# Heat sink analysis using COMSOL Solver.

(A tutorial guide)

Kaleeswaran.B
M.Tech (CFD); Dept. of Aerospace. University of Petroleum Energy Studies Dehradun, India kaleesmach@gmail.com
Abstract—In this paper COMSOL multiphysics analysis of heat sink in an aluminum material is shown. Various steps involved in it are explained and diagrammatic version of it is also explained. Keywords: COMSOL, Multiphysics,

II.ABOUT THE MODEL. The cooling ability of the heat sink is determined by the power required to keep the base of the surface at a constant temperature. The model solves the concept of thermal balance.Actually,the thermal energy is transported through the conduction, convection in the heat aluminum sinks. The temperature field is made continuous throughout the model. The temperature is set at the inlet of the channel and at the base of the heat sink. The layer can also be sliced to view the model in layers.. In such case, you have to define a heat transfer coefficient for the adhesive layer and then set the temperature at the heater side of the layer. The transport of thermal energy at the outlet is dominated by convection. The flow conditions are solved by taking momentum and mass conservation equations. The flow field is obtained by solving one momentum balance for each space coordinate ( x, y, and z) and a mass balance. The inlet velocity is defined by a parabolic velocity profile for fully developed laminar flow. At the outlet, a constant pressure is combined the assumption that there are no viscous stresses in the direction perpendicular to the outlet. At all solid surfaces, the velocity is set to zero in all three spatial directions. The thermal conductivity of aluminum, the thermal conductivity of air, the heat capacity of air, and the air density are all temperature-dependent material properties. III.PROCESS/METHODS i. First step involves click on MODEL WIZARD. In model wizard click add physics tree> click on the Heat transfer>conjugate heat transfer>laminar flow (nitf).In the studies click preset studies>stationery>OK (finish). Second step click on the GLOBAL DEFINITIONS. The global definitions are located in the model builder window. GLOBAL DEFINITIONS > click on the SETTINGS in the parameter window and enter the following settings;

I. INTRODUCTION. In COMSOL multiphysics analysis involves three steps; 1. Sequencing – the methods done are saved in a step wise tree method. Thus, during every part of the training the step can be viewed and can be changed if on wishes. 2. Selection of materials: in this the material one wishes to add, could be added and its properties could be studied. 3. Use of selections: to define the boundaries, initial conditions and other steps of the modeling process. The modeled system consists of an aluminum heat sink for cooling of components in electronic circuits mounted inside a channel of rectangular cross section. Such a set-up is used in order to measure the cooling capacity of heat sinks. Air enters the channel at the inlet and exits the channel at the outlet. The base surface of the heat sink is kept at a constant temperature through an external heat source. All other external faces are thermally insulated.

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Figure1: Model of the heat sink with the boundaries.

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VII.no 1 2 3 4 Name L channel W channel UO H channel Expression 7 3 5 1. Position section of the rectangle along X axis = 4. right-click Model 1>Materials and choose Open Material Browser. Width of the rectangle = L channel. right-click Model 1>Conjugate Heat Transfer and choose Fluid. Go to settings window> browse and click import HEAT SINK model and click on the build selected button. In the table. select Built-In>Air. Locate the Distances from Work Plane section. Third step involves defining the GEOMETRY.CONJUGATE HEAT TRANSFER: In the Model Builder window. The import model is already a finished CAD model stored in the COMsol setup).5e-02. In the Materials tree. Right click on the model I> GEOMETRY I and IMPORT. Select Domain 1 only. Position section of the rectangle in Y axis = W channel/2.(actually strictly speaking U can use this import facility only when U install the COMSOL setup. In the Model Builder window.Conjugate heat model. IV. Now. Figure: 2. enter the following settings: Enter the Distance as H channel Click the Build Selected button. right-click Work Plane and choose Extrude.Model selected with domain as air.Global settings parameters iii.Use Aluminum AH 3003-H18. Air By default. Right-click and choose Add Material to Model from the menu. right click on the Geometry I and then click WORKPLANE I. Figure:3. Right-click Extrude and choose Go to Default 3D View. under the work plane I > click on the geometry and then click RECTANGLE. In this example. VI. go to settings window for rectangle.S.5 Description Channel length Channel width Inlet velocity Channel height Table: 1. specify aluminum for Domain 2. MATERIALS: In the Model Builder window.Model selected with inner domain aluminum V. 2 . Figure :4. the first material you add applies to all domains. Typically. you can leave this setting and add other materials that override the default material where applicable. locate the Materials section. Now. Go to the Material Browser window. Now. Height of the rectangle = W channel. Go to the Settings window for Extrude.

