You are on page 1of 19


Ratna Philip, Principal PRESENTED BY: Mrs. Udaya Sree.G, M.Sc. (N) II year HUMAN RESOURCE FOR HEALTH DATE: TIME:


Introduction Human resource management is the process of acquiring and retaining the organization's human resource. Acquisition of human resource includes human resource planning, recruitment, selection and orientation. Retention activities include performance appraisal, placement, training and development, discipline and corrective counseling, compensation and benefit.

STAFFING Introduction Staffing is an orderly systematic process based upon sound rationale applied to determine the number and kind of nursing personnel required to provide nursing care of predetermined standard to group of patients in particular setting. Too few or an improper mixture of nursing personnel will adversely affect the quality and quantity of work performed. Such situation can lead to high rates of absenteeism and staffs turn-over resulting in low morale and dissatisfaction.

Definition Staffing is the process of determining and providing the acceptable number and mix of nursing personnel to produce a desired level of care to meet the patients demand.

Purpose The purpose of all staffing activities is to provide each nursing unit with an appropriate and acceptable number of workers in each category to perform the nursing tasks required.

Factors Affecting Staffing 1. The type, philosophy, objectives of the hospital and the nursing service. 2. The population served or kind of patients served whether pay or charity. 3. the number of patients and severity of their illness-knowledge and ability of nursing personnel are matched with the actual care needs of patients 4. Availability and characteristics of the nursing staff, including education, level of preparation, mix of personnel, number and position. 5. Administrative policies such as rotation, weekends, and holiday off-duties. 6. Standards of care desired which should be available and clearly spelled out. 7. Layout of various nursing units and resources available within the department such as adequate equipment, supplies, and materials 8. Budget including the amount allotted to salaries, fringe benefits, supplies, materials and equipment 9. Professional activities and priorities in non patient activities like involvement professional organizations, formal educational development, participation in research and staff development. 10. Teaching program or the extent of staff involvement in teaching activities.

11. Expected hours of work per annum of each employee. This is influenced by 40 hour week law.

Philosophy of staffing in nursing Nurse administrators believe that it is possible to match employees knowledge and skills to patient care needs in a manner that optimizes job satisfaction and care quality. Nurse administrators believe that the technical and humanistic care needs of critically ill patients are so complex that all aspects of that care should be provided by the professional nurses.

Nurse administrators believe that the health teaching and rehabilitation needs of chronically ill patients should be provided by professional and technical nurses. Nurse administrators believe that patient assessment, work quantification and job analysis should be used to determine the number of personnel in each category to be assigned to care for each type. Nurse administrator believes that a master staffing plan and policies to implement the plan in all units should be developed centrally by the nursing heads and staff of the hospital. Objectives of staffing in nursing 1. Provide an all professional nurse staff in critical care units, operating rooms, labour and delivery unit and emergency room. 2. Provide sufficient staff to permit a 1:1 nurse- patient ratio for each shift in every critical care unit. 3. Staff the general medical, surgical, obstetrical, and gynecology, pediatric, psychiatry, units to achieve a 2:1 professional nurse ratio. 4. Provide sufficient nursing staff in general medical, surgical, obstetrical, and gynecology, pediatric, psychiatry units to permit a 1:5 nurse- patient ratio on a day and afternoon shifts and 1:10 nurse- patient ratio on night time. 5. Involve the heads of the nursing staff and all nursing personnel in designing the departments overall staffing programme. 6. Design a staffing plan that specifies how many nursing personnel in each classification will be assigned to each nursing unit for each shift and how vacation and holiday time will be requested and scheduled. 7. Post time schedules for all personnel at at least eight weeks in advance. 8. empower the head nurse to adjust work schedules for unit nursing personnel to remedy any staff excess or deficiency caused by census fluctuation or employee absence. 9. Reward employees for long term service by granting individuals special time requests on the basis of seniority. 10. Inform each nursing employee that requests for specific vacation or holiday time will be honoured within the limits imposed by patients care and labour contract requirements.

The function of staffing Staffing is a function of management. It has got other sub functions which help in better managing people in the organization. They are Manpower planning. Recruitment Selection. Training and development. Transfer and promotions. Performance appraisal. Organization development.

