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Liquid Phase Microextraction

(A Review)
Hassan Sereshti1, Soheila Samadi
School of Chemistry, University College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. Abstract: Modern trends in analytical chemistry are towards the simplification and miniaturization of sample preparation, as well as the minimization of organic solvent used. In view of this aspect, several novel micro-extraction techniques are being developed in order to reduce the analysis steps, to increase the sample throughput and improving the quality and the sensitivity of analytical methods. One of the emerging techniques in this area is liquid-phase micro-extraction (LPME). It is a miniaturized implementation of conventional liquid/liquid extraction (LLE) in which only a few microliters of solvents are used instead of several hundred milliliters in LLE. The method is quick, inexpensive and can be automated. In the last few years, LPME has been combined with liquid chromatography (LC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE), besides the general way used by coupling to gas chromatography (GC), and has been applied to various matrices, including biological, environmental, and food samples. This work is aimed to provide an overview of the major developments of LPME and other related microextraction methods Keywords: Liqid phase microextraction; Single-drop microextraction; Headspace liqid phase microextraction; Fiber liqid phase microextraction; Microextraction with solvent bar; Ionic liquids; Green chemistry; Carrier mediated liqid phase microextraction.

1 corresponding author: E. mail:

Green Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles under Focus Microwave Irradiation

Shahram Moradi1, Azadeh Madadi2,2
1- Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran. 2- Department of Science and Sea Technology, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran. Abstract: In this study, monodispersed Wurtzite ZnO nanoparticles were prepared using PEG100 and PEG400 as capping molecules under focus microwave irradiation. The morphology and the structure of the nanoparticles were investigated by TEM, SEM, XRD and UV-Vis spectra. The size of the obtained small nanoparticles is 2 to 10 nm. Keywords: ZnO; Nanoparticle; PEG; Ultrasonic.

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The Effect of Cloisite15 Nanoparticles on Marshal Characteristics of the Coating Layer of Asphalt
Amir Abbas Rassafi1,3, Farzad Jabbari1, Mir Mohammad Alavi Nikje2
1- Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, 34149, Iran. 2- Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, 34149, Iran.

Abstract: In this paper, the effect of Cloisite15 nanoparticles to bituminous on marshal characteristics of the asphalt samples of coating layer (with the maximum materials dimension of 1 inch) have been studied and tested. The increase of Cloisite15 nanoparticles caused strength increasing of the asphalt. In the bitumen percent of 5.5, the strengths of the samples with the adhesive material containing 1.5 percent nanoparticles and 98.5 percent bitumen were 18.8 percent more than the strength of the unmodified samples. In addition, the important observation was the void decreasing in the asphalt by increasing the nanoparticles content in the bitumen. The samples with the adhesive materials containing 1.5 percent nanoparticles generally show the best behavior. Keywords: Pavement; Asphalt; Coating layer; Marshal test; Nanotechnology; Nanoparticles; Cloisite15.

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Jacketed Mixer-Reacted Simulation

Nasrolahe majidian4,1, Reza Marandi1, Ghazale Kashefi2
1- Departments of Chemical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran. 2- Department of Chemical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood Branch, Iran.

Abstract: In this study, mechanically agitated tanks with different types of impellers were used to mix fluids with variable viscosities. A jacketed tank was used for heat transfer purposes. The right fluid agent for heat transfer was chosen based on the required temperature inside the reactor. The simulation process for the reactor was carried out by ChemCAD software. The required information such as input material to reactor, specifications of wall reactor, impeller types, jacket and fluids were needed for the simulation. Simultations is presented for the two mixer-reactor with input information and computer results. Keywords: Agitated tank; Impeller; Viscosity; Jacketed tank; ChemCAD software; Simulation.

