ac:c:eleration. 1979) Figure 7.814 . 1979) . A typical acceleration record obtained lt 35 m distance from the blast point is .34. . Srn ~ 0 Srn B13 . 7. Liquefaction of Soils 315 B7 I 10m I r 86 1am I 8S I 812 10m 10m I I 84 B:f lOm . ..33: Site layout for field blasting tests (Gupta and Mukerjee.  ¢º»®»²½» point B15 816 Fig.35 and 7. 7. Fig.36.33 shows the sketch of layout of the tests at the site. 7. 7.(Guptaand Mukerjee.
35 : Acceleration versus distance (Gupta and Mukerjee.0 'Distance 1 7'5 trom I 10. .37..5 m 4m measured = ~ 0/1 C>I 2.5 E C>I 11\ Pore pressure at 2.... " '. 7. 316 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations On the basis of past earthquakes. 16 12 " ( " u u 0 . 7.0 blast I 12.5) 24 20 \ \ \ 0 ( 0'1 0 . 7..5 1.5 (m) 15'0 175 200 ..0 1. Fig... 1979) ".36: Port: jJressure vs. distance (Gupta and Mukerjee. '80 0 0 10 20 30 40 Distance tor blast 50 (m) 60 70 Fig..::. ""'( .0 1174 :i C>I .6 cycles of 0.. the maximum possible acceleration record at the site is assumed as shown in Fig.075 g acceleration (Table 7.c 0 . 0 C>I C>I 8 4 ( i'. 0 a.0 Depth of blast 2. Using the method of Lee and Chan (1972) this earthquake record is worked out to be equivalent to 19.3C 0 a. 1979) ). u E 0 c 0 > 05 0 0 I I 112'9 I 2'5 5.. C>I ".
"k\/t.:r '" ." c0 'C~('6 '~hruo .. "'J >"'r .. 0 .. = E  ."". '" '"  0" I ..... . co 0r0 . iquefactionof ~oils 317 '.J.::0: = :::.... Yh".:r c E ...y" lP. .'.~(!.. t.at~fl:t j.~~".... "C c <": <":  If) C.:"J .." :. . r ': N roD ...:.  ..1 ..2 . 0 /' 0 ... 11.V q DJ ~l:~"J"\1''.JVi." 0 0 0 (3 0 0 co 0 . .: ... .' " "' . .. " " .!)J:.. N < 0 . .. ..'"" . 0 .."h.. . .
.5 8/2 = 4.6 1.5 ~EquivaleDt Cy~les for Anticipated Earthquake Acc!' level in percent ofpeak .6) (Fig... Distance Fig..4 Total number of cycles for 0.. 1979) .4/1..75 1:max = 29.8 2.38: Equivalent cycles versus distance (Gupta and Mukerjee..9 10 20 from bLast (m) 30 40 . .. z 0"1 0.at (5) 22.1 4.2 0. 0 0 2.5 0.iL cycles .(1) 10080 8060 6040 40100 Average acc!.. in percent (2) 90 70 50 20 Number of cycles (3) 17/2 = 8. 7. .0 29. Conversion factor 1.acc!. Equivalent number of 0.. 0 > :J er UJ I I I I J 0 ..6 22 20 ~19'6 i\ 1\ .0 25/2 = 12..651: .(4) 2...5 > 1000  . ~ r0 0 0 12 u 111 ~ \ 8 0 4 >u c ~ .16 ~ I .20 negligible Total ..5 = 19....318 Soil Dynamics & Machine FoundatWd Table 7..... _"J.
8 x 2. the blast has the same severity as the design earthquake at a distance of 2. and at a depth of 2. CN 0.9 m from the blast hole. . Liquefaction of Soils '319 Similarly the blast records at different distances are also converted into equivalent number of cycles of 0. 1974) ~..8 20 . 7. The pore pressure developed is 1. IS: 21311981 gives the standard procedure for carrying out standard penetration test.6.12 EVALUATION OF LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL USING STANDARD PENETRATION RESIST ANCE The standard penetra~ion test is most commonly used insitu test in a bore hole to have fairly ~ood estimation of relative density of cohesionless soil. many researchers have made attempt to develop correlations in liquefaction potential and standard.5 m is 1.075 g acceleration (Fig. From this figure it can be observed that vibrations generated due to blast at a distance of2.. penetration resistance. 7.075 g. ". 7)6. > = Correction factor (Fig. J. From Fig. SPT values (N) obtained in the field for sand have to be corrected for accounting the effect of ovberburden pressure as below: NI = CN ..6 cycles of 0.5 m the critical porewater pressure or hydraulic head is 0. .5 = 2.. N .9 m.38). c 200 t>I :J . 500 Fig..0 m.(7.39) U t>I > 400 t>I / / I tU The correlation between ~ 1 values and relative density of granular soils suggested by Terzaghi and Peck (1967) is given in Table 7. The actual porewater pressures developed will be larger than the measured value of 1. .9 m are equivalent to 19.74 m of water column.e. '~ecause there will'be a time lag in rise of water level in piezometer pipe. The critical hydraulic gradient for this site is 0.8 la 1.74 m. Hence under the above conditions.74 m. a larger pore pressure is expected to be developed and complete liquefaction of site is expected during the earthquake. 2 E t>I ~  1.39: Chart for correction ofNvalues in sand for inOuenceof overburden pressure(pecketal.100I :J III III t>I ~ '.D ~ 0 v ~ t>I L t>I 300 1/ I I . the expected earthquake i. 7. therefore at a depth of 2.6 Corr~ction factor.2 14 16 /. 7.. Since liquefaction primarily depends on the initial relative density of saturated sand.. oX / / / " ~ c.8.27) NI = Corrected value of standard penetration resistance CN 0.. the pore pressure developed at a distance of 2.4 0 '"' N 0.
. 7AO.320 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundatio" Table 7.) c 100 Heavy damage. NI 04 CompaCtness Very loose Loose Medium Dense Very dense related to Relative Density Relative Density DR (%) 015 1535 3565 6585 > 85 q. kuizumi (1966).. based on Nvalues of the sand deposit (Seed..) < 28 2830 3036 3641 > 41 410 1030 3050 > 50  After the occurence of Niigata earthquake. (:. (:. 7.40 : Analysis of liquefaction potential at Niigata for earthquake of June t 6.) 1J L:J . and Ohasaki (1966 studied the areas in Niigata where liquefaction had not occured and developed criteria for differentiatint between liquefaction and nonliquefaction conditions in that city.Ohasaki (1970) gave a usefu rule of thumb that says liquefaction is not a problem if the blow count from a standard penetration tes exceeds twice the depth in meters. (Deg. and liquefaction > 0 > . Kishida (1966).. 1979) . t 994 (Seed.. I I I I 50 Light damage & no liquefaction ~ ~ L~ VI \11 ~ L0..D L(:.... 0 N z E ..) 150 ~ u  Boundar y determined by damage survey (Kishida) Boundary UJ  determined by field observation(Kuizumi) Ohasaki 10 20 0 20 30 40 S tanda rd penet ra t ion resi stance (N blows) Fig.6 : NI and. The results of these studies for Niigata areshown in Fig. 1979).
Seed. 0 5 Open points indicate sites  0 ~ where no liquefaction 0 cc urred..3  . one can obtain the value of shear stress N "Ch required for causing liquefaction..c.. 0 Extrapolated from results 11 of. and obtain the peak ground acceleration Qmax' Also obtain number of significant cycles corresponding to the magnitude of earthquake using Table 7. (iv) Using Fig. (iii) Determine the value of standard penetration resistance value (N) at depth h below ground surface. . 7.. 50 .1\ 'L. . 1976..1\1.25... 0 Modified1.x . Christian and Swiger.3. 1. 8..:. 7....8 07. 2 r== 0 .} . Obtain corrected NI value after applying overburden correction to N using Fig.0 v U >Cl L..8 113 ~ O... 7. L.~ .. 0 4 86'5 .Cl III 1.1\ 11 ~ .1\ Cl :J c::v Cl . III c::v 0 . .0 Nlblows/ft. Based on field data 0 0 L.large scale laboratory tests 0 0 10 20 30 resistance> 1.i:)~netration Fig. C 1...I.~ ..6.. L..41.. KI~ ~ L. 1979) iI.'.9 0 \J \J C c::v Q..1\ . Seed (1979) proposed the following procedure for liquefaction analysis: (i) Establish the design earthquake.:: c::v 0"1 Cl c ..~: Liquefaction of Soils 321 On the basis o(more comprehensive study on the subject and data presented by other investigators (Seed and Peacock.5 07. 7. Cl.c. 1971.41 : Correlation between field liquefaction behaviour or'sands for level ground conditions and penetration resistance (Seed.. (ii) Using Eq. 1977).. Multiplying ('Ch/ crv) with effective stress at depth h below ground surface. E 06 Solid poi nts indicate sites and test conditions showing liquefaction z 0 :J 0 1..'\J >.. .39. determine "Cav at depth h below ground surface. determine ('Ch/crv)for the given magnitude of earthquake and NI value obtained in step (iii).. \J III 2 0. Mori et aI.
(Fig 7..=:.(7.05 .. ..0.35 .0.(7.320 M (Dfo.015 h ..0 mm 0. g . h = depth of plane below ground surface in m For the soil not to liquefy FL should be greater than unity. .882 ~a. ~ 70 .6 < Dso < 2..29b) where N = Observed value of standard penetration resistance crv = Effectiveoverburdenpressure at the depth underconsiderationfor liquefactionexamination in kN/m2 D50 = Mean grain size in mm L = is the ratio of dynamic load induced by seismic motion and effective overburden pressure..(7. (v) At depth h. g crv amax = Peak ground acceleration due to earthquake = 0..322 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundation.6 mm ~ For 0. It is given by a max crv " 'd L .31 where M = Magnitude of earthquake on Richter's scale D = Maximumepicentraldistance in km.28) L L R is the ratio of insitu cyclic strength of soil and effective overburden pressure. It depends on relative density.(7...29 a) R = 0..225 10glO ( DSQ ) R ~ 0.42) °v = Total overburden pressure rd = Reductionfactor to accountthe flexibilityof the ground g = Acceleration due to gravity.02 < Dso < 0..30.184 x 10°. effective overburden pressure and mean particle size. mIs2 rd = 1 .. liquefaction will occur if 'tav > 'th (vi) Repeat steps (ii) to (v) for other values of h to locate the zone ofliquefaction.s. Iwasaki (1986) introduced the concept of liquefaction resistance factor FL which is defmed as R F =.882 V~~+70 + 0. It is given by For 0.(7.
Grain Size and Its Distribution. depends. . t 977) 7. 7. '" ~L'>+ ::' ' . r. '7.13. It is .'.of the system.3. Only highly sensitive clays may laase their strength substantially under vibration. . 7.. they are summarised below: 7. Tatsuoka and Yoshida.13.dynamic ""'.g :J C 7 0'1 0 6 Mean line = Lower bound l0910 0 =0. ' '0.13.1.77M . and (iv) velacity. the pore pressure develaped during vibrations can dissipate faster.e. Frequency ..13.4. . " .ofdynamiuc load namely (i) frequency.' . Fine and uniform sands are more prone to liquefaction than coarser ones.Liquefaction of Soils 323. . frequency and acceleratian are mare impartant.2.42: Relationship between the maximum epicentral distanceofliquefied sites (D) and earthquake magnitude (M) (Kuribayashi.11 type I" of the . 9 8 ~ Nu mbers represen t the earthquake numbers 30 . .3'6 ~ 5 4 (M>6) L09100 1 087 M4S 'r 0 2 5 10 epicentral 20 50 distance lOO" 200 500 1000 Maximum ot liquefied sites.: ' : .of the dynamic laad plays vital rale . Out . Liquefaction . Liquefactian daes not occur in case of cohesive soils. Since the permeability of coarse sand is greater than fine sand.'.13 FACTORS AFFECTING LIQUEFACTION ~ ' Although the factors affecting liquefaction have been discussed during the laboratory and field studies on liquiefaction.. .ofthe mast important factars contralling liquefactian. . Further the liquefactian laad i. . 7. (iii) acceleratian.one . (ii) amplitude. laad causing steady vibratians..D (km) Fig. whether'it isa transient laad .'" .only if it is clase ta the natural frequency .. . Vibration Characteristics. Bath pare pressures and settlement are canstderably reduced during vibratians with increase in initial relative density and hence chances of liquefaction and excessive settlement reduce with increased relative density.ofthe four parameters . Soil Type. Initial Relative Density.orthe ..occursin cahesionless soils as they lose their strength completely under vibration due ta the development of pore pressures which in turn reduce the effective stress to zera. .onthe .
Further. If air is trapped in saturated soil and pore pressure develop.  .10. then stress condition causing liquefaction depends upon Ko (coefficient of earth pressure at rest) and for Ko > 5.ugh it depends on a number of factors. trapped air helps to reduce the possibility to liquefaction. Liquefaction resistance to some extent can be improved by : 7. 7. if a pervious deposit has large dimensions. Tho. it increased the stress that causes liquefaction by a factor of 1. Studies on liquefaction characteristics of freshly deposited sand and of similar deposit previously subjected to some strain history reveal.14.7. Sands are more pervious than fine grained soil. Surcharge Load. the drainage path increases and the deposit may behave as undrained. as the pore water pressure build up is much faster and the stress ratio required is about 10 percent less than that required for unidirectional shaking.' . This method. Based on these.8. thereby. the stress condition required to cause liquefaction increases by at least 50%. Method of Soil Formation. Hence. But recent investigations show that liquefaction characteristics of saturated sands under cyclic loading are significantly influenced by method of sample preparation and by soil structure. the initial effective stress is large.h ' . Multi directional shaking is more severe than one directional loading (Seed ~t al. 7. The various 'methodssuggested for compaction loose' sands . 7. A 75% increase in liquefaction resistance has been reported on liquefaction of an undisturbed sand compared to its freshly prepared sample which may be due to some form of cementation or welding at contact points of sand particles and associated with secondary compression of soil.5. Location of Drainage and Dimension of Deposit.1. of in'situ . lifts are commonly 150 mm to 200 mm.14 ANTILIQUEFACTION MEASURES A comprehensive study is required to find out various possible measure to prevent liquefaction. If the surcharge load. horizontal vibratiorls have more severe em~c.13.13. few can be controlled in field.1. Compaction of Loose Sands.13. When ruJ>bertyres are used.13.1.13. certain methqds have been suggested (Lew. Rolling with rubber tyrerollers: It may be accompli~hedby excavati~g some depth. Therefo~e!the liquefaction potential can be. ' ' .redu~ed by coI?patting the loose sand deposit before any structure is constructed.5.~ 1977). .6.e. a part of it is dissipated due to the compression of air. are: . 1984). If the initial stress condition is not isotropic as in field.9. then carefully backfilling in controlled lift thickness and compacting the soil. 7.324 ' Soil Dy"amics & Macll ille Folllldatiolls Whole stratum gets liquefied at the same t~eunder tra~sient loading.13. however cannot be used for compacting deep sand deposits. 7. 7. then transfer of stress from soil grains to pore water will require higher intensity vibrations or vibrations for a longer duration.14.The drainage path is reduced by the introduction of drains made out of highly pervious materiaL" 7. As has been indicated earlier. loose saturated sands are more prone to liquefaction than dense saturated s~nds.For a given acceleration. while it inayproceed from top to lower layers u?der steaqy state vibrations (Florin and Ivanov. Age of sand deposit may influen<:eits liquefaction characteristics. i. 1961). however. liquefaction occurs only after ~ certain number of cycles imparted to the deposit. .t than vertical vibrations. increasing the chances of liquefaction of such a d~posit. Period Under Ssustained Load. Sands tmlike clays do not exhibit a characteristics structure. . Trapped Air. However. that although the prior strain history caused no significant change in the density of the sand. 7. Previous Strain History.
Chemical stabilization is in the form of lime. (iy) The compaction gained by repeating the blasts more than 3 times is small. The most common grout is a mixture of cement and water.  7.' . .. small thifkness of soils ca~ be compacted by these methods and they can' ot be used for large deposits.. Vibrofloatation : The method is most commonly used to densify. He concluded that (i) Lateral distribution of charges should be based on results obtained from a series of single shots. The earliest use of detonating buried charges of explosive for compacting loose cohesionless soils in [heir natural state has been reported by Lymari. however. . Generally grout can be used if the permeability of the deposit is greater than 105 m/s. (1942). Driving of piles: Piles when driven in loose deposits.5m of sand. The device has water jets at top and bottom. . Also plates mounted with vibratory ~semblycan be used.5m to 2m can be compacted with this equipment (Bowles. This concept may be utilized in compacting the site having loose sand \eposits. Grouting is a technique of inserting some kind of stabi..14.5. (iii) For deposits less than 10m thick. .. Vibrofloatation utilizes a cylindrical penetrator. The agent reacts with the soil and/or itself to form a stable mass. the flow )f water is diverted to upperjet and vibrofloat is pulled out slowly. (v) The relative densities can be increased to 80%.14. 1982). .3... Vibrofloat is lowered under its own weight vith bottom jet on which induces the quick sand condition. Compaction with vibratory plates and vibratory rollers: Compacti'on of cohesionless soils can c achieved using s~ooth wheel rollers commonly with a vibratory devIce inside. The lower half is vibrator and upper half s stationary part. Sand or gravel is added to the crater formed. "". with or without sand. 7. ..' .qllefactioll of Soils 325 . cement. two or more tiers of small charges are preferred. the overall stiffness of the soil stratum increases substantially.14. (iv) There is no apparent limit of depth that can be compacted by means of explosive.14.2. flyash or combination of these.14. compacts the sand within an area overed by eight times around it. . Top jet aids the compaction process. (ii) Very little compaction can be achieved in top 1m. when it reaches the desired depth. As pile remains in the sand.4. .'lizing agent iI:1to the soil mass under pressure.1.~ (ii) Where loose sands greater than 1Om thick are to be compacted.2 Grouting and Chemical Stabilization. Lift depths upto ahout . .cohesionless deposits of sands L11d gravel with having not more than 20% silt or 10% clay.1. (iii) Small charges are more effective than large charges for compacting upper 1.""""""" "'" . t is an equipment of about 4m long and 400mm in diameter. The pressure forces the agent into the soil voids in a limit space around the injection tube. Later Hall (1962) reported that (i) Repeated blasts are more effective than a single blast of several small charges detonated simultaneously. \s the vibrofloat is pulled out a crater is formed.1. '..1. charges placed at 2/3rd depth from surface will generally suffice. Blasting: The explosion of buried charges induces liquefaction of the soil mass followed by ~scape of excess pore water pressure which acts as a lubricant to facilitate rearrangement and thus leading the sand to a more compacted state.
. The effectiY. 1988 and Susumu et a1. Blankets and drains of material with higher permeability reduces the length of drainage path and also due to higher coefficient of permeability. It indicates that pore pressure increases with increase in overburden pressure till a maximum value of pore pressure is reached. (kd/ks) > 200.~ . depending upon the situation.43: Excess pore water pressure versus initial pressure on Solani sand (Gupta. Cl! L 0 a. 1988).CI! 8 4 v )( 0 4 8 12 Effective 16 2024 28 32 (kN/m2 36 ) 40 44 UJ 48 0 overburden pressure Fig.14.'for determining the spacing of drains.e drainage path is reduced by . a.' . 7. ktJ' is about 200 times the permeability. .45 .14.4. III III .15 STUDIES ON USE OF GRAVEL DRAINS Yoshimi and Kuwabara (1973) were first to introduce gravel drains to stabilize a potentially liquefiable sand deposit.. makes the deposit safe against liquefaction. '1 terms shown on this figure are as below: . Seed and Brooker (i97~) developed nondimensional charts as shown in Fig. 24 Solani sard E " z " :J L 201 DR=20 15Hz % Dead weight surcharge 250 mm depth _Acct. 1979) 7. . ~ ..43 shows a plot between rise in pore pressure and effective over burden pressure at an acceleration of ten percent of g. . Figure 7. Seed and Brooker (1976) have proposed an analytical procedure for designing such drains (Fig. ill( .the introduction of number of artificial drams." '. Application of surcharge over the deposit liable to liquefy can also be used as an effective measure against liquefaction. Vario~5 . 7.44). of cyc les 10 Cl! L 16 ~ I Zone ot liquefaction ~ 12 . .326 Soil Dynamics & MJlcmne Ftnmdations 7. . Thus an overbuden prssure above this value.e. 10% gNo. speed up the drainage process (Katsumi et a1. Application of Surcharge.< . ks' of the soil in which they are installed i. . 7.3. 7. These drains are considered fully effective if the permeability of material of drains. after which it starts decreasing with further increase in surcharge. Drainage Using Coarse Material Blanket and Drains.
e' '" " . '. .~ 1 ~ "'.: '.' ot."'{'. \. ~ "::~~LG_WT ~ ':::'{.'. ":'... ".:~..' ~~~I .. .fi... " .. "':..' . Re' ..'~q~~e!aftioll.4 :. (0 ) Plan '""..."::..'. t" "" " 'N . ..~.'.'"".'"""c...". ..:.' .. .. . .  : . "r . /'~:'" "'..:2"::::. ..' .' ¥' \ .y..:.'..~~:... . " '. :.. ~ .' .. i .:'.." Sec tior... " e' ...~"':: I:'..'"""". . .~ ..'. °t'~~Lf C.~~ :..'.') (b) : i..4. SS . 327 f:~. " '" ..'.. .':!"":~'.. ... \~\ "...'.. Re . .""". c ' .': '."". ...': .: . " ~ . .'..' ' 'r" ..'.". ..'."..J'.:Gravel drains .. :..'" '. . . .'~'..<..~...' . ':. .'..'\""" t' '"It> ". c. ... ".~' $" :: 'G " ..'~":". .. '.' ..:) Rd ~ J""'. ".'...."."'!"~'~.. '.' " ..".'. ./ ..".. '".. '... J .t .".. .g.".7. ' '" .
328 SoU Dynamics & Madine Founda~s < 06 rg 0.4 05 06 =2  Fig.. ..d / Re (b) NiNl 0. 7.211f:J° 0 0 Tad:' '. ' 0.4 0 .2 03 R.Contd.1 0.1 0'2 Rd 0'3 04 O'S 06 / Re (a) iNl = 1 1.) :.45: Relation between gr~3test perewater pressure ratio and drain system parameters (.0 rg 04 02 0 0 0.
30.45: Relation between greatest porewater pressure ratio and drain system parameters '" I " . .6 'J: Rd / Re (d) .4 0.8 0.:.' .5 0.O 5. 0.I! I .2 110 Tad .6 rg 0.0 2.2 " 0 0 .01 0'2 0.of Soils . 7.. 0.:.4 .0 0.' c' .0 6. .4.NslNl = 4 Fig.0 / Re (c) N/Nt = 3 1. ~19 o~ lefaaion.200 0 0 1.0 30 Rd ~.' . .0 08 0 6 trg 0.
Ug ay 0.6 of earthquake" .~f sand. . because.cyclic 'simple sh~ar test (Fig. NI = Number of stres~cycles needed for liquefaqiion Rd Re = Radius of rock or gravel drains.'' = Coefficient of permeability of sand in horizontal direction' = Coefficient.4 0. = Initial consolidation pressure Ns = Number of cyclic stress applications cry .8 0.. no drainage of water is involved and hence permeability of soil does not have a I to play. .' cry  ~ '~' <'~ Uu = Excess porewater pressure build up in ~. 7. Thi reasonable. 0.46: Rate of pore water pressure buildup in cyclic simple s.g.46) . Fi. OR' and not so significant soils with smaller relative density: But for loosesoils'rat~ of generation' of pore pressure depend' number of cycles of stresses which in turn depends on frequency. Dynamic triaxial apparatus was used to conduct tests un perfectly undrained and perfectly drained conditions. which is based on draInage.d ' : ' iUSof the rock or gravel drains ' T ad . In case of perfectly uildrained condition.of volume compre~~ibili~_.330 Ug chosen for design r = Limiting value of .4 0~6 0. (1~84) had. 1.2 0 0 0.0 0. . the effect of drainage frequency is remarkable for soils with relatively largef1relative density. It was also concluded that in case of p'artial~ydrained condition.o..u .0 N/N. '¥ro= Unit ~eight mv 1d = Duration 1. They assumed that the dissipation of excess pore water pressure induced by an ea! quake will occur according to Darcy's'law.hear test Yosufumi et al.8 .'¥ro 'my ( Kh R~ Jof water' . g 0 Soil Dynamics & Machine FiJII. 7. liquet tion resistance was neither influenced by permeability of sample nor by the frequency of loading.idat. Rate of pore pressure built up depl on the rate of dissipation of pore pressure.developed a method to evaluate liquefacti~~resistance under partia drained condition.2 . = ~fec tiV. rad h .
ahara and Tamamoto (1987) pi"ese'nteda fundamental 'study on gravel pile for preventing liquefaction. They performed tests on shaking table of 12 m x 12 m x':3ffi(deep) size. the clogging of the drain has to' be considered.. As the acceleration increases..e.5 m was used. He used gravel drains walls under the foundation and it was lssumed that under plain strain condition the walls ar~ referred as drains. For a fixed diameter of pile and permeability of'soil. . The purpose of the tests. ' :' . as the optimum distance decreases. for away from the gravel drain.'. This facilitates the flow of water from pervious lenses present in the seams and layer of sand and speeds up the pore water pressure dissipation. The flow of pore water was assumed to be horizontaL They measured the pore water pressure at points near the dr~iris a~d away from the 'drai~s.65 m (deep).'luefactidn of Soils ". filled with cohesionless soiL 'he acceleration of loading was 200 gals. .35 x 0.28 m x 0. AJlexible ve~tical drain formed by us'ing organi.0 m x 0. Radii of gravel piles were 0. the non liquefied zone increases. .ter pressure to the effective overburden pressure) was generally below 0. as : . . 331 Yasushi and Taniguchi (1982) carried out large scale model tests to confirm the effectiveness of 'avel drains for preventing liquefaction of sand deposits.as.' '".. " characteristics . . the pore pressure ratio decreases. A shaking )oXof size 1. The sides of the squares are tak~n as optimum spacing between gravel piles. Highly permeable gravel are much more effective even at higher optimum distance and smaller diameter of drains. . 0. ' . one minute and the frequency was cps. . Figure 7.ection of non liquefied zone of deposit was basically a trapezoid in which pore pressure ratio (i. It was also observed by him that the surface drains may effectively prevent foundation settlement.. Results obtained by them presented in form of optimum radius of pile and optimum spacing between gravel piles. Wang (1984) made experimental study on liquefaction inhibiting effect of gravel drains.' .~nd widthQf drains qe inst~lled when ~n~tallingshallow dr~ins and outside drains. .6. pore pressure ratio decrea~es very sharply. In order to obtain good effect in reducing foundation settlement it must be ensured that adequate dept. They used a shaking box of size 1. As the number of d!'ainsin~talled is increased. As the permeability increases. The angle of trapezoid was found to be 15° to 17° in the 'direction of depth. . the "atio of excess pore w<l. They found that the effective area of gravel pile increases in proportion to the diameter of the gravel pile and the permeability.is effective in preventing the liquefaction of subsoils under a road that is partially buried.They concluded that liquefaction occured at points too far from the drain and that at points close to the gravel drain. They concluded that pore water pressure within 500 mm from the edge of a gravel drain is much maller than that. The 'most important properties of..5 m x 0. They have the advantage of decaying and getting mixed with the soil without harming the environment. " . as stated by them. Basi~ally this zone did not reduce<with ~ncreasingvibration time. When the filter permeability 'is large.c fibres like jute or coir has been used in several projects. ' ' . (i) to know the generation and dissipation of ' pore water pressure. liquefaction did not occur.""..15 ~ etc.0" ".~spermeability better than 105m/sec. The zone is about 40 mm outsid. It was noted by him that the .75 m. the zone reduces gradually but the increase in time does not reduce the non liquefied zone.e the drains.47 shows the effective circle whiChis defined as the circle with area equal to area of square with sides equal to the line joining mid p~ints of the ~pacing between adjacent gravel piles. "'.I1. " (ii) to clarify the effective are~foithe g~aveldra~fromthe viewp~int of preventing liquefaction and (iii) to know whether the grayel drain.such drains are permeability and tensile strength. the duration of shaking w. The jute filter cover h.
~I Fig.12 0.5 9. They may be filled with crushed stones.13. if necessary..5 12.22 NValue DR (%) 19 30 35 40 45 52 52 46 Remarks 3 5 6 9 '. C ire le of et f e cti ve a re a 'EL:~ i" l'77'r~'.20 0.14 0. 1987) Geotextiles are used fairly widely in surface and subsurface installations.47: Radius and distance (or spacing) of gravel pi/es (Ohara. 12 17 20 18 (i) Position of watt table lies 1.0 . Tht results of the boring are as given below: Depth (m) 1.332 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations .5 6.5 3.0 Classification of soils SP SP SM SM SM SP SW ' SW D50 (mm) 0. a boring supplemented with standard penetration tests was done upto 15. 1995). Perforated plastic pipes too may be used for this purpose.18 0.0 7. (Krishnaswamy and Issac. Crushed stone wrapped in geotextiles have often been used as surface and subsurface drains. 7.16 0.22 0. I ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES I Example 7.0 m depth.20 0.1 At a given site.0 4.24 24 30 60 65 'Ysub = 10 kN/m .5 m below the grour surface (ii) 'YmOiSI = 19 kN/r SW SW 0.0 15.0 10.13 0.
81 Number of significant cycles (Table 7.50 148. 6.97 0. the stress ratio ad/2a3 is read from Figs. ad and 'tav at different depths are given in Cols.52 3.54 11.22a and'b for given values of.31.Cr. 7.0 Total stress rd tal' (kN/m2) (3) 28.51 r .65 x Y h x (0.5) x 10~.10 4. 4.5 12. For M = 7. = 0.5 6. 3 and 5 of Table 7. 1p.97 0.50 58. 3.obtained using Table 7.. Ns = 20 (For M = 7. 8.25)~ 'tav = 0.083 g 9.5 9.7 : Computation of 'ray S.15. c9mputedusing Eq. Value of rd are read from Fig.96 0.50 (4) 0.25. The site is located in seismic ally . Determine the zone of liquefaction using (a) Seed and ldriss (1971) method (b) Seed (1979) method (c) lwasaki (1986) method >olution : . DR ' ( 2a 3 ) 50%"50.65yh.50 88. 7.91 0. Values of total stress. 9. 7. 2.95 0. The stress causing liquefactionat any depth is then.64 6.8. 5.' iquefaction' of Soils 333.2.50 298. ad 'th= '. (m) (I) 1.0 4.50 178. rd = 0.5 .of 1agnitude 7.50 268.42.No.94 0.69 9.0 7. 7. . Depth (kN/m2) (2) 1. .21 7.5.984 x 10(0.active region.50 208.5 3.5.14 10.083) rd It may be noted that y h represents the total stress at depth h below ground surface.302 x 1. Table 7.92' 0.7.0 10. 7.054 Y h rd amax .Dso' Average of the two values is the stress ratio for number of significant cycles equal to 20.0 13. 7.5) (ii) From Eq.50 238. D = 106 Km From Eq..3).50 118.g .98 0. and is likely to be subjected by 'an earthquake . Values of Cr are .23 14. The details of computations of 'rh are summarised in .av Table 7.99 0. (7.90 13. amax = 0.22. (iii) For 50% relative density.8 = 0. (a) Seed and Idriss (1971) method (i) From Fig.90 (5) 1.
rh/av .99 24.5 12.31 3.5 3.2298 0. 6:7.e same manner as illustrated in Seed and ldriss (1971) method (Table 7.0 28.2198 0.9 : Detail of Computations S.50 43.0 10.55 0.146 0.573 0.50 118. (b) S.03 13.5 6.0 4.556 0. The stress rati<?1: hla v is then obtained using the relevant curve of Fig. 7. 4.5 12.0 4. 15. of'th by Seed (1979) Method Effective .29 .24. 10. 5.' :" Soil Dynamics '.43 31.rh/a!. 3. the value of shear' stress at any depth induced 'by the earthq".69 24.50 148.2260 0.lake is obtained .0 3 5 6 9 12 17 20 18 24 30 4 6 7 10 13 17 ' 18 28.0.eed (1979) Method. exactly in th.39.28 .92 19.0 7.. cr (kN/m2) Cr .50 163.57 30.'. .2136 0. & Machine Foundatiolls 7. 4.9..5 15.225 0. 4.50 103. " .3336 1. 3.183 0.50 88.1'able S. '( i) In.91 4.50 0.191 0. Depth (m) (2) N.5 9. Id . (3) (4) (6) .50 73.0 13. 0.96 15. No Depth (m) Effective stress.55 0.045 0.50 73.2298 0.71 9.' I.50 7. 8.067 0..30 12..7) (ii) To de.55 . .50:..2.41 for the given value of corrected N.. ' 0.5 6.50 58.5 9.8 Computations' of 'thfrom DR Seed and Idriss . Table 7. 7.93 43. (1971) Metbod" .53.50 103.2012 .0 10. 6.50 148.2074 0." .50 133.Va/ue ".50 133. 5.3:J~. 9.079 0.2043 0.55.113 0. The details of computations are ~iven in Table 7. .No. 9. . 43.62 8.17 15.194 0.2260 0.61 0. 2. 1.50 58.0 13.rh .).60 0. 2. 6. 1O.269 ' " '1.77 22.5. this method.0 7.50 88.50 118. (7) > 1.98 17 " 20 I 25 . 8.rh Corrected óóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóùóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóó N stress (5) (1) 1.573 0.termine 1:hfirstly Nvalues are corrected for effective overburden pressure using Fig.50 163. (kN/nO 19 30 35 40 45 52 52 46 60 65 0.5 3.555 0.
' (ii) The factor L is then obtained .. 2.13 .30 : L = ..0..50 118.225 loglO ( °50 J The details of computations of factor R are given in Table 7..<"" I Iwasaki's Method . 3. .:. 8.11 : 'Details :of Computations S.. '.(3) 28.50 133.5 9..1092 0.14 0.7. .91 0.18 0. (3)..11. . 1..No.1.96 0. 2.5 12.10.. 2..\:.20 ' 0...94 0.670 2. .612 .35 R . (2) .10 :' DetaH~ of Computations Depth (m) ..3104 0.' .9 12 17 20 18 24 " 30 (6) 0. 7. . ..0. .678 ' '1.Depth (m)." "..3377 0:3464 4.. ' using Eq.(I) 1.5 6." 0.196 2.544 2.0 10. 3.'L i. .'( i) Fir'stIy the'value of factor R is obtained using the following Eel.' (4) 0.136. 4.5 . ~.. 6. of Obtaining Liquefaction rei (4) 0.(2) 1. " Table 7.260 0.' '. . 7.1. 10.427 2.' 8.50 43.545 .."'L787 1.0 7.1369 0.0. .0. +0. ".0 ' for obtaining Factor R in Iwasaki's 'D5o N Method R S..2950 0. .29a .20 0. 0.. 2 (kN/m ) ay (5) 3 5 6 . ::" i'C.808 .  .: 10. .22 0. "1'0.000 1.12 .1362 0. .345 1.498 2.. .. 9..882~ V~:+ 70.'~. 6: 7.0  ..2398 0.98 0.5 6. .0 4...97 0. ' .758 :..' .22 0. 9.':.397 2.. 4.5 3.597 2.. . 13..... .97 0..3077 0...0 13. 0.0820 0. . ..'" ..1357 " .24 /. . .9.50.5.. 3. L.90 .0.).11.92 0. '1.5 12.513 '!' .1295 0.No.1215 '.0 7.(mm) .2189 0. 0.50 73..50 148.16 0. 5.50 58.. .. ' ..1363 . " .50 88.1334 0.'..8. Table 7.3525 0.4 78 2.....26 .725 FL (6) . . ..3394 0.1 : 2.. a max '~'r gall a d The details of computations are given in Table 7.l'UeTattwn ofSolls: .5 15:0 5.50 163.3419 0. .50 103.9 Potential by Iwasaki's J\1ethod L (5) . (I). .. 9. crJcrv'" '.'.= 0.95 0.5 15.. The ratio of factor of safety RlL is listed in the astcolumnofTable7.