Elements of staffing Staffing or human resource process consists of a series of steps which are given below: 1. Procurement: Employment of proper number and personnel is the first function of staffing. This involves: a) Manpower planning. b) Recruitment. c) Selection. d) Placement Manpower planning is the process of determining current and future manpower needs in terms of the number and quality of personnel. Recruitment implies locating sources of acceptable candidates. Selection involves choice of right type of people from the available candidates. Placement means assigning specific jobs in the selected candidates.

2. Development: After placing the individuals on various jobs, it is necessary to train them so that they can perform their job efficiently. Proper development of personnel is essential to increase their skill in the proper development of personnel is essential to increase their skill in the performance of their jobs.

Development involves orientation, training, and counseling of personnel. Development means preparing the employees for additional responsibility or advancement. 3. Compensation: compensating personnel for their contributions to the organizational goals. Compensation involves job evaluation, performance appraisal, and promotion. Job evaluation is the process of determining the relative worth of different jobs in the organization. Performance appraisal involves evaluating the employees performance in the relation to certain standards. Promotions, transfer are other elements of the reward system.

4. Integration: Sound communication system is required to develop harmony and team spirit among employees. It is essential to motivate employees towards the accomplishment of organizational goals. Discipline and labour relations are important elements of integration.

5. Maintenance: It involves provision of such facilities and services that are required to maintain the physical and mental health of employees. These include measures of health, safety, and comfort of employees. Various welfare services may consist of provision of cafeteria, restrooms, counseling, recreation club etc.

Staffing process Staffing is logical operation that consists of several independent actions: Identify the type and amount of nursing care needed by the patient. Determine personnel categories that have the knowledge and skills to perform needs. Predicting the number of personnel in each job category that will be needed to meet anticipated care demands. Obtaining budgeted positions for the number in each job category needed to care for the expected type and number of patients. Recruiting personnel to fill available applicants. Selecting and appointing personnel from available applications. Orienting personnel to fulfill assigned responsibilities.

RECRUITMENT Introduction One of the important responsibilities of the personnel department in a hospital is to recruit and select the right persons for the right jobs. Recruitment, selection and induction are crucial complex and continuing functions of the personnel department. Every organization should pay maximum attention to evolve attractive staffing polices. Recruitment is the first step in the process of filling a vacancy. Recruitment is a process of searching for prospective employee. The purpose of recruitment to provide a pool of potentially qualified job candidates.

DEFINITIONS Recruitment is a process of securing applications to fill vacant positions. It covers both the filling of new and replacement of previously established posts which fall vacant. Recruitment is a process to discover the source of manpower, to meet the requirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures, attracting the manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient working force. -Acc to Yoder

According to Edwin B.Flippo, recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. Recruitment is a process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment.

PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE OF RECRUITMENT Determine the present and future requirements of the organization in conjunction with personnel planning and job analysis activities. Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost Helps to increase the success rate of the selection process by reducing the number of visibly under qualified or over qualified job applicants. Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates

Increase organizational and individual effectiveness in the short term and long term. Evaluate the effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and sources for all types of job applicant.

FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT Recruitment differs according to: Size of the organization Employment condition in the community Effect of past recruitment efforts Working conditions salary and other benefits Rate of growth of organization Cultural, economical and legal aspects

RECRUITMENT POLICY It has been accepted that there is need for a sound recruitment policy, because faculty recruitment policy inflicts a permanent weakness upon the administration the latter virtually becomes a heaven for dull and incompetent. The basic elements of sound recruitment policy should include the following:Discovery and cultivation of the employment market for posts/marketing a job in the public/private services. Use of attractive recruitment literature and publicity Use of scientific tests for determining abilities of the candidates Tapping capable candidates from within the service

PLANNING FOR RECRUITMENT The shortage of nurses highlighted the need for health agencies to actively market nursing positions to available applicants. Marketing encompasses four concepts i.e. product, place, promotion and price. To market employment to professional nurses, the recruiter should describe the product as

a nursing position with opportunity for personal adventure, professional enrichment and social expansion that can be shaped to satisfy an incumbents needs and showcase her or his abilities. In addressing place the agency and the nursing unit should be described as settings for high quality care of selected types of patient and enriching professional experience for nurses of the applicants description. In planning promotion of the job to applicants the recruiter must decide who can most persuasively convey what facts about the job and when and how this information should be transmitted to attract the highest quality candidates. In marketing job, the price factor should include present salary, insurance benefits, in-service education opportunities, pension or retirement provisions and promotional opportunities.

