Style Guide

Introduction Use clear and concise American English appropriate for the designated global audience. This document is divided into three sections: 1. Section 1: Grammar and Punctuation 2. Section 2: Writing Style Specifications 3. Section 3: Technical Terminology

Section 1

Grammar and Punctuation
1. COMMAS
• Commas in a series
• Use a comma before the conjunction (and or or) joining the last two elements in a sentence containing a series of three or more elements. Do not use a comma before the final and or or if there are only two components.

EXAMPLES 1. They are used to create a partition or a logical drive, assign a partition as the active partition, delete a partition, or display the partition information. 2. You need a password and a user name to log on to the network. 3. You need a password, a user name, and the appropriate access right to log on to the network. • A comma is used before a list of two items when it is preceded by a complete sentence. A colon is used before a list of three or more items when it is preceded by a complete sentence. Do not use a comma or a colon when the first part does not form a complete sentence.

EXAMPLES 1. There are four types of databases: A, B, C, and D. 2. There are two types of databases, A and B. 3. The two types of joins are LEFT and RIGHT. 4. They are LEFT, RIGHT, and FULL. VIMAL JOSHI only_vimaljoshi@yahoo.co.in 1 of 54

Use a comma to separate two or more adjectives of equal rank. However, do not use a comma when the last adjective is part of the noun phrase.

EXAMPLES 1. A dark, deserted alley 2. A loyal, devoted, and supportive friend 3. A diamond engagement ring 4. A picturesque covered bridge

• Commas in Introductory phrases
• Use a comma after every introductory phrase or clause. An introductory phrase or clause introduces the main idea of the sentence or states a condition or situation that directly affects or qualifies the main idea. A comma is used after an introductory phrase/clause to keep our focus on the main idea of the sentence that follows the introductory phrase/clause. An introductory phrase/clause can begin with words such as when, if, to, in, at, after, before, although, from, as, since, and with.

EXAMPLES 1. In recent months, many changes have taken place in the city. 2. To access the Save command, use the File menu. 3. If you try to quit the program without saving the file, an error message appears on the screen.

• Commas with restrictive and nonrestrictive phrases
• Use commas to set off nonrestrictive (nonessential) phrases. A nonrestrictive phrase adds an additional thought and might be omitted without interfering with the meaning.

EXAMPLES 1. The letter from the company, which has been just received by him, clarifies the problem. 2. The default value, 17 seconds, is used in the configuration process. 3. The first option, File, on the menu bar is used for the purpose. 4. A document, Standards.doc, is open. Some examples of phrases that introduce a nonrestrictive phrase are given below: • which clause Example: Data objects implement an interface called IDataObject, which encompasses the standard operations of the get/set data and the query/enumerate functions. • regardless: Example: The motherboard will group RAM sockets into memory banks, regardless of the packaging. • if any: Example: The boot program searches for system files, if any, on the floppy disk. • if required: Example: Configure the expansion board by setting jumper and DIP switches, if required. • in turn: Example: The adapter cards, in turn, contain BIOS routines. • if possible: VIMAL JOSHI only_vimaljoshi@yahoo.co.in 2 of 54

Example: Configure the expansion board by setting jumper and DIP switches, if possible. • in addition Example: The guidelines, in addition to the settings, helped configure the server. • Including Example: The guidelines, including the setting guidelines, helped configure the server. • respectively Example: The files A and B were copied to the directories X and Z, respectively. • Do not use commas to set off restrictive phrases. A restrictive phrase is essential to the meaning of the sentence.

EXAMPLES 1. All persons who are known to have seen the accident will be questioned. 2. An attribute is a characteristic that can change something

• Commas in compound sentences
A Compound Sentence: • is made up of two or more simple sentences. • has two or more subjects. • uses the coordinating conjunctions and, or and but to join two or more simple sentences. • contains a comma before each coordinating conjunction that separates two or more simple sentences. • Use a comma before each coordinating conjunction (and, or, but) in a compound sentence. This comma separates two or more simple sentences.

EXAMPLE The parameters are specified, and the project is saved as Test.dll. • When part of the compound sentence already has commas, use a semicolon to separate one clause from the other.

EXAMPLE The interface, the method name, and parameters are specified; and the project is saved as Test.dll. • Use a comma before the conjunction joining the final clause in a statement containing three or more clauses (with different subjects) specified. The password is XYZ, the user name is ABC, and the server is Roger. • Do not use a comma in a sentence that has two verbs but a single subject. EXAMPLE The second print statement produces the output Hello or gives an error message. • Do not use a comma before a coordinating conjunction (and, or, or but) when the common implied subject of two clauses (which do not contain any internal punctuation) in a sentence is You.

EXAMPLE Rename the file and save it. VIMAL JOSHI only_vimaljoshi@yahoo.co.in 3 of 54

Use a comma before the conjunction joining the final clause in a statement containing three or more imperative clauses. Treat the imperative clauses in such a sentence as a series and use a comma before the conjunction before the final clause.

EXAMPLE Delete a file, create a folder, and modify the directory. • A comma is not required when two clauses in a compound sentence have a common condition or a common introductory phrase. Such common introductory phrases may begin with phrases such as For example, Similarly, Therefore, When, This is because, and If. EXAMPLES: 1. In RAID 4, sectors are split between multiple drives and an additional parity drive is used. 2. The users of non-Windows NT client computers in a single master domain model can access the resources in another domain if appropriate trust relationships are set up between the two domains and the users have their user accounts stored in the directory database of the master domain. • Do not use a comma before subordinate conjunctions such as while, when, where, since, so, that, now that, because, as, as if, as though, whether, although, even, though, if, and until.

EXAMPLE The term is acceptable in programmer documentation because it has become ingrained.

• Commas in dates
In the m-d-y date format, the year must be followed as well as preceded by commas unless the year is followed by other punctuation such as a period, a semicolon, etc. EXAMPLE The meeting was scheduled for June 12, 1996, in Seattle. No internal punctuation is used in the d-m-y date format. EXAMPLE The meeting was scheduled for 12 June 1996.

• Commas in numbers
Use commas in numbers that have four or more digits, regardless of how the numbers appear in the interface. When designating years and baud, use commas only when the number has five or more digits. Do not use commas in page numbers, addresses, and decimals. Examples 1,024 bytes 2,492 minute 10,000 B.C. 1,093 pages 9600 baud 14,400 baud Page 1091 Nonexamples 2048 bytes VIMAL JOSHI only_vimaljoshi@yahoo.co.in 4 of 54

3000 hours 11000 B.C. 2450 pages 9,600 baud 15570 baud Page 1,091

• Commas in addresses
Do not use a comma in street addresses, room or suite numbers, telephone numbers or before postal code. EXAMPLE • 1529 Summit Avenue • Room 2102 • Suite 5600 • 5 Cliff Way Columbus Circle New York, NY 10538

2. Articles
• • 1. 2. 3. 4. Do not omit articles (a, an, or the) since they add clarity and flow to the writing. A and An are known as indefinite articles while the is known as the definite article. There are four types of nouns: Singular Nouns: For example, computer, system, table Plural Nouns: For example, computers, systems, tables Abstract Nouns: For example, architecture, technology Collective Nouns: For example, data, memory

• A singular noun should be prefixed with an appropriate article. EXAMPLES 1. I went to the market. 2. I bought a shirt from the store. 3. A computer is better than an abacus. 4. For example, the net income of an organization is plotted on the y-axis. 5. Change the layout of the table to a specified layout by using the menu bar. 6. The current color of the SmartMaster set of the Project Status presentation is blue. • Plural nouns, abstract nouns, and collective nouns may or may not take an article depending on the following conditions: _ They are specific. _ They are further qualified. _ They have been referred to very recently. _ They are referred to in relation to a location. VIMAL JOSHI only_vimaljoshi@yahoo.co.in 5 of 54