0 1. Castro.98 'I /wasaki method FL (R/L) method (1971) (kNlm2) 1. Dunn.. Harvard University. Finn. A. Engg. Poulos (1976). M..4 78 2. Casagrande. 8. Depth t'av t'h th Seed and Idriss (m) (kN/m2) Seed (1979) (kN/m2) 1.10 4. J.260 2. Paper 4390. N. K. 3. Washington. K. pp. p. Massachusetts: . 4. 6. 91. Symposium on Soil liquefaction. summary of different methods are given. India. ASCE. 865. Bowles. "Statistics of liquefaction and S.99 24. "Sand liquefaction in large scale simple shear tests". International Conference on Microzonation. 11351150. Proc.64 6. 3.92 19. . . Bransby and D. Vol. (1982). McGraw Hill Book Co.90 13. and S.43 31.91 4.397 2. U.. V. Dept. 1.53 6. National Connvention.71 9.17 15.. Div. E. B. DeAlba. . Soil Mech. II. Chan (1976). Vo\. Div. p. Engg. pp. Div.96 15.5 15.28 2. 10. G..No. Castro. It is evident from this table that liquefaction . Ghosh (1939). Pickering (1970). ASCE.23 14. pp.31 3. Seattle. Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division. results".336 Soil Dynamics & Ml1ChineFoullda .21 7. L. Table 7. . ASCE. No. 1.P.77 22. SIngapore. Found. J. and no liquefaction according to Iwasaki's method.545 ÎÛÚÛÎÛÒÝÛÍ Arya. 96. B. Vo\. Mem. Mukerjee. 909927. ~andakumaran. T. Seed. 10L(GTS).5 12.93 43. Government Printing Office.0 13. J. "The Bihar Nepal earthquake of 1934". Surv.597 2.No. "Foundation analysis and design". Geotech. Vol. No. . "EffeCtof strain history on liquefaction of sands".12.14 10. Div.544 2. pp. pp: 140. A. ASCE.0 m depth according to Seed $' (1979) method..T. C. SM4. pp. ASCE. Geol. 102.0 7. "Liquefaction and cyclic 'mobility of saturated sands".498 2. 81. H. (1978).69 24. Geotech. D. 2. (1975).24 4.196 2. Castro. GT9. Philadelphia. and W. 32. Vat. In Table 7. 1. P. 105138. 551569.30 12. Vol. 1. p" Puri.51 2.52 3. 1.69 9. Auden and A.670 2. W. L. Harvard Soil Mechanics Series No. 2nd. 'F. Corps of Engineers. . "Verification of liquefaction potential by field blast tests".. "Report of the slide of a portion of the upstream face at fort peck dam". 9. 1971':J934. 7. S.57 30. S. Geotech. P. 101.54 11.5 9. of the Army (1939). A.29 1. "Factors affecting liquefaction and cyclic mobility ".03 13.. G. D. ' . "Liquefaction of sands". and S.62 8. 1. ASCE.427 2.. 1. G.5 3.0 10. 73. (1969). Swiger (1976). S.12 : Summary of Different Methods S. G T 11. No: SM 6. Proc.5 6. U. USA. Christian. 1. 5.tl occurs only uptoL5 m depth according to Seed and Idriss (1971) method.. Cambridge. "The role of the calculated risk in earthwork and foundation engineering". and C.0 4. Engin. (1965).
47. "History of earthquake induced soilliquefactiori in Japan". "Liquefaction of sands during earthquakes". Proc. Lee. Chan (1972).S()il. . Vol. Florin. Vo\. N. Ohara (1960). Conf. A: R. Tatsuoka. Earthquake Engin. JGE. M. and C. Inst. pp. Found. ASCE Trans. 253. and L J. 121.. pp. 5. "Cyclic stress conditions causing liquefaction of sands"..ildings in Niigata city with special reference to foundation engineering". Soil Mech. K. pp.. Y. 107. Y. F. No.. I. Seed (1967)... CI5. Kishida.'. 609627. E. 2. 871888. Soil ~ound. pp. No. "Compaction of cohesionless foundation soil by explosive". pt. M. (Tokyo). 8996. pp. 3844. "Effect of sub surface liquefaction on strength of surface soil".No. No. Vol. ! i. Housner. 249254.t112J28. (1973). Proc."Effectsof sand. G T 8. K. Forth Int. B. Fifth Into Conf. 2. Proc. L . "Blast tests for liquefaction studies". (1948).I' . W. p. 2. "Lateral earth pressure and stability of quay walls". No. (Tokyo). 83. 1.' Kuizumi.against liquefaction and its application to design". pp. No.buildingdamag~ and soil conditions". Tokyo. H. Maraya and T. (1958). "Liquefaction analysis of saturated reinforced granular soil".c~mpacti~n on liquefaction during the Tokachioki earthquak~". ASCE Journal. Kuwabara. Krishna. India. (India). Vol. Vol. and S. (1970). Mukherjee (1979). 17131745. ASCE. "Damage' of reinforced concrete bu. pp. T. ' . . Symp. Vol. Hall. V01. Geuze. pp. .and Yoshida. . . (1942). Krishnamaswamy. K.. '. N...A. Engin. Engin. Proc. C. YIIlth WCEE. V. No. "Risk and mitigation of liquefaction hazard".{1966). Vo\. Lew. : Ohasaki.~. IXth WCEE. K. (1966).2. 9.Wamelen. International Symposium on Insitu Testing of Soil and Rock and Performance of Structures. vel. 183190. (1979). Seattle. and Yoshumi. pp. H. "Questions of seismic stability of submerged sandy foundations and structures". and N. D. pp. '~Liquefactionof saturated sandy soils". W. Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division. Vol. Hazen. fQ. "A shaking table study of the liquefaction of saturated sands during earthquakes". Y. Soil mech. B. India. 253262. Roorkee.48. (1942). Thesis. Proc. J. 8. A. 107111. P.and sherif. (Tokyo)..'pp. Bull. "Coastal flow slides in the dutch province of seeland". Proc. M. 4770. ASCE.". 12513{).. Middlebrooks. 9. pp. and S. University of Roorkee. Tokyo. pp. Am. . K. "Hydraulic fill dams". Soil Found. vol. ASCE. Seismol. .Yol. . L Ivanov . and S. (1974). '. (1966). J. 100. pp.A. F. M. W. Paris. . (1957). Conf. Vol. 155168. First lnt. Weinberg (1948). Proc. J. Yo\. J. Engin.(1961). 165182. London. Ill.lO. Vol. E. L. "Mechanics of sand blows". Vol. pp. "Blast tests at obra dam site". Matsuo. A. "Compacting of a dam foundation by blasting". Emery and Y.. Microzonation. No. 368372. lshibashi. (1962). ASCE Transactions. 9.(Tokyo). Y. Third Europ.Liquefaction of Soils 337 Finn.. 723764. 1. T. Soil Found. 1. Miteuru (1988).. (1984). 2nd lCSMFE. L.. Engin. I. 1437. Prakash (1968). Proc. R. SMI. 1Il.No. pp. . 1. Ph. "Analysis of gravel drain. Lyman. "Niigata earthquake 19'64. Katsumi. J. pp. Yo\. 80. ASCE. \.19. M. (1977). 645652. pp. 12731284. Vol. Yol. Proc. Rotterdam.. G. "Critical density of some dutch sands".und. D. Found. Second World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. N. Gupta (1970). .. Div.2. VoI.. ASCE Transactions. Lee. Ohasaki. Kuribayshi.. 6. N. lssac (1995).. (1920). Vo1. A. 93.. Soil Mech. Found. 2. "Number of equivalent significant cycles in strong motion earthquakes". Gupta. 107. pp. "Soil liquefaction by torsional simple shear device". pp.. Soc. Koppejan. and H. 31. vol. Bulletion of PWRI. "Change in density of Sand subsoil caused by the Niigata earthquake". Engin.! "'. '. "Fort peck slide". Gupta. . M. 7592. Maslov. . S. 2nd ICSMFE. and P. E. M.
1. John Wiley and Sons. . . "Stabilisation of potentially liquefiable sand deposits using Gravel dra system". EERC 7610. 12491273. 83108. Southeast Asian Soc. D ASCE. ASCE. Terzaghi.Gupta (1970a). No. GT2. "Liquefaction and settlement characteristics of Ukai dam sand"."Potamologyinvestigations. ASCE. . No SM 6. Peacock (1971).Foundation Ohara. and R. Gupta(1970b). ReJ: on EERC. Proc. (1965). VoL 103. 10534. Berkeley. "Liquefaction of saturated sands during cyclic loading". pp.338 Soil Dynamics & Machine . .. H. Cal . Report No. No. State of the f Paper. H.GT7. B. pp. K. and F. Conference on Behaviour of 0' shore Structures.. 201255. Earthquake Engineering Research Centre. N. 1104. Gupta (1970c). ASCE. pp. L M.No. . "Soil dynamics". Symposiumon Soil Liquefaction. Div. Vol. SM9.. Peck (1967). "Sand liquefaction under cyclic loading simple shear conditions". B. . University of California. H. H. S. JGE. Bangalore.Geote Engin. H. J. Idriss (1967). 1. A. I. ASCE. K. Vol. B. 5. Bull Indian Soc. Engin (Bangkok). The Norwegian Institute of Technology. B.method for preventing liquefaction". No. Soil Mech. pp. 1971". and Idriss. New 'r Wang. 1.R. Berkeley. 261266. Journal of So. 94. WaterwaysExperimentStationU. G T 4. Earthquake Engineering Research Center. (1976).. B. . Earthquake Tech. Lee (1966). H. S. H.Philadelphia.. Found. 5th Symposium ofthl Civil and Hydraulic Engineering Department. 689708. 1. K. B" Lee. VoL 92. K.Geolt Engin. . McGraw HillBook Co. and M. Chan (1977). ECEE 87. B. Peacock. Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division. L Makdisi (1971). pp. Swansea. 246270.. (Roorkee). 97. K. VIII WCEE. Corpsof Engineers(1967). pp. 1965Data. S. H. Tamamoto (1987)" "Fundamental study on gravel pile. 123132. 323328~' . Seed. 1. S. Found. 10991199. L M. H. B. (1979). "Final report on liquefaction and settlement characteristics of loose sand '" under vibrations". S. L. nia. Mech. ASCE. yoL 93. Soil mech. 105. pp. IXth WCEE. and M. III. Div. Vol. Found. No. and W. B. pp. and T. Inc. ASCI VoL 101. K.3/4148. L. and mathur. Div. Indian Institute of Science. Norway. "Some aspects of sand liquefaction under cyclic loading". . International Conference on Dynamic Waves in Civil Engineering.. Proc. . 3. "Liquefaction of fine sand under dynamic loads". mechanics and Foundations Division. 7528. (1976b). and K. No. . University of Califc nia. Vol. Seed. Vol. SM 3. Vol. "Simplified procedure for evaluating soil liquefaction potential". "Evaluation of soil liquefaction potential during earthquakes". Div. K. Ysuchia (1988). W. 1.\ cation of empirical methods for determining river bank stability". ASCE. H. pp. 97. ' Seed. B. H. S. pp. Seed. Seed (1968).. 1. Found. H. Proceedings. I. Mori and C. . "Evaluation of soil liquefaction effects on level ground during earthquakes". (1984). Node. 7. pp. report 1218. S. Prakash. Tokyo. "The slides in the San Fernando dams during tlearthquake of Feb. Prakash. J. K. Seed. India Seed. I. "Influence of seismic history on liquefaction of sands". Chan (1975).pp. "Soil mechanics in engineering practice". and H. . K. I. (1976a).. Seed. and H. S.. Proc. "Test procedures for measuring soil liquefaction characteristics". "Soil liquefaction and cyclic mobility evaluation for level ground during earthquakes". (1971). and M. Vol. Seed. No. Seed. "Analysis of soil liquefaction Niigata earthquake". "Large scale model tests and analysis of Gr drains". H. "Blast tests at Tenughat dam site". 7. S. pp. Susumu. Idriss. 207214. Koizimi. SM 8. Seed. B. Prakash. "Experimental study on liquefaction inhibiting effect of gravel drains". Prakash.Arango and C. Prakasn. (1981). and Booker. SM 3. No. pp. Soil mech. ASCENationalConvention. 4150. 1. B. B. Vicksburg. Seed. Missis' . and L M.
"I~fl~ericeoi ".' " " : . SM SP SP SP SP . "Experimental study of liquefaction of saturated sands""Soil Found. (Tokyo). Remarks" . "On preventing liquefaction of level ground using Gravel pnes". ' ' "..2.a~d H.1 Explain the terms 'initial liquefaction'.O 8.4 25 (i) Position of water 4.'.0 SW . (mm) 0. pp.of magnitude liquefaction . and Matsui (1984).. ' 7.5. '.' .0. 7. G. 7.. E. and (c) blast tests.0 18. Moscow. Ohaka (1975).0 14. 843847. No.. .. Illustrate your an. (1967). 7..Southamopton. I : . .. 'and H. Earth" quake Engg..likely to be subject~4 by an ~aitliquak~. . Kokusho.'.. .. ' Proc.~3 . Vol..16 0." . '. .0 m depth.saturated sand depends.. ... ... " .~ . Y. .s~{smically . 8th International Con'. ~.' . .0 m below the ground surface" 16. and Taniquchi. . "A ring torsion apparatus for simple shear tests". . Proc.. 'liquefaction' and 'cyclic mobility'. 12.3 Give the salient features of the liquefaction studies made by (a) triaxial tests. t' . ~ . . 7.. .20 .' 12 " 30 33..30 0. " DLJ u . . No. L.'. : . ...2032.. JASCE. saturated sands"" " Soil FolJnd. 0.4 Describe briefly the following methods of predicting liquefaction potential (a) Seed and ldriss (1971) method ". No. . .0 of soils SM . .19 0.19 4 5 7 9 I0 '. '. . discuss the factors on which liquefaction of. ' 7. pp. ' ' "'.4. ' ' . Y~~h{~i.. 40 43 ~' 45 52 tabie lies 2.Yosufurni. . Ohaka (1973). ..×¬åå¢³ Liquefaction of Soils 339 Yasushi. ' ference on Soil mechanics and Foundation Engineering.'. ' " . pp.' '. 8998. 2 pp. ' !'.by the three methods mentioned in Prob.Conference. .Yoshimi.. Determine'.'..5 At a given site boring supplement with SPT was done' upto 20.'.0 SM '.20 18' . . Y. <':1 ':'. Vol.". .and the .f (m) .'" . .'" PRACTICE PROBLEMS . 3 SW 20. ' dJgT~e'of sh~~t str~ss revers~l on the liquefaction potential of ' . . . . The results of the boring are as given below': " .: .18 0. . 352. (b) shake table tests. This ~jte is 10catedTD.. USSR.' :.:ih~"zoneof .2 listand ."'. ' ' Depth Classification D50 NValue 'DR" .:' Y. (1982).. T.. .(%) . 3."'" . 7."I. ::' SP' 0..0 12. ...s~er 'with " neat ~ketches. . 2740. Vol. <' . '. '. Yoshimi.18 0.'C' .(Tokyo).0 ~. S. 0.'" (b) Seed (1979) method (c) lwasaki (1986) method ' '/>' 7..19 0. "Large scale shaking table tests on the effectiveness of Gravel drains".32 14 16 56 60 (ii) 'YmOiSI = 20 kN/m) 'Ysub = 10 k~/rn . . :.0 10. 15.actIve region.
1. and (ii) amplitude of ID! tion of the machine at its operating frequency. Therefore. the conven. But the dynamic load acts repetitively on the foundatior soil system over long periods of time. a piston rod and a crank. The main categories are: 8. Reciprocating Machines. counterweights of mass mwmay be locat~ their centre of gravity at point c" . It consists of a piston of mass mp~ 'within a cylinder. compressors and pum. .2 TYPES OF MACHINES AND FOUNDATIONS There are various types of machines that generate different periodic forces. 8. The crank rotates with a constant angular velocity.The centre of g~avity of the connecting"rod is lo~ated at a distance L) from PO1~' "the rotatmg masses are to be partially or fully balanced.2. 8. it is necessary that the soil behaviour be"elastic undt the vibration levels producedby the machine. their size. Figure shows the outline of a typical Gangsaw in which the out of balances forces may lead to vibration pr' lems. diesel and gas engines. The most important parameters for the design of a machir foundation are: (i) natural frequency of the machinefoundationsoil system.GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF MACHINE FOUNDATION DESIGN 8. tional considerations of bearing capacity and allowable settlement are insufficient to ensure a good de sign."a connecting rod AB of ma~smr and crank AO of mass mewhich rotates abou~JI at ~freq~ency 00. Large feci! cating engines. ~ The magnitude of the unbalanced forces and moments depend upon the number of cylinders iD machine. compressors and blowers generally operate at frequencies ranging with in 50250 r Reciprocating engines such as diesel and gas engines usually operate within 3001000 rpm. In general.2. 1959) Also the dynamic loads produced by the moving parts of the machine are small in comparison to th static weight of the machine and foundation. These include steam. The mechanism developiDf of balance inertia forces for a single crank is ~hown in Fig.1 GENERAL For machine foundations which are subjected to dynamic loads in addition to static loads. The operating speeds of reciprocating machines are usually smaller than 1000 rpm. otherwisedeformationwill increasewith each cycle ( loading and excessive settlement may occur. piston displacement and the direction of mounting. a foundation weighs several times as much as machine (Cozens. The basic mechanism of a reciprocating machine consists of a piston that moves within a cylinder connecting rod. Rausch. 1938.
. 8... .c. >. ' .. '" .c~ Genellll P. " .. 0. .. 0/ Machine Foundation Design 341 .'r'. . '.1 : Outline of a typical Gangsaw machiDe Piston mp. "'... .' ." "'.. 8. E .E In C 0 lit C log teed l  Uppu slide b aock Saw 'Modes lower said~ block " ....2 : Crank mechanism L ..onn~ctin9 rod a. .. . ." . .~ttt > z Fig. Fig. '. .. """ " 'v COUnt. '.. .. 0 u c. .inciples. .'" ' Foundation block ~ .ounter ~ weight Fly wheel . ..
8. . " 0. >.. 8. Fig.E In Logteed l.'" .  UppuSl~..of Machine Foundation Design 341 .'" ."C L .~' z Fig.al...".2 : Crank mechanism .ounter ~ w~ight c." "'. Q.. ~  .'. ... E '0 .' " ' .1RUP.. "v Count~. blO'ck lit c: . GeneJ!.inciples. Saw 'blad~s Lower slide block c: 0 .de. "'.'0'1' u . . ".". '7~t .. P.. " ''J' . ':: : foundation block .c..&4i.onnecting rod Fly whul ....'. .'>i ~.1 : Outline of a typical Gangsaw machiDe Piston mp.
(8.' .' m =.'s "~ In order to simply the analysis of the motion of the connecting rod.. ..~1~2c:.:. ~oil Dy"ami~.2sin u:>t "...os "'t...ri' .t(:OI1s of thtHotal rotating 'mass (mrot)and the total reciprocating mass (mrec)'The total rotating'mass is a'ssumedto be con~entrated at the crank pin A. . Jt r..' F: (m rot:+: mrec ).\ ..°'!"d.'me+ ." . the mass mr is replaced by two equivalent masses. r2 L2' r. '' . 00' 31T " L.(8..f!.1T .. ~ 0.2) mrec mp L mr I ' C .. == . ' ."i .mw ' L +~ LI ' .342 .~ 0 1r 2'1r ' . '.3: Variation ofinertiaJorces with time .' Fig.. one rotating with the crank pin A.tiO/.. ~:!'~ '"  . '.c~i"e F.1) . 2CJ:) 2 F : mre c: 1 L cos 2 u. rot.' . & ~a.mr~. the other translating with the wrist pin B./ ...J t F y : mro t r1". 8. The inertia forces can then b~ e~pre~sed in.
the inertia force in the y direction disappears and that..:. If.1.l are shown in Fig. .t (h) Fig.able S... = ~ Ft L max .(S. .(S... . ' " . ' " .".:\ . which possesses unba~ancedpriary and secondary forces.'  0' '.5) The time variations of these inertia forces are illustrated in Fig. Different crank arrangements pertaining tot.. 8. As more cylinders are added the unbalanced forces and couples are modified shown in Table 8. ( S.'. ".'1. '1 '.4) And in the y direction 2 ..4 Different crank arrangements: (a) Single cr.!}". x (a) ~ Intincz cytindczr (b) ~ Qpposczd cytindczr lM (c) y (d) ~ (e) 0 h1u(I) 1~ +~ C ran ks at 90 (g) Cranks at 180 0 A . S." ' F.: ' .. S.:(8..  .1 (Newcomb..7f The preceding development relates to a single cylinder machine. 6) The amplitude of the primary (F:nax)and secondary (F.'.ollQWs' F" max r.io'op~s.3.t"'.ax) inertia forces are then relat~da~J.. .r!ral Principles of Machine Foundation Design 343 The inertia force (Fz) in the z direction may be shown to be F~ 2 . rl 0> sm 0>t . and a secondary component (F") [ng at twice the rotation frequency..' " " .. . . . :_~.2 VJ ....d ~yllnders ~~one crank (g) Four cylinders (h) Six cylinders '.4. the rotating mass is balanced. .." "' ( COS Cl) t + rl cos 20) t L'  " ) . .". in the z . With a six cylinders machine complete balance is achieved.! 1 ~..3) lchhas a primary component (F1 acting at the frequency of rotation..~ ."'l't'. ""'' I ' ectlon becomes Fy = mrot .' .. = mree r 1 . = (mrot + 2 '~ mrec) r} 0> cos (0 t + mrec L ' 2 (0 cos 2 0> t..': .' . Fz = Ft + F" ... " ." J:m.'". 1951). ...(S. '.ank(b) Two cranks at 180°(c) Two cranks at 90° (d) Two cylinders at 90° on one crank (e)T.
"""""~>""">"'. 8. " .""'. an anvil.ine Foundations . (a) Block type foundation consisting of a pedestal of concrete on which the machine rests (Fig. . punch presses. and a frame (Fig.2. The dynamic load~ attain a peak in a very short interval and then practically die out." . ': '..6). The speeds of operation usually range from 50 to 150 blows per minute.2. ' Anvil Fig. . Impact Machines.. These machines consist of falling ram.. 8. Reciprocating machines are very frequently encountered in practice. and stamping machines which produce impact loads..7 :Dro'p biu~~er wit" frame mountedon anvil  . "Cb) Box or Caisson type foundation consisting a hollow concrete block supporting the machinery on its top (Fig. 8.". Usually the following two types of foundations are used for such machines: . 8. 8.6 : Box type foundation 8.7). " . Soil Dynamics & Mac/. "i" " :C :If' j 344 . Fig.~. .""'. 8. These include machines like forging hammers..S : Block type foundation Fig. Forge hamIners are divided into two groups: drop hammers for die stamping and forge hammers proper.5).
Two cylinders on one crank. ~ .level of machine ?all (Fig. '1I)'J£:nh.. i +." '.I. "~.__'0' '0'..£!"!l1l{~~.uP '> \' . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (1. (1. 0 0 1. . . cylinders at 90° F' without counter wts./ ' 0.4) l.'opposed cylinders 2 F' without counter wts.41) F'O without counterwts. but their details would be quite different from those of reciprocating machines. E" 0 (0.0. 1. 1951) Crack arrangements Forces . ... (0. Rotary Machines. 8._ . eo "' + ' . (0.0) F" 0 0 F' = primary force.~I':"'.~. Two cranks at 900 (1.2.5) F' with counter wts. :Secondary . and rotary compressors which operate at frequencies of the order of 3000 rpm to 10000 rpm.Primary 0 .41) F' 0 without counter wts. F' with counter wts. Two cranks at 1800 Inline cylinders Opposed cylinders 0 0 (0. 0 r Three cranks at 1200 0 (3. (Fig. . 8. n . 0'. ' Couples .:etll!rilf'Principles 'ofMddtitte'Ft1tIiidation Design '345 :able' 8. (3.!. :0 F' 0 without cou~terwts. 0 with counter wts.41) F' without counter wts. 0 0 '(4.3.41 F" e.". coolers and pumps witl1connectingpipework and ducting. .tt~JJ\. 0 = cylindercentre distance Impact machines may also be mounted on block foundations..' ~"" .707) F' 0 with counterwts. 0. Six cylinders .) .73) F' 0 without counterwts. 7.8).46) F' 0 without counterwts..707) F' 0 with counter wts. ~ . To accomodate theseauxiljary 'equipments a common foundation arrangement is a two storey frame structure with the turbine located on the upper slab and 'the auxiliary equipment placed beneath. Four Cylinders Cranks at 1800 Cranks at 90° h. 8...707) F' with counter wts. turbines. the upper slab being flush with the floot . 0 . These include high speed machines such as turbogenerators. F" = secondary force. one crank. .1 : Unbalanced Forc:esalid Couples for Different CFank Arrangements (Newcomb.' " 2F" 0 0 0 :0 0 { (0.it   Co< . .. 0" '0'" .F' without counter wts.> r+. g. Two cylinders on ..!' ..46) F 0 11 (1. Single 'crank Primary Secondary Fit . Associated with these machines there maybe a consider~ble amount of auxiliary equipment such as condensers.5) F' 0 with counterwts.. 0 0 0 .
==:J L1m~ Upper stab c::.8 : Concrete frame turbogenerator foundation Rotating machinery is balanced before erection.)F / (a) Single shaft (b) Double shaft Fig.(8..9 a shows a typical rotating mass type oscillator in which a single mass me is placed on a rotating shaft at an eccentricity e from axis of rotation.8 a) ... Base stab Fig. ".. f . : ::.. The unbalanced forces produced by such a system in vertical and horizontal directions are given by Fy = me e ol sin rot FH = me e cos rot .':"'" '. u ': ... . . :. Although the amount of eccentricity is small in rotary machines the unbalanced force may be large due to their high speed. .. '::'.. 3 c .. 8. However.'~':: .'0"' ".. It means that the axis of rotation lies at certain eccentricity with respect to principal axis of inertia of the whole unit..:' . . in actual operation some inbalance always exists. 8.9 : Rotating mass type oscillator .346 SoU Dynamics & Machine Foundatiolls Turbin~ G ~ n ~ ra tor Floor . Figure 8..(8.8 b) In UN / F :: me ~(A)l ' F::me~w2 F( .
3 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OF MACHINE FOUNDATIONS or the satisfactory design of a machine foundation. No resonance should occur. that is the natural frequency of the machinefoundationsoil system should not coincide with the operating frequency of the machine.5 (On (c) In rotary machines (IS: 2974 Pt 1111992) (0 0. . it is high tuned or over tuned. If 00represents the operating frequency of the machine and oonas the natural frequency of the system. prescribed by the manufacturer.9) 3. the foundation is said to be low tuned or under tuned. meral Principles of Machine Follndation Design 347 Figure 8.6 >  > 1.8 > . Ri~rt (1962) devel ùæ{æ .cillating force with a controlled direction. Generally. The combined centre of gravity of the machine and foundation should as far as possible be in the same vertical line as the centre of gravity of the base plane...(8. . or harmful depends on the frequency of the vibrations and the amplitudes of motion.. annoying. 8.n > 1. In no case the permissible amplitude should exceed the limiting ampli~~e of the machine which is.. the following requirements are met: 1. Th~ '~ahiie 'of vibrations that are perceptible. 'The vibra'tiOli~ must not be amloying to the persons working in the fact~iy or be damaging to other precis. the 1aft rotating in opposite directions with the same angular velocity.c.0 " (On (0 0. The amplitude of motion at operating frequencies should not exceed the permissible amplitude. the natural frequency should be high.9b.25 It may be noted that where natural frequency of system oonis below the operating frequency of machine 00. . a zone of resonance is defined and the natural frequency of the system should lie outside this zone. .the amplitudes during the transient resonance should be considered. For the arrangement shown in Fig.. and vice versa. 5. The foundation should be safe against shear failure.. The settlement and tilt of the foundation should be within permissible limits. ."" .4 > (0 > 1. when the natural frequency is higher than the operating speed.9b shows two equal masses mounted on two parallel shafts at the same eccentricity. For low speed machines. horizontal force )mponents cancel and the vertical components are added to give F = 2 me e 002 sin 00t .5 > For ordinary machines: ~ > 2. Such an arrangement produces an .on machines. 2. 4.5 (On (b) In impact machines (IS: 2974 Pt 111980) 0. . 6. then (a) In reciprocating machines (IS: 2974 pt 11982) For important machines: 0. When natural frequency is lower than the operating speed.
emen t ampl i tude AI mm 0 0 . FollndationS" oped a plot for vibrations (Fig. '..'" ' .. ." '0 .x/A (~...:. "'.. ." . "D "" . '/ 0 '" A 0 0 N  "o 0 r 0 )"D q.""... ....~~~":". .a.: :~ " . 8. 0 .are given:"".. .o .. 1")' "D &> .Y> 0 )"D 0" " 0 3 0 0 V'1 0 0 0 ..0 0 .._':"'"... . ". 0 . 0 .... . 'i' ". In this figure. .' .':. 0 0 0 Fig.L_:~."'..t.4 PERMISSIBLE AMPLITUDE For the design of machine foundation. in Table 8.D C ~ ::J n '< '" n . .""..'..>0 0'" "._2.. . '.:". .. 0 0 0 0 0 0 N Disp la c. .:'.'.::.. 0.10 : Limiting amplitudes ofvibratlon for a particular frequency (Richan...... 0 0 0 N 0 '" )"D "D""" " .0 0'1> 0..g 0 U1 .:1:L''~U:t "'" " '".. . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o. 1962) 8..' 0 ".mics &.. N 0 0 U1 0 .. the values of permi~sible amplitudes suggested by Bureau Indian St~ndards for the foundations 'of different typ~s of~chines. .>0 )( 0" ') . oCO '1» 0.'. the envelop described by the shaded line indicates only a limit for safety and not a limit for satisfactory operation of machines..'" \.":. 8.N~ . Machine." ..10) that gives various limits of frequency and amplitude for different purposes.0 ')'...<> 'b" 0" tJ1 "'rig ""I ~ \':' .""" " 348 Soil Dy". ..
s. .5 x 107 3. Considering temperature and all other loadings together. if the detailed design of foundation and components is limited to static load )f foundati'Jn and machine. (a) For foundation block (b) For anvil Rotary machines (a) Speed < 1500 rpm (b) Speed 1500 to 3000 rpm 0.IV) IS: 2974 (Pt III): 1992 (c) speed> 3000 rpm Permissible amplitude dependents on the weight of tup.. Reference I. '~"'"' "'"""'""''' '' """'" '"' '. 2.. Alternatively. When seismic forces are considered. lower value for 10 kN tup and higher value for the tup weight equal to' 30 kN or higher.4 to 0. ..5 Horizontal vibration IS: 2974 (Pt . The soil stress below the foundation.2 1.9 Horizontal vibration 0.2: Values of Permissible Amplitudes for Foundations of Different Machines .6 Vertical vibration 0. The allowable stresses of concrete and steel shall be reduced to 40 percent for oncrete and 55% for steel.561978 shall be used.0 0.0 1.0 to 2..7 to 0. ..4 to 0. .3 Vertical vibration 0.0 x 107 3.0 to 3.5 percent.6 PERMISSIBLE STRESSES OF CONCRETE AND STEEL or the construction ofthe foundation of a machine MI5 or M20 or M25 concrete in accordance with IS: . the a1f6wablesoil pressure may be increased as ~ecified in IS: 18931978..eral Principles of Machine Foundation Design Table 8. The following dynamic moduli of concrete may be used in the design: Grade of Concrete MI5 M20 M25 M30 Dynamic elastic modulus (kN/m2) 2.2 to 0.2 0. full value of stresses for concrete and steel as ."" . Reciprocating machines Hammer.pecified in IS: 4561978 may be used if dynamic loads are separately considered in detailed design by lpplying suitable creep and fatigue factors. Type of machine Permissible amplitude mm . 3.. these assumed .tresses may be exceeded by 33.I) IS: 2974 (Pt .4 x 107 3.hallnot exceed 80 percent of the allow)le soil pressure. 349 No.11) IS: 2974 (Pt . .7 x 107 "'.5 ALLOW ABLE SOIL PRESSURE he allowable soil pressure should be evaluated by adequate subsoil exploration and testing hi accormce with IS: 19041978.
" Select. that is out side and wet.9 1.spoore~ In quahty than grade I.16 to get the permissible stress of timber of select grade.turalTimbers (For Grade I Material) S. No specific values are recommended here since theY4 vary in wide limits.3 for species of timber of grade I. The permissible values of stresses are given IDTable 8.J ally given by the manufactureres of these materials.No.. t Table 8.3 .0 0. Grade of timber is specified accord\'> ing to the size of defects like knots.49 (i) Bending and tension along grain Shear(I) Horizontal Along grain Inside(2) (ii) All locations All locations Inside(2) Inside(2) All locations and grade 11.8 4..5 0.0 12. generally factors of 5/6 and ~ 2/3 are applied The permissible bearing pressures on other elastic materials such as felt.6 1. .. ?rade I timber is one hav~g.64 Group C 8. Strength Character Location of Use Group A 18.1 4. The best quality timber having minimum or no defects at all is of the select ~rade. 350 ~ SoU Dynamics & Machine Foundatioll$ '".I. ~~J ""'1 <J i . defects not larger than the ~peci~ed ones. in the timbe~ Timber is thus classified into three grades. "'~ } . cork and rubber are gener. ". 8. checks etc.6 (iii) (iv) (v) Compression parallel to grain Compression perpendicular to grain Modulus of elasticity (x 103 N/mm2) (I) The values of horizontal shear to be used only for beams.8 2.3 may be multiplied by 1.05 Group B 12.(~~.. .0 1.. . .5 9. Grade I and Grade H. 1 . . The permissible stresses of timber given in Table 8. In all other cases shear along grain to be used": (2) For working stresses for other locations of use. In machIne'foundations timber of select grade is used.Minimum PermissibleStress Limits (N/mm2)in Three Groups of Struc. Grade H t~mberi.7 PERMISSffiLE STRESSES OF TIMBER The timber is generally used under the anvil of hammer foundations. .1 5.
 ' ...
translation along Z axis and rotation around the Z axis can occur independently ot any other motion and are called decoupled modes. and gas engines). However. In this chapter. 8.Rocking vibration 6. Therefore the dynamic analysis of a block foundation should be carried out for the following cases: (i) Uncoupled translatory motion along Z axis i. 9. The basic assumptions made in the analyses are: (i) the foundation block is considered to have only interial properties and to lack elastic properties. Steam engines. internal combustion engines (e. translation along the X or Y axis and the corresponding rotation about the Y or X axis. Three of them are translations along the three principal axes and the other three are rotations about the three axes. six degrees of freedom.e. (iii) Uncoupled twisting motion about Z axis. pumps and compressors fall in this category of machines. methods have been presented to obtain these two parameters in different modes of vibration.. the rigid block may undergo . in general. For this. Design steps and illustrative examples are given at the end of the chapter.Yawing motion 5.Z planes passing through the common centre of gravity of machine and foundation. respectively. and (ii) the soil is considered to have only elastic properties and to lack properties of interia. Translation along Y axis . 9.g.3 should be fulfilled. Ofthe six modes.1) : 1. (ii) Coupled sliding and rocking motion of the foundation in X.vibrations as follows (fig.1 GENERAL Reciprocating machines are common in use. . Rotation about X axis  Pitching or rocking vibration The vibratory modes may be 'decoupled' or 'coupled'. Translation along Z axis 2. Translation along X axis .Lateral or sliding vibration 4. 9. and (ii) the amplitude of foundation during machine operation. Thus. Block type or box type foundations are used for reciprocating machines.ó ùþôòþôæôùôùþù¬ùô¢åþùæùâþôæùåôôôôùôòþùô òþôþùþ ò îÿåô Õù FOUNDATIONS OF RECIPROCATING MACHINES .Vertical  vibration Longitudinal or sliding vibration 3.2 MODES OF VIBRATION OF A RIGID FOUNDATION BLOCK A rigid block has. always occur together and are called coJlpled modes. Rotation about Z axis . the requirements given in sec. For the satisfactory performance of the machinefoundation system. vertical vibration.Z and Y . under the action of unbalanced forces. one has to obtain (i) the natural frequency of the system. diesel. Rotation about Y axis .