RECRUITMENT PROCESS It involves a systematic procedure from sourcing the candidates to arranging and conducting the interviews and requires many resources and time. A general recruitment process is as follows:a) Identifying vacancy:- The recruitment process begins with the human resource department receiving requisitions for recruitment from any department of the company. These contain: Posts to be filled Number of persons Duties to be performed Qualification required b) Preparing the job description and person specification. c) Locating and developing the source of required number and type of employees (Advertising) etc. d) Short listing and identifying characteristics the prospective employee with required

e) Arranging the interviews with the selected candidates. f) Conducting the interview and decision making.

RECRUITMENT METHODS Health agencies use multiple methods to recruit needed employees as follows: A) ADEVERTISING: - By giving advertisements in newspapers local, regional, national and international levels and also journal advertisements. The advertisement should be designed in such way that it arouses the interest of potential candidate. The media of advertisements should be selected carefully. It is always better inserted in a newspaper or journal.

B) CAREER_ DAY PROGRAMME:- In some places nursing schools and colleges hold, annual career day programmes during which recruiting officers from local health agencies inform senior students about employment opportunities in those organizations.

C) OPEN HOUSE:- It is showcase of the opening of a new service or education programme. If health agency is well organized and their setting will be attractive to idealistic, service-oriented nurses. Invitation to an open house may be sent to individual nurses, groups of specialty nurses, professional organization final year student nurses and aluminizes of schools/colleges to attend open house for recruitment.

D) EMPLOYEE REFERRALS:- Is the method in which the present staff recruit their nurse-acquaintances i.e. recruiter who wishes to fill positions in a particular nursing unit should ask employees in the unit to recruit nurses with whom they have worked comfortably on other settings. After calling for an application for the positions, through notifications or advertising or any method, the recruiter receives applications from applicants. When recruitment activities are unusually effective, several candidates may apply for a single position. Next step is to screening of applications for short listing through scrutinizing applications. Next step is calling for applicants to appear for interview, by fixing the date, time, and venue etc.

E) SELECTION:- Personal selection is the process of choosing from several candidates the one to be employed in particular positions. Actually the selection process starts when applications are received and screened in the personal department.

The steps which constitute the employee selection process are the following: Interview by personal department Pre- employment tests Interview by department head. Decision of administrator to accept or reject. Medical examination Check for references Issue of appointment order

F) INTERVIEW:- Interviewing is the main of appraising an applicants suitability for a post. The main objectives of interview are: For the employer to obtain all the information about the candidate to decide about his suitability for the post. To give the candidate a complete picture of the job as well as of the organization and To demonstrate fairness to all candidates.

Pre employment interviewing:Interviewing a job applicant is a time- consuming activity. To obtain the necessary information from the applicant, the interviewer must employ high quality interviewing skills. The following interviewing principles should guard the pre-employment interview : a) Create and maintain/offer comfortable environment throughout interview to ensure minimal physical and psychological stress. b) Conduct the interview according to a preplanned outline. It is better more from general to personal issues c) Explore the applicants background and future plans before describing the available position. It is better to follow with description of job. d) Encourage the applicants to talk freely by asking non directive, open ended questions. Encourage questions by applicants.

e) Listen actively and talk sparingly while the applicant describes her or his background and future plans to facilitate self revelation by applicant. f) Identify and describe both positive and negative aspects of job in detail and create realistic expectations. g) Conclude interview by outlining further signs in selection process.

PRE EMPLOYMENT TESTS:For certain categories of posts, there is a need for testing the professional competence of the candidates, because there are several characteristics which cannot be properly assessed either during interview or investigating back groups.