EXAMPLES: 1. The computers of today are more efficient than the computers of yesterday. (plural nouns that are further qualified) 2. The architecture that is client-based…(abstract noun that is further qualified) 3. The data that is user-specific…(collective noun that is further qualified) 4. Client/server architecture is easy to implement. 5. The two-tier architecture is a specific kind of architecture. 6. Recent advances in medical technology have been detailed in this manual. 7. The data on the server needs to be updated. 8. The server contains data such as names and passwords. Note: Usage of an article with the collective noun “Code” • Like "data", "code" too is a collective noun. Therefore, there is no plural form of code. "Codes" is incorrect. • The phrase "a code" is incorrect because indefinite articles ("a" and "an") can be used with non count nouns only when they are further qualified. • However, to avoid an awkward sentence construction, use the definite article "the" with code. Use "a" only when the word "code" is followed by another common noun, such as "sample," "line," etc. EXAMPLES 1. "The code" to pass a variable is displayed on the screen. 2. "A code sample" is displayed on the screen. • To refer to code in plural, use phrases such as: 1. "Multiple lines of code" are displayed on the screen. 2. "Four samples of code" are displayed on the screen. 3. "Four samples of the code" used to interchange the parameter values are displayed... 4. "Four code samples" used to interchange the parameter values are displayed on the screen. Incorrect Examples: 1. "Multiple lines of a code" are displayed on the screen. 2. "Four samples of a code" are displayed on the screen. 3. "Four codes" are displayed on the screen.

The article a usually precedes a collective noun regarded as plural. The article the usually precedes a collective noun regarded as singular. EXAMPLES • A number of students have signified their intention to take the advanced course. • The number of students has increased this year. • A couple of suggestions were offered. • The couple was recognized boarding a plane. • The articles a, an, or the should be repeated when referring to two or more separate persons or objects. EXAMPLES 1. Either a man or a woman may apply. 2. A chair and a desk are kept in Ford’s room. VIMAL JOSHI only_vimaljoshi@yahoo.co.in 6 of 54

3. A relation can be created using a primary key and a foreign key 4. You use the primary and foreign keys to define a relation. • Do not repeat the definite article (the) when it suffixes a list of elements followed by a common/linking phrase. EXAMPLES 1. The cabinet, chair and desk to be sold are located in the other room. (The phrase to be sold is common to the singular nouns cabinet, chair and desk. Therefore, only one definite article (the) needs to be prefixed to the first singular noun.) 2. The lesson also covers the functions and features of each class. (The phrase of each class is common to both the singular nouns function and feature. Therefore, only one definite article (the) needs to be prefixed to the first singular noun.) 3. The user and file names are stored in the document. Non examples 1. The cabinet, the chair and the desk to be sold are located in the other room. 2. The lesson also covers the function and the feature of each class. 3. The user and the file names are stored in the document. • Do not use an article before a proper noun unless it is followed by a common noun. There are some exceptions to this guideline, such as the Internet, the United States, and the World Wide Web. Check the product manual and the Help files for the product being taught to see how articles are used before specific terms. These terms and article usage is to be noted in the Word List for the course or series. EXAMPLES of articles before a common noun preceded by a proper noun 1. The $name variable 2. The Close button 3. The Perl scripting language 4. The Microsoft Web site • Always use articles before superlatives. EXAMPLES 1. The best cars 2. The latest information 3. The fastest computers • Article usage with the word Future Use the future when referring to future as a noun. • Article usage with “ascending order” and “descending order”

Do not use an article before "ascending order” and "descending order." "Order' as used in this context is an abstract noun; therefore, it should not be prefixed with an article even when further qualified. Example: Sort the data in ascending order. Sort the tasks in descending order of difficulty.

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Incorrect Sort the data in the ascending order. Sort the tasks in the descending order of difficulty.

3. Hyphens
Hyphens are joiners. Use them to avoid ambiguity or to form a single idea from two or more words. • Use a hyphen between terms forming compound adjectives before the noun being modified. EXAMPLES 1. First-class bond 2. Hard-hitting policy 3. Up-to-date fashions 4. Well-deserved honors • Do not use a hyphen when a compound adjective follows the noun or the predicate. EXAMPLES 1. Many fashions, popular and up to date, will be on display. 2. His fame, well deserved and worldwide, rests on his scientific achievements. • Use a hyphen when a modifier is used after a form of the verb to be. EXAMPLE 1. The program was Windows-based. 2. The code is case-sensitive. • All based, defined, related, sensitive, oriented, intensive, specific words must be hyphenated unconditionally. EXAMPLES 1. Context-specific 2. Windows-based 3. Class-oriented 4. Windows-related • • Time-consuming is always hyphenated. Suspensive hyphenation is used with two hyphenated terms in which the second word is identical.

EXAMPLES 1. Cell- and field-tested 2. One- and two-story houses • An adverb ending in ly is not joined with a hyphen to the adjective that it qualifies.
EXAMPLES

1. A highly developed intelligence 2. A beautifully told story 3. Commonly used method

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• Use a hyphen in compound numbers. EXAMPLES 1. Forty-six 2. Twenty-one • Prefixes: pre, re, sub, non, multi, semi, inter, intra, mini Usually, the terms containing these prefixes are written as single words without a hyphen. Examples 1. Prehistoric 2. Premarital 3. Subcommittee 4. Subculture 5. Intrastate 6. Semifinal 7. Semiofficial 8. Minibus 9. Miniseries 10. Noncontroversial However, they need to be hyphenated in the following cases: The word that follows a prefix begins with the same vowel or consonant with which the prefix ended. EXAMPLES: Pre-establish, sub-board, re-engineering A proper noun follows the prefix. EXAMPLE Non-Windows Most terms beginning with the prefixes self and anti are to be hyphenated. EXAMPLE Anti-trust, self-motivated, • Suffixes: -like: Do not use a hyphen unless the suffix is preceded by the letter l. EXAMPLE Bill-like, shell-like -wide: Do not use a hyphen with the suffix wide. EXAMPLE citywide, worldwide -wise: Do not use a hyphen when it means in the direction of or with regard to. EXAMPLE clockwise, lengthwise, otherwise, slantwise. The word penny-wise is spelled with a hyphen because it is a compound adjective in which -wise means smart. This same explanation applies to street-wise as in the street-wise youth. (Use monthly instead of monthwise salary.) Avoid contrived combinations like moneywise and religionwise. VIMAL JOSHI only_vimaljoshi@yahoo.co.in 9 of 54

Note: Refer to the American Heritage Dictionary for words and terms not listed here.

4. Prepositions
A preposition is a connecting word that shows the relation of a noun or a pronoun to some other word in a sentence. Avoid ending a sentence with a preposition unless necessary to prevent an awkward sentence construction. However, avoid stacking prepositional phrases on top of one another. EXAMPLES 1. Type the text you want to search for. 2. When you click the Save As option on the File menu, a dialog box is displayed. The Options button is in the rightmost corner of the dialog box. NONEXAMPLE 1. Type the text for which you want to search. 2. The Options button is in the rightmost corner of the dialog box of the Save As command on the File menu. • Care must be taken in the use of prepositions with various verbs and adjectives. A dictionary should be consulted in case of doubt as to the correct usage. Some examples are listed below:

_Among, between The candy was divided among the members of the class. The candy was divided between the two children. _At, with Jane was angry with me. The minority was angry at the passage of the bill. _With, into The bank merged with its major rival. This is where the two rivers merged into one. _ Use compare to to point out similarities between unlike items. Use compare with to comment on the similarities or differences between similar items. The use of compare to, which is often metaphorical, is generally unnecessary in documentation. Correct • People have compared a computer to a human brain. • Compared with a Pentium 90, a 386 is extremely slow. _ Use procedure for instead of procedure of.

5. Subject-Verb Agreement
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The subject must agree in number with the verb in a sentence. Be sure to use a singular verb form with a singular subject and a plural verb form with a plural subject. Example The menu of options is open. (menu… is) Non example The menu of options are open. (You do not say menu… are) • A subject consisting of two or more nouns or pronouns connected by “and” takes a plural verb unless the nouns refer to the same person or express a single idea.