. ' ' .oundatiQns of . isotropicf.:. In the elastic halfspace method.3 METHODS OF ANALYSIS The following two methods are commonly used for analysing a machine foundation: (i) Linear . amplitude is worked out in a particular mode and compared with the permissible ~. but. damping may not affect the design apPI:eciably.Recip~oCQtingM achines 353 A rigid block being ~ problem of six degrees of freedom has six natural frequencies.elastic weightless spring method (Barkan. it affects resonant amplitudes considerably: Since the zone of" resonance is avoided in designing !I1achine foundations.1 : Modes ofvibration oh rigid block foundation 9."'. The natural requency is determined in a particular mode (decoupled or coupled) and compared with the operating requency.and if any that on the conservative side. In developing the analysis the . but relatively more complicated. 9.a circular' base resting ~Il.the~surface.frequency of thesystem appreciably. This approach is apparently more rational. '"'. soil is replaced by elastic springs.space method (Richart.!he"machine:foundation is idealised as a vibrating mechanical oscillator with. Hence neglecting.the effect of dampingon amplitudes computed at operating frequency is also $mall..effects of damping andpartidpating soil 'mass are neglected. Similarly. ~ +X Latczral / " Fig.ofgroumLThe .semi~infiriit~ody~~whichis referredto.asanelastic halfspace. homogeneous. 1962) (ii) Elastic half . Damping does not affect the natural.participating'in vibration. 1962) In the first method which is proposed by Barkan (1962). vczrtical ' Rocking ~'. ..ground is assumed to bean elastic. Empirical methods have been suggested to obtain the soil ma~s . ' .
Neglectingthe effect of side soil resistance and considering soil as weightless elastic material..2).. 9.A Sez u .foundation soil system can be idealised to massspring system shown in Fig. qz A ==C. Thus Cu =!!. Barkan (1962) had introduced the following soil parameters which yield the spring stiffnesses of soil in various modes: (a) Coefficient of elastic uniform compression (C. 9.3 e for different modes of vibration. Fou ndation Ground L<zv<z1 '" Of L Soil Fig.(9. 9.3 a) Sez It is used in vertical vibration mode.) : It is defined as the ratio of compressive stress applied to a rigid foundation bl~ck to the 'elastic' part of the settlement induced consequently.3 ) .2: Block foundation Let us consider a block foundation of base contact area A placed at a depth Dfbelow the ground level (Fig. 354 >i Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations In the above two methods.(9.2) Load elastic deformation ...3 a to 9. 9. the machine .. . spring constant Kz K= z .L (Fig. From defmition. the effect of side soil resistance is not considered that is the foundation is assumed to rest on the ground surface. 9.4 LINEAR ELASTIC WEIGHTLESS SPRING METHOD Barkan (1962) has given the analysis of block foundation in following modes of vibration: (i) Vertical vibration (ii) Pure sliding vibration (iii) Pure rocking vibration (iv) Coupled sliding and rocking vibration (v) Yawing motion Machinq.
.3 : Types of motion of a rigid foundation (.. .""datioilS of ReCiprocating Machines 355 .. S ez (a) Vertical vibration I I I I I I I I I I I I m .. . Fx KX = Sex . .My(t) """" '"7 I I I I I I I My(t) I I I I I f:\ "". . 9.. I ..Z = Se2 L   J ~~. f .. 'U:{f K~ (c) Pure rocking vibration Fig. I I I I . ..= My T '..1 Fz<t) t Fz(t) . Fx (t) . .' Fx (t).. rp' F:) K.. Kx (b) Pure sliding vibration .... I +I~'Sex I I "'7jN.Contd..) .m Fz K... I I I I .. I I I .
(not shown) ~MZ{t) / / (d) Yawing vibration I . . a..3 b) .. . pressure at this location as q... . is given by q C~ =[cp . nMZ{t) torston ot ot toun'da tier... I  'Kx Kx i 'r' ~~ tSex ". . '.. 9.. I . r."'" K~ (e) Coupled slidding and rocking vibration '. .... Fd (t) .Soil"'vDymnnics'>& ~Mfld. C.. I .. In this case the elastic settlement of the block is not uniform over the base.A = C . .(9.. " ... . 9.. .. . I / .Taking the intensity . .356 .ine 'Fl1wuJtltions 'i = Angle . . (c) Coefficient of elastic nonuniform Compression (C~ : It is used in rocking vibratic (Fig. If cpisthe angle of rotation of block.. I '.... q Ct = Sex x (Fig. . ~"'. It defined as the ratio of intensity of pressure at certain location from the centre of the base of bloc to the corresponding elastic settlement. A x t Sex Sex " .4 It is used in analysing sliding vibration mode.. . '. then at a distaDI from the centre of the base of block.. K = Shear load = qx ....3': Types of motion of a rigid foundation (b) Coefficient of elastic uniform shear (Cr): It is defined as the ratio of the average shear stress a the foundation contact area to the elastic part of the sliding movement of the foundation... the elasticdeformation will be I cp." >.... '.. Fd (t) ..{9.. . (9 ".. .3 c). The spring constant Kx is given by . .. i. Fig~'9...
'.. U.... .5 C'I' ..(9. is applied to the Coefficient C IjI . hence the term "Coefficient of elastic nonuniform shear".(9.= Polar moment of the intertia of contact base area of foundation.t.(9. . Barkan (1962) recommended the values of ClI as listed in Table 9.3 of chapter 4.sKIj> is'defil1E". The procedure of determining th. Tests have shown that the angle of rotation \j/ of the block is proportional to the external moment.11) Ccp=. As discussed in that section.' £ = Young's modulus of soil ~ = Poisson's ratio A = Area of base of the foundation He also developed the relationships between Cu' Ccp'Ct and C'I" For analysis and design of machine foundation.evalues of cu' Ct £ and G have been given in detail in sec 4.(9. the value of CU .1.10) for determining .~. (9.. ~ c :"...1as the motnent per unit rotation.::'. j ....2Cu.. r .J 'I' 'I' z J. The method of converting the value of adynamic elastic constant obtained from a field test for using in the de~ign of actual foundation has been illustrated in examples 4.(9..(9.3.:: " ...a~d M K ==C . . n.7) where.F oLlm/lIlilJl. he recommended that Cu=2Ct .8) . . dynamic elastic' constants depend on (i) base area of foundation..:f. It is based on theory of elasticity.(9. 2 and 4.1 <jI <I> cp is given by .9) In the rotation of a' foundation around a vertical axis.13£ Cu=I~2'JA where.. "': . I '...'. 1 . Barkan (1962) derived the £q.12) Ct = 1.. the base of the foundation undergoes nonllniform sliding.3 d). it will rotate about this axis (Fig.. 9.10) . !' " . M z =K 'I' \j/ where K =C . .13) For preliminary design. J = Moment of irf'rtia of the base of block about the axis of rotation M = Moment caused due to soil reaction (d) Coefficient of elastic nonuniform shear (CljIJ: It is used in yawing motion. (ii) confining pressure and (iii) strain level.~. .. ~. 1. .!. i. (~r J:ecfproclItillg Machines J57 The sllj}. . If a foundation is acted upon by a moment with respect to vertical axis. Therefore.. ..
also soils of categories II and III with laminae of oraganic silt and of peat) 11 Cu' kN/m 3 3 up to 150 4 4 up to 3 x 10 Soil of medium strength (clays and silty clays with sand close to the plastic limit. sand) Strong soils (clays and silty clays with sand of hard consistency. Vertical Vibrations.10) x 104 > 10 x 104 III IV * After Barkan (1962) 9.5) x 104 (5 .(t) = Fz sin rot ³ ³ ã Ó¿.in fig 9. the machine foundatonsoil system shown in Fig. clayey and silty sands.15 where. Kz = Equivalent spring constant of the soil in vertical direction for base area A of the foUl dation = CuA .1.1 : Recommended Design Values for the Coeficient of Elastic Uniform Compression Cu 2* for A = 10 m Soil Soil group Permissible static load. Let the unabalanced force is representd by (91.4) Fz.3a is represented by the idealised massspring system shown. loess and loessial soils) Rocks 150 to 350 350 to 500 > 500 (3 .4. kN/m2 2 Weak soils (clays and silty clays with sand in plastic state.4. then foundation will vibrate vertically only. 9.4 : Equivalent model for vertical vibration If the centre of gravity of the foundation and machine and the centroid of the base area of the foun dation in contact with the soil lie on a vertical line that coincides with the line of action of the excitint force Fz. gravels and gravelly sands. For the purpose of analysis.A Fig: 9. The equation of motion of the system is mz + Kz' Z = Fzsin ID t' M = Mass of machine and foundation (9.358 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations Table 9.of machine plus foundation Kz = Cu.
""":~:':. .. .of motion Az is given by . '". ..'>. I I I I I m ~x ~/ Fig.ro 3. x'~'~~. =' rc.17b) Maximum amplitude of motion Az is given by Az .5: (a) (b) Equivalent model .':I:A .tidaiiiJns of Reciprocating' MaCih.(9)J) . .. K m0)2 C AmO) z Il A (9...2. Block foundation in pure sliding vibration The equation of motion of the system is' mx + K...3b).z = ~~z =r~ The amplitude .x'_~2)"""'J"_: . (9. . ..:).' 2 Fz 2 (9.18) ) . But if the bration in rocking can be neglected . ".n~ 359 . '~"'..:' ". : Therefore..A f.:~f':.19) = Equivalent spring c~nstap. v. Cu = Coefficient of elas~c uniform compression.20) Maximum amplitude of motion .17a) or Z = Fz sin 0) t m ( 0) nz  2 0) ' 2 ) (9.'. 9. . ". m (Ct>nz. : (9. . .. This system can be indealised as shown Fig.9..then only horizontal displcement of the foundation would occur tderan excitingforce Fx(t) on the block of area A (Fig. .. In practice.9. the natural frequency Ct>nx of the system : ' is q ~. .the foundation Kx Ct (9. " l_~I"'<'Fx":. Therefore.16) A.. Sliding Vibrations of a Block." . ..~ nx" fKX.~ = Fx sin ro t vhere.5. x = Sliding displacement of.. = Coefficient of elastic uniform shear.t of the soil in sliding for base area A of the foundation = Ct..1.. A x is given by . . A. . the natural frequency IDnz of the system is ID..\. . I I I I . . Fz sin IDt Fz sin 0) t A = = 2 Z . '. rocking and sliding occur simultneously.
considering that the applied moment is actIng in clockwise direction the"displaced position of the block will be as shown in Fig.3. My (t) = My Sin GJt ~' ( '.: :. this "isalso a hypothetical case as rocking vibrations are coupled with sliding vibrations.ine.6 b).tance / from the axis of rotati~n (Fig.3c). 9.. tan <p= <p in radians. the soil wil . 9.6 : Block foundation under pure rocking vibrations Elem<znt The various moments acting on the foundation about the centre of rotation are obtained as descri below: (i) Moment MRdue to soil reaction: Consider an element dA of the foundation area in contact' the soil and located ar . Let the unbalanced moment be given by My (t) = My sin IDt  (9.360 SoU Dynamii.4.Z place' At any time t. In ~achine foundations..J.22) where. The equation of motion can be obtained by applying Newton's second law of motion.4. ~ ( a) x  qst I dA (b) Fig. 9. 9.6.. Consider only the rock~ngy~bri.Mac. Pure Rockmg Vibrations of a Block.tions in~uced in a foundation block by an externally exciting moment Mv(t) (FIg. Found~tiof}s." . 9.. At any time.s ~. as the rotation <pis small. My = Moment acting in the X .
.(9." " Machines ". A ' MR = J C~.28) wn4> M mo _. ' ~ i~ given . "".29) l .6 a. .6 b.ndations .. ....l~dA.(9.." . .. le total reactive moment MR against the foundation area in contact with soil is given by .. by . .(9.' .' . . L = Distance between the centre of gravity of block and axis of rotation.. then the soil reaction will be as shown in Fig. As angle of rotation <\> is small. I = Moment of inertia of tpe foundation area in contact with the soil with respect to the axis of rotation. .vhere. d R = Soil reaction force acting on dement dA cl> = Angle of rotation I~~hefoundation does not lose contact with soil.' . ' This moment acts in the anticlockwise direction. :le moment Mw of Weight W will be Mw =WLti\ ' . . .l == C~. = My 2 2 ". This moment acts in the clockwise direction. '. My sin' (tJ t + WL cl>= c cl>14> + Mmo Mmo 4> + (C~ 1. '. or . Mmo(ron. .(9.ere.. the centre of gravity of the block is shifted from point 0 to 0' . A ~. Moment of inertia of the'mass of the foundation and machine \"":"ith respect of axis of rotation. 't' . ' This moment acts is the anticlockwise direction. ~ The equation of motion can be written by equating clockwise moments to anticlockwise moments Therefore.cI>JPdA = C~ I <\> . npressed nonuniformly.. 9.(9.26) Mmo =. . From t~e de~n~t~on of ~oef5cient of dastic un}form compression. " = Mmo ~ ..the displaced position of centre of gravity of the block: As shown in ig.t. .~ro) .. .WL) <\> = My sin Cl)t ..(9. ' '" of Reciprocating 1>. (iii) Moment Mj caused by intertia of foundation: It is given by . 361 .27) The natural frequency wn«/> of this system is given by .lWL and maximum displacement A .C~ ~s d R I dA C~ = 14> . (ii) Moment Mw due to .(9.24 ) here. 9..25 ) vhere.23 a) . Mj .
It gives Mmz iV ..... 9. The positionof the foundationat any time t mayt defined in terms of angle of rotation "'.(9. where. . A. . 9. hence Eq.' 362 Soil Dynamics... 'l In practice.4.31) 12 ... '4 .0)2) Similarly. the contribution of rocking.30) . (9. . Let the unbalanced moment is given by Mz(t) = Mzsin (J)t As explained in Sec.3 + C'IIJ z '" = Mz sin rot ..I .(9.. A foundation is subjected to yawing motion if it is subjected to torsional moment Mz (t) about Zaxis (Fig.32) It is seen from Eq. I is many times WL .9. .. . towards the horizontal amplitude is Axr = h.7a).28) may be written:' con. the resistive moment due to soil is C'II'Jz "'.(9. ' The amplitude of the vertical motipn of the edge of the footing is Azr = ~xA. =I M mo ~ Y .. &Mac1iin~ Foundatiolt/. 9.4. The equation of motion is written by taking moment about Z.33' . '.axis. Yawing Vibrations of a Block. .. This principle is sometimes used in proportioning the sides of the machine foundation undergoing predominantly rocking yibrations. conI/! = "MU /nO Cell ba3 .32) that the linear dimension of the contact area perpendicular to the axis of rotation exercises a considerably greater effect on the natural frequency of rocking vibrations than the other dimension. ba3 1=.21) respectively to obtain total vertical an sliding amplitudes when rocking is combined with vertical and sliding vibrations.34 Azr and Axr are added to Az (Eq. h = Height of the point above the base where amplitude is to be determined.~1 '. 9. respectively..18) and Ax (Eq....4.: ~~ where.0. Mya/2 = Mmo(O)~' .. (9. Mmz = Mass moment of inertia of the machine and foundation about the axis of rotat (Zaxis) Jz = Polar moment of inertia of foundation contact area C1jf = Coefficientof elasticnonu~iformshear t .."i .. C.(9.(9.~ If the dimensions of the footing at the base are a and b in the X andY direction~.(9.(9.
. and therefore it simultaneously slide. rock and vibrate vertically. . a foundationblock subjected to a vertical force (Fzsin 00 I)..' " ( b) pia n . ~. 9. horizontal force and moment. Ah'l' = r A'I' ... Simultaneous'Vertical. .' . . Fig.37) Mz 2 = M 'I' mz( ID nljl 2 CD ) The horizontal displacement AhlJl c~used.t.tw J. of Reciprocating Machines 363 z x v (a) Isom~teric vi<zw " .5.A Mmz . . frequency an{ma~imux:n angular displacements are as follows: (J)nl/f . a machine foundation is subjected to time dependent vertical force. . In general. . by . In Fig.39) r = Horizontal distance of the point on the foundation from the axis of motion (Zaxis) '9.orsion is where. . Sliding and Rocking Vibrations..7: (a) Yawing motion ora rigid block (b) Development of nonuniform shear below the base The' expressions' for natural.{9.8..4..(9.óóóòóóó Foundations '.
At any time t. Xo can be expressed in terms of x and 4> as below: xo=xLcp where L = Height of Centre of gravity 0 from base of the block (tU) Moment MRdue to resistance of soil induced by rotation:of the foundation by $ : The MR about point 0 is given by MR=C . which is alsotaken as the origin of coordinates..'" "'I + .8: Block foundation subjected to simultaneous vertical.be written by evaluating the resisting and actuating . . It is therefore subjected to (i) displacement z.Jt Initial position x ~ z Fig.:. (i) Upward soil reaction Rv due to vertical displacement z : Rv Rx = Cu A z = C't A Xo .8.(9. and moment in the clockwise direction. sliding and rocking vibrations The equations of motion can .4 jJ (ii) Horizontal soil reaction Rx due to horizontal displacement xo: As the origin is at 0.(9.4( .(90' . z I ' Fz Sin C. in the vertical direction (ii) displacement Xo in the horizontal direction at the base and (Ui) rotation <1> of the base..i: ~\ 364 SoUDynamics & Machine Foundations . horizontal force in righthand side direction...moment acting on the foundation in the displaced position. These forces and moments are obtained as give: below: . and.(9..'9. considering the vertical force acting in downward direction.forces . the foundation block will be displaced as shown in Fig..4 . 9. These forces and moment are considered to act at the combined centre of gravity 0 of the machine and the foundation.~ a horizontal force (Fx sin (J) t) and an oscillatory moment (My sin (J)t) is shown.
" .direction Fiz Fix = mi = mx = Mm ~ .48) ' (c) In the rotational mode Mi$ "here' M m = Mass moment Of inertia of the machine and foundation about an axis passing through combined centre of gravity 0 and in the direction of Yaxis Cheequations of the motion 'can now be written as below: In the Z .52) is a twodegreeoffreedom system. .(9.56) in which x I' <1>1 and exare arbitrary constants whose values depend upon the initial conditions of motion. therefore the motion in Z . ...direction is independent of ..Naturalfrequencies of coupledrocking and sliding.Direction: mx + CtA Xo= Fx sin cot Substituting the yalue of Xo from Eq..(9.16 to 9.(9..44) The moment Mw about point 0 is given by (v) Moment MxRdue to horizontal resisting force Rx : Moment MxRabout point 0 is'give~ ~y .45) Interial forces and moment: (a) In the Z .~ AL<I> =0 .L MxR = Rx .L"' ~) (vi) . The solution of this equation is already given in Eqs.1... (9.(9.42) in Eq.Ct A Lx + (C$ I .51) = My sin co t ..(9.. (9. Hence. Equations (9.Ct A (x .46) .direction:.51) and (9. .. any other motion.(9.. sliding and rocking are coupled modes.49) contains only the terms of z.54) . .Ct A Lx + (C$ I .18." .5.(9.51) and (9.WL <I> .direction (b) In the X .. ... 9...' .. we get mx + Ct A (x L<I» = FX sin CO t In the rotational mode. The solutions for natural frequencies are obtained by considmx + C~ Ax .50).(9.4..(9. 9.. '<.. ". A solution for simultaneous rocking and sliding vibrations is presented below.. Mm <i> + C$ <I> I . (9. uni/ations of Reciprocating (iv) Machines 365 Moment Mw due to displaced position 'of the centre' of gravity of block : Mw = W L <I> .47) . Therefore..c. ' .(9.55) and Mm ~ . mi + Cu Az = Fz sin cot In the X . The systemrepresentedby Eqs... L = C~ A (X ... . 2 Mm <I> ..L<I» ..WL + C~ AL ) <I> = My sin CO t Equation (9.52) or . '.(9.(9.50) .(9.49) .52) contain both x and <I> and are interdependent. " . ' ering the free vibrations of the system.53) .W L + C~A L2 ) <I> == 0 Particular solutions of these equations may be assumed as x = xI sin (con t + ex) and <I> = <1>1 sin (cO n t + ex).
.IWL 'f + C A(M t m +mL2) +L] C A CA. 4 oo~ h . ' . (9.~f:' " m "' . '~ ...(9. mOOn Xl + Ct A xl .59) into Eq..(9. Thus. .(9. I ~ CtA L + (C.Mm oo~)( CtA m oo~)] = 0 .61). * 366 Soil Dynamics &I. (9.Ct A L<I>I = 0 2 or Xl (CtA 2 moon)CtAL<I>1 ".. "" ..I+m WL =0 = 2 00 nx . " :0' ~.. is the onI . C..59) From Eq. Hence the expression within the parentheses mu~tJ)( zero.I:WL: 2 M' mo '.(9. the quantity (Mm+ mL2) is the mass moment of inertia of the foundation and mach about an axis that passes through the centroidof the base contact area and is perpendicular to the'~1: of vibrations.57) ~ and Mmoo~<I>1 +<I>I(CtAL2+CcpI .J .. we get <1>1 [C~ A 2 L2+ (Cc!> I . ij~ 2 .~.I WL) CtAMmoo~CtAL2moo~(C.53) and (9.60) For a nontrivial solution.t't...WL + Ct AL2 . Equation (9..58).IWL r ( Mmo ) CtA C.IWL)moo~+Mm1nro: = .54) and dividing by sin (con t + a).(S . (9.: . This gives' 2 2 2 . ' M Further.IWL 'f =0 .( n Mm ] mMm m ( Mmb ) By definition.6 By dividing by mMm and rearranging.57). =0 WL) C'tALxI =0 CtAL<I>1 xl = 2 CtA mOOn .55) and (9:56) into Eqs.'. "... Mmo m = r where 1 > r > 0 CtA +m . we get. ~ OOn.M~chine Ft!""~ By substituting Eqs.:. (9.63) may be rewritten as OOnNow. . by denoting ~ . <1>1 can not be zero. I óÉÔõÝ¬ßÔ 2 óÓ³×Ü²÷øÝ¬ßmOOn) =0 2 2 .~ '4 ~...6~ The term (On'which represents the natural frequency in combined sliding and rocking. one obtains 00 00 4 2 n [( CA.. . . :" . By substituting the value of xI from Eq.(1~ .(9. (9. " tMmo  CtA 'i 'i 'f~i . ~. This is denoted by Mmo. which can now be solved.(9.t9... (9. Equation (9.\.M I Mmo = Mm + mL .(9.unknown in Eq.58) .c C. .i::~ I..'.61) may be rewritten as follows: C~A2L2+C~A2L2+CtA(C..
(9.70) may be rewritten as 2 (J)nl..4(J)n..(9.76) x ~ Ax'sin (J) t ~ ::.. 9. Equation (9.Ct AL~ = Fx sin (J)t .= 0 or .A.(9.(9..moo)  Ct ALA..4..66 in terms of OOn.WL .  mx+ Ct 2" Ax . 0>2 ..:t r (Onx+ O>nq....(9... 2 O>nx '2 2 2 2 2 2 0>2 nl. Mm~ + ~(Ct AI. J ( r J .2. (Ct A L2+ C. O>nl+O>n2 2 2 2 2  0> nx + 0>ncp r 0>2 ..: Acp sin .75) .69) has two positive roots.r [«(J)nx + (J)ncp) 4r(J)ncp(J)ncp] OOnx It can be proved that and 00 ncp will always lie bet~~en limiting natural frequencies 0001 and 0002' 9. 2 (J) t in which Ax and Acp are the maximum sliding and rocking amplitudes respectively.69) The Eq. Amplitudes of coupled rocking a. .WL)Ct ALx = 0 Assume that the particular solution to these equations are .~m 002) . Foundations of !leciproC/lting Machi.(9. (9. 367 2 2 0>nx + 0>ncp 2 2 0>nx Cl) n+ .(9.(9.51) and (9.52) may be rewritten as follows: ' .70) ] .2 =1.73) . I . we get . 2 [( + O>nq.. = Fx . 22_"221/2 (J)nl(J)n2 .)1 . By substituting these solutions into the above equations.2= I 2r 2 2 [( (J)nx+(J)ncp 2 2 )+ 2 2 ..(9..!es '2y writting the Eq. (9. Ax (Ct A . . If only the horizontal force Fx sin ootis acting: Eqs. .. 0> 2 n  ( r 0> + n 2 ) r =0 .79) CtA~ ~ ..: + Ccp 1.(C~L2 +C.5.."(J)ncil r . CJ)nl and CJ)n2' which correspond to two natural frequencies of the system: The ro~ts of Eq.2 7"~ (O>nx+(J)ncpo 4 2 2 r(J)nx (J)nq.72) (J)nl x (J)n2 =~ r ncp.(9.69) are: .IWLMmoo2) Ax . The amplitudes of vibration are determined in the following three cases: Case I.74) and 221.(9. .78) ..77) Ct A LAx + A.71) From the property of a quardratic equation: .. (9.~  ... and CJ)n~ we ?et .nd sliding.
A.~ ( 2 + 2 )+ 4 00Il~ 00n. we get 2 2 2 ~~~ " .~ ~ By substituting for Ax in eq. t..82) = ~(oo ) C AL ~ t (00)2 2 A = ~ F x .~ (00.73) into'Eq... 't' mMm 00 2 C tA(mL2+M t m + ) (C".(9.~t'f".  and .IWL) .t~ 368 SDi/Dynamics '& Machine FtiuiidQiio~ «i . gives in (9.. (9. (Ct A L + C..(9. A~ Ct ALA.76).B' 'i. 1. I WLMm x ~ (002) 002F x .v Case 11. =Mysinrot .:(9. If only moment My sin ro t is acting: Eqs. . +00 4 x........86 11. .85' .(9.. Ax..(9.81) . .84) ..79).. " ) .WLMm 00 )(CtAmoo CtAL .".) My .(' = 2 2 mM m OO IlX 00 Il~ [ :':~By using the relations A ~  r . By assuming solutions as for Eqs. we get xF x ] " . 't' . 2 2 C AL t 2 mMm [ oon1 oon2 00 (oon1+oon2)+00 2 2 2 2 x mMm(OOn1OO )(OOn2 00 ) Let.(9.. . .83) By substituting for A~ in Eq. Mmlj>Ij>(CtAe+C4»IWL)CtALx ." .80) r ] (9. (9. '.72) and (9.Ct ALcp = 0 .(9..'.. 00 ' Ct~L FX .52) may be rewritten as ... .~~' :' (~ . " ):'j A~ =.Iwt) 't' Mm . [ mMm ] ] .. (9. .0 C AL' . 2 2 4 .. . . .. mM . we get A = Ct AL2 +Cq.80).(9.B'. 2 2 2 2 mMm(OOn1 00 )(OOn2 00 ) CtAL F . .Ct Amoo 2 . .51) and... '...(9.77)..l. mx + Ct and '.75) as (9. (9. m[ CtA+(C".(9. it can be shown that the following expression hold: My t Ax = ~ (002) 2 CAL .
J L \  .. In foundations with two degrees of freedom..92) and Ah = Ax + h ArpH__.m ro 0 . (9. 2 and " A 4> (CorAL)Fx+ (Cor A mm) oL\(ro2) My ..(9.l( (0 ) 0 0 0 0 0 0 My ..9: \ / ~ ( \ / \ ".foundation rotates about an axis that passes through the centroid of the base contact area and slidi~g is absent! ~ ... 2 ..93) p = = 2 = 2 2 AA «)nx . .. It means that the.(9.«) 'I' Cor A . Let us examine the case when the foundation is subjected to exciting moment My only.87) and (9.oii 369 of m~tion are Case Ill...... h = Height of the top of the foundation above the combined center of gravity."\ \ .(9.90) The total amplitude of the vertical and horizontal vibration are given by a .__ where..  I I z ". ../ V (b) (a) Rocking and sliding in phase with each other (b) Rocking and sliding In opposite phl1se The following cases are important for consideration of form of vibration: (i) If (0 « (Onx'then p ==L .. o' z 0 ..91) .88) is given by .89) .but does not depend on the initial conditions of foundation motion. 9. 0  A= x. :\ \ v .(9. .~) 0 A L. ./ .. specific forms of vibrations correspond to the frequencies (0/11 and (0112' These vibrat~ons are characterised by a certain interrelationship between the amplitudes Ax and A. : If both the unbalanced force Fx aJ:?dmo~ent MJLare acting..(a) Fig. Ay = Az+2A~ . 2 Ax CtA L ronx L .. Poundations of Reciprocating Machines . .(9..' ) . the ~plitudes determined as follows: 0 02 0 0 0 0 . . .pwhich depends on the foundation size and the soil propet:t~es. (C'tAL 0 + CtPI:WLMm(O 2 )Fx + (c. The ratio of amplitudes Ax and A4> obtained using Eqs......"\ \ \ ...
Reissner (193. Lamb (1904) studied the problem of vibration of a single oscillating fon (Vertical or horizontal. Figun during vibration at frequency (0 n2' when the centre of gravity deviates from the equilibrium 9. Based on his work. 9.4. Fig.1 by integration of Lamb's solut~on for a point load.5 ELASTIC HALFSPACE METHOD . the foundation will undergo rocking vibrations with respect to a point situated at a distance PI from. and changes of amplitudes Ax and A. i.. ' " . then oo~ . developed the analysis for the problem of vibration of a uniformly loaded flexible circular area (Fig.rot I' ' Z0 = Gr (J 1 + I f 2) 0 where. ':::.1. .'.10) acting at a point on the surface of an elastic half space. The form of vibration will be as shown in Fig. " F (t) . " .'. 9.1< 0."~::'.370 v Soil Dynamics & Machine Fou"datiol '(U) If 00'= (On2' (O~ 2 being the lower limiting natural frequency.:::::. :':'::':~"""':. and at a distance P2 determined from expression (Eq. . 9..5. The value of PI is determined by the absolute value of expression (Eq.r<tJ '.axis. .00..93) if 0> n2 is substituted for O>n' (Ui) If 0> = O>nl then oo~ .e. 9. and Ax and A~ will be out of phase. . pe .::~.2> 0 .10: Oscillating force on the surface of elastic halfspace 9.a point which lies higher than the centre of gravit.9 a.9 F0 = Magnitude of oscillatory force 0> = Forcing frequency. will be in phase.<. G p )J (a) P JJ (b) Fig.. P will be negative. the positive dir~ction of the X . Vertical Vibrations.9 b illustrates the form of vibrations around... 9.. the vertical displ<icementan] centre of the circular area is given by Foe .:'~":'. rad/s G = Dynamic shear modulus of the medium r0 = Radius of the footing /1' /2 = Displacement functions i=H . ~':~~':. 9.(9.': G ...the centre of gravity of foundation. It m~ans that position.00. for example. the rotation of the foundation will also be positive.93) if 0> nl is substituted for O>n' 9.
: ...'.. . : .""""")"':""'j"'.. b : It is given by .~d dep~~dien(op.> ' " i .. .2:..s.1 : i . Jp = Cllr .~n~i?~~ less frequency factor a '. (ZiG...(FofG ro) where. P~is~o~~sr..Their~values fo~"f1exible'"'circular' foUndation are' giveIi'iii Table 9. m W .... Reissner obtained the following expression for the amplitude of foundation having circular base: Az = Azn ~. and solving the equation ofeguilibrium forces.)t 11" r2 0 z Fig. .:.: . .[ . ao : It is given by a =00 r ° .  . ::.(9." .96) where.". :. .t '  'r .. ..an~ ~~~~.. óÐ¢ýññ¢ : . :. (b) Dimensionless frequency.. .' Go '00'0" f ' " ~ ". .'. (bao f2) ' . V~lue. .: ' ' '".. {J':.':' i '.of disp~a~einentlu~ctio~fi'ai!2f2 ~~ ~o. '.0 (Z .__ (. (9.94).' :''.':.97) .oVa.'A "'" fl2 + f22 2 2 2 2 (~:~ao 11)... Iv . .. of foundatiQn.'". .it'.. O.:.III .procatin'g"Mai:h 371' ~ : . .' : .11: Vibrationora uniformlyloadedcircular flexiblearea Reissner introduced following two nondimensional tenus : (a) Mass ratio. .a~o ~..95) b=~=~ pro yro It describes the relation between the mass of vibrating footing and a certain mass of the elastic halfspace. 0 .. J! .i . "'"".. .~. ."" ." .S_.. .::. m = Mass of the machine and foundation Vs = Shear wave velocity y = Unit weight of soil p = mass density of soil Using the displacement Eq. = Amplitude """:"'.j:" .. .9. l°":::":': p(Zr = p )J unit or(Zo ~ F. = Dimensionless amplitude.+.i??//(/4 ~." . . in iii Fountiatitins '0/ Rlc. '0 load ~ '. ... o':! i: . F... ..(9. . ".Az zn .(9.>...:'..
12 b).092841 0. Equation (9.148594 Go 0.002432 a04 0.2 :Values of Displacement Function 'of Flexible Foundations (Bowles. ~d' (0) (b) under a circular foundation (c) ~ ..di~~b~~~~ri:r~ma.0. DJ!n.press. .039789 a/ 10.5 Valus of(fl) 0. 9.(9. Their values ~re ~~v .214474'ao'~'.' '" .. fz is the contact pressure at a distance r measured from the centre of foun.017757 Go + 3 0. ' . 1977} Poisson's Ratio J.12: Contact pressure distribution In the above equations.3.12 a)..am.97) holds good for all the three types oJ conta9t pressure distributions with change4: val~es of/l a~d/2.000808 0.(9. 9.25 0.' r ..r2) F iwt (iii) Parabolic (9.372 SoU.98) F e.100) .. 9.~~hine Fou~d~tion~. 2rrr0 r0 O ~ r 2 : for r::.w/ 0 (ii) Uniform (Fig.ur~.tf dation.w/ (i) Rigid base (Fig.004163 a04 Values of (.99) It is the same as considered by Reissner i. . ..{)59683'a02 + 0.1 0 0.12) 0 0. '~ ~~~ . ro .~ Table 9. f = Z .0 : 1t ro 4 0 for r ::. . . in Table 9. I Cl ~ ~ /' ...12 c).318310 .in unchang'e~ with. .ro .e.001528 a05 0. .011038 Go + 0...029561 'a03+ 3 0.I .. M. for flexible foundations with circular l>ase 2 (r2 .238733: . . I~ = ~ 2 rrro' for r ::.000444 5 Go 5 a0 The classical work of Reissner (1936) for circular loaded area was extended by Quinlan (1953) and Sung (1953) for the following three contact pressure distributions: F e.07405 a04 a/ + 0.(9.104547 Go 0. The v~lues off} an4/2f~~ rig~dbas~ foundatio.ics..&.j Fig.nswere comp~ted by Sung (19~~)?Jt1l/ '~A the assUinpt~o!l ~at the...frequency.0. fz = .25 0.159155".5 0. 0.. 0.. ro .
': 373.: . i ' " .S c: .': "'..1 0 .. r~rce (Ric~art.J = 0. . .0. . E 0 c 0 C tI \11 VI c:..6 O..' .Reciprocating {.7 poisson's . S '.S : .'. . ~ 0.. ratio) j.I 0.I 'U . .on. " .. " . . 0.datio/fs o/. .: '.:) +' . .25 . .r' '. ".2 b 0.. .3 1/1 E 0.'. a 0 ." ''.' . i. ' ". . ..' 1. M/lcMnes .  0. 0. 1. ~'. ... ..4 N <t c:. " >\' Fig. .'.": '. "f. 9.I. '. .13: Plot of AZA versus ao for a rigid circular foundation subj~te~ to:constantexcitati.962) .  .0. a.' '.
Figure9. but the corresponding value of ao increases with increase in J.187500 .inics&' Machilre Fourrdations \. the amplitude of vibration Aze is given by 2 2 me e CO Aze= or Azen Ora Az 2 2 I1 + 12 (lba~/I)2+(ba.. The effect of Poisson's ratio on the variation of Azencap be seen in Fig.u.13 and 9 . .010905 ao 0.0.2. 12)2 . Poisson's ratio J. It may be noted that the curves shown in Figs. 2 me= Total rotating mass For this condition. Figure 9.14894 ao .fz)2 2 2 .9.' '~'"'(Bowres~"f977r''0'0 . .102) I1 + 12 = (2meero2)/Oro ~ (lba.".. i' l . 11)2 + (ba. Manytimes foundations are subjected to a frequency dependent excitation (Fig..023677 a03 + 0. rigid and parabolic. :.103) where..0.'<' ..014717 ao + 0.14 shows a typical plot of Azenversus ao for various values of mass ratio b for rigid base circular footing subjected to frequency dependent excitation.esponseof rigid circular footing ~~bjectedto frequency dependent excitation. Table 9.046875 a/ + 0.(9.0.13 shows a typical plot of Azn versus a0 for various values of mass ratio b for a rigid base . A high mass ratio (greater height of footing and smaller contact radius) implies a large amplitude of vibration for a given set of conditions.e.0.3 : Values of Displacement Functions for Rigid Foundations ~'.109375 ao + 0.002444 ao 0.15 demonstratesthenatureof variationof Azenwith ao for three types of contact pressure distribution.16 resp~<::tively. V alues' of 11 0 0. circular footing subjected to a constant force excitation F0 e/(JH.21447 ao .(9.0.14 are similar to the frequencyamplitude curves shown in Figs. uniform.5 Figure 9.070313 a02 + 0~006131a04 0.00717 ao 0 0. Parabolic and uniform pressure distributions produced higher displacement than a rigid base.. Richart and Whitman ( 1967) have studied the effect of the shape of contact pressure distribution and Poisson's ratio on amplit~d'~'~freq~en~y.2.4 ".125000 .1..003581 a04 Values of /2 3 5 0.104547 ao.16..001294 a05 3 5 0. Azen = Nondimensional amplitude in frequency dependent excitation .25 0.25 0.250000 ..13 and 2. i.1~). The amplitude of the external oscillating force is given by 2 F=2m em .5 2 4 0. 9..1.1. The peak value of Azendecreases with the increases in the value of J.101) 0 e where..~ 374 Soil Dy.0.039416 ao + 0.(9.
ected to frequencydependentexcitation .. " .28 poisson'5 .16 ::::J . ~igid ~in:ular foundation subJ. 9.5 °0 1. (Rlchart.5 Fig..20 c « ~ "0 ~ N .. " .04 0  0 0.o for. 375 0...J = 0.. ".12 " C 0 III C ~  E 0..24 0.. )..'. ratio.1962) "" .."daiions ut Reciprocating' MilChin~s """"'"""""""''""'""""'"'. 0 E 0 III III 0.14: Plot of AzcD versus. 0.25 0.'~. ..0 1.08 (:) 0.