select walls. Select Boundary 115 only. click Replace Expression. Create a selection to use for defining a data set in the Results branch. From the Selection list. In the T0 edit field.1. Locate the Geometric Scope section. 2. Go to the Settings window for Size. IX. Go to the Settings window for Inlet. in the Model Builder window. select Boundary. Locate the Boundary Condition section. Locate the Coloring and Style section. type U0. In the Model Builder window. right-click Mesh 1>Free Tetrahedral 1 and choose Size.Inlet condition chosen model 3. Select Boundary 1 only. type 393. right-click Conjugate Heat Transfer and choose Laminar Flow>Inlet. From the Predefined list. Go to the Settings window for Selection. Figure: 5. From the Geometric entity level list. In the Model Builder window. Select Boundary 115 only.Fine tetrahedral mesh 3. In the Model Builder window. In the U (average velocity) field edit field. right-click Study and choose Compute. right-click Results>Data Sets>Solution and choose Add Selection. right-click Conjugate Heat Transfer and choose Heat Transfer>Outflow. X. Select Boundary 1 only. Go to the Settings window for Temperature. In the Model Builder window. In the Model Builder window. 4. right-click 3D Plot Group 1 and choose Arrow Volume. Locate the Temperature section. Data Sets. 3. Study Definitions: 1. In the Model Builder window. In the Model Builder window. 2. select Domain. select Boundary. 3 . right-click Conjugate Heat Transfer and choose Heat Transfer>Temperature. In the Model Builder window. 7. In the Model Builder window. In the Model Builder window. Select Domains 1 only. Select Boundary 8 only. select Finer. 8. Locate the Geometric Scope section. 4. Go to the Settings window for Selection. Go to the Settings window for Arrow Volume.15 K. 2.In the Model Builder window. Figure :6.Go to the Settings window for Surface. In the upper-right corner of the Expression section. 2. select Thermal. VII. From the Boundary condition list. 5 Locate the Element Size section. 3. From the Color table list. 5.Select Boundaries 3 and 5–114 only. 3D Plot Group . In the Model Builder window. right-click Model 1>Definitions and choose Selection. Right-click Selection 1 and choose Select Box. right-click Conjugate Heat Transfer and choose Heat Transfer>Temperature. From the Geometric entity level list. From the Geometric entity level list.MESH: 1. 4. Locate the Geometric Scope section. right-click Model 1>Mesh and choose Free Tetrahedral. click Surface . 6. select laminar inflow. right-click Conjugate Heat Transfer and choose Laminar Flow>Outlet. 6 Click the Build All button. right-click Conjugate Heat Transfer and choose Heat Transfer>Temperature.RESULTS: 1.

Zoomed view of the sliced model. w). Find the y grid points subsection. 4 . type 40. choose Conjugate Heat Transfer (Laminar Flow)>Velocity field (u. In the upper-right corner of the Expression section. Locate the Arrow Positioning section. From the menu. In the Points edit field. Figure: 8. In the Points edit field. Figure 9. In the Coordinates edit field. click Replace Expression. choose Conjugate Heat Transfer (Laminar Flow)>Velocity magnitude. Click the Plot button. v. Find the x grid points subsection. type 20. type 5e-3.Heated vector-temp plots over the heat sink 7. Go to the Settings window for Color Expression.5. Right-click Arrow Volume 1 and choose Color Expression. From the menu. This will produce th required vector plots and the much required contour plots of the heat sink model. Figure 10.Top view of the heat sink model. Figure: 7. 6.Zoomed view of the temperature vector plots Figure 11.Sliced model of the temperature plot.

in that a region of circulation occurs near to the model. After the model the heating effect of the air reduces much. A region of high temperature can be seen near to the model.the model really acts as a heat sink 5 . 10 Sliced view models shows that the temperature plots near and far from the models.XI. Figure 9. After crossing the model the temperature of the high velocity air reduces. A zoomed view of the vector plot is also shown. This causes the pressure to reduce and thus reducing the temperature increment also.Thus. It shows that there occurs a region of high temperature before the model and near to the model.CONCLUSION: Figure 7 shows the temperature vector plot of velocity over the model.