EXAMPLE 1. Weather and equipment are cited as causes of the decline in trade. 2. Files and directories are located on the server. 3. He and I are members of that committee. 4. The sum and substance of the matter is that our firm remains in a prosperous condition. (single idea) 5. My friend and adviser suggests I take a business course (one person) 6. The two types of information are displayed. 7. Information is displayed in two categories. 8. One-third of the tax goes to the government. 9. One-third of the taxes go to the government. 10. The building, in addition to the neighboring store, was destroyed.

When nouns of quantity, distance, time, and amount are taken as a unit, the verb should be singular. EXAMPLES 1. Twenty dollars is still due on his account. 2. Ten miles is a long way to walk. • Problems often occur when modifying phrases contain plurals. Be careful with the use of a singular or plural verb with group nouns such as set, group, variety, etc. Refer to a dictionary when in doubt.

EXAMPLE 1. A variety of treatment methods exist. 2. Each variety of tree has its own name. 3. There are many varieties of flowers. • Note: There are two kinds of verbs: Transitive and Intransitive. Transitive verbs take an object. They show action, either upon something or someone. EXAMPLES 1. The boy was given a football. 2. He kicked the football. 3. They were offered drinks on their arrival. 4. He sold the car. Intransitive verbs do not take an object. EXAMPLES 1. We can sleep late tomorrow. 2. She whistled in the dark.

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6. Tense
Tense denotes the time of the action indicated by a verb. Choose the tense that conveys the correct meaning.

Examples:
present: action going on at present or occurs always She writes a letter. She is writing a letter. present perfect: action completed at the present or continuing into present She has written a letter. past: action that occurred at a specific, definite time in the past She wrote a letter. past perfect: action completed before a certain time in the past She had written the letter. S future: action will take place in the future She will write the letter. future perfect: action will be completed before a certain time in the future She will have written the letter. Unit and course overviews use the future tense. Unit and topic summaries use the past tense. Mastery/Quiz simulations, where an action is already done for the learner, use the simple past tense (rather than the past perfect tense). Example: The XYZ option in the dialog box is selected for you. Nonexample: The XYZ option in the dialog box has been selected for you.

7. Relative pronouns: That and Which
• • • EXAMPLE 1. The book that you borrowed is overdue. 2. The office that we wanted is rented. A relative pronoun relates a clause to the word or words that it modifies. Two common relative pronouns are "which" and "that". “That” clauses are essential to the meaning of the sentence. Use "that" to start an essential adjective phrase.

• “Which” clauses add further information. • Use "which" to start a nonessential adjective phrase. EXAMPLE VIMAL JOSHI only_vimaljoshi@yahoo.co.in 12 of 54

Gone with the Wind, which you borrowed, is overdue. • The phrase starting with the relative pronoun "which" or "that” must be placed next to the word it qualifies.

EXAMPLE To set up a WAN in your organization, you need to subscribe to a carrier service that will efficiently transmit data across the WAN. (The adjective phrase starting with "that" qualifies the noun phrase "carrier service" and should be placed immediately after it.)

8. Dashes
The three types of dashes are listed below. - hyphen – en dash — em dash The en dash is wider than a hyphen and half the width of an em dash. The em dash is the width of two 00 in a given font. The main use of an en dash is to indicate continuing or inclusive numbers, such as dates, time or reference numbers. If the context requires a dash, an em dash is used when there is a sudden break or abrupt change in thought within a sentence, the need to expand or emphasize a phrase or to summarize several elements of the sentence. There are no spaces between a hyphen, em dash or en dash and the two words or phrases it connects. • Do not use em dashes or en dashes unless they are used in one of the following ways: _ As part of syntax./code _ With negative numbers _ In ranges of numbers (such as pages 112-120, cells 8-12) _ In course titles • Do not use from or between before a range indicated by an en dash. In such cases, use “to” or “and” instead of a dash.

EXAMPLE 1. from 1995 to 1997 2. between 1995 and 1997 Nonexamples 1. from 1995—1999 2. between 1995--1997

9. Colons
• Colons are used only as part of syntax, code, typing input, on-screen text, and in a series of elements (Refer to the category Commas in a Series). • However, use colons for clarity when referring to a long textual message. Example:

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Your computer displays the following error message: This document might not display properly because there is a <FRAMESET> within the <BODY> of the document.

10. Parentheses
Use parentheses only as part of a proper noun, syntax, and software option or to enclose an acronym. Do not use parentheses anywhere else in scripts.

11. Semicolons
Avoid the use of semicolons unless as part of syntax, code, and typing input. However, they may have to be used in some places to enable clarity. (Refer to the category Commas in Compound Sentences).

12. Quotation Marks
• • Do not use single or double quotation marks unless required as part of the syntax or code. Use the terms opening quotation marks or closing quotation marks instead of open quotation marks, close quotation marks, beginning quotation marks, ending quotation marks, or quotes.

13. Possessive Form
An apostrophe is used to indicate possession. Examples 1. Jim's dog 2. King Charles's reign 3. Men's hats 4. Mr Jones's house 5. The Joneses' household Confusion between the possessive its and the contraction it's is one of the commonest mistakes in spelling. It's is a contraction for It is. It's is one of the contractions in the same group as shan't, can't, it'll, they're, shouldn't, etc. Examples VIMAL JOSHI only_vimaljoshi@yahoo.co.in 14 of 54

1. It's a rainy day. (It is a rainy day.) 2. Here's a pretty painting. (Here is a pretty painting.) 3. I shan't take him along. (I shall not take him along.) Its is a possessive pronoun. Examples 1. The dog wagged its tail. 2. The hotel issues free guide books to its guests. It's a lovely gesture. 3. It's a pretty painting. Look at its splendid colors. Avoid an overuse of the possessive form with inanimate objects Use this only if there is a space constraint. Nonexample In this lesson, you will learn about a character mode report’s features. EXAMPLE In this lesson, you will learn about the features of a character mode report. • Do not form the possessive of acronyms. Incorrect HTML's popularity is due to its ease of use. Correct HTML has increased in popularity due to its ease of use. • Do not form the possessive of trademarks. Trademarks should always be used as adjectives or proper nouns, but even as nouns should not be used in the possessive. Incorrect Netscape Navigator®'s upgrade page is found at http://www.netscape.com/upgrade.html. Correct The upgrade page for Netscape Navigator® is found at http://www.netscape.com/upgrade.html.

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Section 2

Writing Style Specifications
1. Active Voice
Use the active voice rather than the passive voice for direct, forceful sentences. In the active voice, the subject performs the action. In the passive voice, the subject receives the action. Passive voice is unclear as to who performs the action. Examples:

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(passive) The course was tested. Revisions are recorded on the time sheet. (active) Developers tested the course. The supervisor records revisions on the time sheet.

2. Consistency
Ensure consistent terminology. Use of different terms to refer to the same thing may confuse the learner.

3. Short and Simple Sentences
Short sentences are easy to understand. While it would be monotonous to make all sentences in a document short, it is best to keep the majority of them shorter than 20-25 words. This is a standard for technical and instructional writing because it ensures that the writing is clear for readers at many reading levels. Nonexample Our intention is to simplify the work process. Example: We intend to simplify the work process.

4. Positive Statements
Positive statements are easier to understand and usually more concise than negative constructions. In instructional materials, one should not confuse the reader by explaining what should not be done. If you give negative instructions, write them clearly to emphasize the negative nature of the information. EXAMPLES 1. You must close the file in the application first and then rename it. 2. You cannot rename a file unless you ensure it is not open in any application. 3. If a file is open in an application, you cannot delete it.

5. Parallel Construction
• Parallel or similar thoughts should be expressed in a grammatically parallel or similar manner. Examples: Drawing is more enjoyable than painting. To draw is more enjoyable than to paint. Nonexample Drawing is more enjoyable than to paint. VIMAL JOSHI only_vimaljoshi@yahoo.co.in 16 of 54

Choose the same kinds of words to build sentences, clauses and lists that describe, modify, or connect objects and ideas. Example: I visited Chicago and found it was a beautiful city. (both past tense) Nonexample: I visited Chicago and found it is a beautiful city. (mixed past and present tense) Example: My visit to Chicago included (all verbs ending with ing) riding the L, visiting the Art Museum, seeing three IMAX movies, eating Chicago-style pizza, and shopping. Nonexample: My visit to Chicago included (mixed use of plural nouns and verbs ending with ing) rides on the L, visits to museums, going to see three movies, ethnic food consumption, and shopping on the Magic Mile.