16 : Effect of Poisson's ratio on the variation of Ann with ao (Richart and Whitman.5 °0 1.3 a. E 0 U1 III ~ 0. 0 0. and (ii) value of ao for maximum amplitude (i:. a. parabolic pnz ssu rq distribution . E 0 U1 U1 b.on~can obtain:(i)~axffI1um amI tude. ~ "U ~ 0..e. _~_::c. 9. 9.5 0 'jA 0..4Rigid basq b : 5 .0 1.'<':":' ~' '.  Soil Dynamiq_&Machine.17 and 9.0 1. resonance condition) for different values 01 Richart (1962) have plotted this data in graphical form as shown in Figs.18 which convenient for design use.in.J3 ..5 1.S 0. t 967) F~omthe amplitude~frequency curves.25 ~ O..  . .Founda.. 1967) c <t ~ 0.Figs.3 C 0.41..5 Fig..n with ao (Richart and Whitman.2 0 U1 C \:11 '0 E 0.and 9.9.i:. 9..5 °0 Fig..2 0....t 5 : Effect of c~ntact pressure distribution on the variation of Aze.I 0..(~(Jf3 376 0.14.1 c: ~ c: E 0 0.l : 0.' 00 0.6 c: <t ~ g b :'5 J.
. """'0 = 0..2 1....£) I . " "'..:omplitude ot 1. '\ Rigi d ba C.(Z Ji< \ =0. ".~.~) ':!l~t:..)""\"".0 re5.~~ ~.£) . dim~nsio.." \\ . .. 0 :.'...5 <.. '.ance condition for vertical vibrations (Richart.{~.~4 { . .. 1 .(m'\\i<l~}{ : 1l1'" ..0nanC(l 1.5 " Rota'ting .0 ..... 1962) ...4 1. ..4 0.:'H".'.~\!.8 ao at 1.dations of Reciprocating Machines 100 Rotating Constant maS5 forc(Z . 9.. 1962) 100 r \ '\ \'\ \ \.: 10 0 fJ 0 ..17 : Plot of mass ratio b versus ao for reso!.0 1.A .2 '1...nless~mplitude at resonance (Ricbart.4 . 0 ..18: Plot of mass ratio bversus.. ~'".~... \\ \ \\ \ \\ \ \\ \ \\ ..25 0 ma5S .~ . '.6 0. Con s'tant" torc(Z . 10 . 1r~ Q..n~iv~ir~l1'i' ~(1'i 'r. .2 0... . ~.. """'. Dim(lnsio'rdess'...~.0 . ..'J..6 ya lu (Z of r (Z50 no nc (Z Fig..*~. 9.. \\ \" . 0.....~ Fig.. III III Rigid 10 bas(Z .
19: Response of a rigid circular footID ' for vertical vibrations (Lysmer and Rlchart.t 2 . 0. .5 ... óó¢þò¢ù ùòù æþþùóù¢ùå¢öôº Lysmer and Richart (1966) propose4 a ... Dimen'sioritesS' freq"uency.I.1 0 ..107). 4Gro IJ.i.4 r.z+_.4 ro er.. The values of spril1gconstant It and damping constant Czwere taken as giv~n ~elow :" : .'. K=z .. Mz is given below.19 illustrate how well the response curves for the analog agree with t! response curves for half space method. The dashed curves in Fig.I .1 ~ ~J u 0 c ) Z . 0 u c (JI 0 ~ .(9. 0 .. 'cro" "l .i.. L0 1. z is obtained as C ~ C 3. e L ~ Constant torce excitation '" '. (2.(9. Eq.siplplifi~dmass~pringdashpot analog foLcalculating. 9... ~ "i Fig.0 ..108) becomes to .58).(9..The damping ratio..<'" 378 Soil Dynamics & Machine Found4ti.(9. 3.the response of a rigid circular footing subjected to vertical oscillations... ~. Z Lysmer and Richart (1986) also suggested the modified mass ratio as 1J. The equation of motion may thus pe written as C = vpv . 1966) """.104) and 3. m ~.S .I.105) iwt . '3 }J = 1/3 Haltspace theory :E H  .425 z  . IJ.4 ro er.o. G z IJ...".. :t!? .106) "  4  4 pro .t'0' ùÖÐææ The response of the system can be studied using Eq.(9. JPG ~.z =F e IJ.. ~ ~' ~: 1 .108 .I.(9. (9.. 4 G ro mz+vpG.I. " . "I!. C: ~ 2J~. (9. IJ..0.b 3 B z 2  . . To m Putting the value of m in terms ofBz from Eq...101' .Si mptitied 2 Bz :: 5 ono log . 9.f. The derivation of magnification factor.. m ~ îøïóñ´÷ù IJ. ...
. .(9..(9.111) Id at resonance the amplitude is given by Eq. .18) . .e... . we get <. . 9.(9.. i..90 <.109) into Eq.". 0.. M. '.113a) . .. .0.0.= " .18 (Az)max  Magnification factor.85~Bz ....18 vlagnificationfactor.36) 0 . (9.18 B ~or a frequency ."" .the resonant frequency and the maximum amplitude are 1 by : H 0..4G.0 nz' ~ f(Bz .n a~d~~zfromEqs:' (9..85~Bz0.112) Fo (Az)max " Bz = Kz 0. 'F.. Amold et at. we get . :re Mze = 3mee m .20) subjectedto an oscillatoryhorizontalforce F0 ~y have presented the solutions for two cases namely (i) constant force excitation.(IJ. . (2.113b) r (Az)max = 40'0 . Pure Sliding Vibrations. .onz 1 Bz B' z .K' . m "" '.116) " .~ .115) = . i.(9. ..104).110).:.lions of ReciproCllting Machines 379 e natural frequency of the system described by Eq." ~l~ ~ 2" ...114) .JBz0. In constant force excitation (F0 = constant)... (A) z max .  .. lere.dependent excitation .45)P ...(9. (9. <..0.0. (9.1) Bz ..2. (9. Ax = O~0 Axn .(9.""==~ .110) tting the valu'e~'of Kz.0 m = ri L.61).~"~ ..1) z 0. and (ii) frequency )t:nderit excitation. .107) and (9.112).(9..115 a) 2 me = Unbalanced rotating mass e = Eccentricity of mass from the axis of rotation ei(J)(. 0 = Fo(1J../(Bz .85~Bz...106). the amplitude Ax is gi~en by .109) into Eq.~ 0 Bz r0 '. .(9. . (1955) have obtained theoretical solutions for sliding rationsof rigiq circular foundations(Fig.e.85 ~Bz .0.18 Fo. "' .. '0 2 me e and (Az)max = .0.85. """'' =.0. 2 Fo / Kz (Az)max = 2 ~~ 1~z 2 utting the values of ~z from Eq.(9. Axn = No!1dimensional amplitude factor .(9..
. "' .' :. . ~ "0 ::J . 1 ~I '" .~': ". c ti x .' f .. f<i s. (9..~... E 0 0'1 1:) . 9. 9.2 1.:..20: Rigid circular foundation subjected to sliding oscillations "..10.. .95). z Fig..~.21 by dotted lines.. I P }. .\':'" .'".b 1 same as given in Eq.III ~"~ . . ~. 9. "I it '":I ××Ää¥ III ti C 0 III C ti T' E . The plot of b versus Go for resonant amplitude is given in Fig..' " .'I.".380 Soil Dynamics & Machine ...t :~'" . .. a. The envelop <Jrav. .... 1962) .. . 9.T to these curves is used to define the frequency at maximum amplitude...c 0.J The variation of amplitude versus frequency is shown in Fig..S f .Axn ß¨»² . G ". F""(Z 0 iQt Foundation otT f x .Eo. The definition of mass ratio.0 °0 Fig.22~ :xi 10 ti f}J = 0 t...J r0 1 h'J' J..= <{ 0 C )( . ' I I 1}\ 1.21 : Plots of AsDand AscII versus ao for sliding vibrations (RIchart.
(9..1 ~ .4 (1J.(9.1f 7 .the value of A is given by: /. . . 1962) For the case Fo = 2 mex.. r 2 32(lJ.". 9. 78J.Ji) pr3 "O..4 (1 78J..1. ...119) The equation of motion thus can be written as mx+ . ..8J. x 32(1. x = .x  0 7 .8J.. The variation he mass ration b versus ao for resonant condition is given in Fig...tionsof ReCiprocating Machines íèï ïðð £òÖãÑ ïð × Eccentric oscillator ³¿ Ö ó ô Ý±² ¢¬¿² ¬ ï ðòî ðòìò ðòê ðòè pð ïòð ïòî ïòìò ïòê Ú·¹ò çòîîæ Plot of mass ratio b versus a 0 for resonance condition for sliding vibrations (Richart. 18.120 a) .21.'. . Hall (1967) propos~d a simplified massspring dashpot analog for calculating the response of a rigid :ular footing subjected to sliding vibrations... .'I.e ci .x+ JPG.1) ro vPuo 2 c:. The values of the spring constant Kx and damping con1t Cx were taken as given below.. 9..1) G ro 18.(9.. .120) 0 He also suggested the modified mass ratio B for sliding vibrations as X '. . . " F e.' "". shows the envelop of Axen versus ao for resonant condition..J..}. = 7 8J. K .:.(9.1 \. .22.1 32(1J.118) and C = x ' P .1 m '. J. B ".(9.rAxen pro The firm line in Fig.117) . .CJ)l 0 .1) G r ."".2 me e Ax ...
0 . 1. ". It i1~. I ~ ...5 ...:.Cc .... tii...122) I Figure 9.' 0 0.~ (1 /1..r jI.. 9...(9.2875 Fx ...°0 1..382 Soil Dynamics &: .:!i..119) in Eq.23 : Response of rigid circular footing for pure sliding (Hall.j ..5 Fig.Mllchine Foundlltitt~ 1 The damping ratio ~x is given by .0... we get .. 0 ..' T..Cx Cx x .~. (9.(9.121).121) ~ I x . (9.. 1967) . u 0 c 2 u .....23 illustrates how well the response C\lrvesfor the analog agree with the response curves for the half space model.. 4 Bx = 5 Exact solution .. .2 ~kx m Putting the values of Cx and kx from Eqs. ~ .0 .118) and (9.J' '1i~.. I I \  2 .1' ~. " C 0'1 0 ::E .~~ .Analog solution 3 x ::E L0 .' .
tL""'i 4.t ' '. ~ .~.ollt and maximum value of amplitude (Ax}m~ can be' computed using Eqs.2. .. . : Rigid clrcuJar foundation subjected to rocking oscillations " .. ':"'. . (1955) and Bycroft (1956) have obtained theoretical soons for rigid circular foundations subjected to pure rocking vibrations (Fig. .124) respectively.. .t. .(9.125) ere My = Exciting moment about Y Y axis a = Angle of rotation \ I / \rjJ \~I  I fJ / Footing...'" . Amold et al. ..' r i " : I' L .  /"".(9. .. 9. G '. ~ ~:. 23) and (9.t' : ...124) and .ùïïä¥ù .~x . .. Pure RockingVibrations. (AJ " ma = 2 Ft / kx ~x . ." " '.:" p }J x . Fig.' . .bt 1.)"~:. ~ / My Cli~.1 ..24).. '"'." . I i\T7\ \ .123) . . q  3 My r cosa."..':' . .. .. "'"~~~~ptali~.. 9. y tootin9'~ ..0 nx X = f: 2. 1~ m g 2 x . " .~ Ö¼ i . ejro( 3~ 27tro 'Vo r (for r ~ ro) ..' ...dotions of RecipI'ocatingMachines 383 The natural frequency <. <.. The contact pres~ below the foundation is varied according to .~ 1I  0 .} .> ..I':(V... " '. .. ..R 1.~'H.(9.."" .24 '.
l) 3 ... \ I 20 \ I I " I \ \ \I ( 1\ I / '\ \ .. The envelop curve shown by the flfm line can be used to define the relation between ao at maximum amplitude (resonant condition).l)(I+B. can be expressed as A.\ .I 11 . "  \ " " c 0 '" C tII . 9.129) 0.) °0 Fig.126) Under dynamic conditions the amplitude of rocking is a function of the inertia ratio B..fGP Ccp= (lf.(9. which is given by 3(1J. ..n ( Gro ) MY3 'A.l) Mmo . The plot of spring constant k.384 Soil.) 't) :I .I ' JJ = 0 .(9.j..127) B..4 0. the amplitude of angular rotation A. Borowicka (1943) gave the following equation for computing static rotation of the foundation under the static application of moment My' 3(1J.25a shows the variation of A.. = 3(1J... The plot of inertia ratio B.(9.. Machine Fou"dtltioM .25 : (a) Plot of A. 'j .n with dimensionless frequency ao for various values of inertia ratio B.4 1962) (. I I '\ . . \ E 0 1 0.Dynamics &:. Mmo = Mass moment of interia of machine and foundation about the axis of rotation For the dynamic moment My. were taken as given below: 8G 1~ K.2 . 9.I \1 1\ 10 \ I 0. . versus ao for resonant amplitude is shown in Fig. 'I . =8 5 pro where.8r: ..25 b.(9..l) Mmo A~ = 8 ~ pro . = where A." versus 10 (Richlrt. 0 0 c 0 ~ a. 'I .. E 10 'f :' 1I . and damping constant C. 9.130) '" 40 .n . c 0"6+4 0 0 .. Hall (1967) proposed an equivalent massspringdashpot analog for calculating the response of a rigid circular footing subjected to rocking vibrations...8 1.6 S\ \ \ 0.128) = Nondimensionalrotational amplitude Fig..Contd.(9.
...(9.H'I\!~ Foundations of Reciprocatipg Machines 385 60 m e. / The equation of motion can be written as 4 ~ 3 i(f)/ .+ '".h 8Gra '" _ M ". ......M e m$ (lfl)(l+B~) 3(1fl) Y For critical damping.. versus. .. C 1 0. L.133) Figure 9. 9.131) c~c = 2~K~Mma Therefore damping ratio ~~ will be C~ = 0.(9. The undamped natural frequency ron~and amplitude A$ in rocking vibrations are givenby . ~ k'[{l:~r+~'ro:ni 1 ....(9.(9.25: (b) Plot of B.2 0.4 °0 (b) Fig.8ra "Gp .j.. 0 0 .+ '". .. Mina .. 0 .(9.... 0.2 1.26 illustrates how well the response curves for the analog agree with the response curves for the half space model.135) A..... .13'2) (1+ B$ "B~ . ro = n~ ~ ~ ... ao for resonance condition for rocking oscillations of rigid circular foundation (Richart..134) My . 1962).15 ~~ = c ) In ~c .4 0.6 1. )J = 0 10 .
26: Response of rigid circular foundations subjected to pure rocking vibrations (Hall.r. Torsional 1.27). ~ I> Wo for 0 < r < r where 'tz9 = Tangential shear stress = Mz ei(J)( = Moment at any time t Mz = Maximummomentabout Zaxis M 'if.(9..]  3 M z ~ . 1967) Vibrations. = :. 50 B~=S 20 Exact solu tio n . ~.136) "'. The variation of tangential shear stress is given by 3 't 9 Z Mr 3 .s ~[ 16G r.. 2 0 . 9.386 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations ".5 °0 9. Analog solution 9)  .0 t.. "! For a static moment Mz.5 0 0.the angle of rotation A'IIsis given by A ~ ".~ ro 41t ro 2 .' " l< Fig. 9..3.u(9. c"' ": ~. Reissner and Sagoci (1944) have obtained theoretical solutions for rigid circular foundations subjected to torsional vibrations (Fig. " . 10  J :)  :> +c: u 0 5' z 0\ 0 2 0.I31~i ...5.
defme 't~e relation between ao at maXimum amplItude (resonant condItion) ana the'values of Intena ratio B".138) where Awn = Nondimensional amplitude factor Under dynamic condition the am~litude' of torsion is a function of inertia ratio Bw which is given by Mmz Bw = S .( Footing TZ9 .. : . ""''.. .:~~..::::~(~<'<~ .~(.."'00"' z' ro ~ .~... :.. 'j' Foulidiltions '6/ Ri!~iprdcating 'Mai:htnes 387 The amplitude of the angle of rotation Av can be expressed as M Av = ~Awn Gro ....lirie'c~n'~.. ..28 b) ..ho~'~y !~~. .'" ro (c) ~' Fig..27: Rigid circular foundation subjected to torsional vibrations Figure 9:~8 _a shows the ~ariation of Awn with~ime.. . Flaxibl<z foundation ."" . ''.""" '.. .._. . " . (a ).139) pro where Mm= = Polar mass moment of inertia of the machine and foundation about the' axis of rotation .~s~ato..:'~e' ~nveIop'cur~f's."r."'.... 9...n~ionless frequency ao for ~~rious values of inertia ~atioB".(9. . G " :'. (FIg.(9.""~"'"" . ro (b) Ize Rigid to undat ion '. 9.. '.
\. <t 0 .4 0.0 Fig.. 10 0 L.. .\ / \... '" '" to' C 0 '" C tII I I 1 .6 2.tII '0 10 ::J .8 1. at resonance versus ao for torsional oscillations of a rigid circular foundation (Rlchart..28 (a) Plot of ~ versus ao.0 60 7 m .~ .8 00 1. Soil Dynamics & Machine F:oulldatioRS ~.. 9... \ \ / c .~ c '" r .6 2.. B4' = 10! ...' 'w . "II E 0 0 1\ I I r "" I1 . Flczxiblcz " Rigid" " . .'f..../ ññ¢óóþùþ / \ ~.1962) '..2 1....." iO' ~ . (b) Plot of B. I \ \ ... / / "'" I 5. I' ..2 0 (a) /. "V'. '" '" 0 ~ 1 0 (b) 0. Co ... / // /../ I /' \ \ \ I \ \ 00 \ 0.4 0.388 ~.2 1.' \ \)/ /' \ / E Q 0...\. .
.~}') ...(9.m = (1 + 2 BIj1) The undamped natural frequency wnlj1and amphtude AIj1of the torsional vibration are given by 'K wnlj1= " .g." 16 3 .The sign convention chosen is illustrated in Fig. ': "'.1/ .(9....g. and rotation about c. and the motion .. Figure9. = Mz . in phase).142) The damping r~tio ~1j1 ~ili be .. Coupled'Rocking and Sliding'Vibrations. ~ = 16 G r3 J 0 ~ ." C.'" and . I+B IjI 1 .is termed as first mode of vibration. \V ./1' Nl J > " 1t ..s .m( 1.(9.".e.140) '..(9..G r. and the motion is designated as the second mode' of vibration.. If the translation is positive while the rotation is negative. \V + .o.6ro4 .(9. The values of spring constant kw and damping constant CIjIwere taken as below." ...4. which indicates that + x and + F act to the right and that + 4> and + Mare clockwis'e.m{. are positive (i..~~_'d 389 Richart and Whitman (1967) propose~ an equivalent massspringdashpot analog for calculating the response of a rigid circular footing subjecred to torsio~al vibrations.141) The equation of motion can be written as M . . 9. ~:: . . ...g. vM:. mz 'Y III + .5.(9.M e... then the centre of rotation lies above the e.29 a shows a rigid circular foundation resting on the surface of elastic halfspace and subjected to an oscillatory moment Mv /(JJlan a oscillatory horizontalforce Fx e.Jp G. "". Figure 9.144) A .29c showsthe motionof the footing when both translation of the e.145) W " KW[{I ~:r +~Wro:Jr 9.. FiJundlltions of ReCiprocating Miichines ":..29 b. .. 3: 0 Z ..143) ~1j1 = 2 ~K: . the centre of rotation lies below the base of the footing. In this case.
..L <I> m x + Cx The equations of motion are written in terms of x and <\>.. <\> = Angle of rotation in radians . '~:'.. Xo = x. Dynamks " .L~) + Kx(x.[)"\Or ....t~ .(9.146) where XO = Displacement of base x = Displacement of c. ' irot Mill cp+C~ <\>+K~ <\>+C:c. !...L = M. . 9.& Fig.29a x 0 = x .t irot The equation of motion for rocking'is . 9. ~ I I ..LK x'f '" =F .L<\> .. :".>t I fMR (a) r IL Er MR ~+Fx ( b) +x . I I I I ~ I + /:[1 1.. ..(9.390 Soil. ~:y.x ' I : (c) ~~ leA] 1967) Lc.29 : Coupled rocking and sliding vibrations of a rigid circular block on an elastic half space (After Richart and Whitman. . . The equation of motion for sliding is ~ ..xo'L+Kx.Milehine FOUIIdtltions I J My (l iwt I I I .147).14'n . the above equation simplifies to Mm ~+(C~ +L2tx) ci>+(K~ + L2K:c}cp...t mx+C x x +K x xLC x'fd. Xo + Kx Xo = Fx eirot or or m x+ Cx (x.(9.1 ~aiJ ..~! .L Cx x..1 ~I.. From Fig.tirot r .L Kx'x .. ~4 Therefore .Xo1r I 1 I / = II r I.Lcp)= F. (9.g.Jf~ ':: ''~:r . .xo.(9:148 . . m .. .ve = My irol Sustituting the value of Xo from Eq.<:. Fx Fx(li6. ..
and substituting oonx = . ~ (002) F L ronx ronx+4~x ro ]  .. xMmo ..156) 4 ~xronxrond r [ 2 . ro~ )+ (ro~ ~~ron~rond 2(ronx 2 2ro~ 0 )] It may be noted that Eq...'Idations of Reciprocating~Machines 391 The natural frequencies of coupled rocking and sliding are obtained by putting forcing functions in .157) and A =L.70). 'I' =0 . (9.n. By doing this the Eqs (9.1 Mm ( 2' 2 112 ) . on simplification we get ~.(9.156) reduces to Eq.154) ... the undamped natural frequencies for coupled sliding and rocking vibrations an be computed using Eq.(9.158) ~ (ro2) .OOnd#. m oonq» x if ff...152) . . (9.150) Mmcp+ C.' Equating Eqs. .oond ..(9..LK 'I' " x .(9.As the effect of damping on laturalfrequency is small.Fr ÅøóÓ³®±îõ¢õÕ®Ôî÷î +4ro2(~. rond + 2. B2 m OOnd + K x + I c x OOnd d A Mm OO.... (9.. i Ct . 149) equal to zero.155) B L Kt ... The damped amplitudes of rocking and sliding of a foundation subjected to a horizontal force For /°)1 aregiven by lfJ A xl ~ .x mo rH ..d ~4I 4 2 2 roncP+ronx C .(9.(9.154) and (9.. Thus ³¢õÝ x ¨õÕ x ¨óÔÝ x n..~KrMmo+L2~x~Kxm)2 m Mm.151) become A LKx +i LCx.151) The solutions of above equations can be obtained by substituting x = A eiCiJndt cp .t 2 rond  [ ( r  4~x~~ronxron~ ) r r 1 + J ...d+(KcjI+L2 Kx)+i(CcjI+L2 Cx)OOnd .+L Cx cp+ ÕòõÔÕ¨ cpLCxxLKx'x ( 2 ) ( .150) and (9..69) when ~x = ~cjI= O. x =~ ~= ~ Cx M' r M mo ' x 2 vL'\o.(9.(9.2.153) = B eiCiJndt which A and B are arbitrary constants.155). = 2 ~ K. 22 roncpron.(9. (9.148) and (9. (9. 2 ) =0 .
"j . 2 2 2 2 112 . neously.:. 1967). .(9.~if = Equivalentradius tt' a = Width of foundation (parallel to the axis. M III Mm [ (OOnx) " (00 2 ) D.." ' 2 2 2 where lI. .. m(m. .My [ (OO"xOO) A<j>2 +(2.(9. .& 2 2 Machine Foun .~ .(9.. '"r ". (CO2)~ [ ".' '" .162 . ] 2 ln . ' ~~. ...c 2 A' Mv 2 +(2. Soi/Dynamics. " . .. .1 ' ' " . "" .' " ~ 't\' ..yt ~ .392 ./I ab (a2 +b2) For torsional Vibraf .. . Whitman and Richart. " ~.M '" . ~. m (m~ m2)+ ~.Jf~1 ". ". "' i<) "4!t"l:'1 . . ~'. ~ .j91. x2 ....(9. .~ '. e are gIven by '$I .+ :"'M .1~! . r"'M . Thus ~' For translatory vibrations: r0 = i! 7t b 3 1/4 . 'ft.."(9. The usual practice is to transform area of any shape to an equjy: lent circle of same area (for translational modes) or equivalent moment of interia (for rocking and)b sional modes) (Richart and whitman.6 EFFECT OF FOOTING SHAPE ON VIBRATORY RESPONSE fy Elastic halfspace theory was developed for a footing with circular contact area..IS~~ "':' " ~ . 1967 .xoo/lxoo) f. iI !I1'r and .5 ' " .4_"._ofrotation for rocking) b = Length of foundation (perpendicular to the axis of rotation for 'rocking) I ["'~ t " ...U . '' ' ' . 4 ~x~+. :4 The dampedamplitudesof rocking and slidingof the foundationsubjectedto an excitingmoment iw .. d1.2 { '" .. ] "' " t  (00 2 )'.163 = Acjll + A<1>2 9.:~(~~t ~aj. . ] '.1 For rocking vibrations: ro = ( b3: J 114 ~~~1..m~..x 2 1/2 OOn.h. ~I 't + [ +x m". then the resultingamplitudesof sliding and rocking are Ax = Ax1 + Ax2 A<1> When a footing is subjected to an oscillatory moment Myirot and a horizontal force Fx im/ simulb.+} + "'.t) ] . Response of a footing~1 influenced by the shape of contact area.. m2)} ] ...ns : where ro ro =[ 61t ..(9.. M.
.
the natural frequency of the foundation.. 1971). 1972 . 1972 i Vijayvergiya. Fry. Novak and Beredugo.Beredugo(1971) . 1973. and therefore selected for presentati9P here.30. Th~ additional soil reaction that comes into play on the sides may have significant influence on the dynamit response of embedded foundations. 1972 . Stokoe.394 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foun~ .. Typical response curves showing the effect of embedment are pre~ sented in Fig. 1974 . 1967.1981).7 DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF EMBEDDED BLOCK FOUNDATIONS . Berdugo and Novak. 9. On the basis of theoretical analysis.. the soil resistances are mobilised both below the base and on the sides. Baranov. 9. Stokoe and Richart. system increasesand the amplitude of vibration decreases (Novak. Chae. 1972.! ã Ý«Ü ßõîÝ¬¿ªø¾Üõ¿Ü÷ Õ¦» ã Û¯«·§¿´»²¬ spring stiffness of the embedded foundation Ý«Ü ã Coefficient of elastic uniform compression obtained at the base of foundation Ý¬ õÝ¬Ü Ý¬¿ª= Averagevalue of coefficientof elasticuniformshear = 2 Ct Ý¬ Ü = Coefficient of elastic uniform shear at the ground surface ã Ceofficient of elastic uniform shear at the base of foundatiqn D = Embedment depth b = Width of base of foundation a = Length of base of foundation ~ d .~i For an embedded foundation. 1971 .1. where a Õ¦» ~ 1 Õ¦ä¦ Fig. 9.31 : Embedded block foundation subjected to pure vertical vibration . 9.7.soil. The problem of embedded foundations has been analysed by both linear elastic weightless spring approach (Prakash and Puri. Vijayvergiya. Beredugo and Novak. 1963 . 9. It gives that as a result of embedment. 1970.(9. .31) ¢ ! Fz5in 6>1 Machin<z ¬ Ú¦ Í·² êâù ~. he had recommended the. 1972. 1971. 1985.Th~ analysis developed by Vigayvergiya Cl 981) is simple and logical.equivalent spring stiffnesses in different types of motion as given below: . Gupta..~  ³ h Foundation ø±¨ bxh) 0 1 f. Vertical Vibrations (Fig. 1981) and elastic halfspace theory (Anandkrishan and Krishnaswamy.
..32) ( 2 ronze ..... Õ¨ä¦ m Foundation 1 ø¿¨¾¨ h) ~ a i 1 '. .171) The natural frequency and maximum amplitude of vibration are given by fK:: oonxe = v.(9.. Fx Sin wt ~ 0  FxSin wt ~ ..169b) Machin<z .168) The natural frequency oonzeand maximum amplitude Aze of motion are given by fK: oonze = v..... Similarly.(9.."L. A xe .. 2 uD CII = Coefficient of elastic uniform compression at the ground surface.. .. 9. The equation of motion will be mz+Kze'z = Fzsin rot . ~. Pure Sliding vibrations (Fig. 9.172) ~.32: Embedded block foundation subjected to pure sliding vibration Kxe = Ct D A + 2 Cllavb D + 2 Ctav aD where Kxe = Equivalent spring stiffness of the emebedded foundation ... Foundations of Reciprocating Machines 395 ...169a) Aze .(9.. h .2..ro ) 2 . the equation of motion will be m x + Kxe ...173) ..(9.(9. Fig. C +C Cl/a v = Average value of coefficient of elastic uniform compression = !!.= Fx 2 m (ronxe . . .. ~"" ."". .(9... = Fz . ~ .(9. .7.170) .ro ) 2 ... m 9..i = ~t sin rot ..
O ( ro119 . .: × GJt m ¸ × Foundation (axbxh) 0 ~ ï I.....i' .IW.L+ where 24 (16D 12hD . f j. 9..."1 l t Kljle = Equivalent spring stiffness of the embedded foudation CIjID= Coefficientof elasticnonuniformcompressionat the base levelof foundation C~+ 2C~D Cljlav= Averagevalue of coefficientof elasticnonuniform compression= CIjI = Coefficient of elastic nonuniform compression at the ground surface .396 Soil Dynamics & Machine  Follndatioi.7.\ ..i. = My sin rot .$ .(9.I ./ C~av b 3 2 r f Db a2 )+2C~avlo+Ctav 2 Fig. a 1 .'\\..(9 .. . I = aD 0 3 The equation of motion will be MI1IO«\>+Kljle.33) Machinq . J .£7< :1 . 9. 9.i The natural frequency and maximum amplitude of vibration are given by Ct)lIljIe = ~ ~e M mo My A :ce = 2 2 M"...g.~t} ~.ro ) .. of machine and foundation from the centre of the base J W = Weight of foundation b 3.J .. I J'...3~ Pure Rocking Vibrations (Fig. I=~ 12 '~J 3 .33 : Embedded block foundation subjected to rocking vibration Kljle =C~D. } . My Sin ::. L = Height of the combined e.(9..
190).187) and (9. (9..x+Kxtp'<I> = Fx sinrot and }\There Mm~+KcI><I>'<I>+Ktpx'x = My sin rot .178) .192) I I I~ .188) .L )] .. 188) in Eqs..C'tD .176\ '"  Axl (Kxxmoo ...(9... x + Kfttp .185) ..(9..185) and (9...Fo/llldatiolls of Reciprocating Machines 397 f' '" ~ I' ::. I . 11.. ... <I> + ~tpx X = 0 The solution of the above equations can be represented by x=Adsinoot .(9.(9... ~ O//II~ ""i"'"" ~ u ~ cl! ~ .. JI ~ I 1'1 . ~K~t2 ~ ~ Ktpx AL + 2 Cl/a v bD ( L.187) . The equations of motion will be : ..181) .. .183) I I I .. (9.WL + 2 CljlavIy + C'tav bD 2 a2 2 3 3 + 3' Ctpav [L + (D .(9.. 411 I I .(9.(9.4. 2 ) (KtptpMm 00 )KxtpK<I1' / r.(9.Mm 00 ) Atpl =0 2 .174) on D 1'he natural frequencies of the system can be obtained by solving Eq.. AL 2 Kq. 9..'1 I " . .2 DL) .186) I tlI F t j .186).(9. .(9)75) By solving Eqs..~)co~e + (K~~K~ .179) .190) Q..tp C'tD AL .nmoo '.(K~~.. The equations of motion in coupled vibrations are given as mx+K...184) m Mm co~e . <I> = Fx sin 00 t the base Mm ~i + Ktptp.[ C'tD (D2 ..(9... Coupled sliding and rocking Vibrations.(9..(9.(r:zKtptp + Mm Kx. . I ~\j .~ IJI ~ Foundations .(9.d + (Ktptp .(9. 189) and (9.u.189) l t I <I>= Atpfsin 00t sin 00 t By substituting x and <I> from Eqs.182) . we get (Kxx . Fx . we get . (9..(9. .~ ) + 2 C'ta v ( L .. (9.184) d..(9. ..(9. (K..180) .Mm 00 ) 2 2 . Kxx = C'tD A + 2 Cl/aVbD + 2 C'tav aD Kxtp ] > = Ctpavb = CtpD1+ = ...m 002) Axl + Kxtp Atpl 2 = Fx KtpxA.~ ) aD] where CljIlIV = Average value of coefficient of ~Iastic nonunifonn shear ly = Moment of inertia of area a x Dlying in the plane of vibration about axis of rotation Da3 =+12 aDb2 4 I '11 ..191) )(Ktp~Mmoo 2 K~ )KxtpK<I1~ Atpl ..7..K~x x Kxtp)= 0 The amplitudes of vibration ofthesystem can be obtained as below: (a) Only the horizontal force Fx sin ootis acting: m x + Kxx .(9.
KcpxKx..px' Ax2 + (K.198) Kx. then Ax = Axt + Ax2 H: .Din place of CII'Ct' CeI> and CIjI respectively.197) and (9. C. x + Kcpx<I> = 0 as: . some .Mm ro ) .196) the values of x and <I> from Eqs.193) .(9.(9.p2 = 0 .4 by using CuD' CtD.(9.X m CO ) (K..p .p Ad (Kumco and 2 A. ô Machinq × ô òº ×æ '" . X =Ax2 sin CO t Substituting 4: . The response of embedded foundation with air gap can be obtained by analysis given in sec...p ...202) Sometimes to screen the vibrations.197) 2 . From this it can be concluded that if air gap is provided around the foundation the amplitude of vibration increases whereas the natural frequency decreases when compared with corresponding foundation with no air gap around it.pDand C". 9.194) ..i 1I Mm + K. we get 2 (Kxx .\ .p2 = My By solving Eqs.(9..p .f' ~" I I~ I K.p..(9.p 2 (Kxx m CO) 2 My .pA.p2 .p. 193) and (9.(9.p2 sin co t .pl + A. 195) and (9..34).air gap is left between the pit and the foundation block (Fig.Mm CO) A..pMmco )KcpxKx.p = A.p.//.. 9...X.ó¢ùó± íçè Soil DYllamics & Machifle Foufldatiofls (b) Only the moment My sin cot is acting: The equations of motion will be : 11 m x + Kxx .199) (K.195) I.p2= 2 My )(K.196) in Eqs. (9...200) If both Fx sin cot and My sin cot are acting simultaneously.(9.201) ïï åô ® ô A.198).(9...194).m CO) Ax2 + Kx.. 9. Figure 9. we get <I> = A....34 : Embedded block foundation with air gap ¶ ò III .. (9. <I> + K.p 2 .pxx = My sin COt The solutions of the above equations can be represented ~ f..p.(9. (9..(9.35 shows the comparison between the response of embedded foundation with air gap and without air gap. ×ù h li ¬ º ïïæ Foundation (axbxh) Ai r gap × t¬ a ~ Fig.i .