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Microwave Irradiation-Assisted one-Pot Synthesis of 3, 4 Dihydropyrimidinones Using Strontium Nitrate as a Catalyst

H. Salehi2,5, S. Kakaei12,1, S. J. Ahmadi2, M. A. Firooz Zareh2
1-Departments of Chemistry, Islamic Azad university, North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran. 2- Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Nuclear Science Research School, P.O. Box: 11365-8486, Tehran, Iran. Abstract: This paper describes an improved procedure for an efficient and a facile synthesis of dihydropyrimidinones by the Biginelli reaction of various aldehydes with ethyl acetoacatate and urea or thiourea, in the presence of strontium nitrate as a catalyst. The reaction was performed under solvent free condition with microwave irradiation as a source of energy. The advantages of this novel protocol are: excellent yield, simple operation, short time and avoidance of using organic solvent and friendlypreparation. The products were identified by M.P, IR, NMR and Mass. Keywords: Microwave irradiation; Strontium Nitrate; Biginelli reaction; Multi-component; Dihydropyrimidinones; Solventfree.

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The Effect of Plasticizers on Thermo- Mechanical Properties of Polymeric Coating Film Based on Gluten
Soheila Sedaghat6, Morteza Khosravi, Ali Ranjbar, Farzam Ghamisi.
Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch,Tehran, Iran. Abstract: The edible and a coating film for foods can control mass transport between the components of the product and its surrounding environment. Biodegradable and edible films from wheat proteins are useful in the food packaging and further they are flexible, strong, heat sealable, and relatively transparent. The quantity of the gluten strength and quantity/type of a plasticizer is important to obtain films with more adequate mechanical characteristics. An increase in the plasticizing content leads to a decrease in mechanical resistance and an increase the distensibility of the films. We prepared edible films based on gluten of endemic spe cies of wheat (two types of Iranian wheat; triticum aestivum and winter wheat or sabalan). The physio-chemical properties of these films such as mechanical strength, thermal analysis, water vapor permeability, thickness, solubility in water and surface morphology were compared with those of the film by vital gluten. The film from bezostaia wheat flour with 0.3 percent sorbitol and 0.7 percent glycerol as plasticizers mixture showed suitable physio-chemical properties Keywords: Wheat gluten; Tensile strength; Solubility; WVP; Glass transition.

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Measurment and Study Effect Pollution Zincoxide Metal to Arise of Used Rubber in Environment
farsa Fotohi, Mona Farahani7
Rubber Industries Engineering & Reserch CO., NO. 62, Bagherkhan Gharbi St. Tehran, Iran. Abstract: Planets can save zinc in vascular issues during absorb from soil so zinc will be release in human food cyclic. Maximum level of zinc in soil is not more than 2 mg/m3 at last. Research shows: in different ages groups, approved amount of zinc in body human, to provide various ways as follow: Men (15 mg/day), women (12 mg/day), children (10 mg/day), new born (5 mg/day). Now, little amount of scraged rubber and tires be recycled in our country which most of them are buried in under suburb soil. Available zinc in used rubber mentioned above can make pollution effects in soil and under ground water. In this article we try to study about the effects of released zinc by used rubber on soil, water and agriculture products, edible plants. Keywords: Zn; Pollution soil; Wastes rubber; Environment; Production agriculture.

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Techniques for Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates(A Review)

Ali Abbasiana8,1, Tayebe Molavib2
1- Department of Polymer, Engineering College, Research & Science Campus, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. 2- Department of Polymer, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran. Abstract: The importance of biodegradable polymers especially polyhydroxyalkanoates, encourage various scientific researchers and industrial institutes to use industrial or semi-industrial production of these polymers. Among Polyhydroxyalkanoates, Polyhydroxybutyrate and Polyhydroxy (butyrate-co-valerate) are the main polymers that have been produced in an industrial scale. Now there are so many efforts to find efficient production ways that can result acceptable polymers with a reasonable costs. The improving techniques of growing and accumulating of reserving polymers in various bacteria and also the efficient ways for extraction and the economic production of them are in the canonical focus of many researchers. Keywords: Polyhydroxyalkanoates; Fermentation; Microbial production; Structure.

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