6. Beginning a Sentence
• • For common usage reasons, sentences should not begin with the following words: also, but, and, or, because, on, for. Do not use lowercase letters, numbers, syntax, or special symbols to begin a sentence.

7. Contractions
• Do not use any contractions such as Let’s, Here’s, We’ll, You'll, This'll, They're, They'll, etc.

8. Gerund Form
• Avoid the overuse of the gerund (i.e. “ing”) form in the main text. Use the gerund form in incomplete phrases/labels that may be part of the on-screen text. EXAMPLE When customer details are merged with …. Managing Hardware and Software Installing New Software Incorrect Nonexample Merging customer details with… How To Install New Software

9. First person: Let us and We
Do not use let us and we. These terms are first person usage and have the effect of giving the computer an identity in the training experience. The computer is not a partner in the learning VIMAL JOSHI only_vimaljoshi@yahoo.co.in 17 of 54

process but can act as a guide to learning. Let us is redundant in most situations. Be direct instead. Do not refer to a third person "user" either. Use the second person "You" consistently. Second person language keeps the focus and responsibility on the learner. This is appropriate especially when you discuss ways that the reader can benefit from the technology and when you explain how to work on a task It is better to focus all instruction and directions on you, the learner. However, do not overuse You. Indirect reference to user: The startup process initiates when the user switches on the computer. Addressing the reader directly: The startup process begins when you switch on the computer. Nonexample Let us look at the functions of the ABC utility. EXAMPLE The ABC utility has many functions.

10. Overuse/repetition of the same word
Avoid repeating words and ideas in close succession Variety adds interest. Transitions, introductions and summaries should also be varied in wording and style so that the course does not become stiff and formal. For example, the learner is addressed as you in the course. However, do not start every sentence or every page of a course with this phrase, especially in transitions and summaries. Vary sentence construction to decrease learner monotony and boredom.

11. As
• • EXAMPLE 1. As you scroll down the list, the various options are displayed. 2. Hold down the Ctrl button as you click the screen. 3. User access to this file has to be restricted because it contains confidential data. Nonexamples 1. It is advisable to note the trustees Admin.UCI and [Public} as they will be compared after the merge is complete. 2. User access to this file has to be restricted as it contains confidential data. “As” may be used to indicate that something is occurring at the same time, while, or when something else is happening. Do not use “as” to mean “because.”

12. Per
• • • Per is acceptable in statistical or technical contexts in the meaning of for each. In casual or colloquial contexts, however, use a or for each instead of per. Do not use per to mean by or in accordance with. 18 of 54

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Correct • Users who log on only once a day are rare. • You can have only one drive letter per network resource. • Find all the topics that contain a specific word by following the instructions on your screen. • Identify your computer by using the procedure in the next section. Incorrect • Users who log on only once per day are rare. • Find all the topics that contain a specific word, per the instructions on your screen. • Identify your computer per the procedure in the next section.

13. You should/ You require/ You must/You want/You need
Avoid telling the reader You need, You should, You will, You want, or You must do something. They denote authoritative commands. There is nothing in a course the learner must do or needs to or wants to do. Use these phrases only when referring to: 1. some prerequisites, or some dos and don'ts in the content text. 2. when referring to the requirements of a subject other than the user. Examples: 1. The default setting should be set at …(This implies that the default value should be constant) 2. The users of the network require access to … 3. As an administrator, you must/should prevent unauthorized network access. (A topic detailing the duties of an administrator) 4. Click the OK button. 5. To invoke the dialog box, you need to click the ABC command. Nonexamples 1. You need a hard copy of the document. (scenario) 2. You should enable the setting used to take a hard copy of the document. (scenario) 3. You want to access the network. (scenario) 4. You need to save the file.

14. Titles
Titles or positions of employees should be written in lowercase letters unless they are accompanied by the names of the persons. EXAMPLES: 1. The System Administrator Sam Jones enters the password. 2. Sam Jones, the system administrator, enters the password.

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15. Numbers
• Spell out zero through nine if the number does not precede a measurement unit or is not used as input. Examples 1. 10 screen savers 2. five databases Nonexamples 1. 2 disks 2. eighteen books 3. twelve functions • For round figures of 1 million or more, use a numeral plus the word, even if the prefix number is less than 10. EXAMPLES 1. 7 million 2. 7.5 million Nonexample 1. Seven million • Use numbers for all measurements, even if the number is below 10. Measurements include distance, temperature, volumes, size, weight, picas, bits, bytes, etc. Examples 1. 4 miles 2. 3 feet 3. 5 inches 4. 8 bits 5. 1-byte error value • Days, years and other units of time such as minutes, seconds, and hours should be spelled out if less than 10. EXAMPLES 1. two years 2. eight seconds • Numbers: consistency Maintain consistency among categories of information, (that is, one category covering numerals below 10 and the other covering numerals 10 and above) stated in a single sentence. When ensuring this consistency, preferably change the category written in words into figures. Example One booklet has 16 pages, and the other has 7 pages. • Numbers: Dates Follow the M-D-Y format and spell out the name of the month in dates. Example June 12, 1996 Nonexample 6/12/96

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• Do not use ordinal numbers for dates. Example The meeting is on April 1. Nonexample The meeting is on for April 1st. • Numbers: Fractions Express fractions in words or decimals whenever possible, whichever is most appropriate for the context. They are hyphenated when in words. Example two-thirds completed • Use an initial zero for decimal fractions less than one. When representing user input, however, do not include a zero if it is unnecessary for the user to type. Examples 1. 0.5 inch 2. type .5 inch • Numbers: Ordinal Spell out ordinal numbers in text---even those above ten. Examples 1. …wraps at the eighty-first column. … 2. First 3. Second 4. Thirteenth Nonexample 1. wraps at the 81st column. 2. 1st 3. 11th 4. 14th • Numbers: Time Use numerals to indicate the time of the day. Use A.M. and P.M. (i.e. capital letters and with periods in between and at the end) instead of a.m. and p.m. Use a colon as a separator instead of a period. Examples 1. 10:00 A.M. 2. 12:00 noon 3. 12:00 midnight 4. 11:01 P.M. Nonexamples 1. Ten o'clock 2. 10 P.M. 3. 12.00 A.M.

16. Telephone numbers
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• •

When using a telephone or fax number, do not use an actual number. Instead, use an actual U.S. area code, such as (708), followed by the numbers 555, followed by any four digits. Use example area codes from United States phone books. Use parentheses, not a hyphen, to separate the area code from the seven-digit phone number.

EXAMPLE 1. (708) 555-8080 2. (708) 555-0123 NoneXAMPLES 1. 206-882-8080 2. 1-800-555-0123

17. Measurements
• All references to measurements within text boxes will be noted first in U.S. measurements and followed by the metric equivalent in parentheses. Refer to the Numbers section as detailed earlier in this document and the Measurements section in the Microsoft Style Manual for further details. • All references to measures for screen input must conform to the software requirements. • All references to measurements used in graphics for explanatory reasons, such as hardware specifications, will be noted first in U.S. measurements followed by the metric equivalent in parentheses. • Repeat the measurement unit in sentences such as "the disk involves 32 KB to 64 KB of RAM." Do not write the sentence as "the disk involves 32 to 64 KB of RAM." • Separate the numeral from the abbreviation with a space or a hyphen, depending on usage. • When used as a noun in measurements, add of to form a prepositional phrase. EXAMPLES 1. 800-KB disk drive 2. The Help files require 175 KB of disk space 3. 16-bit system 4. 16 bits of disk space

18. Names
• • • Do not use any names of famous people or names similar to those of famous people. Keep translation usage in your considerations because the names will be used globally. Given below is a list of names you may use:

Debbie Howe Ed Young Tom Wilkins Pat Greene Ken Burton Jim Lewis Larry Williams John Barrett Don Allen

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Donna Bard Chris Donaldson Mike Womack Ronald Billing Steve Irving Diane Frye Corrine Wallace Christine Turner Jerry Smith Anne Forsythe David Johnson Lee Mitchell Nancy Jones Ron Floyd Mary Peterson David Wong Susan Ward

Note: Refer to the NorthWind Database Application on Books online for names of companies and persons.