These tests include Tests in general ability-Intelligence tests Tests in specific ability-Aptitude test Tests for achievement-Trade tests Personality tests

After conducting pre employment interview and pre employment tests, selection decisions are made with an eye towards satisfying specific organizational goals. In making a selection decision, the manager must pay close attention to the candidates present abilities and interests on the other hand, placement is the process of choosing, from several positions, to one best suited for a particular candidate, and placement decisions are made with an eye to satisfying specific employee goals.

SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT Every organization has the option of choosing the candidates for its recruitment process from two kinds of sources: internal and external sources. The sources within the organization itself (like transfer of employees from one department to other. Promotions) to fill a position are known as the internal sources of recruitment. Recruitment candidates from all the other sources (like outsourcing agencies etc.) are known as the external sources of the recruitment.

Sources of recruitment



INTERNAL SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT 1. Transfers: The employee transferred from on e department to another according to their efficiency and experience.

2. Promotions: The employees are promoted from one department to another with more benefits and greater responsibility based on efficiency and experience. Others are upgrading and demotion of present employees according to their performance.

3. Retired and retrenched employees: may also be recruited once again in case of shortage of qualified personnel or increase in load of work, recruit such people save time and costs of the organizations as the people are already aware of the organizational culture and the policies and procedures. The dependents and relatives of deceased employees and disabled employees are also done by many companies so that the members of the family do not become dependent on the mercy of others.

EXTERNAL SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT: 1. PRESS ADVERTISEMENTS: Advertisements of the vacancy in news papers and journal are widely used source of recruitment. The main advantage of this method is that it has a wide research.

2. EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTES: Various managerial institutes, engineering colleges, medical colleges etc. are a good source of recruiting well qualified executive, engineers, medical staff etc. They provide facilities for campus interviews and placements. This source is known as Campus recruitment.

3. PLACEMENT AGENCIES: Several private consultancy firms perform recruitment functions on behalf of client companies by charging a fee. These agencies are particularly suitable for recruitment of executives and specialists. It is also known as RPO (Recruitment Process Outsourcing).

4. EMPLOYMENT EXCHANGES: Government establishes public employment exchanges throughout the country. These exchanges provide job information to job seekers and help employers in identifying suitable candidates.

5. LABOUR CONTRACTERS: Manual workers can be recruited through contractors who maintain close contacts with the sources of such workers. This source is used to recruit labour for construction jobs.

6. EMPLOYEE REFERRALS / RECOMMENDATIONS: Many organizations have structured system where the current employees of the organization can refer their friends and relatives for some position in their organization. Recruitment management can inquire these leaders for suitable jobs .In some organization these are formal agreements to give priority in recruitment to the candidates recommended by the trade union.

7. RECRUITMENT AT FACTORY GATE: Unskilled workers may be recruited at the factory gate these may be employed whenever a permanent worker is absent. More efficient among these may be recruited to fill permanent vacancies.

APPOINTMENT In some hospitals, the selection committee consists of one person from the personnel department, the department heads and one representative of the head of the hospital. After interviewing all candidates the selection committee submits its recommendations for approval to the head of the hospital who is generally the hiring and firing authority.

Medical examination: - The selection of the right type of employee requires a thorough knowledge of his physical capacities and handicaps. No employee should be placed on the job unless he has been declared medically fit.

ORIENTATION Orientation is the process of acquiring a new worker with the work environment so that she or he can relate quickly and effectively to new surroundings. The purpose of orientation is to make the new employee feel wanted and needed by co-workers and supervisors and to convince the employee that her or his presence is important to achievement of (health) agency goals. The preliminary aspect of orientation is indoctrination or induction training. Induction training includes introduction to rules, regulations, policies and procedures that apply to all agency employees. Indoctrination begins with an explanation of agencys history, purpose, and structure and is followed by information about conditions of employment, workers identification, working hours, holiday time, vacation allowance, sick time, position classification, performance standards, performance evaluation, pay days, parking facilities, eating facilities health services, laundry service and educational opportunities.

PROBATION During probation period, a close watch should be kept on the employee. If a new employee is properly groomed by his immediate supervisor and head of the department, he will prove to be an asset for the organization. The probationary report should be given by department head, 15 days prior to the completion of probation period, which should be just and fair.

