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REPORTED SPEECH We use reported speech to report what another person has said, without quoting their exact

words. When we change into reported speech, the inverted commas disappear. There are some general changes to consider in reported speech: 1.Verbal tenses changes. 2.Changes of expressions of time and place. 3.Personal pronouns changes. 1.Verbal Tenses Changes Present Simple Past Simple Present Continuous Past Continuous Present Perfect Past Perfect Past Simple Past Perfect Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Modals: Can Could May Might Will Would Must Had to 2.Expressions of time & place Here There This That These Those Now Then Next week The following week Today That day Tonight That night Tomorrow The following day/ the next day Yesterday The day before / the previous day Last week The week before/the previous week Ago Before A.Reported Statements When we convert direct speech statements into reported speech statements, we use that (omitted in informal English) and we change the tense of the main verb. Examples: Its going to rain tonight, he said. He said (that) it was going to rain that night. We will win the competition next week, they said. They said (that) they would win the competition the following week.

B.Reported Questions - Without Question Words We use if/whether and we change the tense of the main verb. They become statements, and arent questions any longer. Examples: Are you studying for your exams today? the teacher asked Ann. The teacher asked Ann if/whether she was studying for her exams that day. Have you ever met a famous person? they asked me. They asked me if/whether I had ever met a famous person. - With Question Words We use the question word in the sentence and we change the main verb in the sentence and the word order (S + V). Examples: Why are you so late tonight? my mother asked me. My mother asked me why I was so late that night. What were you doing at 3 pm yesterday? they asked us. They asked us what we had been doing at 3 pm the day before. C.Reported Commands and Requests To change into reported speech we use the following structures: -to infinitive not to + infinitive Examples: Help your brother with his homework, my mother told me. My mother told me to help my brother with his homework. Dont touch this vase, the woman advised us. The woman advised us not to touch that vase.

SPECIAL REPORTING VERBS 1. Admit /deny + that-clause + -ing Examples: Im wrong, he said. He admitted that he was wrong He admitted being wrong. Me? No, I didnt take Sues calculator, said Bob. Bob denied taking Sues calculator. Bob denied that he had taken Sues calculator. 2. Advise, order, tell, ask, remind, invite + I.O + To-infinitive Examples: Make sure you dont take the A20 in the rush hour, Tim, said Jack. Jack advised Tim not to take the A20 in the rush hour. You must leave the island immediately, the police ordered us. The police ordered us to leave the island immediately. Dont forget to buy some milk, Andy, said Claire. Claire asked Andy to buy some milk. 3. Apologize for / insist on + -ing Examples Im sorry, Im late again, said Jim. Jim apologized for being late again. 4. Suggest / recommend + -ing + That + S + should + That-clause Examples: Why dont we meet at 7.00 pm? she said. She suggested meeting at 7.00 pm. She suggested that we should meet at 7.00 pm. She suggested that we meet/met at 7.00 pm.