19. Company Names
• • Do not use the names of actual American companies or products when creating examples, unless developing a third-party course (for example, Novell, Microsoft, Oracle). In addition, do not use a company name that is very similar to the name of an actual American company. For example, using Great Motors as the name of a car manufacturing company would be unacceptable since it is very similar to General Motors, a large car manufacturing company in the United States. If you require a company name, select a name from the following list.
AB Corp. NS Toys ABC Books Perfect Watch Co. Blue Moon Computers PQR Corp. Blue Valley Consulting Quality Software Developers Certified Carriers Red Sky IT Systems Countryside Markets Red-Eye Experts EarthenWares Safest Software Co. Exploration Air Sharp Clothing Inc. Global Systems, Inc. Smart Software Developers Good Graphics, Inc. SmartLabs Homelike Hospital Ltd. SSPT Corporation IBG Inc. Sunny Hills Resorts Indestructible Boxes, Inc. SuperGraphics


1. 2. 3. 4. 3. 4. 5. 6. 5. 6. 7. 8. 7. 8. 9. 10. 9. 10. 11. 12. 11. 12. 13. 14. 13. 14.

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15. 16. 15. 16. 17. 18. 17. 18. 19. 19. 20. 21.

InfoSuper Corp. Supersoft2000 LMN Inc. Technology Systems Mastery Mechanics Top Transportation Co. Medical Central Supplies True Travel Services Mountain Marketing Multistore XYZ Inc. New Tech Books

Note: Refer to the NorthWind Database Application on Books online for names of companies and persons.

20. As Well As
Use as well as in the sense of in addition to, not as a synonym for and. Example 1. With Word, you can format whole documents, insert headers and footers, and develop an index, as well as write a simple letter. 2. With Word, you can format whole documents, insert headers and footers, and develop an index, in addition to writing a simple letter.

21. By Using
Be aware of the differences in meaning when using or not using by in a sentence before a concluding phrase. The word by should be used before a concluding phrase only when it follows the object or another word to which it does not relate. If it follows the verb directly, the word by is usually not necessary to clarify meaning. EXAMPLE 1. In this lesson, you will learn to create a COM server by using ATL COM AppWizard. 2. In this lesson, you will learn to compile a COM server that has been created using ATL COM AppWizard. (Notice that by is not used.)

22. Comparative
• • A comparative is a word like "more" or "most." Do not use double comparatives such as "more better". When using the comparative form, ensure clarity about what is compared (For example, if you use better, clarify better than what).

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23. Every vs Each
• • Use every to mean a large number of things; Use each to mean a comparatively smaller number of things

24. Get
Do not use "get" when you mean to use the "to be" verb forms (i.e. is, are, were, was, etc.). Example The files are corrupted when Nonexample The files get corrupted when .....

25. Like/As
Do not use like for as if or as though, such as, or for example. Example: Use: She looks as if she is tired. Instead of: She looks like she's tired. Use: There are many operating systems such as Windows 95. Instead of: There are many operating systems like Windows 95. Use "like" as a preposition to compare nouns and pronouns. "Like" requires an object. Example: It runs like other programs. The word "as" is the correct word to introduce clauses. Example: It runs as other programs run.

26. On
• Use "on" only to mean "placed" or "above" and not “when” or “after”. • Do not begin a sentence with on. Examples 1. When the Web page is scrolled, you realize that the background moves. 2. When the NEXT and PCTINCREASE storage parameters are changed, the succeeding extent is assigned the new value of NEXT.. Nonexamples 1. On scrolling the Web page, you realize that the background moves. 2. On changing the NEXT and PCTINCREASE storage parameters, the succeeding extent is assigned the new value of NEXT. • Use on with the following elements: 1. Menus ("the Open command is on the File menu") 2. Taskbar, toolbar, ruler, menu bar, and desktop ("click the Start button on the taskbar") 3. Disks, in the sense of a program being on a disk ("the printer drivers on Disk 4") 4. Interface ("on the interface") VIMAL JOSHI only_vimaljoshi@yahoo.co.in 25 of 54

5. The screen itself (something appears "on the screen") 6. Network ("the printer is on the network") 7. Hardware platforms ("on the Macintosh")

27. Onto
Use two words (on to) for the action of connecting to a network, as in "log on to the network." Use one word (onto) to indicate moving something to a position on top of something else, as in "drag the icon onto the desktop."

28. And So On
• Avoid using and so on. Be exact and specific in writing a series. • There are situations wherein "and so on" may be appropriate. EXAMPLE When you run File Maker on the first topic of a unit, it numbers the first page as 1101, the second page as 1102 and so on.

29. Etc., i.e.
Do not use the Latin abbreviations etc. or i.e. Be specific.

30. Using vs. With
Avoid with to mean "by using"; it is ambiguous and makes localization more difficult. Example You can select part of the picture by using the dotted rectangle selection tool. Nonexample You can select part of the picture with the dotted rectangle selection tool. With is acceptable in some marketing materials and sometimes with product names. Example With Home Essentials, you can create professional documents quickly and easily.

31. Termed and Named
• Do not use termed as in termed user-defined datatype. • Instead, use named or known as or called user-defined datatype. As with named is redundant in a sentence such as: “The file is named Standard.doc.” VIMAL JOSHI only_vimaljoshi@yahoo.co.in 26 of 54

32. Via
• Do not use via as a synonym for by, through, or by means of. • Via implies a geographic context. • Use the most specific term instead. EXAMPLE You connect to the Internet through a modem. Nonexample You connect to the Internet via a modem.

33. Nonsexist language
Avoid the use of language, expressions or ideas that shows a bias towards or against a certain gender.

34. Such As
Use a comma before such as when it is followed by a nonessential clause/phrase. Example:

ActiveX applications can be created in languages ActiveX applications can be created in various languages

35. Once
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EXAMPLE When you start the computer, … Nonexample Once you start the computer…

36. Archaic English Terms
Do not use words such as hence, henceforth, thence, whereas, thus. They are not part of American English.

37. You
• • EXAMPLES 1. The dialog box is displayed for you. 2. Here is an opportunity for you to … • See additional information in this document under the heading You need/You should/You want/You must. The learner is addressed as you in the course; however, do not start every sentence or every page of a course with this word, especially in transitions and summaries. Vary sentence construction to decrease monotony and boredom. Phrases such as “for you” are usually redundant.

38. Personification
Avoid using terms that personify the unit, lesson, computer or other inanimate object. A computer or program responds in a specific manner based on how it was programmed. Obvious personification terms such as sees/knows/hears are not used. Refer to the Anthropormorphism section in the Microsoft Style Manual for more details.

39. Only
• • • Ensure the correct placement of the word “only”. As an adjective, only can be positioned in the middle of a sentence. However, as an adverb, it may need to be positioned before a word it modifies. In such a case, it may also mean beginning a sentence with only. EXAMPLE Only five people escaped unhurt.

40. Resolve and Solve
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Use solve when referring to general issues such as equations, puzzles, and other theoretical problems.

41. So
• Do not use so as a conjunction. • Do not use so at the end of a sentence EXAMPLE 1. Since the task is completed, you can click Cancel. 2. Save your work often so that you do not lose your document if the system crashes. 3. He loves her a great deal. Nonexamples 1. The task is completed, so you can click Close. 2. So that is acceptable. 3. Save your work often so you do not lose your document if the system crashes. 4. He loves her so.

42. Since
Avoid using since in the sense of because; it's ambiguous. Use because to refer to a reason, since to refer to a passage of time. Since is often clearer when used with a gerund rather than a participle. Example I can download messages very quickly because I installed a fast modem. Since installing the fast modem, I can download messages very quickly. Nonexample Since I installed the fast modem, downloading messages takes much less time than it did.