.202) lion block ith air gap . .. Cc....(9...194) .... 'C B \I " u 11 L.: t: .~'" ......(9.. >01 ..j' QC) '" .. '" :: 'i "'  '" c.. ..L.. I L...(9.. . 0 L. .~ ~ I i: L.(9...:: .() ('4 j .() c.. :::! 0' ..f) 0 SUOJ:>!W c apn~!ldwV' ( 'i .u 1111 ~ III Ill! w !Ill. .(9. 0« m " .. . we get .195) ...CD Cl . > ~ .197) .. .(9.. > c " ~ ~ : = u C ..Ln "'Cl Cl .(9. Ii '1111 da tio 11 s Foundations of ReciprocatillgMacltines 0 L.199) ... I I f 0 . ~"'" ~~  .Cl 0 C Cl tf) > ::: (/) L.~ './. ~ I' ~.' ~ . ~ I 0 0 0 0 r.() c 0 ' ~ > Cl v ..(9... 0 II cCl C1 L. 0 0' Z .. '" OJ) 1.I tf) cV .() M ~ ~! I Ill' 11 :: 'i '0 c 0 .201) ..() 399 I .. '" r" 1:1 L.() N...193) .. a «!'..() N ...  .198) I . .Q '> '" ... .() ..j' t .. :...196) ).. ~ I!! .\ >v c er 01 lLL 0 N ::J f L.... 0 cCl C7) l 1 . .(9. ~ 0: ..dation the vith correir gap can CQ>and C'v i I L..200) 1 I 0 M ...(9... '" ... or.......
~ "'~ ~~' 'Ill IJI . = Factor which defines the slope oftnincated pyramid (Fig. I J~ .8 SOIL MASS PARTICIPATING IN VIBRATIONS .     . No graphical data is suggested by Pauw for cohesive soils. . b j ij iI . C~ I r and c~ I denote the factors of mass 'I. the effect of soil mass participating in vibrations has not been considered.(9.37e for cohesive soils.' ~'.. 9. "'I ~ . 9.204) whereC.1 . Fig. C~. For noncohesive soils. canbe obtainedfromFig ..203) a.37 I b to e.5. 9.400 Soil DYllamics & Mac/lille Foulldatiolls 9. 11 11 t Pauw (1953) developed equations for the apparent soil mass by equating the kinetic energy of the affected zone to theCkineticenergy of a mass assumed to be concentrated at the base of the foundation. P where m =Lc s ga. In these fi gures.36). It is generally taken'unity. He gave the following expression for apparent soil mass ms for translatory modes of vibration: If . r a r="b he = Equivalent surcharge defined by the ratio of foundation pressure to unit weight of soil.37b to d for cohesionless soils and from Fig. These factors can be obtained from Figs. Cm is obtained from Fig. 9. 9. Y and Z axes respectively. b3 m . Cm = Functionwhich dependson sand r ~=. 9. M ='ms 12g a...36 : Stress distribution in soil mass i .a. . I: . The expression for mass moment of inertia of soil in rotational vibrations is given by 'Yb5 C. 'f . . .4 and 9.. J! ~I In both the methods of analysis and design of foundations of reciprocating machines described in sec.37 (a)..(9.he . 9. moments of inertia about X._.
2 soil Mmz = )f'b5 CX 5 12g" i "' óóÝ .rh 5 CY .0 S~O r=12JLr 0 (Ca) 0...0 5.0 5.a 11 Cl) 1 ...5 r::1 '0.2 0.0 Cl) 5. I'..12'3 aC.129cl Cj I..5 1.a .0 5 z rJL . 0~8 0.2.. 0.5 rJ+r M.0 0 Cc) 0.37: Apparent mass factors for horizontal contact surfac£.a 1...mx$= 12 gel Cj ¥b5 x 2 Yb5 Mmys= CJI. 11 I.. 5 Y 1290£ Ý¶ Cj (t) Fig.'tb3 gJ m 0.:3 1. Foundations of Reciprocating Machines ìðï 0.0 . ' L .... .0 V) 2.' ' .5 ~'1.5 J Cm r 0 Cb) 0:6 .0 '""6..5 Ý±¸¬·±²´¬0. Cl) 2..5 cf CjY .a1.> ' :.a 1 0 .Mmzs.\"'&.0 11 2.2 Mm ys I . 9.2 0." .
0 pro 3 0. and (e) Exciting forces of the machine and short circuit moment of motor.>1 (c) The relative position of the w~ter tablebelo~'g~o~nd ~t differe~t times of the year. 'J The minimum distance to any important foundation in the vicinity of the machine foundation should..0 p ro 1.3 P r5 0 0.. Table 9. . The following information about the subsurface soil should be ~own : (a) Soil profile and data (including soil properties generally for depth equal to twice the width of ...5 pro 3 0.9 : Effective Mass and Mass Moment of Inertia for Soil below a Vibrating Footing (Hsieh.. if any.9.9..FOUNDATION The design of a block foundation provided for a reciprocating machine may be carried out in following steps: 9.4 pro 11 = 0. 9. 9.9. .of vibration ïïãð Vertical translation Horizontal translation Rocking Torsion (about vertical axis) 3 0.1.0 pro 3 0. Soil Data.2.2 pro 11= 0. Machine Data.5 .3 pr5 0 The apparent soil mass/mass moment of inertia is added to the mass m/mass moment of inertia Mm or J0 to get the natural frequency and amplitude of vibration.9 DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR A BLOCK.  (b) Distance between axis of the main shaft of the machine and the top face of foundation. . (d) Operating speed of machine.4775 Q s 3( 4 P) where Q = Sum of the static and dynamic load . 1t P . . alsobe accertained.205) Barkan (1962) has suggested that the apparent soil mass may be taken as 23% of the mass of machine plus foundation. Hsieh (1962) gave the expressions for getting apparent soil mass as given in Table 9.output of machine. (c) Capacity or rated. The following information shall be obtained from themanufactures of tl:1emachine for guidance in designing: (a) A detailed loading diagram comprising the plan.3 P r5 0 0.402 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations Balkrishna (1961) has developed the following expression for the apparent soil mass in vertical vibrations: 3/2 m = ~ 0.(9. 1962) Effective mass or mass moment of inertia of soil Mode . 3 2. the proposed foundation or up to hard stratum). 'it of the sOIL.2 pro 5 0.25 3 \.  } I . elevation and section showing details of con nectionsand point of applicationof all loads on foundation. ~ (b) Soil investigation to ascertain allowable soil pressures and to determine the dynamicproperties 4 .
Centering the Foundation area in Contact with Soil.9. Sharp corners shall be avoided.5. 403' 9. Selecting Soil Constants. the depth of foundation should be such as to rest the foundation on good bearing strata and to ensure stability against rotations in vertical plane.~ Foundations of Reciprocating .4 : Determination of CG of the System Element of system 2 3 Dimensions a. A plot is then prepared between dynamic elastic constants and strain level. This. Determine the combined center of gravity (Table 9. Design Values of Exciting Loads and Moments. 9.' ... EccentricityThe eccentricity shall not exceed 5 percent of the least width in any horizontal section.4.9. Trial size of the Foundation.These values are reduced to 10m2 contact area and 10 kN/m2 confining pressure. The moments of inertia and mass moments of in~rtia may be obtained using the formulae given in Tables 9. Yj Zj mjXj mjYj mj 9. .5 and 9.6.9. it should be less than 80 percent of the allowable soil pressure under static conditions. Depth. the additional rocking due to vertical eccentric loading must be considered in the analysis (Barkan. Static moments of of the element mass of elements Mass of element Xj .possible. praticularly in the openings. 9. 1962) " The static pressure should be checked. These values of dynamic elastic constants are then corrected for the actual area of the foundation (if < 10m2). ~. This condition is met in most practical foundations. The details of this has alreadybeen discussedin illustrativeexample4. Determination of Moments of Inertia and mass Moment~' of Jnertia. . E and J. The value of dynamic elastic constants are picked up corresponding to the strain level expected in the actual foundation. Y and Z planes and check to see that the eccentricity along X or Y axis is not over 5 percent.g. whenever possible. with a minimum allround clearance of 150 mm. If eccentricity exceeds 5 percent. .7. The fmal values of force and resulting moments are now obtained with respect to the combined center of gravity of the system.9. and confining pressure.9. 9. Table 9.Machines '. is the upper limit for this type of analysis.6. Centre of Gravity":: The combined center of gravity of the machine and the block shall be as much below the top of foundation as. The relative magnitudes of the unbalanced forces and moments will decide the nature of vibrations in the block foundation. Area of BlockThe size of the foundation block (in plan) should be larger than the bed plate of the machine it supports. but in no case it shall be above the top of foundation.2 . .In all cases.3.t ay az Weight of element Coordinate e.4) for the machine and the foundationin X. The values of dynamic elastic constants (Cu' Ccfj1 Ct' C'V'G.l) are obtained from relevant tests and corresponding strain levels are noted.
.5 : Moments of Inertia Formula for Shape of the area . .404 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundllliolls Table 9. Figure Ix ~ ba3 12 Iz ffi " I Y y X T b Rectangle f::.G.. Circle X X N 11 '0 .3d2 + h2 12 ( 4 ) .1 Figure MmT z ""...6 : Mass Moments of Inertia Formula for Shape of Elements '1. ) Table 9.!!:. Mmy Mm: 1'J' Rectangular block m 2 m 12 (a2 + h2) m 12 (i + b2) ~ "t !j " .u tdj 1 !!! 3d2 + h2 12 ( 4 J !!!..""1  12 (b + h2) z '" ...ct 64 1td4 64 1td4 32 J. X I Jl ab3 12 ab(a2 +b2) 12 10 ~ y T .~ f' X T h Circularblock 1/ 1 y.
Az Fz 2 2 m (OOnz 00 ) (ii) Torsional Vibration Mmz .. ~cw J.. mA <.) 4r OOnl.+C.. r= . ] The amplitudes of vibration can be computed with the following equations: A x A ~'lihere..2 = 2.8. Determination of Natural Frequencies and Amplitudes Linear weightless spring approach (i) Vertical Vibration (0 nz = = W ~ .WL.(OOnw00 ) (iii) Combined Rocking and Sliding Sliding and rocking are coupled modes of vibration.oncp 2 Mmo ~C. The natural frequencies are determined as follows: conx ~ ~c.IWL 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 and ) (OOnx+OOn.I. ill. I j .9. and A '" = Mz 2 2 Mmz. 2  L\«o)=mMm ((J)nl(J) )((J)n2~ ) 2  2 .. (Ct AI. 9.(On". 2 ..Mm00 ) FJ:+(Ct AL) M v ~(oo2) 2 (CtAL)Fx+(CtAmoo ~ (002) )My Y Ax = Linear 4orizontal amplitu_de of the combined center of gravity Acp = Rotational amplitude in radians around the combined center of gravity.A m . OOnx +OOn+:t [( 2 2 OOnx OOn. 2 ' . L = Distance of combined Mm Mmo centre of gravity above base.Foundations of Reciprocating Machines 405 Mmo: where Mmo  Mm + m L2 = Mass moment of inertiaof machineand foundationabout the axis of rotation passing through base.
o r °'V = 31t (ba')'14 = $ 3 (I .5 'V= 1+2B \jI 3 (1.l 3 8G ro Rocking .' Av Ah = Az+ '2 A.' '~.l) 16 3 ." '...:Jr .2875 k=z 4Gro 11l 1t Bx = 32(I Il) pr..z::. and ~ ~ K. .. ._.. )~ ~1 n'V = ~ 'V M rn. 00 ~ K'[{l(:JrZ+~.7 : Values of Equivalent Radius..! ...15 x kx = k = 32(1J._.81l) m z = Bz '0..'~.[{1_(ro:Jr~(2~.7 Table 9. B x= a.JB.' (it) Torsfonal Vibration A. mass ratio.l) Mmo 5 8 pro = (1+ B).ro:Jr L . = Ax + h A..425 Spring Constant (5) roz = Sliding r ox f! f! 1t m 3 pro  .l)Gro 78J.~. 0. spring constants and damping factors are listed in Table 9... . Spring Constants and Damping Factor Modeof vibration (1) Vertica! Equivalent radius (2) Mass (or inertia) ratio (3) Bz= (lIl) 4 (7 Damping factor (4) 0..J.~~.~~:EC'.f 0.. Mass Ratio.J.t Torsional ba(a2+b2) 6 1t ( r OOnz MmB=t Y pro k'V=3"Gro Natural frequencies and amplitude of vibrations (I) Vertical Vibration = ~.!.406 Soil Dynamics & Machine Fou1Jdatio"s The amplitude of the block should be determined at the bearing level of the foundation as a ~~~. where Ah = Horizontal amplitude at bearing level h = Height of the bearing above the combined center of gravity of the system Av = Maximumvertical amplitude Elastic halfspace approach Equivalent radius.:.
00 nd =0 r r [ )] Undamped natural frequencies can be obtained by using following Equations: 2r [( OOnx OOn. 6.. . . To.A (0)2) '.<co2). . ] 0 ~ m~..Fx 0 2 L coIIX coIIX+ ( 4 ~xco '. 00 00 r. + +x ":(IDn+ID)+ r (IDn.JK7n)2 .00 ~x 00 ~~ 2 where /)"(0)2) is given by Eq. /). O). Damped amplitudes for motion occasioned by an applied force Fx acting at the center of gravity of the foundation may be obtained as below: 1/2 . 2 1/2 . ~ 4 2 00 na .. 2 2 ~ . oonx ] Damped amplitudes for motion occasioned by the applied moment. can be obtained as below: 0 0 4 ~X 00 nx 00nd ( ) ~' 00 nd cOnip ( 2 2 OOnl. . 2 1/2 2 2 00 00 2 2 ~.. '. . 00 + oo~ 00..0..00 lid + 00nx ...+ ID.00 nd (ID~. ='oundations of ReciprOcating Machines 407 0 (iil) Coupled sliding and rocking vibration 0) ' nx = fKx V. } r } 0 0. [{ .. . ] 112 2 A =My [( OOnxOO $ M 111 ) +(2~xoonx).t ~~ 00 nx 00 nljl ~ (ol) = ..' " ) .0 0 [ + } 2 r 00 ] 2 2 . OOnx 4 r oon.. Fx [ (Mm 002+k.'~:t'~ffl" ( /)". .t)2 ~(002) 2 2 2 '.". 00 n..+OO~) ( r 0 4 . .~ = Damped natural frequencies are obtained as the roots of the following equation: 2 O ~ 0 M mo IDnx"". ). 00.OOn.ID)} ] 0' . { r 2 00n. .. A = My x Mm" [ 2 1/2 (oo~) +(2~x 00n. 4 2 (OO~.2  ~ 2 + 2 )+ ( 2 + 2 2 .") 4 V.(00 2 ) ] .... +L2Kx)2 +40)2(~~~K~Mmo+L2~x...m and A .
 a = 4.Om (a)Section ~ ". ILL USTRA TIVE EXAMPLE Example 9. 9. Details oUoundatlon 11 a =".  Cl) < 0... ~l . Y""..0 Sin c.0 m x 3. Machine data (Fig.I"" 0" f. Solution: 1.. The machine vibrating at a speed of 250 rpm generates Maximum vertical unbalanced force = 2.0 m x 3.38) 2.~.>t :..0m T " 1 1 J..5 kN Torque about Zaxis = 4.3S':. ...0 m depth.5 m high. .>t 2..5 m e..!' .~1 .. The soil at the site is sandy in nature having cl> = 350and Ysat = kN/m3..9. Limiting amplitude of the machine is 150 microns. L = 1..(. Determine the natural frequencies and amplitudes by (a) Weightless spring m!=thod.0 Sin CiJt 4.2 (Chapter 4)..I . . Fig.~. The machine weight is small in comparison to the weight of foundation.om T b =3.5 Cl)n con The amplitudes computed in step 8 should be less than t~e limiting amplitudes of the machine which are usually specially by the manufacturer of the machine. Check for Adequate Foundation.The watertable lies at a depth of 3.0 m below the ground surface.. 9.g. Machincz Block h = 3. . The natural frequencies computed in.5 or  co < 1.e. A block resonance test was conducted at the site to evaluate the dynamic elastic constants.1 I A reciprocating machine is symmetrically mounted on a block of size 4. .408 Soil Dynamies & Machine Foundations 9.9.and (b) Elastic halfspace approach. The data obtained from the test is the same as given in Example 4..0 m (b) Plan l } .75m 2.0 kNm Maximum horizontal unbalanced force = 2:0 kN at a height of 0.step 8 should be away from the resonance zone i.5 Sin G. The block is embedded in the ground by 2.2 m above the top of the block.
62 x 104kN/m3 G = 1.0 x 3. following values of dynamic elastic constants may be adopted.46 x 1.:iI. C41 = 3.'':: .r ~. Operating speed of machine =500 rpm Weight of machine is small and can be neglected.10 x 104 kN/m2 E = 2."".8 x.26 x 104 kN/m3 " C".= x 104 = 1 81 x 104 kN/m3 t 2 2 .5 sin Cl) t kN Mz.H u .m Fx = 2.Fz 3.2~..0 = 12. Dynamic elastic constants Refer example 4.8 microns . 4.5 102~~J~?2 '. Foundationdata.22J' ". ' = m(oo~ 002) \ .. Fz = 2.' .l'S""" =:=6. 106 m r.2 rad/s 2.62 C = !!.. The soil data and the size of the actual block are same as in that example.0 x 4.. The procedure of determining the values of dynamic elastic constants for analysing the block foundation is illustrated there.0 = 65 rad/s 102. .0 x 3. Linear weig. .5 = 1008 kN 1008 2 m = 9.62 x 104 x 12.35 C 3. = 6. Cu = 3.: 2.0 sin ro t kN .F oundatitJnsuf R:ecip.1= 0.71 x 104kN/m3 3.0 m2 In further analysis and design of foundation.75 x 3.octlting Machines " 409 '.98 x 104kN/m2 f.:'r~. A.46 Ct = 3.. .8 x 10 kg Area of foundationbase = 4.0 kN/mJ~ Weight of block = 24. = 0.~. . Therefore.7S'Cu = 0.0 m x 3. . the depth of embedment is neglected.Dsin ro t kN acting at a height of 0.htles'sspring app'roach (a) Vertical Vibration (Onz = . .62 x 104 = 2.. The unit weight material is taken as 24.8 (AZ>max . = 4.81 = 102. Let the block is casted in M20 concrete.81 x 104 = 6.2 m above the top of block 21t ro = 250 rpm = 250 x 60 = 26.2.' .
(i + h2) = 102.(J) )(Cl)n2 . W = 1008 kN L = 1. 12 nw (c) Coupled rocking and sliding (0 nx  M mz iC" J.752 = 496.IWL I = ba3 = 3 x 43 = 16 m4 12 12.732 [4123:t . I 102.366 Mmo 496.   .(00 ) = m Mm OOnl 2 = 33.8~ .8x 103 (42 + 32) = 214 x 103 Kgm2 12 . = = My 102.8 x 182 456 x.2 + 1. " ' '.2r 1 [( 2 2 +" (J)n..75 = 44 8 d/ .. . ".366 x 462 X44.8 rad/s and oon2 = 100.82 .\" ] 4~ (462+44. !J.4 x 32 2 4 M (0 mz =!!!.8 x 103kgm2 = 6. [ (462+44.. (b) Torsional vibration J z =(a + b ) = = (4 + 3 ) = 25 m 12 . m 12 Therefore Mmo OOn d.75) =~.52) = 182 x 12 103 kgm2 = 182 x 103+ 102.81 x 104 x 12 = 46 rad/s 102.05 X 1010 kg2 m2 = 2 (0. re.75 m Mmo = Mm+ m L2 M ~!!!.62 .'kN'ni":.71 x214 104 x 25 . .8 't' 2 (J) 11\..~.366 1 .26 x 104 x 161008 x 1.6 rad/s ( .8 x 102 (32 + 3.~..22) X .cot I = ~ 3283] 0.82):t = 2 x 0. ab 2 2 . .\"+ (J)IIcp  ) ((J)ncp+ (J)nx) .2  ..82)2 4 x 0.8 M 182 r = !!L = = 0..: = 1..I ] . ra s V 496.ras 2 d/  = V.8 (On <p Mmo ~C.4 r 2 2 2 2 2 (J) ncp (J) n. 410 SoU Dynamics & Machinl! Foundatio.56 .22) (100.26.8 x 102 x 1. (i + b2) = 102. 2.8 182 (33. ..9434 = 8. 12 .26.) Cl) X 2 (J)nl 2 2 2 .
8x26.6 x 106 m 8.5 x 106 rad .m3 Z 4 pro = 10.47 x 106 m = 85.05 x 1010 = 3080158+ 1482390 = 56.425 ' 0.195 ' ' ":= . fA = V.2 x 104 kN/m 1~ 10.05 x 1010 x12102.752_182 8.81 ) K Z = 4Gro = 4 x 1.05 x 1010 x 26.05 x 1010 A$ = (CrAL) Fx + (CrAmro ~ (ro2) (1.953 = 1. 8.75 x 16:5 x 106 = 85.1. .95m Average effective unit weight of soil = 20+ 10 = 15 kN/m 3 2 ' 1008 4 x B = 1~.0 1.47 ( 9. ru. = B z °0. = 0.26 x 104 x 161008 4 = x 1. Elastic halfspace approach (a) Vertical vibration r 0 = V.81x 10 x 12 x 1.9 = 760200+ 571876 = i6.47 microns 5.81x10 8. = 1. .05 x 1010 Hence.t .9) + 8. W x 1.J :JB: .2 )3.81 x 104 x 12x1.81x10 4 2 ) My 4 2 = x12x1.6 x 106 + .0 6 A = A + .304 t.75)x2.22) x 2.8 x 106 m = 39.75+1.10 x 104 x 1.425 ~z.8 Ah microns 1/ .75x (3.WL+CrAL2 Mmro2) Fx +(Cr AL) My ~ (ro2) (6. = Ax + h' A$ = 56. 2' 0' = 39. a 6 4.0+(1.95 = 13.35 0. .A = 6 8 x 10 + x 165 x 10 v z 2 ~.35 2. lundations of Reciprocating Machines 411 A = x  (C411.
75 x 104 .40 \jI 15x 1.2 x 1o~[{I x 106 m G::~ = 29.95 7 8Jl 78 x 0.35)x1.81 = 4..9973 = 46.~:J 2.83 ~ ~x .1x 10 x 1.~~:~ r 1/4 \14 r = 0 ab(a2+b2) [ 67t 3 M mz = 214 p.212 .10.9973 m B = Mmz = 21~ x 9. .35) 1008 15x1.8 Fz A. ~ T 4 3 4 = "3 G.412 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foulldations CO nz .9.051 1+ 2 BIjf + x .7B: .8 rad/s 101..= 0 l ~ 32(IJl)Gr x3 7t 0 = 1.o ="3 x 1.7 rad/ s 214 9.5 X. .2 x 104 = 35.2875. 16 x 10 K g m ] = 2 4x3(42+32) [ 67t ] = 1. ~ k{ {l( :Jf +(:~.5 r r ~ 13.5 = 1 2 4 4 = 0.99735 3 16 .~Kz  m =~ 13.4 (b) Torsional vibration rr + (2 x 0. Coupled sliding and rocking vibration Sliding r = .. 0.0.J1.35 32(10.9.lxl0 4 K = x x1.46 .." = co nljf ~ 7t .75 x 10 kNmlrad 0.m pr.953 = 1.83 .35 x = 10.304 . = 78xO.2875: 0.62 x 104kN/m B = 78Jl x 32(IJl) .' ~" I '1 t'.95m = 32(10.Ijf M mz ~ 46.
9.\ r )} ] 2 = [{ +4 26..1 rad/s V 3 1/4 mnx .1x10kNm/rad BcjI= 3(1/l) x Mmo = 3(10.. ~ <oh [1co4 co' ~ ( (co.r.'.62 x 104 = 32.843 cjI 4 3(1/l) 3(10. ] = 919697 .75).016 x0.1 x 104 = 23.366 [ (32.  fk:: = /10.I V. Coupled Vibration. }+ co.366 .15 (l+B<\»jB.7 + 32. 3~ ) ( ]x) ~ 1.212 x 0.:co~) r 4 ~x~.72.35) 28. 1592 .8 1/4 Rocking  ( ab 4.818 Pl~ 8 15x1.366 } 2 1/2 x 26.7 radJ.12+23.26. 102..12 X 23. .clJines 413 .8x9. = (1+3.212 x 32. = 8 x 1. .366X32. 2 1/2 r +4 { ~ «(02) ~. Undamped natural frequencies in couples rocking and sliding are given by 2 1 2 IIX m111.26.84 ID K = 8 G r.72 " ] =~ 0. .12+23. '.366 { 0.co. 1110 JM K.1X 104 x 1..1 ] :"..4 r m n<l> 2 2 2 2 2 IIX mmp] 1 2 x 0.:"' co.016 496.12 .1 x 23. mnx m 002 m2 ..24 26.12X23.366 ) 0.J3.0x33 ~ ro .35)x496. '" n<l>= = 9.2 (23.\..732 [1592:t 1299] (On1 = 20 rad/s anda mn2= 62.11.22)+ 0. = (4712002966467+ 1581341)2+4 (60772+9337)2 [ In .75 = 0.72):t (32.828.15 ~<I>= 0.75 0.7 x 26.72 0.8 rad/s .' oundations of Reciprocating Ma.'.845 3.4 x 0.016x 32.2 = = h [(m ) + mn<l>:t 2 (mnx + m ) .22 ( 0.366 23..\ II<\> ( mn<\> 00 m2 002 )+ ~<\> ( n.72)2 4XO.22) } 0.2 (32.
12_26.81 x 106 ID .752) 2 1I2 + 4 x 26.1x26. ~' A xl ~ ~ mMm {(Mm'" +K. ( L COnx COnx+4 111 ) ~(CO2 ) r = 2.81 x 106in A4I= A4II+ A4I2 = 26.d + Ax2 +(2xO." l 414 SoU Dynamics & Machine Foundations ~.)'12 +4"'(~.+L' ~x~)'rl2 ~({i) 2 = 2.22) 182 = 8.8+1.62 x 104 x 1. +Kx L.Mm ~ (co2) 2 2 1/2 ] .212x32. . = 0.2)2 919697 ] = 58 x 106+ 0:81 x 106= 58.1496 X 1011)1/2 102.8 x 182 x 919697 [ (182 x 26.212~1O. Mm..22 + 28.9 [ (32.~ 2 1/2 '(\" t~ ~.22) 919697. '~". = 3.8) ] = 2.9 x 106+ 8.62 x 104 x 102.3165x 1011+0...2 X 106fad .1 iij.016~28.0 (2.:i .1 321+4XO.212x32.' "J . ~K.1 x 104 x 496.i 3.22 (0.3 x 106 fad Ax = A.J A(\I2 .212X26.t :. ( ") 1/2 l = 26.75 182 .\:: 32.8 X 182 919697 = 58 x 106 ID = <1>1 0 2 2 1/2 ~x CO A ~'( M .3 X 106= 35.752 x 0.9 [ (32..0 102.9 x 106 fad ' ) 1/2 A  My [ co~'(+(2~xconx)2  ] x2 .1) +(2xO.." .::.0X1.'" .1 x 104"+10.1) 182 919697 t11 '.'.My [ (co~xco2) +(2~xconxco)2 ]  "j 1/2 i~ Mill ~ (co ) 2 2 ft~11 .
0x5.81 x 106+ 1.41 x 106 m It may be noted the there are significant differences in the magnitudes of natural frequencies and mplitudes computed by the two approaches.0 m are 20% higher than the values at the surface of ground.81 x 104 = 2.0 = 1. Author's xperience indicates that the value of G obtained from wave propagation test is much higher than com'uted from block resonance test data. ....108. it is desirable that the value of G is obtained from wave propagation test. Actually in lastic halfspace theory. = 29.0 x 104 kN/m3 D = 2.8 Ah x 10 6 m = Ax + h' A. C<I>D = 1.2 x 2.35 x 104kN/m3 Ct D = 1.6 a 4 ah S = :.0 x 104 kN/m3 Ctav .334 .2.26 x 104=7.25 x 104 kN/m3 The average values of dynamic elastic constants will be C.89 x 104 kN/m3 Cljlav = 3.62 x 104 = 4.2 x 106 = 120..71 x 104 = 3. Therefore CuD = 1.Machines 4~ III .35 x 104 x 12 + 2 x 2.867.= 3. 24 x 3.~" Hence A =A + An.of Reciprocating. r= b = 3" = 1.olution : ~ (i) Assume that the values of dynamic elastic constants at a depth of 2.75 x 35. 415 .2 x .0 x 104 (3 x 2 + 4 x 2) = .2 x 10 2 = 99. {}undations .2 )etermine the natural freque~cies and amplitudes of motion of the foundation (Example 9. .2 x 104 kN/m . :xample 9.si x 104 kN/m3 CIjID = 1. ~.. It may be due to the reason that the value of shear modulus J is computed from the block resonance test data using the relation between Cu' E and G./aV = 4.x 35.0 6 10 + .4 x 2 Z y a 6 4. 15 = 5.6 m 1.3.2 x 6.0  x 104 kN/m3 Ccpav= 6.0 m (ii) Vertical vibration Kze = CuD x A + 2 Ctav (bD + aD) = . = 58.5 he = . Use of appropriate value of G may bring the results of the two pproaches closer.18 x 104 kN/m3 .2 x 1.4.1) taking into tccount the embedment effect and apparent soil mass.
36 b.7 x 10 Kg 3 108. ~ . 9.D 1.416 . for S = 1.5 (102.10.7 x 1.93 m =S .334 = 1.WL + ~ ~ .70 x 106m + 2.81xl = 17.7 " .67 m4 0 3 3 '.334.~ .16 x 104 kN/m From Fig.7 Fe A == 2 ze (m+ms) = 75. A = 2.!!!.16x 104 = 76.72 + 79.3.'Cs 12ga i 12x9. "C ' From Fig.45 x 1. Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations .82_26:22) =2. 9.2 x 10ffinze= VI02.867 and r = 1.80 kN ms2 Cl) nxe = C K~ = Cd.f J :J j  I=ba .43 x 1.8 rad/s 2 (O)nzeO) ) = (iil) Coupled vibration Kxe 2.12 hD2) + 2 C$av x 10+ Ctav x_a 2 3 ' 2 =3x4 =16m4 12 11 W = 24 x 3 'x 41<.7)(75. b5 ~ r = 2 = 0.8+ 79. I = aD = ~ ='.43 15x3 5 M = 'Y CX 0.b Db (16 D3 .81 4" x 1.av 24 3 xe m+m s = /106.2 rad/s ~102.334.72 kNms Mmos = Mmxs+ ms x L2 = 17.45 Cm = 1.18 x 104 x 12 + 2 x 4 x 104x 3 x 2 + 2 x 2 x 104x 4 x 2 = 106. Cuav bD + 2 Ctav aD = C'tD .0x9. 'Y b3 ag Therefore C = m 15 x 33 1.36 a for S or = 1.5 = 1008 kN 3 4 2} .752 = 261.867 and r = 1.8+79.8+79.93 = 79.334 m. r = 1.
+ 2 x 6.18 .0.5 rad/s Kxx = CtD x A + 2 Cuav bD + 2 Ctav aD = 2.78+51. = D a + a Db y 12 4 = ~ 12 3 2 + 4 x 2 x 3 = 28.56] 104 = 132.75) .80 4 = 79.~'!!' i.2DL) = 6.84+34. bD ( L.67 m4 4 K$$ = C<j>D I + = 7.45 x 104+ 147 x 104+48 x 104 (J)mj> e = + Mmos 280.752 . " ~ .0 x 104 x 2 x 3 x 4 2  = 120.67 + 2.16 x 104kN/m Kx$ = CqJav b (D .18 x 104 x 12 + 2 x 4 x 104 x 3 x 2 + 2 x 2 x 104 x 4 x 2 = 90.~) aD] ~ [2.1.5 x 22) .67 + 2 x 104 x 3 x 22x 42 + ~ x 6.1008 x 1..~ )+2 C"" ( L.11 .12 x 3.L)3] x 104 x 16 + 2.75 + .69) x 104 = 512.1764 = 280.02 + 96 +24.75~)4 x 2] = [45.81 3 2 CtD AL 2 x 2 x 1.WL + 2 C1jfOl' Iy + Ctav b ~ a2 + ~ C<j>av [L3 + (D .53 x 104 kN/m K$e Mmo x 10434.16 + 80. x24 I. 2 x 3 (16 x 23 .75+2 x 4 x 104 x 3" 2 (J.53 x 10 182 + 261.51 CtD AL 2 ." Foundations of RecfprocGtingMachilies.0 .75~ x 104 kN )+2 x 2 x 104 (1. 04 .753 + (2.18 x 104 x 12 x 1.2.89 x 104 [1.51 x 104 x 16 .75 x 104kN 2 I. 6 89 K$e .18 x 104 x 12 x 1. 417 = 7.89 x 10.w.89 x 104 x 3 (22 =231.75 + 2 x 3 x 104 x 28.17 + 172.81 x 104kNm Õ±òô ¢ óÅÝôÜ ßÔõî C"".1008 x 1.16 x 1040.18 x 104 x 12 x 1.75)3] = (120.
8+79. Acp2 = { K.22 } ] 4 [ (231.[90.3 x 104.2 ]x3.40 x 10 m A cpl 6 x 108 = {Kxx (m+ms).23) x 106 = 23.23 x 10 m c: .18 998. {Kcpcp (Mm + Mmxs) 0)2}Kxcp' K~ = 132.64 x 104 x 498.22} 2.81X 104_(182+17. 2 0) }  Kxcp .22} {512.9 x 106 ..1' = {512.70 x 106 m .69 = 12. it ~.69 X 108 = 3.81x104x3.(182 + 17.7) 26. r.69 x 108 = 11. K~x = 8048.18x10 = 77.63 x 106 + (3." [.72) 26.v ~ = { Kxx 231.F x .75) x 6.81 ~<104.7) x 106 = 6.I 2 . M.7) x 26.81 X 104) (132.1.Kx .9 8048..63 x 106 m Acp = A4I1+ Acp2= (3.L) AqI = 23.32 x 108 = 8048.n.0 {90. 418 SoU Dynamics & Machine Foundations {KcMI(Mm +Mmxs) Cil} Fx AXl= { Kxx (m+ms) 2 2 0) }{ KcMI(Mm +Mmxs) 0) } Kx4l' K~ .16 x 10 (102.69 x 108 '~.9 .(102.8 + 79.2 + 3.40 + 11.'1 fJ 'j = 3.18 X 104 X 2.(M m + Mmxs ) 6 2 .: .0 8048.18 x 10 4 X 104) 998. ': ~ 1.9 x 106fad Displacement of the top of the block = Ax + (h . .J :.7 Ax x 106 fad + Ax2 = Axl = (12.30639.(m + ms) 0) } { Kcpcp .5 = 35.' ""'.'(.16 x 104 .0)2} K ~ .72) 26.2 Ax2 x 106 fad .(m+ms)O) 4 {Kxx (m+ms) 2 0)2} My } Kxcp K~x } { Kcpcp(Mm+Mxs)O) 2 .