SELECTION Once the organizations recruitment activities have succeeded in attracting sufficient number of relevant applicants from the external labour market the aim of the subsequent selection activities is to identify the much suitable applicants and persuade them to join the organization.

Selection procedure: The selection techniques or methods are mainly depends upon the size of the institutions, nature of the duty, kind and number of person to be employed, government regulations to be followed.

Steps in selection procedure: a) Job analysis: It is the basis for selecting the right candidate.

b) Recruitment: It is the process of searching for perceptive staff nurses and stimulating them to apply for job in an organization.

c) Application form: It is also known as application blank is traditional and widely accepted for securing information from the perceptive candidates.

d) Written examinations: The organization has to conduct written examinations for the qualified candidates to measure the candidates ability towards the job.

e) Preliminary interview: An interview is a face to face observational and personal method of evaluating the applicant.

f) Group discussions: It is a method where group of successful applicants are brought around conference table and are asked to discuss either a case study or a subject matter. The candidates in the group are required to analyze, discuss, find alternative solution and select the sound selection.

g) Tests: Tests are conducted to measure the job related abilities and skills of applicants. The tests may like psychological tests, performance tests.

h) Final interview: It is usually followed by the testing.

i) Final decision by the line manager: The manager concerned has to make the final decision whether to select or reject a candidate.

j) Employment: After the final decision the institution has to intimate this decision to the successful as well as unsuccessful candidates through the appointment orders.

k) Appointment: The selected candidate is given an appointment letter with all details such as terms and conditions of the appointment and period of probation, Job description salary scale, hospital policy.

l) Placement: It is the termination of the job to which accepted candidate is to be assigned and his management to the job, it reduces employee turnover, absenteeism, and improve morale.

m) Induction: The final step in the selection process is that of induction of the new employee into the social setting of his work, it mainly includes : Introduction with supervisors and coworkers. Tour of all departments. Explaining job description.

RETENTION Employee retention It involves taking measures to encourage employees to remain in the organization for maximum period of time. Organizing is facing a lot of problems in employee retention these days. Hiring knowledgeable people for the job is essential for an employer, but retention is more important than hiring. Employees stay and leave organizations for some reasons. The organizations are becoming aware of these reasons and adopting many strategies for employee retention.

PROMOTION The word promote is derived from the Latin expression defines promovere meaning to move forward. The dictionary meanings of promote are: To excel in a situation, rank or honour, to elevate, to advance. To contribute to growth or prosperity for something cause to perform further To advance from a given grade or classes as qualified for one higher. The term promotion refers to a change for better prospects from one job to another job in deemed by the employee. The factors which are considered by employee as implying promotion are a. An increase in salary b. An increase in job prestige c. An upward movement in the hierarchy of jobs d. Additional supervisory responsibility and e. A better future. The unions generally favour promotions on the basis of seniority and managements usually favour promotion on the basis of merits. However, it is an ideal to have following factors which must be the basis for promotion. Outstanding service in terms of quality as well as quantity Above average achievements in patient care and or public relations Experience

Seniority Initiative Recognition by employees as a leader Record of loyalty and co-operation.

Purpose of promotion: Organizational needs - promotion helps organization to retain its talented human resources. Individual needs - the individual attach very high importance to status and job responsibilities which they get out of promotion. Promotion is a reward for better performance of an employee. It attracts suitable persons in the organization. It is done to put employees in a position where he will be more useful to the organization.

CONCLUSION Hence, every organization should pay maximum attention to evolve attractive staffing polices. Recruitment is the first step in the process of filling a vacancy. Recruitment is a process of searching for prospective employee.

BIBLIOGRAPHY BT Basavanthappa. The text book of Nursing administration, 1st edition; Jaypee brother publication, 2008. BT Basavanthappa. The text book of Nursing administration, 2nd edition; Jaypee brother publication, 2008. Neelam Kumari. The text book of management of nursing service and education: P V publications. KP Neeraja Text book of nursing education; Jaypee brothers medical publishers (p) ltd New Delhi; 2007