43. If, When, and Whether
To avoid ambiguity: • use if for uncertainties or conditionals • use when for situations requiring preparation or the passage of time • use whether for one or more alternative possibilities or situations. Examples • The printer might insert stray characters if the wrong font cartridge is selected. • If your document will not print ... • To find out whether TrueType fonts are available or ... • When you are ready to print your document ... Nonexamples • The printer might insert stray characters when the wrong font cartridge is selected. • When your document will not print ... • To find out if TrueType fonts are available ... VIMAL JOSHI only_vimaljoshi@yahoo.co.in 29 of 54

44. Less, Fewer, and Under
Use less to refer to a mass amount, value, or degree. Use fewer to refer to a countable number of items. Do not use under to refer to a quantity or number. Examples • The new building has less floor space. • The new building has less than 10 floors. • The new building contains fewer offices. • Fewer than 75 members were present. • Less than a quorum attended. Nonexamples • The new building has less offices. • The new building has under 10 floors. • Less than 75 members were present. • Under 75 members attended.

45. Issue
• Do not use issue as a verb; try to use a more specific verb instead. • Do not use issue to refer to commands in end-user documentation. Correct • Windows 95 displays an error message. • Click the Save As command to save a file under a new name. Incorrect • Windows 95 issues an error message. • Issue the Save As command to save a file under a new name.

46. Justify
• • Do not use justify (v) or justified (adj.) except as a synonym for or cross-reference to align. Then use justify or justified only to refer to text that is aligned with both the left and right margins. Do not use left-justified or right-justified; use left-aligned or right-aligned instead.

47. Versus
• In headings, use the abbreviation vs. (all lowercase). • In text, spell out as versus. EXAMPLE VIMAL JOSHI only_vimaljoshi@yahoo.co.in 30 of 54

Daily vs. Weekly Backups

48. Different
• • Do not use different to mean many or various. Use it to mean differs from.

49. Increment
• • In programming material, restrict increment to mean "increase by one." In more general material, it's okay to use increment to mean "grow by regular consecutive additions."

50. Given
• Do not use given to mean specified, particular, or fixed. EXAMPLES Look in the specified folder. Use the Find command to search for all occurrences of a specific word. The meeting is always at a particular time. Incorrect Look in the given folder. Use the Find command to search for all occurrences of a given word. The meeting is always at a given time.

51. Following
Use following to introduce information. EXAMPLE The following message is displayed on the screen: No Error.

52. On-Screen Text
• • • • • •

• Correct use of On-screen Text
Use OST for the following situations: Labeling a graphic(s) Labeling a chart(s) Titles (units, lessons and topics) that are initial-capitalized Syntax Short summaries to supplement/highlight the instructional text in the text box 31 of 54

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• • •

Lists presented to the learner item by item, which are explained using one or more pages of instruction presented in the text box. Progressive disclosures of items on the list with explanations in the text box (for example, adding items one at a time to the list and presenting one or more pages of relevant instruction about each item in the text frame) Initially presenting all items in a list, then highlighting one item at a time with detailed explanation in the text box (all the other items are dimmed) This also requires one or more pages of the instructional text.

• •

Incorrect use of OST
Do not present a list, syntax, or example as OST and have narrative text that states any of the following in the instructional text: "See the list above", "functions are listed on the screen", "Syntax is displayed on the screen", "An example is displayed on the screen". The instructional text must provide all the information you want them to have. Do not use OST for the following situations: Paragraphs Critical instructional text Part of the instruction Open-ended questions Lists without corresponding explanation in the main text box Dialog between two people (bubbles with critical information not explained in the main text box) Long sentences that repeat verbatim the instruction in the main text box Excessive text and long sentences that are initial-capitalized Information that does not reinforce, supplement, or highlight the instruction in the text box

• 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

• Capitalization of OST
• Wherever possible, use short, concise labels instead of complete sentences as onscreen text. • Do not end incomplete phrases with a period. Complete sentence should end with a period. • Capitalize all major words, including verbs, nouns, adjectives, and adverbs, in headings, titles and/or any other incomplete phrases. This rule applies to unit, lesson, and topic titles found in the main course menu as well as on the screen in the course. • Do not capitalize conjunctions (and, but), articles (a, an, the), and prepositions of four or fewer letters (with, from, for, in, of, to) that are not considered major words. This guideline does not mean that all words of less than five letters are always written in lowercase letters. For example, the words Tab, Use, Box, and Be would be capitalized in headings because they are considered major words. • Do not capitalize all the major words when many labels comprise the on-screen text. Initial-capitalize only the first word of each label. • Capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word. • Always capitalize the first and last words, regardless of their part of speech. • Capitalize the first word after a colon, semicolon, or dash. • Capitalize two words that contain a slash when the words occur in a title or heading. VIMAL JOSHI only_vimaljoshi@yahoo.co.in 32 of 54

EXAMPLES: 1 Client/Server Review Questions 2. Read-Only Option 3. System Modification Through the Registry 4. Moving Files: Moving Between Two Applications • When a phrase or part of a sentence is used as a lead-in, it should end with a colon. The following options on the screen should begin with a lowercase letter and end with a period.

EXAMPLE A file is used to: • store data. • arrange information. The same example can also be rephrased as: Uses of a File • Storing Data • Arranging Information • Do not use double punctuation at the end of a lead-in phrase that is essentially an introductory phrase. Only a colon instead of both a colon and a comma should be used at the end of such an introductory lead-in phrase.

EXAMPLE In a file: • you can store data. • you can arrange information. • Avoid repeating information in the options. The earlier example can be rephrased as: In a file, you can: • store data. • arrange information.

53. Bulleted Lists
This entry differs from the guidelines stated in the Microsoft Style manual. • Do not use bullet text in the main text box. Use only complete sentences in the main text box.

EXAMPLE The two ways are creating a data source and opening a data source. Nonexample (in the main text box) The two ways are: • creating a data source • opening a data source. • Ensure consistency in the bulleted text on screen. Each on-screen bulleted option should contain text either as complete sentences or phrases consistently. In addition, 33 of 54

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ensure parallelism in the sentence structures. For example, if beginning a sentence with a verb, all subsequent options in the bulleted list too should begin with a verb. • Initial-capitalize the major words in the label heading if it is not a lead-in. A lead-in heading should end with a colon. • The options in the bulleted list, if in continuation of the lead-in heading, should begin with a lowercase letter and end with a period. • Refer to the On-Screen Text entry in this document for further details. Example Save a document: • to a folder • under a new name. • to a network location.

54. Tables
This entry differs from the guidelines stated in the Microsoft Style manual. When presenting on-screen text in a table, follow the guidelines stated below. • Do not have lead-in labels. Use stand-alone headings instead. Nonexample To Do this Open a Web Page. Type the address in the Address bar and then press Enter. Example Tasks Opening a Web page • Methods Type the address in the Address bar and then press Enter.

Ensure consistency in presenting content in each column. Each column should contain text either as complete sentences or phrases consistently. In addition, ensure parallelism in the sentence structures. For example, if beginning a sentence with a verb, all subsequent options in the column too should begin with a verb. Methods Type the address in the Address bar and then press Enter. Clicking Favorites and then clicking Add to Favorites. Methods Type the address in the Address bar and then press Enter. 34 of 54

NonExample Tasks Opening a Web page You need to add a Web page. Example Tasks Opening a Web page

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Adding a Web page • • •

Click Favorites and then click Add to Favorites.

End only complete sentences with a period. Do not initial-capitalize the major words (except proper nouns) in incomplete phrases in a table. Initial-capitalize the major words only in column headings.