Annu. 327268. '. New York."StationareAxialymmeterische duTcheineSchuttelndeMaSseErregteSchwingungeneine Homogenen . B...Trans. 14 pp.'. Novak.A. M. Ing. Soc.. R. (1962). . Am. Pauw. 477497. Int.. Prop.. (197 I). i~. Tech. K. . . Engg. "Effect of embedment on footing vibration". J. .(". 836861. London.'. Trans. NM. V. pp.. pp. Chae. "Foundation analysis and design" .O. (1972).O. Reissner. Int Symp. Am. (1973a). Soil Mech. 323. Soil Mech.. B.C.. "Forced vibrations of a body on an infinite elastic solid". "Foundation vibrations". . G. Symp.N. Gupta. Dyn. /. ASME. R. 563568. (1937)."" '. N. . Prochn. B. . Geotech. 863883. Conf. Div. M. Hsieh. . 172. Am. . M. Proc. Civ. pp. A. Waterways Exp. } '' . Res. Bycroft. G.": "".. Found. 8 (4). Y. J. and Richart.{' . pp. 1. pp. "Vibrations of embedded symmetric footings". Soc. 248. Conf.. 211226.N. Found. Div. Arch. . of soil bearing capacity. Pub!.. (1967)... pp. S.. Z. Earthquake Eng. 91956). London. 126. M. 5th. Rep. Wave Propag. "Prediction of footing vibrations".H. Geotechnique. Trans. 9(4). ASTM Spec. Found. Lamb. (1953). J. (1904). "Response of embedded footings to vertical vibrations". 4959. pp. . ' Novak.. and Krishnaswamy. E. Ph. A.'. Civ. and Warburton. 7(6). 6591. Bowles. . Rec. Novak. 77. Can. 334.~' . pp.N. 22. Albuquerque. "Coupled rocking and sliding oscillations of rigid circular footing". Ser. E.. University of Westem Ontario. . and Novak. London. 38I39?. 92 (SMI). "Freie underzwungene Torsionschwingungen des Elastiche~ Halbraumes". 96 (SM3). '. 391401. Found. D. Prob\. R. "Dynamics of base and foundations". pp. 229245. Eng. "Development and evaluation Sta.':. Vib.. (1971). . Soil Mech. Am. . (1961). 129137. Eng. Civ.. pp. M. pp. R. Geotech.. Conv.. Proc. 91982).(1936). Ser. ' Hall.. "The design of machine foundations related to the bulb of pressure". J.D.. Tech.< ! "'. ":~ . J. G. Soc. (1970)...A. pp..I>.. 195209. Phi10s. New York.. Soc.C. N.. darkan.'" . STP. J. Lysmer. . (1971). Soc.Elastichen Halbraumes". . A 203. 139148.\ S . Canada. I ".J. Div. .1st. D. "On the propagation of tremors over the surface of an elastic solid". Bereduge. Eng. (1967). No. Highw. E.L. F. Y. McGrawHill..: Foundations of Reciprocating Machines 419 REFERENCE Anandakrishnan. Vopr. "Forced vibrations ofa rigid circular plate on a semiinfinite elastic space and on an elastic stratum". Earth Mater. . (1972). "Dynamic behaviour of embedded foundationsoil system". \. Soil Mech. Eng. "Coupled horizontal and rocking vibration of embedded footings". Philos. 91962). (1955). "Experimeflts with shallow and deep foundations". pp. Vo\. Proc. pp.". Thesis.. Soc. Balkrishna. "On the calculation of excited vibrations of an embedded foundation (in Russian)". Baranov. Civ. Ing. McGrawHill. 91973). Beredugo. pp. . "Effect of foundation embedment on the dynamic behaviour of the foundationsoil system". 22 (I). pp. . R.<. Vancouver. Civ. (1985).' Eng.. and Beredugo. (1966). Eng. 1I 1125. T. . Y. 3632. J. "Dynamic response of footing to vertical loading". ' Arnold R. Paris. E. Arch. Bycroft. Can. Inst. Jr. Rc'ssner. H. Fry.FfAoJ'E:<:l!. Proc. ' Foundation of Structures". Proc.!:. "A dynamic analogy for foundation soils system". 99. pp. Y. Dyn.
.. D.E.'. Sung. . R. Civ. 93 (SM .662. "Comparison of footing vibrations t~sts with theory". F. 427447 . F.and Richart. pp. H. Eng. I.approach and (il) B~stic half space theory.)r. .ofan. Richart. "Dynamicrespo~seofemb'~ddedfoundations". 11. Unbalanced vertical force = 1. Soc. J. thesis presented.8 x 104 kN/m3 J. Jr. Am. CII = 4. T.andSagoci. D. Harvard University. pp.:'~ .. . Found. 15. Machine Foundations Reissner~. (1974). engine is 10kN. Whitman. .. E. (1981). . C. The values of the dynamic elastic constants for the design of the foundation may be adop'! given below: . R. Soil Mech.8 sin rot kN . Div. Eng. pp.~ Unbalanced torsional moment = 6 sin rotkN I "/~ 1. K.K. (1962). Massachusetts. 93 (SM ~6).6). . Am. "Foundation vibrations".(1944). . 100 (Gt4).  . Jr. 143168. (1953a). Trans. . Am.. 127. R. H. 863898. . Stokoe. = 0. Found. )ni. Soc.. . of machine and foundation. .H. "Vibrations in semiinfinite solids due to periodic sutface loading".'. and Richart. E. E.. Cambridge. India. Richart. Thesis. 9. Vijayvergiya.5 x 104 kN/m3 G = 4. D. (1967) ..g. Univeristy of Roorkee. . t~ .. Phys. "Response of embedded foundations".II (1972).1.elastichalfspace". = 24 kN/m amplitUdes ~f the biock by (i)Lin~ar elasticispj . Thesis.~'Forcedtorsional oscillations. pp. Soil Mech. Eng. Y.1. 169193.. Div. . 1.420 Soil Dynalllics &. V. Geotech. Eng. Appl. It is . F. Civ.1't.and'Whitman.. Determinethe namralfrequenciesand ' "~.34 3 17 kN/m 3 Yconc.3 A concrete block shown in Fig..Michigan. . block foundation subjected to a horizontal force Fx sin rot and a moment My sin rot at the COlT bined e. Roorkee. Div.) 9. . F. C.Universityof Michigan. Jr.39 is to be used as a foundation for a reciproc~ting e~fi U operating at 500 rpm and mounted symmetrically with respect to foundation. Soc. Ysoil~ :. Stokoe.1 (0) List the basic differences in analysing a reciprocating machine foundation by the two clp proaches namely (i) Linear weightless springmass system.. Ph. Ann Arbor. E.~i 9. 652..1. J.Ph.2 Starting from fundamentals. "Dynamic response of embedded machine foundation". The weight O' ~ ' . Civ.. E. and (ii) Elastic halfspace theot) (b) Derive the expressions of natural frequency and amplitude of a block foundation subjectel to vertical vibration. PRACTICE PROBLEMS 9. pp. Ph. ('1967). Civ.. Am. derive the expressions of natural frequencies and amplitud~~l' . ' . "Design procedures for dynamically loaded foundations". . Eng. Part. Soc.likely that the operation of machine exerts the following: .
'" .8.. .N .525 0. " "Ol~~i:. The following tests were performed at the site of determine the values of dynamic elastic constants : (a) A verticalvibrationtest was conductedon an MI50 concreteblock 1.' 1.7 m high.5 28. "..'Q.' 9..31..0 m .0 m above top of pedestaL ... c: ._.. eccentric masses 1..2. 0 .5 x 0. Speed of compressor = 250 rpm Horizontal unbalanced' force .~9: Details of foundation ' / '.75 x 0.4 Design a suitable foundation for a horizontal compressor driven by an electric motor..:27.0 .". Fila1IliItfdils . "T' .8 SI.210 0. = 75 kN acting at a height of 1.g ~ac{.a ..0 . . . Of setting of .0 .32.150 0.5m T Elevation It.: Hz 35.Om . " 421 . 9. Weight of compressor.'.. . .'.0 Amplitude at resonance mm 0.(0 1ft.30 0..06375 0. using different eccentricities..620 . Table 9.ptoCtlii.0 .1 ~ 8. 0 " . The data obtained is given in Table 9..0 29. = 160 kN Weight of motor = 60 k.. T 1 Plan Fig.o"ca. . The following data are available: . I 2 3 4 Angle. 5 6 15 30 45 60 120 I 1~9 ' . .No.
FollndtUWns . . The elastic settlement corresponding to a load intensity of 250 kN/m2 was 6.done on plate 300 mm ~. (c) A wave "propagation test gave an average value of travel time of compression waves as 0. The water table at the site is 2.422. S. corresponding to a distance between geophones of 6 m. ~~ft 1 ::1 '. The soil at the site is sandy in nature.02 s. .0 m.00 mm. .. (b) A cyclicplate load test was.0 m below the proposed depth of the foundation 3.300 mm.iI DyntUllics &. Machine .. DD .
7. Hammers are most typical of impact machines..6 shows a typical foundation for a hammer with its frame mounted on the anvil.!..'. Figure 8..:~j'. ~.'i.'~. 10. .: ".' ~ 0'" ~. "...'" ~. " . '. . a foundation for a hammer with its' frame mounted on the foundation is shown. .Lo' : re .)' . 10.'f\" ' }. '.~$~~~4i.c" i':(.1: Typical arrangement ofa hammer foundation with A frame mounted on foundation < '  .\ . ~'.'. ' ..:.t!t:. 10..1.~ . '" . A hammerfouridationsoil system consists of a frame. "'.~. In Fig. Fig.'i~... the anvil and the foundation block. FOUNDA TIONSOF IMPACT TYPE MACHINES .1 GENERAL Impact type machines produce transient dynamic loads of short duration. a falling weight known as 'tup'..
424 Soil Dy.. the foundation block (Fi~. lO.. IO. ..3b)."."""ks & 'Mllc"inif' F()Il1I~ '..:1 ~f&4 .degree of freedom system as sh°W!lin Fig.. a vibration isolation layer is placed between the anvil and tl foundation block (Fig.3 : Anvil resting on elastic pad/spring absorbers (. J'~ '9T:: ~ . 'Q1efollowing arrangements are used depending upon the size of the hammer: (i) For small hammers.:. . ."~ Fig. . 10.2 : Anvil resting directly on the foundation block (ii) In medium capacity hammer. WI ." .RESTING ON SOIL 'BLOCK"" '} '~ (a) (b) F. lO.'~" " '" ".. . 01 timber adequately protected against water and oil.!'.:.'~ ..3a)./': ~~". ON SOIL (a) (b) ~ . cork. ~I . special elements such as coil springs and dampers may be used in place of elastic pa( (Fig. . lO. .~.:"::':\:':'. '. This system can be modeled as single . BLOCK.... Usually the isolation Jayer is an elastic pad consisting of rubbe felt. ":':"'.3a and lO.Contd. t FOUNDA1'1 ON BLOCK RESTING..' The foundation of a hammer generally consists of a reinforced concrete block.:'::~'. f. 1 Tz1 ANVIL AND FOUNDATION 'FOUNDATION.'. The systems shown in Fig.) ~. 10.3b can be modeled as two degrees I freedom system as shown in Fig.2a).3c...'c . lO.g. In case of high capacity han mers.' ..\. the anvil may be directly mounted on. ..2b. lO.
~' i " (b) . . lO.. 1983). accurate results for all practical purposes. lO..4a) is very high compared to that of the pad below the foundation block. 10. the foundation is placed in a reinfor<.. .. In such a case. 10.'r!' ~.) .4c. the trough may be assumed to be rigidly supported on the soil (Novak. .edconcrete trough. The systems shown in Fig.4a and lO.. lO. lO. lOAa) or on spring absorbers (Fig.. FOUNDA TION BLOCK FOUNDATION BLOCK ELASTIc.. the foundation block may also be supported on elastic pads (Fig.( .Contd.' .4 : Foundation block on elastic pad/spring absorbers (. (a) . The space between the foundation and side of trough is filled up with some soft 'materials or an air gap is left.3 : Anvil resting on elastic pad/spring abs'!)rbers (Ui) For reducing the transmission of vibrations to the adjoining machines or structures. PAD BELOW FOUNDATION BLOCK TROUGH SPRING ABSORBER BELOW FOUNDATION BLOCK:: TROUGH " .."oundations of Impact Type Machines 425 dJ~P DAMPING 1N ANvrL l ABSORBER 122 SPRINGk2 ELASTIC PAD I FOUNDATION Tzt BLOCK SOIL SPRING kl < ~ < DAMPING IN SOIL (c) Fig..4b can be modeled as three degrees freedom system as shown in Fig. " .. The stiffness of trough (Fig.4b). lO..< .3c) may give sufficiently. . and therefore a two degree freedom model (Fig.!1 ' . Fig.
. foundation. Two Degree Freedom System. 10. ANVIL I I I TZ) DAMPING IN PAD SPRINGkJ OF PAD . In general the anvil. (iv) The time of impact is short compared to the period of natural vibrations of the system.. anvil and foundation are geometrically so aligned that their centres fall on one vertical axis. foundation block.achine Foun..5. 'lO~t = Mass of anvil (with frame if the latter is mounted on the anvil as in Fig.. and soil constitute a tWo degree system as shqwn in Fig.. .. elastic springs. This will ensure that the loads act on the anvil and foundation without any eccentricity. This model is based on the following assumptions: .~ :r ml = Mass of foundation and frame if the latter is mounted on the foundation. BELOW ANVIL. frame.. 8. 10.:tions ~TUP . and tup are rigid bodies. ":~1$f of soil under.. FOUNDATION BLOCK TZ2 SPRI NG k2OF PAD BELOW THE FOUNDATOO BLOCK TZ1 SOtL SPRING k1 DAMPING IN SOIL (c) Fig.'. (v) Embedment effects are neglected... AI = Equivalent spring constant . consideration K) = C'u .' The notations used in the model have the following meaning: ml bO. 10. .6.2 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS 10. tup. pad. (iii) The damping of the elastic pad and soil is neglected. (ii) The pad and the soil can be simulated by equivalent weightless.4 : Foundation block on elastic pad/spring absorbers In hammer foundations. 426 Soil Dynamics & M. (i) The anvil.1. as in Fig.2.d.
. . lO. 10.. . .4: Foundation block on elastic pad/spring absorbers (. . In such a case. accurate results for all practical purposes.4b).) . lO.. . 10.. '. . Fig. 1983)."" .3c)may give sufficiently..r<'oundations of Impact Type Machines 425 dJ~P DAMPING 1N ANvrL l ABSORBER Tz2 SPRING k2 ELASTIC PAD I FOUNDATION PI BLOCK SOIL SPRING kl '~ . ....Contd. The stiffness of trough (Fig. 10Ac.... DAMPING IN SOIL (c) Fig.4a) or on spring absorbers (Fig.. . . TROUG H PAD BELOW FOUNDATION BLOCK ELASTIc. 10. ..' . .(a)r'... . FOUNDA. I.:~ "" .. the foundation block may also be supported on elastic pads (Fig.. . 1O. : SPRING ABSORBER BELOW FOUNDATION B LOCK. ..". lO.' I' .:.3 : Anvil resting on elastic pad/spring abs'!)rbers (iii) For reducing the transmission of vibratIons to the adjoining machines or structures. the trough may be assumed to be rigidly supported on the soil (Novak.. and therefore a two degree freedom model (Fig.' '8. the foundation is placed in a reinforc... The space between the foundation and side of trough is filled up with some soft materials or an air gap is left. .. TlON BLOCK FOUNDATION BLOCK .(b) .... The systems shown in Fig.edconcrete trough.4a) is very high compared to that of the pad below the foundation block..4a and lOAb can be modeled as three degrees freedom system as shown in Fig.
. TuPcb ANVIL SPRING K2 FOUNQATION m1 . Natura/frequencies.(10. The equations of motion in free vibration are mlz\+Klzl+Kz(Ztzz) =0 .(IO.2) respectively.." BLOCK .keinto account impact condition which is different from periodic loading t..I.ill ~ 427 undations of Impact Type Machines Cu' = A Cu = Modified coefficient of elastic uniform compression.. to t.I.(10..B are arbitrary constants. for impact depending upon the soil type Cu = Coefficient of elastic uniform compression  K2 = (E / b) x Az = Equivalentspring constantof the pad under the anvil E = Young's modulus of the pad material b = Thickness of the pad Al A2 z\ z2 = Area of foundation in contact with soil = Area of the pad = Displacement of foundation from the equilibrium position = Displacement of anvil from the equilibrium position . = Multiplying factor that governs the relationship between Cu and Cu' usually 12. :~...(10.3) .. to.l.S) ..3) and (10.. where A and. we get z .1) and (10. zl = A sin oon t zz=Bsinco"t.5 : Twomassspring analogy for hammer foundation IO... and. Substituting the values ofzl and zz fro~ Eqs..!! = . (10.4) ~ 2Z+ Kz (zz zl) = 0 The solution of the above equation can be written as Let.2) .(10.1) ...4) in Eqs. (10.Kz+ Kt 1nl con A KZ . SPRING~1 I Fig.
.J .1)and (10. 2 2 + . and.(02 na _(O2=a2(Say) n2 .". = AI sin ronl t +A2 cosronl t +AJ sin ron2 t +A4 cosron2 t . 2 2 +Ilm) (OOna+ffinl) 2 COn+(1+llm) 0 2 2 2 2 . " ..I 2 2 OOnlOOna = Substituting the values of OOna' oonland Ilm in Eq.IiOOna ] . ."c ..S) = Limiting natural frequency of the foundation and anvil on soil = ..12) where..2.428 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations.....(10.10 b) nl.10 a) r 002 = .. "'na ~ ~~ (J)nl .I . .I The two natural frequencies of the hammer foundation may be determined by solving the above equations. ~t.0 ml } ml "'2 KI ffi: ( l+~ ml )( "'2 KZ+ Kl ml+"'2 ) "'2 ml +"'2 ( 1+"'2 =0 ml) Let..'.(10. B3' B4 are arbitrary constants.1 .(IO.= A B K2 K2 "'2 con 2 .J...11)\ Z2 = BI sin ronl t + B2 cos (0nl t + BJ sin (0n2 t + B4 cos (0 n2 t .(10.2) is given by z.(10.(10.!.1.6) Equating Eqs.0)nl ")~ . we get 4 OOn (1 ..7). ~  A . (10.5) and (10. 2 .. (10.9) Ilm = . IJ'.(10. Amplitude of vibration.2 2l~I+llm)(COna+OOnl) {(1+llm)(OOna+COnl)} 4(1+llm)OO..6)."i....~4 ..( 10. on simplification we get OOn{ 4 K2 (ml +"'2) ml "'2 00:+K2x KI 2 Kl K2 +COn+ . (10... AI' A2' AJ' A4' BI' Bz. 10. . OOnl ~ "'2 I ml+"'2 . ffina= Circularnaturalfrequencyof the foundationof the anvilon the pad .".13a rJi .6) ~ A Similarly when con = con2  K2 K2 "'2 CO2 nl 2 (Ona =' (02 na 0)2 2 = al (Say) na .. The generalsolutionof the Eqs... If system is vibrating at frequency oonl'then from Eq. (10.2..
rdatioIJsoflmpa.Cl)n2 ) .sin Cl)n2 t V Cl) Cl) ] a .[ nl nZ (CI)~aCI)~I)Sinron2t CI)' nZ .. zl = 0. (10.(10.16a) .ni . A = Va I (al az) Cl)nl .(10. Va sinCl)nzt ~ ..Az ronl sin ronl t + AJ ro nZ cos ro nZt ..that values ofal andaz are known from Eqs./(10. Cl) nZ 2'z = al Al Co nl cos ronl t ..~ =.23) Field observation (Barkan.. .18) or Cl) A J = .1S) boundary condition: (i}At t = 0... . 2 1 .~ = al AI sin Cl)nlt +al Az cos Cl)nlt +az AJ smCl)n2 t +az A4 COSCl)nZ t . . . .al Az Cl) nl sin Cl) nl t + az AJ Cl) nZco£~ nZt ..(10.. (10.(10.l6b) . Zz= Va (Velocity of anvil) Zl or = AI Cl)nl cos Cl)nl t .A I. 429 It may beno~e~.(10.(10. 1 2 [ Cl)na  2 Cl) nl Cl) na .13 b) respectiv.(10. we get ZI = (CI)~aCI)~I)(CI)~aCI)~z) ZZ Z Z =' .(10..Cl)nl )(Cl)na .racting az from a I we get . Cl) nl v ] a . ZI = Zz = 0 Az + A4 = 0 . (CI)~aCI)~2)SinCl)nlt ..Machi~es .14) Z al . Putting the value of(a.(10.' ..21). a I .az = Cl) na or z.. Va SIn ronl .al A4 Cl) nZsin Cl) nZt or Va = al AI (Onl + az AJ (OnZ or and Therefore. (10.22) Similarly.A4 ronZ sin ronZ t AI (Onl + AJ (OnZ = 0 .. r.Cl)nZ ] .ct Type.17) ....14) in Eq. .Equation (10. . 1962) of the amplitudes of the anvil and the foundation showed that the ibrations occured at the lower frequency only..ely. Therefore. and It gives a I Az + az A4 = 0 A Z '= A 4 = 0 (ii) At t = 0.19) .21) ( Cl)nlCI)n2 ) Cl)na sinCl)nlt .. it may be assumed that the amplitude of moion for sin (Onlt= 0 «Onl > (OnZ)' .12) can therefore be written as : .(10.Cl)nl(J)nZ.13 a) and (10..20) I v A = a 3 (al a2) Cl)nZ I I (a\az) Cl)nl (al az) Cl)nZ az) from Eq.. 1 ( 2 Z )[ .az = ( ( 2 na Cl) 2 Cl)n I Z Z Cl) nZ Cl)na 2' 2 ) Z . .
a00. 10.(1 0.' Fig...26) is the equation of free vibrationsof the foundationwithoutdamping..a00.2.(l~t.24} (OO.1) Va z2 (OOnl OOn2 )OOn2 2 2 . 10.(10.26) z = Vertical displacement of centre of mass of foundation and anvil..430 Soil Dynamics & Machine Follndations Hence approximate expressions for maximum displacement will be as follows (sin Cl)n2t = I): (OO. Sometimes in the case of light hammers. solutionof this equationis :(~~ z = A sin COn t + B co~ Cl)n t The constants A and B. Single Degree Freedom System.. m i + Kz = 0 where. measured from equilibrium position m = Total vibrating mass. 'JH"ir . .2. z =0 .... as usual.6: Singlemassspring analogy for hammer foundation The natural frequency of the system will be given by Cl) nz = The Eq.ThegeJi~' . (10..(10. Va 2 2 2 OOnaOOnlOOn2 OOn2 " .. . In this case the equation of vertical free vibrations of the foundation will be . K =C' u A 1 TUPm m1 SPRING K...6). r: ZI = = ( ) .2) . rhe system can then be represented as single degree freedom system (Fig. .i2 ~ . 10.1) (OO. are dete~ined from initial conditions of motion. At t = 0 'a and z = V' . no pad is used between anvil and foundation.25} .a00. .
W. = Net area of.VTa + Va g g where W2= weight of anvil (plus frame if it mounted on the anvil) .. Wl v.3. Determination of Initial Velocity of Anvil.80... .(10.. P = Pneumatic (i.. g  .29) Q)n The maximum displacement will be (Az)max = ID n Va . operated by pneumatic Wl or steam pressure.and E=O Q)n . . steam or air) pressure in kN/m2 Ac The initial velocity of anvil just after the tup' s. = Gross weight of the dropping parts. .acting hammers.e. W2 VTa + Va T'  g'g. . Since the anvil is stationary: W Momentum of tup and anvil before impact = 1 VTi .45 to 0. Foundations of rmpllCt Type Machines " ~ L 431 Using these initial conditions. we get Va A = .. .. V Ti is given by . An average value equal to 0.31) where.. g and Momentum of tup and anvil after impact = . Therefore.(10. mls2 1'\= Efficiency of drop (It lies between 0. includ~ngupper half of the die in kN.30) 10.(10. impact can be detennined by using the law the of conservation of momentum.cylinder in m2.65 may be adopted) For double .. A =Z Va sm 0> t n .(10..33 a) Wl W2 Va' = Velocity of anvil after impact VTa ='Velocity oftup after impact Therefore..12 gh (Wl + pAc) where W1 .(10. V if For a single acting drop hammer. the initial velocity of the tup VTi at the time of impact is given by VTi = 1'\ ~2 g h . h = Drop of tuP in meters g = Acceleration due to gravity.2.32) VTi = 1'\.. .
If this information is not available.432 SoU Dy. The followinginformationabout the subsurfacesoil shouldbe known: : (a) Soil profile: For drop hammers of up to 10 kN Capacity. Stress in the Pad.2 may be considered as limiting values.5 is adopted in designing hammer foundation. .34) and (10.3. e.3?) 10.2. usually the value of e does not exceed 0. 1962). (b) Dimensions of base area of anvil and its weight. soil investigations should generally be done to a depth of 6 m.VTa VTi .3 DESIGN PROCEDURE Wt +W2 +zl Kt Al . If piles are used.2..(10.(10.1IIIIics ~ Machine. velocity before impact or e= Va . The following information about the hammer is required for the design: (a) Type and weight of striking part of hammer. The worst case of compression in the pad developes when the anvil moves downward. ~ ...38) FOR A HAMMER FOUNDATION The design of a hammer foundation may be carried out in following.(10. On solving Eqs.2. (zl' z2 In absolute values) = K2 A' 2 . (10. (d) Arrangement and size of anchor bolts. For heavier impact machines. it is preferable to investigate soil con~~.steps: 10.3.5 (Barkan. tions to a depth of 12 m or to a hard stratum.. In forge hammer. FoundatiDns According to Newton's law. and (e) Permissible amplitudes of the anvil motion and the foundation on block. (c) Maximum stroke or fall of hammer. Maximum compressive stress in the elastic pad below the anvil depends upon the relative displacements of anvil and the foundation block.35) The value of e depends upon the material of the bodies involved in'iinpact. The maximum compressive stress in the pad is thus expressed by zl + z2 (Jp .1... . the foundation block moves upward. Stresses transmitted to the soil q through the combined static dynamic loads are expressed by q = 10. Stresses in the Soil. Since a larger e gives larger amplitudes of motion. WI 10.(10.4.36) W TI a 1+1. 10. is given by Relative velocity after impact e = Relative.35) we get..S.. the investigation should ~ conducted to a suitable depth. ' l+e 'Y ' V . and at same instant of time. the amplitudes of motion given in Table 8. mean effective pressure on piston and effective area of piston. the coefficient of elastic restitution. the value of e equal to 0. Machine Data..Soil Data. Theoretically value' of e lies between 0 and 1.
(10..(10.41) . and assuming the system as single degree freedom system." ': g ~Cuaqa ' . A .(IOAO) where. .40). we get (1+e)WoVTi A. ~ a qa (I +e) W VI 0 ' I 3 ~C' u W A . (10.. mls2 C' u = Coefficient of elastic uniform compression for hammer foundation.3..38 b) Az < Ap = Static pressure intensity (= 0.39) 'Considering an average value of Ap as I mm .(10. the Eq. kN Al = Base area of foundation in contact with soil.g < IO .38a) W /'.38 a) . kN W = Weight of foundation. Wo = Weight oftup. mls g = Acceleration due to gravity.38b) can be written as .3.(10.. m2 VIi = Initial velocity of tup.. (10.39) into Eq. 0. (10. kN/m3 Substituting the value ofW from Eq... ~ 32 x 10 m . PSI .. anvil and frame. and Nhere.. = (103 m). (a) Weight and area: The weight of the foundation for a hammer and the size of its area in contact with the soil should be selected in such a way that (i) the static pressure on the soil does not exceed the reduced allowable soil pressure. Trial Size of the Foundation. and (ii) the foundation does not bounce on the soiL These conditions may be written as PsI ~ a qa . (10.I 1 ~~ 'oundations of Impact Type Machines 433 (b) Soil investigation to ascertain allowable soil pressure and to determine the dynamic properties of the soil specifically the value of Cu' (c) 'The relative position of the water table below ground at different time of the year.8)  a = Reduction'factor q a = Allowable soil pressure Az = Amplitudeof motion Ap = Permissible value of amplitude For Eq.
25 1. '" .4.l' 434 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundatio~~ " 't Substituting the value of AI fromEq.3.44.(10. Min (m) 1.' 10. 1& = v..42). 1962). the following minimum thickness of foundation block below the anvil sha.I D J. W=W\+W2 W \ = Weight of foundation W2 ~ "C~ g ~ 3 " . 4Gr .~. The procedure of obtaining Cu has already bei4: discussed in Chapter 4 for relevant strain level..5. (10.75 2. C = 1 0 .42) 'I. The value of Cu may also be obtained from the following relation: if'. using Eq...'. (b) Depth: The depth of the foundation block shall be so designed that the block is safe both in punching shear and bending. Compute ....If be provided: ~ Mass of Tup kN Up to 10 10 to 20 20 to 40 40 to 60 Over 60 Thickness (Depth) of foundation Block.(10.25 '2. Selecting the dynamic elastic Constant C 'u. I!' . ' .~~df .) u ~ G = Shear modulus where. ~..~ l/ = Weight of anvil WI (l+e) VIi "Cu The Eq. However.1 = Poisson' s ratio .43) weight of the foundation can be worked out. (10. 10. Q. Weget (1+e) Wo VIi ~.42) can be written as Vi" = 0 ~ ~ g 3 W2 x 10 Vi" 0 . (10.: x 10 kN r. Eq.39) into (10.0 1. For the calculations the inertia forces developed shall also be included.43) From. "'r.'1t~.. On the basis of experience (Barkan. total weight of the anvil and foundation can be obtained. r = Equivalentradius = 0 nI JA .<. Further it is recommended" that the weight of the foundation block should be at least 3 to 5 times that of the anvil.. Knowing the weight ot anvil.3.. the weight of the anvil is kept generally 20 times the weight of the tup.(10.< .'i~ W = Let where...' '""". (10. The value of C'U may be taken as A C'u where A vari~ between 1 and 2. O>na .i~< . Natural frequencies.50 .40).
..(O~I) ( (O~a 00~2) VI) = 0. Compute the maximum foundation and anvil amplitudes with following equations (ro~a Z1 . ' E = Yourig's'modulus of pad material b = ThicIaiess of the pad A2 = Area of the pad K 1 =C' u A=A.. " 1+ 1Wl in which.C u A " .. K2 = b .(}undations. 2 OOna ( 2 (Onl ..3.. Compute the velocity VTiof the tup before impact VTi 11 ~2g (WIW + pA)h . W . W 1 = Gross weight of dropping parts p = Steam or air pressure Ac = Area of the piston h = Drop of the tup 11 = Efficiency of drop.Motion Amplitudes of the Foundation and Anvil.' .. 0/ Impact Type Machines 435 and " oon/ ~ V~ E in w~ich.... . ' '~~~'_..". Natural frequencies of the combined system are given by: '" 2 (()nl. .OOn2 )OOn2 2 2 2.."(co  na. ""0"""""" . . Velocity of Dropping Parts to Anvil. where oon2 is the smaller natural frequency. VT I .6. usually 0.". The value of e may be adopted as 0.. in which.0 . .6. .. ' ".7. CO 'I n ) ' V Z2 ~ (CO~I: ro~2)cDn2I).. 10.2 1 = '2 [ (l+~m) ) (OOna+OOnl:t 2 2 [ ~ (l+~m) (OOna+OOnl )] 2 2 2 " 4(1+~m) (rona. A2 .65 Compute the velocity of the anvil Vaafter impact by l+e ' Va =.3.wnl )] 2 2 10. e = Coefficient of elastic restitution.
Design a suitable foundation for the hammer.8m = 1. No.kN/mz = 300 kN Bearingarea of anvil Permissible vibration amplitude for anvil Permissible amplitude for foundation = 400 kN = 1.5 m below the anvil.0 mm It is proposed to use a pine wood pad of thickness 0.5 mm = 1. 8 (Deg) 36 72 108 144 iJ Amplitude at resonance (mic1'f!'Y 13 24 32'~ 40 /"Z (Nz) 41 40 34 31 I. and allowable compressive stress in pad is 3500 kN/mz..' 'ine soil at the site is sandy in nalnre and water table lies at a depth of 3.436 SoU Dynamics et Machine Foundations 10. 3. 'I'~ A vertical resonance test was conducted on a 1. 5 !ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES' Example 10.of elastici' of pad"material is 5 x 105 kN/mz. The modulus .0 m below ground Allowable soil pressure is 225 kN/mz. I A . 4. 2. Also. The hammer has the following specifications: Weight of tup without die Maximum tup stroke Weight of the upper half of the die Area of piston Supply steam pressure Weight of anvil block Total weight of hammer = 11 kN = 800 mm = 40 kN = 0.5 ID x 0.70 m high concrete block at f proposed depth of fo~ndation. t . motion amplitudes should be smaller than permissible values. ~ Ji.3. .1 A 15 kN forging hammer is proposed to install in an industrial Complex.12 mz = 600.~ . The data obtained are given below: S.75 m x 0. Dynamic Stress in Pad (jp' Compute dynamic stress in ~e pad by (J P = Kz(zJ+zz) Az Computed values of natural frequencies should satisfy the criteria for the frequency of operation of the hammer.8. and the stress in the" elastic pad should be smaller than the permissible stress of the pad material.8m x 1.
10.of Impact'type Machines Solution: . (i) Trial dimensions of foundation..'.0 kN . Weight of foundation .' .75) x 24 = 18.Ff!undation'. .':' '.9 kN.'j .5 x 0.7.<.125 x 0.. . Let the weight of the block is kept about 5 times the weight of anvil.. 437 .75 = 1. = 24 x 7 x 5 x2 = 1680kN (ii) Evaluation of Cu Area of test block = 1. L..125 m2 Weight of test block = (1.' The details of the suggeste~ foundation are shown in Fig.' ". Weight of oscillator and motor = 1.. (Assumed) .
70. ' .. m soil has a moist unit weight of 18 kN/m3.533' Cu2 x 104 kN/m3 2..!.41t1.14 .95 11.'".'" .0.e upto water table is saturated. 'Cl ::. CuI x 104 kN/m3 11.' n ""'. " crvI = 18 x 2.1respectively.70.2 = 43 kN/m2 . = 2.. 1. v2 .0.0.'.~ .. .427 0. ' B  2 0.'. } 2mn~m2+n2+1 .5 =. .438 SoU Dynamics & Machine Foundations' Total weight of test block.... O'v 3 = crvl + crv2 crvl = Effective overburden pressure at the depth under consideration cc " crv2 = Increase in vertical pressure due to the weight of block Assuming that the top 2. and the next 1. Table 10. 2.+ 20.9 + 1...04 1.= 16.. 4..! .0. CII = 41t2 fn~ m x 19."2 = .83 Strain Level x 104 0.:. .m2+n2+2 .320 0. L = 1.70. .8 teN/ni2.2 0.22 6.. Amplitude at resonance Stram level = 'Width of block Putting the given values of fnz and amplitude at resonance.96 2. '. 0' .81 fn~ kN / m3 . = 19.1 : Values of Cu and strain levels ' S.£. CIIvalues and corresponding strain levels are computed and listed in cols..38 8. ".82 2.4q 0..125 x 9.0. 2 and 3 of Table 10.9 x fnz =71. then .70. " q ='24 x 0.75 '". No.173 0.69 Correction for confining pressure and area: The mean effective confining pressure croI at a depth oronehalf of the widthof block is givenby 0'01 = cr v(1+2K ) 0 where.0. oscillator and motor = 18.m soil i.7' z = . 3.9 kN 2 2 ' .41t m2 +n 2 +1+m 2 n 2 m2 +n 2 +1 + srn 2mn~m2+n2+1 [ m2 +n 2 +1+m 2 n 2 ] L m = 2 z 1.1 A .
2 = 108.5. we get av2 cry = 37. q = 24 x 2.0..10) x 1.5 = 71 kN/m2 For the actual foundation 7.0 ] .3 x 104 kN/m3 may be adopted in design.248 The values of Cu of the actual foundation for different strain levels are listed in cot 4 of Table 10.0 x 5.84 ] °.~.0 + 37. nand q in the expression of av2.44 kN/m2 Assuming <1> = 35°.5 1.426 2 = 56.44 kN/m2 Gv = 43 + 13.5x 0.0 4 Stain level in actual foundation = 5.4 2 5.44 [ 3 ] = 34. we get al2 = 13.0 x 1000 = 2 x 10The strain level in actual foundation is higher than the strain level observed in the tests.75 °. [ 0'01 ] = 66.5  [ 7. .426 aol 1+2XO.0 = 1. 1.2[1+2 x30.2 kN/m2 = 71.44 = 56.4266] = 66.2 _ 10 n .0 + (20 . Seeing the variation of Cu with respect to strain level.sin 35° = 0.0 .80 [ 34.0 2 m = 5.0 + 20 x 1.0 = 48 kN/m3 Substnuting the above values of rn.2 kN/m2 G02 = 108.0 2 . Ko = 1 .5 Cu2 = CuI 0' 02 ~ [ A2 ] 0. the value of Cu equal to 1. nand q in the expres~ion of crv2. .5 ."~ Ilndations of Impact Type M~~hines 439 Substituting the above values of rn.1.8 kN/m2 0.84 kN/m For the actual foundation av! = 18 x 2.