55. Word List
• • • • The Word List is a valuable tool for everyone involved in developing a course. To an editor, ID reviewer, or tester, an accurate and complete Word List can significantly reduce the time taken to review a course. If a course is in a series, create only one Word List for the series. The Word List must be submitted in two Columns. The first column needs to have the word, the second column needs to have any pronunciation of the word in alphabetical order. Use of articles before terms: Sometimes your Word List may include the same term written two ways, for example, Microsoft Server and Microsoft server. To indicate which entry should be used, place an article where appropriate. For example, the Microsoft server would indicate the actual computer, and Microsoft Server would indicate the program. This clarifies the meaning and usage of the term to the editors and testers reviewing the course. Include acronyms and their phonetic spelling in the Word List. Include all capitalized terms and terms unique to the course in the Word List. Any terms or unusual names of buttons/options/etc. are to be included. Include symbols and their pronunciation. For example, the symbol # is to be pronounced pound in most courses, but it is pronounced hash in C and C++ courses. Include proper names with their correct pronunciation in the Word List. The pronunciation of all words, especially acronyms and difficult terms, should be clearly specified in the word list. If a term is to be pronounced as a single word, underline it. If the different letters are to be pronounced separately, underline each letter with a separating space in between.

• • • • •

EXAMPLES 1. SAP 2. N T F S 3. K 12 • Refer to Microsoft Style manual (Appendixes A and B) for the pronunciation or phonetic spelling of acronyms and special characters.

56. Glossary
The glossary is a listing of significant words or terms with succinct definitions. The glossary definitions should be complete sentences, actual definitions and not steps for a task or other how-to information.. Use uppercase and lowercase letters for the glossary just as the words would appear within a sentence. VIMAL JOSHI only_vimaljoshi@yahoo.co.in 35 of 54

• •

The glossary entries must be sorted alphabetically.

The glossary entries must be capitalized or lowercased as they would appear in the middle of a sentence. The same must be reflected in the word list too. Example: server-side script, global multiuse property (when these words are lowercased in the middle of a sentence and are reflected in the same way in the WL too) Non-example: Server-side script, Global multiuse property (when the initial letters are not lowercased in the middle of a sentence.) • However, in certain situations, you can avoid unnecessary verbiage by beginning the sentence with the glossary term (using sentence casing). Example: Routing Routing is the process used to transfer and deliver messages. • In a glossary entry, the spelled-out version of an abbreviation must be given first followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Example: Random Access Memory (RAM) Non-example: RAM The glossary entries must be in the singular form. (An entry can be in the plural form only in exceptional cases when the singular form is technically incorrect.) Example: replication table Non-example: replication tables The glossary entry definitions must be complete sentences. Example: query: A query is a request to the DBMS server for renewing an IP lease. Non-example: query: A request for renewing an IP lease Every glossary entry definition must begin with a repetition of the word or phrase being defined. Example: query: A query is a request to the DBMS server for renewing an IP lease. Example: Random Access Memory (RAM): Random Access Memory (RAM) is the .... Non-example: query: It is a request to the DBMS server for renewing an IP lease. Non-example: Random Access Memory (RAM): RAM is ... Non-example: Random Access Memory (RAM): Random Access Memory is... Include all the glossary terms in the word list.

57. Cross-References
The purpose of cross-references is to direct users to related information that may add to their understanding of a concept. Use cross-references sparingly and only when absolutely essential. Start a cross-reference by telling the users why they should look elsewhere, not where they should look, even if the reason is not specific. Example

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For more information about modifying Visual Basic source code, refer to the module Extending Forms.

58. Facility
A facility in the American context refers to a building (e.g. child-care facility). Therefore, do not use facility to refer to features, characteristics, etc. Treat facility as an inappropriate term.

59. Functionality
Functionality is an abstract noun. The plural form of functionality is functionality itself, not functionalities. When referring to its plural form, you can also use terms such as functions, uses, etc. Example: Each entity or object has a unique set of attributes and functions. Incorrect Each entity or object has a unique set of attributes and functionalities.

60. Depict
Use the verb depict only in the context of diagrams and graphical representations. Use other appropriate verbs such as implement, represent, etc. depending on the contexts. Use the subjects and the objects in the sentences as cues to determine the verbs to be used. Example: The class "implements" (or "represents") multiple inheritance. (In this sentence, the focus is on the task multiple inheritance, which can be either implemented or represented. It cannot be depicted because it is not a diagram or a graphic. The intended meaning here is not "graphical depiction." Therefore, use verbs such as implements, represents, etc. depending on the context and the intended meaning.) Incorrect The class depicts multiple inheritance.

61. First, Second, and so on
When detailing a list or sequence of events, either use First, Second, Third, and so on, or use First, Next, Another, etc. Do not use a mixture such as First, Second, Another, and Finally. Be consistent.

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62. Know and Learn
Use learn instead of know. Example To learn more about the menu commands, click … Nonexample To know more about the menu commands, click …

63. Learn and Learn About
Use learn about when referring to a concept. Use learn when referring to a task to be done. Examples In this section, you will learn about the different types of network topologies. In this section, you will learn to create a worksheet. In this section, you will learn about the process of creating a worksheet. (When referring to a procedure in the form of a concept) Nonexamples In this section, you will learn the different types of network topologies. In this section, you will learn the process of creating a worksheet. (When referring to a procedure in the form of a concept)

64. Whether Or Not
• Whether is to be followed by or not in situations where there was a single choice. Examples 1. The final report indicates whether or not Lotus Notes delivered the message successfully 2. The client calls QueryInterface to determine whether or not the component supports an interface. 3. When you execute a singleton query, you need to access the return value of the procedure to determine whether or not the stored procedure has been completed successfully. 4. The IF keyword in the code introduces a condition that determines whether or not the SQL statement following it will be executed. • Do not suffix or not to whether in situations where there is more than one choice.

Examples 1. The DHCP relay agent feature enables the DHCP assignment of IP addresses across routed networks regardless of whether the connection is made by LAN or WAN links. (Two conditions) 2. Whether she wins or loses, this is her last tournament. (Two conditions) 3. The binary and network standards of COM enable it to perform inter-process function calls transparently, regardless of whether they are in-process, out-of-process or remote programming models. (Three conditions) VIMAL JOSHI only_vimaljoshi@yahoo.co.in 38 of 54

• Do not separate whether from or not in a sentence structure. Example The IF keyword in the code introduces a condition that determines whether or not the SQL statement following it will be executed. Nonexample The IF keyword in the code introduces a condition that determines whether the SQL statement following it will be executed or not. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Section 3

Technical Terminology
1. Capitalization of Software Terms
• Capitalize all software program brand names and special features. Refer to the product manual as a guideline for writing terms specific to the software. • When referring to the windows, menus, tables, buttons, controls, bars, boxes, or commands in a sample application, use uppercase letters to display them as they are displayed on the screens in the application. EXAMPLES: 1. Read-Only option 2. File Name box 3. File menu 4. Show/Hide button 5. Administration dialog box 6. AutoText field

2. Button and Keyboard References
• • • • When referring to a computer keyboard key, write the name as it appears on the key. Capitalize only the first letter of each word in the key name. (This differs from the Microsoft Manual of Style for Technical Publications.) The button and keyboard references are in bold. Use press when talking about pressing a key on the keyboard. Use click, double-click, or right-click when talking about a menu, button, dialog box, file, or application on the screen.

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Use select when directing the student to choose one of a number of options or when describing the action in the text. • Use keystroke rather than keypress. EXAMPLES: 1. Press Ctrl. 2. Press the Tab key. 3. Click the Format menu. 4. Select the Help option. 5. Click the Close button.

3. Keyboard Combinations, Sequences, and Names
• • Initial-capitalize only the first letter of each key name. This differs from the Microsoft Manual of Style for Technical Publications. For keyboard combinations, use the word and instead of the plus sign. This differs from the Microsoft Manual of Style for Technical Publications.