.6 x 104kN/m3(A = 2..8 x 0.81 x 0.8 = 0 247 165 . ~. Ac = 0. 66 rad/s (v) Velocity of dropping parts VTi ~ ~ .0 x 1. 440 (iii) Computations of KI' K2' ml and m2 Soil DYllamics & Machine Foulldaii~~ C' = A' C 11 11 = 2.81 =40. (J.' "'t~.3 x 104 = 2.1 \I~ VTi = 0.8x 1. W\ 11 = 0.247)(79411 + 4421)]2 4 (1 + 0.8) x 24 = 1618 kN 1618 = 165 x 103 K g 9.5 x 104kN/m Weight of the foundation block = (7 x 5 x 2 x 1.70 . p = 600 kN/m2. Assumed) K I = C'!I .8 x 10"'Kg (iv) Natural frequencies of soilfoundation system (J)1/1 = ~ 1/l\ . h = 0..8 = 6.A I = 2.iC5+ 60105 x 0.8 = 324 0.6 x 104x 7 x 5 = 91 x 104kN/m .{W. '. 1 =: "2[(l + 0.:. .A = K.247)79411 x 4421} = 316 rad/s.i ~I " .81 m =I Weight of the anvil and frame = 400 kN 400 m2 ' = 9.2 ::t 2 . = b 2 ~ E 5 x 105 1.0.) ~1.12 m2. 1/2 Natural frequencies are given by : .(J)~l } { In ~{[(1 + 0.. )2gh .8 " J ..247) (79411 +4421)] (J) /11.8 x 1. = 324 x 10 = J79411 = 281 rad/s 40.A.8 4 l  91 x 104 = .J4421 = 66.68 mls .2 = ~ [(1 + Ilm) ((J)~a+ (J)~l)J=t~ [(1 + Ilm) (O)~a + (J)~l)] 4 (1 + 11/11) (J)~a.4 rad/s r&= (J)/la = v.12) x 2 x9.8 11 ~ = 40.70 (assumed) = 15 kN.~ nIl +"'2 '165+40.~ 'h4 .\ ..
6 68 400' 1+15 (e = 0.7944 x 105 m = .8x 1.Va 2 ro\n (ronl ) ro/12 (79411100167) x 0.362) = . W1 Va = .5.(0.0179 mm [< 1. 441 l+e w' VTi 1+1.0.362 = (1001674371)(4371) .0.5 .695 x 104 m = . assumed) = 0.4 kN/m2 [< 350 kN/m2 .1695+0.1695 mm «1.5 mm.8 = 187.Vu (79411100167) (794114371) = (79411)(1001674371)(4371) .. ' (zl' z2 In absolute values) 103 (\ = A2 = 324 X 104 (0.  1+ 0. safe] . safe] vii) Dynamic stress in pad k2 (zl +z2) (J2 . = .1.rtions of Impact Type Machines .0 mm.0179) 1. safe) Z2 = (ro:aro:l) .362 m/s i) Amplitudes of vibration ZI = (ro:a ro:l) (ro:aro:2) (rona)(ronl ron2 )ron2 2 2 2 ..1.
~ . M.3 A 20 kN forging hammer is proposed to install in an industrial Complex. . 10. 2. i . Geotech. 141158.1 Discuss with neat sketches the various possible arrangements ofa hammer foundation to minimist the vibrations. The modulus of elasticity pad material is 6 x 10 kN/m2. Novak. C] .5 m below the anvil. PRACTICE PROBLEMS  10. e (Deg) 36 72 108 144 f nz(Hz) 40 38 35 29 Amplitude at resonance (micron 14 26 33 41 The soil at the site is sandy in nature and water table lies at a depth of 2. (1962).70 m high concrete block at : proposed depth of foundation. McGrawHiIl. New York.No.442 Soil Dynamics & Machine Fouml'!!i!:l ÎÛÚÛÎÛÒÝÛÍ Barkan. pp. 10.Ji. "foundations for shock producing machines".0 mm Permissible amplitude for foundation = 0. 3. 4.8 mm It is proposed to use a pine wood pad of thickness 0. Design a suitable foundation. Can. (1983). The hammer has th following specifications: Weight oftup without die Maximum tup stroke Weight of the upper half of the die Area of piston Supply steam pressure Weight of anvil block Total weight of anvil and frame = 12 kN = 900 mm = 50 kN = 0. and allowable compressive stress in pad is 4000 kN/m2.75 m x 0. 20 (1). A vertical resonance test was conducted on a 1.15 m2 = 700 kN/m = 400 kN = 500 kN = 2. derivethe expressionof amplitudesof anviland foundatio of a hammer.1 m Bearingarea of anvil Permissible vibration amplitude for anvil = 1.1 m x 2. 0..0.2 Consideringa twodegreefreedommodel.0 m below ground surf Allowable soil pressure = 200 kN/m2. 1. The data obtained are given below: S. J.5 m x 0. "Dynamics of bases and foundations".
the inspection of and access to all parts of the machine become more convenient.000 MW to be commissioned during the next five year plan.. Interaction with the mechanical engine~r is also required for any adjustment 10the layout of machinery and auxiliary fittings.pence there is vital need to adequately design these foundations for all possible combinations )f static and dynamic loads. the long term satisfactory performance of the turbogenerators is affected by their r'oundations.. ~. .plant. ill account for as much as 50. heat exchanger. Major power energy resources. the ermal sector caters 54 percent. The trans:erse beams may be often eccentric with respect to the column centre lines and generally have varying :rosssection due to several opening in the top deck and haunches at the junction with columns. In a power . Large capacity thermal power station at coal pit heads called Super hermal Power stations (2000 MW capacity or more) because of their size and sophisticated technology.. The 15 :ar National Power Plan from 1980 onwards envisages the installation of additional generating capacity t'almost 100. . pipe lines. As per the present ratio. hydro sector 43 percent and 3 percent catered by nuclear sector. hydro and nuclear sectors taken together as against the existing :neration capacity of 31. hydel and nuclear generation. air vents and ducts for electric wiring are essential features of turbogenerator installation. in long term power plan.000 MW. vital and important part in a thermal power plant. and more economical due to the saving in material and freedom to add more members to stiffen if needed. The sometric view of a typical frame foundation is shown in Fig. . Theaim of planning to generate power higher than the demand by at least ) percent. n!l""cU~ .t...timal mix of thermal.FOUNDATIONS OF ROTARY MACHINES . longitudinal and transverse beams. Auxiliary equipments such s condensers. calls for a coordinated development of the power supply inqustry.000 MW in the thermal. Power intensity is relatively high in our country le to various reasons including the substantial substitution among the forms of energy in the various lportant sectors along with the accelerated programme in rural electrification and assured power supy for agricultural sector etc. The frame foundation is the assemblage of columns. 11. "I' . Frame foundations are commonly used for turbogenerators with four :asons : (i) (ii) (ui) (iv) auxiallary equipment can be arranged more conveniently. incorporate an .1 GENERAL le unprecedented burden cast by the importance of oil can be relieved only by exploiting indigenous lergy resources efficiently. The turbogenerator unit is most expensive.1. less liable to cracking due to settlement and temperature changes. The perating speeds of trubogenerators may range from 3000 rpm to 10000 rpm.
.1 .. ..' 1 Fig.'. following points may be kept in view: .(~ impo')cdby adjacent footing. foundation. (i) The entire foundation should be separated from the main building in order to isolate the tfaIf~re of vibrations from the top deck of the foundation to the building floor of the machine'roo~~). The Pressurebulbs under the adjacent footings should not inie1fi .. . . ' \wa: 4ld <jdi .1 : Typical frame foundation for a turbogenerator' " 11./ 444 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundatiol' ""'>' Longitudinal beam Top deck " ~ Column's . . '~ . ~ . G. . clear gap should be provided all around. significantlywith each other.2 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS For better perfonnance of aT.. 11.< (ii) Other footings placed near to the machine foundation should be checked for nonuniform str~~.
~r ':}J! 1. if the resulting resonant amplitude is relatively insignificant. (xiii) The groundwater table should be as low as possible and deeper by at least onefourth of the width of foundation below the.1 . Values of permissible amplitudes are given in Table 8. For 25 MW machine its thickness is 2m and increases with the power of the machine to a maximum of 4m.. c .. .lundations of Rotary Machines 445 (iii) All the junctions of beams and columns of the foundation should be provided with adequate haunches in order to increase the general rigidity of the frame foundation. For the same reason the axes of columns and transverse beams should lie in the same vertical plane. (ii) The amplitudes of vibration should be within permissible limits. ( . (v) The transverse beams should have their axes vertically below the bearings to avoid torsion. (vi) The upper platform should be as rigid as possible in its plane. . (vii) Permissible pressure on soil may be reduced by' 20 percent to account for the vibration of the foundation slab. . . G. _. It is preferable to maintain a frequency separation of 50 percent. is specially treated to ensure 100 percent bond.  (viii) The lower foundation shib should be sufficiently rigid to resist nonuniform settlement and heavy enough to lower the common centre of gravity of the machine and foundation. being susceptible to excessive local vibrations. An uncertainty of 10 to 20 percent may be assumed in the computed natural frequencies. Its weight should not be less than the weight of the machine plus the weight of the foundation excluding the base slab and condensers. (x) Special care in construction is called for to avoid cracking of concrete.. However. 11. the soil. > ( =: . (xiv) Soilprofile and characteristics of soil upto at least thrice the width of the turbine foundation or . (xi) Piles may be provided to meet the bearing capacity requirement but then the consideration of sub grade effect is essential. . This limits the vibrations propagation.. In this case the joint between the two concretes. foundation is based on the following design criteria: (i) From the point of view of vibration.base plane.2.. This slab has much smaller amplitudes of vibration than the upper platfom1. . (xii) As far as possible the foundation should be dimensioned such that the centre of gravity of the foundation with the machine should be in vertical alignment with that of the base area in contact with. Thus resommce is avoided. it may not be necessary to avoid resonance in higher modes. preferably at onethird column height. The foundation slab should be completed in one continuous pouring. groundwater being a good conductor to wave transmission. the natural frequencies of foundation system should preferably be at a variance of at least 30 percent from the operating speed of the machine as well as critical speeds of the rotor. till hard stratum is reached or upto pile depth. should be investigated. if piles are provided._ . (iv) The crosssectional height of the cantilever elements at the embedment point should not be less than 60 to 75 percent of its span..3 DESIGN CRITERIA The design of a T. (ix) Special reinforcement detailing as laid down in the code IS2974 Pt III should be followed. It is therefore: made thicker than required by static computations.
11. P. Operation Loads (OL). 11. G.4. FOUNDATION The loads acting on a turbogenerator are as given below: 11. ifnot supplied by the manufacturer. TA = Torque due to highpressure (H. G. Dead Loads (DL).. For a T.105(Pc .Pc) may be taken as 100 kN/m2.105 PA kN TA N m ..4 LOADS ON A T.446 Soil Dynamics & Machine Found.105(PB ..( 1 . 11. power torque.( I .2 : Torque due to normal operation oh multistage turbinegenerator unit Shaf The magnitude of the torque depends upon the operational speed and power output capacity ( turbines.) turbine in kNm (LP.. Pc = Condenser vaccum load A = Crosssectional area of the connecting tie between the condenser and turbine . thermal elongation forces.(1 ...( 1 TB  .PB) kN Tc N m 105P T = c kNm g N where.2). Tu r bin czs Fig. vaccum in the condenser.P. TR A TA 8Gcznczrator t] H. These loads are supplied by the manufacturer of the machine anc elude frictional forces.(1 Pa = Atmospheric pressure Pc = Vac cum pressure The value of (p a ...Pc) where. 11. piping fo etc. the torque may be calculated as be .2. The load due to vaccum in condenser.4. These include the self weight of the foundation and dead 'Yeight of the chine..PA) kN N m . unit having multistage turbine (Fig. can be obtained fron following equation: Pc = A (pa ..1.) turbine in kNm TB = Torque due to intermediatepressure .
. 8.. The unbalanced force is given by 2 F = 2 me e ro . B and C respectively in KW N = Operating speed in rpm 11.. . However. 11. As mentioned in sec.3. (8. the machine operation will give rise to both an unbalanced force and a moment.4 a) ..4 b) When masses have an orientation as shown in Fig.2.3) e where.3: Unbalanced forces due to rotary machines For the case of rotors shown in Fig.(11.(11. 11.9).5) The unbalanced moment can be computedusing Eq. combined unbalanced forces and moments can be computed in similar manner.3a. The unbalance is specified as the distance between the axis of the shaft and mass centre of gravity of rotor... 11.Foundations of Rotary Machines 447 Tc = Torque due to lowpressure (L. The magnitude of unbalanced forces can be obtained using Eqs.4b.. For more than two rotors on a common shaft. in actual operation some unbalance always exists./ . _l (0) (b) Fig.4. / = Distance between the mass centre of gravities of rotors The components of the moment M in vertical and horizontal directions are given by Mv=meero2/sinrot 2 MH =meero /cosrot . Normal Machine Unbalanced Load (NUL).8) and (8.3). . and is known as effective eccentricity..(11. but there is a resulting moment M given by 2 M=mero. the resultant unbalanced forces due to the two masses at any time cancel out. (11. P.(11.) turbine in kNm T g= Torque due to generator in kNm PA' Pa and Pc = Power transferred by couplings A. rotary machines are balanced before erection.
.7) where. Short circuit condition imposes moment on the turbogenerat foundation. the distance of centre of gravity from the axis of rotation and operational speed.4. Fs = Horizontal seismic force ah = Seismic zone coefficient I = Importance factor ~ = Soil foundation factor C = Numerical base shear coefficient S = Numerical site structure response coefficient W = Verticalload due to weight of all permanent components. G. Besides. W. 11. It may be computed from the following equation (IS 18931984) : Fs = ah I ~C S W .8.. . tends to break the stator ( the foundation. the permissible stresses in materials and the lowable soil pressure may be increased as per IS 18931984. Temperature loads in the foundation (TLF). Construction loads (CL).4. 11.5. This additional unbalanced forced wi1l depend on the weight of the bucket. = Capacity ofT. be taken emipiricallyas four times the rated capacity (in MW) of turbogenerator unit. a temperature fall of 100C 150C may be assumed. To account for the shrinkage of the upper slab relative to thebase slab. differential temperature of 200 may be assumed between the upper and lower slabs. 11. a different: temperature of 200 may be: assu\TIedbetween the inner and outer faces of the upper slab. The horizontal seismic force is considered both in logitudinal and transve: directions separately.6. .448 Soil Dynamics & Machilre Foundat 11.. It will increase the unbalanc force.( 11. In the absence of the exact data. . . Major (1980) has suggested the following fomlula for estimating the short circuit moment: Msc = 10 r Wr kNm Where. 11. Unit in MW r = Radius of the rotor in m . Loss of blade unbalance (LBL) or bearing failure load (BFL)..4. Constructionloads occur only when the machineis being erected. the short circuit moment (Msc) m.4. which is in the form of couple known as "shortcircuit moment". One of the buckets or blades the turbine rotor may break during the operation of turbogenerator unit.7. should be treated as a horizontal closed frame and analysed for the induced moments due to differenti temperature. . .. G. The construction loads are generally taken as uniformly distributed l( varying from 10 kN/m2 to 30 kN/m2depending on the size ofT. such they are not to be consider~das acting simultaneouslywith dynamic loadswhich occur only dur the operation of the machine.. The upper s1. . The effect of differential thermal expansion a! shrinkage should be considered in the design of frame foundations. When earthquake forces are considered in design.4. A fault of this type occur when any two of the three generator phase terminals are shorte The shock.. and this imposes vertical loads on the longitudinal beam supporting the generator state If accurate information is not available from the manufacturer... Short circuit forces (SCF).(11. unit..4. Seismic load (EQL).
: DL + OL + NUL + TLF + SCF} .°un~a~io.. Resonance method (Rausch. " .. (vi) Both the columns and beams can be replaced by weightless elements with the masses lumped at a few points by equating the kinetic energies of the actual and the idealised systems. (c) Loss of blade conditionlbearing failure'doridition DL + OL + TLF + LBLIBFL (d) Seismic condition DL + OL + NUL + TLF + EQL 11. . .. .5 METHODS OF ANALYSIS AND DESIGN In the case of a frame foundation. (ii) The deformation of the longitudinal and transverse beams is almost identical. . . .:+JL[ (b) Short circuit condition . (iv) The vertical vibrations of the frames can be determined for each frame individually. Amplitude method (Barkan.r. . .: ~~ndition DL+OL+N1J:r.. it being relatively much flexible. unit should be checked for the following load combinations: (a) Operati?n. The two dimensional analysis may be carried out by the following methods: 1.. even in case where the transverse beam is eccentrically placed with respect to the centre line of the column. (viii) When considering horizontal displacement the upper slab is regarded as a rigid plate in its own plane. G.. salient features of the above methods are given. The methods for carrying out dynamic analysis may be divided into two categories: (a) Two. (iii) The torsional resistance of the longitudinal beams is insignificant in relation to the deformation of the transverse beams. 1959) 2. . I i "''.. (v) The weight transmitted from the longitudinal beam can be considered as a load supported by the column head. (vii) The effect of elasticity . 1962) 3.'. it is necessary to check the frequencies and amplitudes of vibration and also to design the members of frame from structural considerations.nso! R~tary M~chines 449 The design of a T. . 1980) In subsequent sections..of subsoil is neglected..dimentional analysis (b) Threedimensional analysis The twodimensional analysis is based on the following assumptions: (i) The difference between the deformations of individual frame coluinns is insignificalll. Combined method (Major.
+2' 9 h.. each transverse frame that consists of two columns and a beam perpendicular to main shaft of the machine.450 ïïòêÎÛÍÑÒßÒÝÛ Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations METHOD In this method.. Fz sin cut Fz sin c.4: (a) Typical transverse frame.. q per unit length Fz sin w t vertical force due to machine operation.6... ho 1 I Zb Column <znds assumed fixed Y.>t Wz Wz t Wl ID I.. . is considered separately (Fig. W 2 distributed load due to self weight of cross beam. For obtaining vertical frequency.I ILl 2a lo ~ I I ~ lr I m= ql jW. IlAa)..._J Base slab L (a) . and consideration is given only to natural frequencies of the system in relation to the operating speed of the machine.>71 1.7 /" Gekrmns J~ ! . Vertical Frequency. (b) Idealised model The loads acting on this frame are (I) Dead load of the machine and bearing.1I I (b) 11.. . 11. the frame foundation is idealized as a singledegree freedom system..1. W I (ii) Load transferred (iii) Uniformly (Iv) Unbalanced to the columns by longitudinal beams. The amplitudes of vibration are not computed in this method..
The stiffness of equivalent spring (K) is computed as the combined stiffness of the beam and columns acting together..(11..4b.12) ) ) .11) .(11...17) h =h 0 2aa ..8) :: 851 where..(11.(11..3 2 K + 1 81 = 96 E Ib K + 2 q 14 5K + 2 °2 = 384 Elb' K+2 3 1 ql 83 ="5 E Ab ( WI+2 84 where../.. or W = Total load on the frame W = W\ + 2W2 + q .14) = ~ EA e ( W + WI +ql 2 2 Ih h K =. II.(11... 1 = Effective °51 = Total vertical deflection at the centre of the beam due to bending action of beam and axial compression o where.(11...9) span in columns.( 11..le 1 Ab = Crosssectional area of beam Ac = Crosssectional area of column Ib . .10) °1 = Vertical deflection of beam due to load WI °2 = Vertical deflection of beam due to the distributed load q °3 = Vertical deflection of the beam due to shear 84 = Axial compression in column The magnitudes of 81' 82.(11.13) ..Foundations of Rotary Machines 451 The frame is modelled as massspring system as shown in Fig. It is given by W K =....16) ..(11..15) = Moment of inertia of beam about the axis of bending le = Moment of inertia of column E = Young's modulus of concrete K = Relative stiffness factor 1 = Effective span of frame h = Effective height of frame Values of 1 and h are obtained as below: '=1 0 2ab . °3 and 84 can be obtained using following expressions: Wj .(11. 51 = °1 + °2 + °3 +°4 .
g .. 11. 11.. excan be obtained from Fig..(11.20 I I 1 b~ 0. (J.4 a) or ~he distance as shown in Fig.5 for a frame with haunches b = Onehalf of the column width for a frame without haunches (Fig. 0..)I/.5 for a frame with haunches.19) where. 11.!'(J.10 00 0..6 : CL versus b/lo The natural frequency of a transverse frame in vertical vibrations is given by nz = ~Kz W . 11. Foundation is taken as: COn:1+cun:2+. 11.4 a) a = Onehalf of the depth of the beam for a frame without haunches (Fig. 11. 11.2'" = Vertical frequencies of individual transverse frames .4 a) ho = Height of the column from the top of the base slab to the centre of the frame beam (Fig. 11.5 : Values of a and b for a frame with haunches Fi. 11.+con. .a = n ..08 0..) 1/. .(11.04 0.18) (j) Average vertical natural frequency of the T.40 0.n (j) n. Knowing the values of ho' 10and b.452 where.12 b/ lo Fig.30 0< ®óóó I I 0 0. 10 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundatiolls = Centre to centre distance between columns (Fig.4 a) or the distance as shown in Fig. G..6.
6.'ll( L F~ = Total vertical imbalance force oo:Jf +( ~:o:)' A:a = Average vertical amplitude of T.e. (11. frame foundation is given by "'"xa ~ p:~~)g L~t .20) (I Ko). (11.21) 113 ( 3K+2 Kt = Lateral stiffness of an individual transverse frame If L Kt = Sum of the lateral stiffness of all the transverse frames WT = Total weight of deck slab and machine Then the natural frequency of the T.e.m' Thus (J)11 = (J)I/. LFt ß©ãøÔÕÖøî¢÷ . Horizontal Vibrations.. G.20)..(11. 6K+l ) .23 (l) .. G. (() < (() lI~a ~. the deck slab undergoes horizontal vibration in the direction perpendicular to the main shaft of the machine. foundation 2::Kz = Sum of the stiffness of the individual frames ~ = Damping For undertuned ratio i..23) 2 2 '" For undertuned foundation.(11.(11.20 a) 11.22) The average horizontal amplitude of the foundation may be computed as follows: A = .. Then nn = (() foundation.. (() ~a should be used in Eq...23)... (LK.. In a T.(11.2. The spring stiffness is provided by the columns due to their bending action. foundation may be computed as A:a IF: .HIshould be used in Eq.( 11.~ Foundations of Rotary Machines 453 The average value of vertical amplitude of T. frame formulation../ I.). G. and for any transverse frame it is given by K = 12E le x where.( ~ nxa ) 2 + ~nxa J [ ] ( Cl) Cl) i.!. A za 2::F: (2::KJ (2~) . (() < (() n.(11. G.
Resonance method based on idealising each transverse frame to single massspring system is an oversimplification of a complex problem. 1962).7 b is adopted. /1 \ \ KZ \ K.22) should differ by atleast 30 percent from the ope rati:1g speed of the machine.1.e.20a) and (11.. the vibration analysis is carried out for each transverse frame independently. columns :.454 Soil Dynamics & Machille FoUIldatiolls As mentioned earlier.7 AMPLITUDE METHOD In this method also. 11.33W3 +0. mz m. the natural frequencies computed from Eqs. 11.25W4 g . Z2 1 t Fz sin wt ctzz TI K.r:: :"l / / (a) Section cross frame (b) Mathemetical model Fig. (11.\ .mz m.7).lom system.( 11.ii IIIJ . (11. 11. For the vertical frequency a twodegrcespringmass Fig. the frame has been idealised as a twodegreefreedom system (Fig.7: (a) Vertical vibration ora cross frame as a twodegreeoffreec. 11.24) . The Eqs. The main criterion for design is that the amplitudes due to forced vibrations are within permissible limits (Barkan. 1I I I Z1 z z \ \ \ I of m.23) for determining amplitudes are gi\'en to be used further in combined method.20).7. Therefore the values of natural frequencies computed by this method are very approximate.. Vertical Vibration. (11. 12 \ "::::::.19) and ( 11. However. Mass m I lumped over the columns is given by m I system shown in = WI + W2+0. (b) !\Iassspring model 11. in this method only the possibility of resonance is checked i.
.(11.7 b is identical to the system shown in Fig 1 18.. 3/ .15.u_.34) /Ill + /Il2 ~ 0) Il 1Z .32) Substituting Eqs. The system shown in Fig. 11.( 11...28) = 96 E rb (2 + K) + 8G Ab G = Shear modulus of beam material E = Young's modulus of the material of columns Ac = Crosssectional area of a column h = Effective height of the column I = Effective span of the beam AiJ = Crosssectional area of the beam rb = Moment of inertia of the beam K is defined by Eq. / (1+2K) OS! .. on simplification.45W4 g W 1 = Dead load of the machine and bearing W 2 = Load transferred to be columns by longitudinal beams W 3 = Weight of two columns constituting the transverse frame W4 = Weight of the transverse beam The stiffness Kl of both the columns of a transverse frame is given by 2EAc KI = h The stiffness Kz of the frame beam is given by 1 K = .. 2.. we get l .31) and (11.36) Ilm = .26) .. (11.29) ...z 2 (1)/1110)12 )+(I+P)(J)IlIIO)IlIZ zz =0 . The equations of motion in free vibration will be: ml ZI + KI ZI .( 11.Kz (Zz ... 0) III 1  .32) into eqs..(11.8.27) z °SI re.. and therefore can be alysed by the procedure explained in Art.3 3) Kl here.( 11.iations of Rotary Machines 455 Aass mz acting at the centre of the cross beam is given by m = Z e..31 ) .. Wz + 0.( 11. 11..30).( 11..( 11.. nlz ml .30) .ZI) = 0 mz Zz + Kz (Zz .( 11.(11..(11.' ....ZI) = 0 The solution of above equations are: Z \ = A I sin 0)III Zz =A z sinO) III 4 (I)/I(I+~l) .35) = V. (11..29) and (11..
sin OO{ . The stiffness of a leaf spring is considered equal to the lateral stiffness of the individual transverse frame. The columns are taken to act as leafsprings.12. horizontal Due to horizontal displacement Fi~..33).F.40) into Eqs.7. the equations of motion will be: /1/] ZI+KI ZIK2(Z2ZI)=0 1112 Z2 + K2 (Z2 .(11. dl<Z ~ d k1 d k3 j r A1 I IQ dm1 11 I I d I I I I t . (11.(11.38). 2 00.. F. .42) 11. For analysing the frame foundation in horizontal vibration as t\VOdegreefreedom problem.40) and (11.41) [ 004 . (11.... (11. Horizontal vibration..1' : Sprin~l1Ia" l!1odl'l for combincd Due to translation and rotation and rotational T "'1' óóóùè 3 . the upper and lower foundation slabs are assumed to be infinitely rigid... In forced vibration.38) as . 2 2 2 22 OOIlII+OOIl12 00 +(I+~/Il)OOIlIIOOIl12 ) ] .J ( 00 ~ 1 I + CO~ 12 ) CO2 + (1 + ~ Ill) 00 ~ I 1 CO ~ I 2 ] and AZ2 = 2 2 [ (l+~IIl)OOllll+~IIlOOIl12CO 1Il2 00 (1+~m) 2 [ + ( ] . m2 /. 11. dm3~ C<znterline of deck slab (initial) KX2 / T X G2 m1 01 m2 81 m3 \ 1 L A3~AZ .39) . 8 z vibrations of the deck slab  .(11.(11.( 11..37) = 1111 .39) All sin OOt and (11. and then solving them we get can be presented ZI = AZI sin OO{ Z2 = An Substituting Eqs.. .(11...37) = F. .ZI) The solution of the above equations .~56 Soil Dy"amics & Machi"e Fo""dations The two natural frequencies of the system can be obtained by solving Eq.2...(1 + ~ .
. Line A1Bl shows the initial position of deck slab. 11.ti+(IK.47) IKti(x+dll/i'V) =xIK.. The final placed position of the deck slab is represented by the line A3B3 .13 can be obtained...44) . dl~lI) I[Kti (x+dmi 'V)] = F..e. The equivalent s ( mi) lumped over the spring i (representing frame i) is given by: m. ~ The equations of motion for the system shown in Fig.sses from point G 1 are shown as d 11/I ' d mL and dm 3 .I = Total mass . x + [ L Kti( e2 + d. points G1 and G2 represent the cent:e of masses (i.(11.+ m b ' + 0. The distances of different .i represents the lateral stiffness of ith transverse frame. sin cD( .(IIA5) \it + I[ K'i (x + d. In Fig.43).( 11.I Using Eq.lli'V) dllli] = M. The deck slab rotates about the mass ltre G I' dkl' dk2 and dk3 are the distances of different masses flom point G2...\'+ K r / \jI + (L K. \jI . e rep resents the distance between G I and G L ~ . i)] \jI = K.{11. Kxl' K.49) ..2 and Kd) respectively. ml' m2 and 11l3) and centre of fness (i. = m . sin cD( Fx = Horizontal unbalanced force ivL = Unbalanced moment Denoting lI/ ") = 'Ill/. I K. e . (11. values of ml' 1112 and 1".tidmi)'V .48) = x Kx + Kx .(llAJ) I ml I Cl gl re. + m ' ..(II. represents the total lateral stiffness. K.. e 'V = Kx (x + e 'V) K.. . .Idations of Rotary Machines 457 Figure 11.8 will be: (Iml). 11. Thus Kxl' Kx2 and Kd can be evaluated. i (x + dm i 'V) dill i = (I Kti dilli) X + ( I Kti dl~1 i) \jI = K. i ) \jf = K.e... (x+e\jl) e+ KIjI . e. id.8 shows a typical mathematical model for a two bays frame foundation.8. 1I111/i = Mass of machine resting on crossbeam of ith frame IIIbi = Mass of crossbeam of i'h frame = Mass transfered from longitudinal girders on either side lIIei = Mass of columns of i'h frame l1lu ".1+ (I/1/i 1ere.4()) Mm: = 'I 11li dl~ll = Polar mass moment of inertia of all the masses about the vertical axis through G I ..( 11.33 m .
(11.~ + K . (11. the solutions of Eqs..51) and (11.44) and 911.r sin W{ Mmz\jl + K\ex + (K.(11. (11.51) .2 CD /IX ] Mc .46) to (11.55) where fK..51) and (11. Proceeding exactly in the same way as discussed earlier.... ..45). Wnx= v....59) M~ = 4 where L\ co ( ) = (J) 2 . .(11.( 11.CD2 .. we get m .. dk I = 0 ' Making the substitutions from Eqs. e2 + KII')\jI .(11. = IK.a (J) n x + co n 'v ) CD + co n x co n IV ( 2 2 2 2 2 . m AIjI (conx L1 (co2) )=M III z .( 11.51) and (9.58) 2 e 2 F X  2  CD 2 ?CD/I\r... CD nljl = 0 ..(11.(11.61) Air = At + y AIjI v '= Distance of the point at which the amplitude is being calculated from the centre 01 gravity of the system .56) m r = ~Mm= The amplitude of vibration in translation and rotation are given by + 2 CD 1lII' .52) are similar to the Eqs.( 11...53) . W nII' = ~ e r e22 II' Mm= 2 a=l+Z .\ + K X .(11.52).... ..57) 2 .d dki It may be noted that IK XI .54) ..CD F\ ~ A = [ x . (9.\.( 11. =n\ ] L1(CD2) m Mm= ..50) in Eqs.52) = Mz sin W{ Equations (11.. represents the equivalent torsional spring stiffness for the frame columns and is given by ..(11.60) The net amplitude Air is given by \vhere..52) can be obtained from the following equation: 4 CD n  ( a 22 CDnx + CD/I IjI ) 222 CDn + CD nx ... (11.11 458 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations K". e \jI = F .50) K".
Since the amplitude method is based n a system of two degree of freedom. The problem can be handled in a systematic manner in the matrix notation. The resulting equations are then solved for the time periods and amplitudes. The natural frequency in any mode of vibration should be atleast 30 percent away from the operating speed. The stiffness matrix of the structure as a whole is assembled from the stiffness matrices of individual members. A typical space frame model is shown in Fig.. Equivalent sectional properties of beams and columns are used.s of vibration computed from Eqs.20 a) and (11. The computation of equivalent mass moment of inertia of the frame members pose some difficulty since these depends upon the deflection shape in each mode. Howvel'. Generally "thenumber of nodes specified on any member should be sufficient to calculate all the modes having frequencies less than or equal to the operating speed. (ii) Amplitude. The analysis may be carried out in he following steps: (i) The natural frequencies in vertical and horizontal modes of vibration as computed from Eqs. fact that in under tuned foundation the increase in amplitude of vibration during acceleration nd deacceleration stages has been ignored in this method. the resonance and amplitude methods are complimentary. Lumpedmass approach is used having lumped masses at the node points. The machine shall be modelled to lump its mass together with the mass of the foundation. 11. These may be discretised in the first step and considered data in an iterative manner if desired.8 COMBINED 1 459 METHOD fact.sections change significantly. a threedimensional space frame model is preferred for analysis. (11. . The structure is idealised into a skeleton system which retains the properties of the original structure. A suitable value of damping ratio may be adopted to use in these equations.61) should be within permissible limits. (11. it is obviously an improvement over the resonance method. midpoints and quarter points of beams and columns and where the rhember cross..33) and (11. Special attention is required while idealising the points of excitation.9.42) and (11. (11.23 a) should also be compared with permissible amplitudes to take care the possibility of excessive amplitudes during acceleration and deacceleration stages. the. The dynamic analysis of the frame foundation requires the calculation of Eigen values of the system. stiffness and damping. the possibilities of resonance and excessive amplitudes both during steady ibration arid acceleration or deacceleration stages are investigated. The modelling should take into account the basic characteristics of the system. 11. .Juniations of Rotary Machines 1.9 THREE DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS For turbogenerator foundations of more than 100 MW capacity. mass. The columns may be assumed to be fixed at the base. (11. that is. In combined method which is also known as xtended resonance method. (iii) Amplitudes of vibration computed from Eqs. Nodes are specified to all bearing points. beamcolumn junctions. disregarding the base mat.41).53) by amplitude method are compared with the operating speed.
" VcrlJg. "Foundations for rotarytype macines (Medium and high frequency)".9: Space frame model of the found. (1962). A. [[11992).460 Soil Dynamics & Machine Fou/1datio/1s \ ~ " /"7 Fig. Dusscldorf. 11. I . D.. (I %2). Budapest. London.1 ÎÛÚÛÎÛÒÝÛÍ 11. E (I 9S(J). VDI DD .~ \IAJOR.2 IS 2<174(Pt.ation shown in Fig.. 11 . Vib:'atlon analysis and design of foundations for machines and turbines. Collet's Hoidlngs Limited.:. 11.4 RAUSCII. Ne\\ York. AkademiJI Klado. 1 \. 1\.1 BARKAN. "Dynamics of bases and foundations. ":Y1Jchlnen fundamente und andere dynamisch beanspruchte Baukonstruclionen." McGrawHill Book Co Inc. D.
~.1 a) may cause objectionable tions. For heavier machines. . This type of arrangement will also help in absorbing the vibrations transmitted from adjacent machines. Machine !F = Fo s. 12. vibra (ii) Machine foundation suffers excessive amplitudes due to the vibrations transmitted from the neighbouring machines (Fig. 12.2) such that the transmitted force is reduced which in turn will reduce the amplitude. du<z to machine it se If (b) Excessive amplitu de due to vibrations transmitted from adjacent source Fig. Here the machines are rigidly bolted to the \:Oundation block which is isol1ted from the concrete slab through the mounting system. timber pad.1 GENERAL n machine foundations. 12. the isolating system may be placed bet\\'~~n 'the foundation block and concrete slab as shown in Fig. 2. These have been already discussed in Sec. This type of isolation is termed as force isolation.. following two types of the problems may arise: (i) Machines directly mounted on foundation block (Fig. Machine Z=ZoSin(Jt Foundation Foundation (0) Excessive vibrations .5. 12. The system used for this pur:p'ose is termed as motion isolation. 12.3.1 : Machine directly mounted on foundation The first problem may be tackled by isolating the machine from the foundation through a suitably designed mounting system (Fig. The mounting system is an elastic layer which may be in the form of rubber pad.n "'.1 b).VIBRATION ISOLATION AND SCREENING 2. cork pad or metal springs. .
::': ::. In this m represents the mass of machine (Fig. .e.2) or mass of machine plus foundati.' 6 ôßù t::>".19).'. ' . 2. 12.~ Fig. ¢ 'A.17 (or Fig.3 can be represented by a simple mathematical model sho\' In Fig.~ ... This system is identical to t ane shown in Fig.:.:.3). ..:. 2.2 and 12. . /}. Machi ne Isolator = Foundation Fig. 12. = considering both force isolation and motion isolation separately.2: An isolator placed between machine and foundation Machine Founda'tion block 'i/i.s.12..."." slab'.. and the detailed analysis has already been presented in Sec.. This mathematical representation involves 0 basic assumption that the underlying soil or rock possess infinite rigidity..~~'~'O""'I\'" . 'I .~62 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundatioll. Isolator å óº ßÁòþ ùþ A '.l:i'.'to.3 : An isolator placed between foundation block and concrete slab The systems shown in Figs..1'. block (Fig.{ .. the elastic layer) is characterised by a linear spring witlspring constant K and dashpot with damping constant C. The mounting system (i.' = . ~ ." . 12.' . 12. I" .4.': .~:~:. .:". 12. Concrete A.. '.. .
degreefreedom problem.. 12. The second problem in which the vibrations are transmitted from the neighbouring machines can be solved by controlling the vibrating energy reaching the desired location. 8. the solutions of which are presented in the next section. . t 2. and piles.5. and diffraction of surface waves by using barriers such as trenches. The various ~termsused are explall1ed below: III I = Mass of foundation block or mass of base slab Mass of machine if isolator is introduced between machine and foundation block or mass of machine plus mass of foundation block if isolator is placed between foundation block and base slab.. In case screening devIces are used by providing barriers at a point remote from the source of disturbance but near a site where vibration has to be reduced. it is termed as passive screening or passive isolation. 11l1 = K I = Stiffness of the soil K1 = Stiffness of the isolator 111 . scattering. Then the mathematical model becomes as shown in Fig. Vibratioll /so/(ltion (llld Screening 463 m Fig. 12.4 : Mathematical model A more realistic model will be that in which the soil or rock is considered as an elastic medium. This is referred to as Vibration screening.2 FORCE ISOLATION Since the underlying soil or rock supporting the foundation block (or base slab) does not possess infinite rigidity. then it is termed as active screening or active isolation. the foundation soil should be represented by a spring and not solely by a rigid sllpport as W:iS done in Sec. Both the methods of screening the vibrations have been discussed subsequently. This will make the system as a two." .'t_~ ~ ' .2. Effective screening of vibration may be achieved by proper interception. sheetpile walls. If the screening devices are provided near the source of vibration.
//////// ~kl /////// Fig. S1l1 0) I . the equation of motion will be: 111121 rKI2.7 b) IiJ .K2(2221) 11/222 + K2 (22  =0 21) . (J2..1) and (12. ~ ] . . Eq . (12. I K~ L III~ 4(..(J) ..5) If I and CD 1/~ re p resent the roots of the above e quation.2) gives 21 = W4  (~ [ 11~ (KI+K~) [ ~ nIl n~ )Sinrol . 12.+ [~ tl(0)2) (KI+Kz) 1nl 2 +KIKz (J) .7 ll) ] 1nl n~ or = (0)2 0)~1)(0)2 0)~2) ...3) K2 + (Kl + K2) 1nl w2 + Kl K2 ] nIl nIl 2 z  1111 n~ 0) .(12.5: Two degrees offreedom model If the machine is subjected to a harmonic force (Fa sin wt).F a 0)4_ Kz+(Kl+KZ) [~ 1nl ..2) = Fa The solution ofEqs...64 Soil Dynar.. c!) I.r) /1 (Kl + K~) 1111 2 K... 12. Fa . S111 0) ( ] 0)2+KlK2 nIl 1112 .( 12..(12.F 0 I tl (0/ ) .( 12...lics & Mac/line Folllltlatiol/s T Zz tF=FOSinGJt T Z1 rn.( 12.4) The principal natural frequencies of the system shown in Fig.(12. Kz  ] W 1/ + Ill.3) can be written as K~ 2~' l IIII III~ ) ~ .(12.( 12..5 can be obtained by solving the following frequency equation: .....1 ) sin ((){ . 1112 =0 .6) where 2 4 Kz tl(w ) ..
{( I+~. 1 (j).12).12) (J)~:: = 1/11+ /I~ Using Eqs.. the Eq. (12.9 a) The transmissibility TF depends on the system parameters given by Eq.11) and (12. ~ . m.13 a) T.p 11/. (12. I..7.. 1 11 . (12.  ) F .... (0':' [ ..8 j  ~(c!)2) The transmissibility of the system will be T F  Ft Fa sin OJf Kj K2 .9). .( 12.6 shows the plots ofT I" with ~ l (!) 11::' ) ratio for two values of mass ratio 11 .10) .9) or...(1~2..(12.11 ~I .= mass ratIO = 11 11/. .' H~".. It is evident from m this figure that the frequency ratio ((0 I (Oil::) must exceed a particular value (depending on the magnitude of 1111/) before the transmissibility fal1s below unity.(12. = rI . The particular values of ((0 I (OJ.. /110 /1/') 2 . f't} .( 12." )(~'" +~}. 11/ . a special C3se will be examined in which KI . . TF = 1/1} /I~ ') Ll((!)~) .') r "(1+~. (12.11) of machine foundation system ((Oil::)in which the isolating K) spring (k2) IS  ') ')  KI ~=~ 1+ n~ rn.9) can be written as 1 . Denoting. ó¥ ( õî Ø¢³õó¼ ~ " } 1 l(1+~m)W. j 1+llm . is given by =.. a ..( 12.(12.Vibration Isolation and Screening 465 Force transferred to the foundation block or base slab F{ = K} Zj Kj K2  l sin (I)f 11/} / 11.{(I+~ )+(~'" +~f f'r II ~{(I+~ 01'..10).. 12.K2 .. = l ~~. The natural frequency ignored.)for which the transmissibility equals unity are given in Fig.+~I' J"} 1 Figure 12... ror il1ustration.
.0 c 0 0.466 Soil Dynamics & Machille 'Foulldatiolls 10 8 6 4 l1.   2 11/1 (1+~II/) (al 1) CD 2 me e a I =2b.5 ratio..Jnz = kIf (rnl +rnZ) kllrnl = \ \ \ kZ Irn 2 0. 0 l1. (12.(12.6: T F versus ro/ronzfor different values of mass ratio /Jm A desIgner is more concerned in examining whether the isolating system reduces the amplitudes of the machine and foundation.. written as the force Fa is frequency ) dependent (2meeun.D .5   }J.urn= 0.(I)/1 ( ) ) In most of the machines.. 2. . = (ml + 11/2) m n.. The Eq.(12.. .15 h) or where.E 11\ 1.0 +.. (J)  . = .14) can be 2 me emA.0 GJ/GJnz Fig...1 0 0.0 1.15 a) ) . III case no isolating system is used the maximum amplitude of machine foundation is given by Fa A.6 )..m 2 .0 Fr~quency \ 3..16) . ( 2 . +' > .Z 0. A..Jm=1.2 {..(12.I u 04 . t 2. c:.11\ 11\ .m = 0..(12....1 .8 0.5 1...14) 2 ) (/1/ 1 + Ill)) CD .. 2 ' .
~. .0 Fig..)nz 4..17) The values of maximum amplitudes of two degree freedom system obtained from Eqs.18b) ( )] .(/j (/2 (2 me e) .5 0 0 1.18 a) or A =1 = /Ill [ J 2 J J 1.( 12.0 GJ G. then CD IlU  ~ 2 IIlz . (/2 .0 I 1.(12. (12. A=2 = [(l+I1I11)(/~+l1m{/il](2mee) m2 [ l(I+l1m) ((/( +(/2(/1 2 2 2 2 .( 1+ I1m) (/j + (/2 .....(12.(12..7 : Mass ratio versus m/mOl If CDlla represents the natural frequency of mass m2 resting on isolating spring.VibratiOll lsolatio" a"d Scree"i"g 467 2..0 I W =j<2+)Jm )(l+}Jm) GJnz 0.(12... 1.4) for frequency dependent force will be A=1 = ml CD~a (2 me e (i) [ 4 CD (I+l1m) (CDllaCDII= )CD +(I+l1m)CDlla 2 2 2 2 2 2 CDII= ] .3) and (12. ..5 E =<. 12.19) where UJ/la (/1 = (I) Similarly.20) (/2 )] ~ ~.0 3.
27) W ..18b) indicates that the amplitude of vibration of foundation will be small if a2 is small.Zo . Fa = Kz . 12.26) [ A :2 = K 1 Z 0 4 (KI + K2) +...25) 11/2Z2 +K2(l2Z.w4_ A:2 111.468 Soil DYllamics & Machille Follndations The Eq.. 1112 11I.28) ())2+K)K2 111)11/2 (KI+K2)+K2 [ 111) 1112Ã ~ I .( 12. (12.ZI) = KI =0 Zo sin W f .23)  K2 (Z2 . (12. The value of A:I may be taken equal to the permissible amplitude..18 b) by Eq. (12. This can be achieved by appropriate selection of the mass above the isolator spring ("'2) and stiffness of isolator spring (K2)' The efficiency of isolation system is defined as 11 =.15a). the equations of motIOn \vill be: nzl ZI + KI Z\ ..(12.24) ...3 MOTION ISOLATION Let us examine a case when a sensitive equipment of mass 11/ I ISplaced on a foundation block of mass 1112' The spring K. If the ground is subjected to a periodic displacement given by Zo sin w l.Kl K2 m.  + III~] W + Ill. The value of 11 can also expressed as given below by dividing Eq.22) a. (12..n/2 ] ~ 111 ) Ill.) The vafues of maximum amplitudes of motion are given by ~~ A_I = KI lo 004  2 ml m2 m1 . For this oona should be small.15 b)..( 12.A A:I . 111.1112 .21) Value of A: can be.. )] Solving Eqs..( 12. Then KIK2 T 0..( [l(1+~m) (a) +a2 a] 2 2 2" 12..[( Ill. represents the foundation soil and spring K2 is an isolating spring which is placed bet\\een the masses Ill.(12.. and 1112' in order to minimise the transmission of vibrations from the ground to the equipment.21) and (12. It will ensnre the amplitude of vibration to be within pf'mlissible limit Total force on the isolator.K2 W2 +.~omputed from Eq.( 12. (12. Thus 11 = ai (1 + ~m) (a~ 1) . K I+J K ) KJ  2)J K K .(12.22) one can obtain the value of a2' For this a2' appropriate values oflll2 and K2 are selected. A:2 Fa should be less than the allowable capacity of the Isolator in compression.. The displacement transmissibility of the machine (Tn) is defined as the ratio of displacement amplitude of mass 1f/2to the displacement amplitude of the rigid support..
Active Screening. ) ." "' i. (12.1." . .( 12.'. Using velocity transducers. Figure 12.4 SCREENING OF VIBRATIONS BY USE OF OPEN TRENCHES 12. Barkan ( 1962) mentioned that the reduction in vibration amplitudes occurs only when the trench dimensions are sufficiently large compared with the wave length of the surface waves generated by the source of dIsturbance. Dolling (1966) studied the effect of size and shape of the trench on its ability to screen the vibratIOns. (12. t 968) The first comprehensive study of screening vibratIOns by use of open trenches was made by Woods and Richart ( 1967) and \Voods ( 1968).C". The soil conditions at the site \vere as shown in Fig.3 m depth. 12. then the ratio which in turn will give the stiffness of the isolator A:2i lQ is known. Cl2can be determined spring i. 12. 12. and the angular dimension e was varied from 900 to 3600 around the source of vibration.9).7 hold good in this case also. The depth H of trenches was varied from 150 mm to 600 mm.Vibration Isolation alld Screenillg 469 The Eq. In this case the screening of vibrations is done near the source of vibration."0.. Amplitude of s u da c e displaclZmlZnt L' F (t) Footing Circular open t re n c h ot radius R an d depth H I H I 1 the source ~ R1 Fig. The vibrator could create a maximum force of ~O0:. the amplitudes  . 0. Frequencies of 200 to 350 Hz were used in the tests.e. For this value.9.c.28) is identical to Eq.'.6 and 12.28) can also be written as: To A :2 l 0 2 2 a( a2 (1 + Ilm) l(l+llnr) 0 ( 2 2 2 al +°2 al a2 .4.. The water table was below 14. Equation (12. and l is the applied dynamic displacement.8 shows a circular trench of radius R and depth H which surrounds the machine foundation that is the source of disturbance. They conducted field tests by creating vertical vibrallons with a small \"ibrator resting on a small pad at a prepared site. the radius R of annular trench varied from 150 mm to 300 mm. . The design of trench barriers is based on some field observations. '... K2' 12.29) If A1 .'.. and therefore the results shown in Figs.8: Vibration screening using a circular trench surrounding of vibrationActive screening (Woods.is taken as permissible amplitude.
77 kN/m3 Wn = 230/0) Cl = 0.10 in the form of ARF contour diagrams. distance x from the source (AR= x/1I).Amplitude of vertical vibration with trench .Wavelengths ARfor different frequenciesare given Table 12.4.m/s Fig.1.Amplitude of vertical vibration without trench T ~ ~ uniform silty 0/0.61) 287 rnls td m3 sandy 3. ARis obtained by determining the number of waves (/1L occuring at in Table 12. The dimensions of the trench are expressed in nondimensional forms by dividing Hand R by the wave length ARof Rayleigh waves.68) Vc=534. 12. 1968) Frequency Hz lOO 250 300 350 AR mm 687 513 421 336 VR m/s 137 128 126 117 .2m Wn = 7 Vc = e = 0.factor which is defined as ARF = Amplitude reduction factor . 12.1 m silt (ML) 'id = 15. fine sand (SM) = 16.6 k N / 1.470 Soil Dynamics & Machine FolllldatiOlls of vertical ground motion were measured at selected points throughout the test site before installation of the trench and after installation of the trench. Woods (1968) has introduced a term amplitude reduction .1: Wavelength and wave velocity for the Rayleigh Wave at the test site (Woods.9: Soil stratum at the test site Some of the resuits of field tests conducted by Woods (1968) are shown in Fig.
The zone screened in this case extended to a distance of atleast 10 wavelengths (I OAR)from the source of disturbance (ii) For partial circle trenches (900 < 8 < 360°). a minimum value of H/AR = 0. .:. 12.910 and . Woods (1968) recommended that ARF shouid be less than or equal to 0.::':':lo.452 RO/AR 0.726 D 1.':.:.222 .  1.:i. The conclusions made on the basis of this study to keep ARF ~ 0.125 .\ .\/:1 0.:.0.500..596 Ro/AR 0.10: Amplitude reduction factor contour diagrams for active screening (Woods..":.250.25 are: (i) For full circle trenches (8 = 360°) .6 is required..= 0..'if'.~ F::.25 D 1.~.~ """ Vibratio" Isolatio" a"d Scree"i"g 471 Boundary of screened zone /..) < 0 ' 125 (a) (b) Fig.< 0 ' 125 t~:.:. the screened zone was defined as an area outside the trench extending to at least 10 wave lengths (10 AR)from the source and bounded on the sides by .500'25 1::::~::)lo.25 1(':.:>}.'.:. (. . '. ~.596 f:::~::JO.222 ..:::.25 0.25.250.250. ." p'.." . 1968) The field tests of Woods (1968) thus correspond to rR A H = 0.'"..50 H/AR 0.125 :.1.'.50 H/"'R 1.25 ~>1.82 AR' For satisfactory screening of vibrations.
. 1.' ::. 1:!. . :' . . . (iii) Partial circle trenches with 8 < 90°. Woods (1968) recommended that the ARF should be less than or equal to 0.. effective screening of vibration is not achieved.I] : "ihration ~ '. . 12. a minimum value of H/AR = 0. 12A.11).6 is required.64 and R/AR from 2. . Passive screening (Woods./'R R =2 'i at =7 . . follo\\'s: AI .25 in a semiCIrcular zone of radius (1/2) L behind the trench. the least area of the trench in the vertical direction ((c.10. " 1 screening using a straight trench. and a trench is shown in Fig. 75 transducer locations..13 shows the ARf contour diagram for one of these tests. In this case also.25 are: (i) I li'I{ should be atleast 1. " .C6.t72 Soil Dynamics & Machine Fouudations radial lines from the centre of source through points 45° from ends of trench. '.~ I'R AI . . Woods (1968) has also performed field tests to study the effectiveness of open trenches in passive screening (Fig.2.' Amp! itude 0 f s u rfa c e vibration . . (i. . Passive Screening. It \vas assumed in these tests that the zones screened by the trench would be symmetrical about the 0° line.) 'R . " . .') Trench width is not an important parameter. . A typical layout of these tests consisting of two vibration e:\citers (used one at a time for the tests).. 12 12. I96S) The values of Hij'I{varied from 0.' t. Frequencies of excitation varied from 200 to 350 Hz. The sizes of trenches ranged from 100 mm x 300 mm x 300 mm deep to 2440 mm x 3050 mm x 1220 mm deep. Open t rrznch Fi~. ~ Amplitude of surface vibration .22 to 9.0 . . The conclusions made on the hasis of this field study to keep ARF ::: 0. H r R .' . . .33 (id To maintain the same degree of screening. . . 0 R = 7. Source of disturbance .444 to 3.. . Figure 12.0 at /' 'R .11"" AI)' should be a<. ~ Equipmrznt to be protected . . For satisfactory screening.
. " / 0 0 '.." K . Experimentai investigations of Sridharan et. '> Tr en' ch barriers / . 1968) . v' \. ' " " 0 0 O ~ 0 ""' 0 0 0 L r>." 75 pi c k u P benches 0 ' ..Sm '. 0 0 l.{~:'. \. .."" " . 0 0 0 0 <. The performance of open trench \vith sawdust was found better as compared with sand or bentonite slurry. Vibratioll Isolatioll alld Screenillg 473 m (hi) Trench width had practically no influence on the effectiveness of screeI'.~" . .ing.0 0 '. ~ .Sm / vibration exciter footings Fig. / I 0 / 0 0 ~ ' .('".1 m / / 0 0 [° 0 0 / 0 80 0 0 0 0 / / 0 0 /'t 0 0 /0 / O 0 0 0 0 OOA /". " '<:( '. "./ // "v :?s B / l.. However the open (unfilled) trenches may present instability problems necessitating trenches backfilled with sawdust.. 0 0 0. al (1981) indicated that the open unfilled trenches are the most effective. ./ 0 0 0 0 .\.. 320 / 0 240 N 0 / 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6... sand or bentonite slurry.12 : Plan \iew of the field site layout for passive screening (Woods. ". ". 0 I . 12.
Woods et a1..6m 0 [tJ ó¬ó´ó ARF 1. H/AR and LIARwere kept as 1.\C BY USE OF PILE BARRIERS There may be situations in which Rayleigh wavelengths may be in the range of 40 to SOm.5 respectively.25 ARF Trench + + + .'i Centqr tin q lliII1J ARF>1. 1. In all tests.5 AA F 0.4 and 2. A box of size 1000 mm x 1000 mm x 300 mm deep filled with fine sand constituted the model halfspace (Fig.50. The Isolation effectiveness is defined as Effectiveness = I  ARF .250.250. 12.. For this reason.(12. In this figure.125 1. 0 is the diameter of the void cylinderical obstacle and SI! is the net space between two consecutive void holes through which energy can pass through the barrier.ine Forllldatioll.38 LIAR R I AA W/'AR = = = 4.\3: Amplitude reduction factor contour diagrams for !Jassive screening 12.125 ~ ARF<0. possible use of rows of piles as an energy barrier has been studied by Woods et al.17 Fig.25 4. Q n 0.14).96 0.5 PASSIVE SCREE1\I. (1974) and Liao and Sangrey ( 1978). The numerical evaluation of barrier effectiveness was made by obtaining the average of the values of ARF obtained on several lines beyond the barrier in a section ::I: 15° of both sides of an axis through the source of disturbance and perpendicular \0 the barrier.5 m HI AR = 2.474 Soil Dynamics & Mac/.33 AR)' Open tren~hes (filled or unfilled) with such deep depths are not practical. the open trench will be effective ifits depth range from 53 m to 66 m (i.e.76 5. (1974) used the principle of holography and observed vibrations in a model halfspace to evaluate the effect of void cylinderical obstacles on reduction of vibration amplitudes. 12. For such a casc.31) .
21 . .15 .05 0..5 111 t>I 111 . " ~'...: . :'. ': :' "'" '0. ' " J " 0.10 0.. '0:~. . ""1iItJ'i Vibration Isolation and Screeni1lg 475 F(!) t Fig. . W 0...4 I J: ' ."'ii[. '0.075 "" \ 0. 0: . 0 "" ' :'0 0.30 0 0 Fig.." " ..25 0. .20 0. .0 for cylindrical hole barriers (Woods et aI.. 1974) LL a:: « I 11 0.: u \\\ \ \ I " . '. t>I 0..15: Isolation effectiveness as a function of hole diameter and spacing (Woods et al.14 : Definition of parameters 1. l .: 'O" "'....\\ \\ " \\0. . 12.15 Snf"r 0. "'I C t>I > . 0. 1974) .: " ':"" . 12.. .125 " \ 0.. ..
Woods et al.R was plotted as shown in Fig.( 12.16 : Estimatcd \'aluc\ of Haylcigh wave impedance for .". Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations ... 12."'..P6 L Slllg the data of different tests.33) type Soil Barrier materials 107 f 10 0 C 0 VI 6 Infinitely rigid pile Steel 10 ZI N QJ VI 5 .lao and Sangn:y (1978) used an acoustic modcl employing sound waves in a fluid medium to ..t.:r. 0 10 '.".' .15.. 1978) I.c crI 10 2  >0 Cl: Plasti c foam 1 10 e . u c 10 4 Gravel 0 ens e san d Hard clay Si!t Loose sand Very soft clay Tim ber E '> 0 103  . spacing.R ratio for different vaues ofD/A.lIuak thl' possibility of the use of row of piles as passive isolation barriers.! Void boreho le Fi:!. a nondimensional plot of the isolation effectiveness versus S/A.. 12. and material properties of the soil pile system on the isolation effectiveness They ~'\ '~\'II1~'iLld~d that: . They have studied the effect of dlal1l~.' ">.'arious soils and p:le materials (Liao and Sangrcy.32) :.. Concrete E 0 0 0.'.1nJ SI! <AR .. (1974) recommended that J row of void cylinderical holes may act as an isolation barrier if D 1  AR >6 I 4 .( 12..
.32) and (12.95 =24 x 104 kN/m Natural frequency of the whole system without any isolation will be: .'.5 9.1 Determine the stiffness of the isolator to be kept between a reciprocating machine and the foundation shown in Fig. The weight of the machine is 18 kN.16 gives a general range of the Rayleigh wave impedance (p V R) for various soils and pile materials.34) = Density of pile material Ps = Density of soil medium VRP = Rayleigh wave velocity in pile material. and it produces an unbalanced force of 4.( 12.81 = 44 kNs/m ') Mass of machine = 9~~1 = 1.'~J Vibration Isolation and Screelling 477 (i) The Eqs.0x3.33) proposed by Woods et al (1974) are generally valid.0 kN when operated at a speed of 600 rpm.~l r0 = fA = ~4 1t x 3 = 1. \' RS = Rayleigh wave velocity in soil medium Figure 12..02 mm. (iii) The effectiveness of the barrier is significantly affected by the material of the pile :md void holes. Mass of the foundation block = 24x4.95 m f.35 respectively.. The dynamic shear modulus and Poisson's ratio of the soil are 2 x 104 kN/m2 and '0. Acoustically soft piles (IR < 1) are more efficient than acoustically hard piles (IR > 1).. (iv) Two rows of barriers are more effective than single row barriers.83 kNs2/111 Stiffness of the soil. Pp Pp VRP Ps VRS . (12. (ii) Sn = 0.35 x 1. jILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES' Example 12. IR is impedance ratio which is defined as IR = where. K== 4 G ro 1. . Solution: 1.83 = 55.4 ARmay be the upper limit for a barrier to have some effectiveness.83 kNs2/m Total mass of machine and foundation = 44 + 1. 4 K = 4x2xl0 = 10.!Z..17 to bring the vibration amplitude to less than 0. 12.0x1.
1) ~ CD n.0 rad/s 2 Ttx 550 CD= 60 = 57.\.0 57.6 rad!s (A ) . ~ m   4 24 X 10 1 55..9¨ 10501=0.83 = 65.5m ///. 55.478 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundation Machine Weight = 18kN T 1.0m ~ 4.\ Foundation blo c k /\\ 1 r 4.0 m Section ~ 3.0790101 .oo) =07.6.0 m Plan Fig.0 m(oo//.17: Machinefoundation system (Example 12. 12.) 4. max Fa 2 2 2 .83(65.
0 .7. 11/2 = 1.83 = 0.13 2 2 2 a2 )J or (jJ a~ = 0.) al +az aj ai ( ) ~ A = = . 0.02 mm.22) 11 = a~ (l+/I.2310) 10 m Force in the isolator = Ko' An "'1./11 = 1111 From Eq.0416) (1.5.. It gives (011(1 = 0.131) [1. 3.'nz AZI  0.02 = 0.18kt' = lAD x 103 x 8.(4.83 x 57.0416 44 /1..2310 i.0 rad/s 1/ 11= Az . Ko = 1112 A = (jJ 2 Il{/ = 1.m)(a~l) [l(1llm) (al +a2 al 2 2 2 2 a2 )J 2 or '"' 0. Let the isolator be having stiffness Kz. Adopting the two degrees freedom system as shown in Fig. 2.1][2mee(O2] 2 2 1 1 2 1112(0[ 1(l+1l".13 0.e..k53 2 .1.e.481 x 57.= 1.40 1 x 10 kN/m 3 Z2 [(l+llm)a~+Il". a2(1+0.6~ x 1(1+0.13..(1 + 0.83 x 27.+0.0. a2 = 0.0416xO. = 0. (12.8.5 x 10~kN 110 .253 Cl)n: = 65.23101.7 rad's .83kNs Im 2 11/1 = 44 kNs Im 4 Kl = K: = 24 x 10 kN/m (0 2 .0) ~ 1 1.5 [(1+0.l32+0.a.= 65. Hece isolator is required between machine and foundation.23101.0416)x1.13 57.Vibratioll Isolatioll alld Screellillg 479 The amplitude is greater than the permissible amplitude i.6 = 27.0 = 1.13 + a2 1.079 a I = .481 (j) 11i!.481..0416) (1. 12.0416)(1.
2 kNs2/m J Fi~.18. Use the data given in example 12.2) == 1.0 rn ~ 1//2 ~ = 31.13 1) 0.0 m high is rigidly connected Isolators are placed between this block and base slab as shown in Fig.1. x 44 = 14.2 2 12 1111/ = t4. 12.18: :\Iachinefoundation isolator system (Example 12. (12.18 kN.253 = 2 2 221. Solution: (i) Let the foundation block of size 4.12)(1.13 '+a2 1.7 kNs/m 2 = 24 x 10 kNs fm (j)n:: = 65.0 rad/s Kl 11 = 0.7 = .13 ([2)] [ 1(1+2.22).83 + }x 44 4 I 111 ( == 3" .2 Determine the stiffness of the isolation system if it is placed between the foundation block and base slab as shown in Fig.0 m x 1.0 rn T Foundation block i Isolator O. ( .40 x 103kN/m and allowable compressive 'load more than 1.480 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations A suitable isolation system may be selected which has total stiffness of 1. Machine 1. Then with machine.Srn T L Base slab 4. 2 2 a2 (1+2.3.253 al = 1. Example 12. 12.13 31.0 m x 3. 12.12) From eq.
. Wave length AI{ == .13 x 0..835 O)na = 0. "~.:.52.2 x 10 kN/m (ii) [0+2.12 x 0.835 x 57.4 ==5.5)=4. R = 4. OperatIng frequency. "'..13 2 2' +0.33 x 8.. .An = .3 It is planned to install a compressor having operating speed of 1000 rpm at a distance of 50m from a precision machine.0m distance from the source (Fig.02..<.19 a). 31.02.". it can be concluded that the stiffness of the isolator and force on it depends significantly on the location of the isolator. AT = 25 4. H = 1.24 x 10.6 AI{ = 0. Example 12.WA. Depth of the trench for passive isolation is given by .522. It gives (J)na = 0.52 (O. 1000 f = 60 = 16.~..2 x 48 = 7.1..2 kN On comparing with the results of example 12.. Ka = 11120)2 na =31.. 140 == 16.K.!~".7 ==8. Suggest a suitable open trench barrier to provide effective vibration isolation.e.6." '."'ti'~:.697~1. R .697) ] = 103514[2..835.:. The velocity of shear waves at the site was found as 140 mIs.6 x 8.2 m Let the trench is provided at a distance of 12 m from the precision machine.132 +2..33 AR= 1.5 = 5.04 m A partial ci~cle trench with e = 120° may be located at 4.7 Hz Rayleigh wave velocity VR may be taken approximately equal to shear wave velocity i. AR 84 . 12.0 AR R For .4 m Depth of the trench for active screening is given by H Passive screening ==0.:. . a2 = 0.697 1]4.e. + 7.<~Atj.7. E "1I bratioll Isolation alld Screellillg 481 or ai = 0.2 x 104 x 7. as lies between 2 and 7)..". =.26 ').(5012) = 4. Solution: Active screening .697 i.12) x 1.38] = ..2 ..12) 17.6 = 48 rad/s 0) 2 4 Hence.0 .4 = 11.24 x 105m Force in the isolator = Ka A.85 r (1..'}. 140 m/so V Therefore.0(6.==7.Ll(1+2.' ">:!'.2 x 57.'.' .
Civ. D. Geotech. . Vib. Earthquake Eng. London. V. (1978). S. Butterworth. Am. 104. (19621 "Dynamics of bases and foundations". M. dharan. (1968). A. 11391152. I 50m I 120 0 Tre .951979. New York. (1981)." Iling. "Isolation of machine foundations by barriers". J.. . 12. Geotech. "Use of piles as isolation barriers".. Engg. Am. J. "Efficiency of trenches in isolating structures against vibration". St.Soil Dynamics & Machille Foulldations 4. (GT9). (SM4). Ci\'.Div. A.8 m say 27 m and precision machine is shown in Fig. (1966). and Parthasarathy. D./ . The layout of trench with respect to compressor Precision machine Precision machine T 12n Tren ch ) I 27m { 38m.Found. Eng..0. Eng. Clv. Proc. D.4 Length of trench = 2 11.279282. Proc. . and Sangrey. .2 = 26.19b. Soc. Eng. H. "Screeningof surfacewaves in soils". D.. Louis..Layout of trench with respect to compressor and precision machine Co m pre ssor Passive isolation . Soc. 94. J. Nagendra. 1nL Conf./ eññ£³ Compre ssor (a) Active isolation (b) 12. Soil Mech. Symp. T. Recent Ad\'. R. McGraw Hill. Div.26 x 8.19. ' ~FERENCES "kan. Vot. lads. 1.
Jr. Later on it was planned to place a precision machine at a distance of 60 m from it. Symp. 275284. E. Assume suitably any data not given. The operating speed of the machine is 800 rpm. and Richart. 6. NM. . lds. Explain the difference between "Active screening" and "Passive screening". "Screening of elastic waves by trenches". The dynamic shear modulus 'of the soil is 2. Div. R. (1974). R. Starting from fundamentals. Prop. 12311247.. Barnett. E. derive the expression for the efficiency of isolation system. Design open trench barrier to provide effective vibration screening for the cases of (a) active and (b) passive screening. 3.. PRACTICE PROBLEMS !... "Holography . Civ.'atio" Iso/atio" a"d Scree"i"g )ds.025 mm. Albuquerque. The weight of the machine is 25 kN and it produces a sinusoidally varying unbalanced force of 4kN in the vertical direction. It was felt necessary to protect this precision machine from any damaging vibration caused by the compressor. D. Eng. 483 (1967). Geotech. A compressor having an operating speed of 1300 rpm was installed in an industrial unit. Explain the difference between 'force isolation' and 'motion isolation'. Sketch a suitable system for 'force isolation'. Earth Mater. Int. D. 4. 2. F. Give the salient features of passive screening by use of pile barriers. R. Wave Propag. Represent it by a mathematical model and then give the procedure of getting the stiffness of the isolator. Design a suitable isolation system for keeping the amplitude of the foundation of a reciprocating machine less than 0.. Am. Give the procedure of designing the open trench barrier in both the cases. Proc. lOO. Soc. Dyn.5 x 104kN/m2. 1. and Sagessor. 5. (GTI1). DD .A new tool for soil dynamics". N. The velocity of shear waves was found as 160 m/s.1.
151 D Damping: ' critical. 14 Displacement analysis of retaining wall.SUBJECT INDEX F f A Amplitude of motion. 100 E Earthquake: epit:enter. 210 in pure translation. 238 Dynamic earth pressure. 200 point of application. 363. 383. Degrees of freedom. 324 Culmann's construction: modified. 354. 3 . 133 f f J B Bandwidth method. 362. 354. 15 Amplitude method. 395 vertical vibrations. 352 rocking. 286. 187 effect of submergence. 296 torsional shear test. vibrations. 396 rocking and sliding vibrations. 189 for c<!> soils. 394 embedded. 238 dynamic analysis. field. 394 yawing vibrations. 118. 190 effect of uniform surcharge. 357 uniform compreSSion. 359. 205 . 57 Bearing capacity of footings. 193 MononobeOkabe's theory. 96. 354. 386 Blockresonance test: horizontal. 118. 379. 354. factor. 354. 154 vertical. ratio. 356 CrItical distance.356 nonuniform shear. 241 Blasting tests. 6 focus. 187 effect of saturation. 201 using Saran et al model. 252 pseudostatic analysis. 131. 200 pseudostatic methods. 279 simple shear test. 360. 214 Dynamic bearing capacity. 358.using Richard Elms model. 20 I in pure rotation. 389. 352 effect of shape on response. 454 Antiliquefaction measures. 238 c CodTicienr of clastic: nonllniform col11pn. 397 sliding vibrations.:ssion. 314 Block foundations: degree of freedom.354 uniform shear. 286 triaxial compression test. 353 modes of vibration. 191 Cyclic: mobility. 128. 3 equivalent dynamic load. 370. 394 method of analysis.98. 118. 238 factors.
'Pt time. 306 Resonance method. 249 ncy: Ircing. 394 485 M Machines types. 450 amplitude method of analysis.97. 347 sS : :aring capacity. 240 )rizontal displacement. 454 combined method of analysis. 238 :neralised bearing capacity equation.'ct Index :ensity. 314 . 344 rotary. 15. 30 Rotary machines design criteria. 370 ded block foundation. 319 litial. 348 Phase Jag. 323 eld tests for. 35 N ysical prospecting. 283 lechanism. 279 Iboratory studies. 15 isolation. 15 Permissible amplitudes. 340 reciprocating. v'namic analysis. 30 I . 5 constants. 15 ltural. 15 permissible amplitudes of. 16 R spring method. 93 Natural frequency. 348 MononobeOkabe's theory. 68 constants. 279 Ictors affecting. 68 halfspace method. 281 :andard curves and correlatIOns. 340 impact. harmonic.om standard penetration tests. 187 Motion amplitude of. 16 Phase lead. 249 t. 460 resonance method of analysis. 446 three dimensional analysis of. 15 p t machine foundations. %. 340 criteria for satisfactory action. 119 Rotating mass type excitation. 459 . 249 ttlement.279 one of. 15 periodic. 4 19nitude. ~sign procedure. 118. 354 'action. 345 Machine foundations categories of.:rr11lnology. 445 loads on. 450 Resonant column test. 432 426 100 421 Periodic motion.
79 fixedfree. 147. ~ 1 ~ . 39 Vibrations of rod end conditions. 76 of finite length. 86 in elastic rods. 9\ shear. 108 head. 147. 35 measuring instruments. 72 s Sc\eening of waves. 19 v Vibration absorber..:""""""""." . \ ~ k~. 9 refraction. 94. 95 Rayleigh. 76 torsional. Time period. 75. 148 downhole survey. 70. 163.47 z Zone of liquefaction. 74 fixedfixed." .. 78 freefree. 74.486 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations fiee. 70 longitudinal. 32 motion.40.43 isolation.165. 286..'. 108 u Ultrasonic pulse test. 84. 147.126 Lndamped free vibration."""". 118. 81 Waves compressIon. 469 Seismic: coefficients. 38. 306 ODD if:" . 38 velocity pick up. 32 force.~ :. 70 torsional. IS Transient tests 13 w Wave propagation in elastic half space. 48 forced.. 19. :.. 25. 83. 151 uphole survey._":~". ISO forces. 400 Standard penetration test.\. 147.42. 76 longitudinal. _'M _. ~ '""~"':~"':'""~'l ".c . 80 of infinite length.:.. I J " ' ~L. 72. 67 T Theory of vibrations. 309 Shear modulus. 9 crossborehole survey. . 9 zones. 36 acceleratioI" pickup. .150 Shake table tests. 76. 159 Strain.171 Soil mass participation in vibration.22.. 80 in infinite medium..39 displacement pickup. . .~.