EXAMPLES 1. Alt and O keys 2. Ctrl and P keys 3. Press Enter 4. Simultaneously press the Ctrl and E keys. 5. Use the combination of Ctrl and E keys. Nonexamples 1. ALT+O 2. CTRL+P • Do not enclose key names in angle brackets (< >). State them as menu and button names are stated. EXAMPLE Press the Esc key. Nonexample Press the <Esc> key. • Key sequences: Use commas followed by spaces to represent the sequence in which some keys have to be pressed. EXAMPLE Press Alt, F, and D. (To indicate that the user should press and release Alt, and then F, and then D) • In case of a combination of keyboard and mouse actions, use the following verbiage: Examples 1. Keeping the Esc key pressed, click the right mouse button. 2. Hold down Esc and click the right mouse button. Refer to the Handling mouse procedures section (Page-182) in the Microsoft Style manual for details for more details. • Refer to the Key Names section (Page-143) in the Microsoft Style manual for details regarding the types of keys and keys containing special characters. 40 of 54

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4. Clicking Actions
Use the verbiage click/double-click/right-click when referring to the clicking of a mouse button to select a screen item or to any other action where a click of a mouse button may be required. • Do not follow click with any preposition, such as click on, click at, click in, click over, etc. EXAMPLES 1. Click Close to close the application. 2. Right-click Start. 3. Double-click the folder to open it. 4. To begin the procedure, click the File menu. 5. Click in the XYZ window. (This is the only "click in" exception allowed by the MS manual) Nonexamples 1. Click on Close to close the application. 2. Right-click on Start. 3. Double-click on the folder to open it. 4. To begin the procedure, click on the File menu. For unusual actions, more of a description may be required to indicate the location of the click action. In these cases, using prepositions or other words to provide clarity is acceptable. EXAMPLES 1. Click below the window. 2. Double-click outside the chart. 3. Right-click next to the file name. • •

5. Arrow keys
Always prefix the various arrow keys with the definite article the and suffix them with the common noun arrow keys. Example 1. the Left arrow key 2. the Right arrow key 3. the Up arrow key 4. the Down arrow key •

6. Screen Terminology
Refer to the Screen Terminology section (Page- 239) in the Microsoft Style manual for details regarding types of windows and their elements.

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7. Menu Terminology
• Use menu name to refer to the menu titles on the menu bar. EXAMPLE Click the File menu name. • Do not use menu item in end-user documentation; use command instead. However, in programmer documentation about creating elements of a user interface, menu item may be the best term to use. Menus contain commands. Dialog boxes contain command buttons and options. Do not refer to a command as a menu item (except in programming documents about interfaces), a choice, or an option.

EXAMPLE To perform this task, select the Save command on the File menu. • If, however, you are documenting both mouse and keyboard instructions, you can use the generic choose or select. In this case, the user selects or opens menus; chooses commands that are on the menu; selects dialog box options; and chooses command buttons in dialog boxes.

EXAMPLE 1. On the File menu, click Open. 2. From the File menu, choose Open. 3. • When referring to a specific menu, lowercase the word menu, as in "the Edit menu." • Names of menus and menu commands are distinct elements on the screen. Do not combine the two names into one.

EXAMPLE On the File menu, click Open. Incorrect Click File Open. • Do not use arrows or dashes to refer to the path of a command. Specify all the details in the text. Example Click Fax Recipient in the Send To submenu on the Start menu. Nonexample Click File—Send To---Fax Recipient • In Windows 95 and later, you open a submenu by pointing to the menu command, not by placing the mouse pointer on the menu command. Correct 1. Click the Start button and then point to Documents. 2. On the File menu, point to New. Incorrect 1. Click the Start button and then choose Documents. 2. On the File menu, choose New. VIMAL JOSHI only_vimaljoshi@yahoo.co.in 42 of 54

• 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

There are different types of menus:. Drop-down menu Pull-down menu (Macintosh documentation) Pop-up menu Shortcut menu Submenu

In technical material, you might need to detail these specific kinds of menus to differentiate their programming constructions. However, in end-user material, do not qualify the term menu with the adjective drop-down, pulldown, or pop-up, unless the way the menu works needs to be emphasized as a feature of the product. Shortcut menu is acceptable. However, do not use any of these terms as verbs. Correct 1. Open the File menu. 2. When you click the right mouse button, a shortcut menu appears. Incorrect 1. Drop down the File menu. 2. When you click the right mouse button, a shortcut menu pops up. • Always surround menu names with the words the and menu both in text and procedures. Correct On the File menu, click Open. Incorrect 1. On File, click Open. 2. From File, click Open. • In simulations, do not surround command names with the words the and command. In text, you can use "the ... command" for clarity.

EXAMPLE 1. On the File menu, click Open. Incorrect 1. On the File menu, click the Open command. 2. On the File menu, choose the Open command. • Do not use the possessive form of menu and command names. Correct The Open command on the File menu opens the file. Incorrect The File menu's Open command opens the file. • Refer to the Screen Terminology section (Page- 239) in the Microsoft Style manual for more details.

8. Dialog Boxes

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Refer to the Dialog Boxes and Property Sheets section (Page- 72) in the Microsoft Style manual for details.

9. Radio Button
Do not use the term radio button. Use option button instead. Refer to the Option Button section (Page- 200) in the Microsoft Style manual for further details.

10. Drag and Drop Action
Do not use drag and drop as a verb or a noun. The action of dragging includes dropping the element in place. • It is okay to use drag and drop as an adjective to describe the feature of moving objects between windows and programs and to describe behavior a programmer wants to put in a program. In these cases, use a phrase such as drag-and-drop editing, a drag-and-drop feature, and so on. EXAMPLES 1. Moving files is an easy drag-and-drop operation. 2. You can drag the folder to drive A. 3. You can move the folder to drive A by using a drag-and-drop operation. Nonexamples 1. You can drag and drop the folder in drive A. 2. You can use drag-and-drop to move the folder to drive A. 3. Drag the information from Microsoft Excel and drop it in a Word document. •

11. Mouse Pointer
• Use point to instead of move the mouse pointer or place the pointer on. • Do not use the terms mouse cursor, mouse pointer 2, or Secondary mouse button. • Use left mouse button only when teaching beginning skills. • Always hyphenate right-click and double-click. Refer to the Microsoft Style Manual (Page 180; Section: Mouse) for more details.

12. Version Numbers
Do not use better, higher, or greater to designate system requirements or versions of a program. Use later instead. Examples VIMAL JOSHI only_vimaljoshi@yahoo.co.in 44 of 54 •

1. The program runs on Windows 3.1 or later. 2. You need a 486 or later microprocessor. Nonexamples 1. The program runs on Windows 3.1 or greater. 2. You need a 486 or better microprocessor.

13. Registry
Registry is a technical term. The registry is a database that stores configuration data about the user, the installed programs and applications, and the specific hardware. The registry has a hierarchical structure, with the first level in the path called a subtree. The next level is called a key, and all levels below keys are subkeys. Use lowercase for the word registry except when it is a part of a named system component, such as the Registry Editor. The first-level subtrees are system-defined and are in all uppercase letters, with words separated by underscores. Registry subtrees are usually bold. Correct • HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE Keys are developer-defined and are usually all uppercase or mixed caps, with no underscores. Subkeys are usually mixed case. Correct • SOFTWARE • ApplicationIdentifier • Application Identifier Name • stockfile • the new program subkey An entire subkey path is referred to as a subkey, not a path. This is a typical subkey: Correct • \HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Jet\3.5\Engines\Xbase subkey For a subkey, the items in the Name column are entries. The items in the Data column are values.

14. Shut down; Turn off/on; Power on/off
• • Do not use shut down as a synonym for turning off the power to a computer; instead, use shut down to refer to the process of quitting all programs before turning off the computer. Use shutdown (as a single term) as an adjective or a noun.

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When referring to the command on the Windows Start menu, use two words and capitalize both (Shut Down). • Do not use power down, power up; power off, power on. • Do not turn on and turn off to refer to selecting or clearing check boxes in procedures. Use select and clear or click to select instead. It is acceptable to use in text to refer to the status options such as multimedia on Web pages (as in "you can turn off graphics "). • Use turn on or turn off instead of power on, power off, start, or switch on, switch off to refer to turning on and off the computer. Do not separate the two words. That is, do not use a phrase such as turn power on. EXAMPLES 1. Shut down your computer before you turn off the computer. (as a verb) 2. The shutdown procedure is simple. (as an adjective) 3. The accidental shutdown corrupted some files. (as a noun) 4. Before you turn off your computer, click Shut Down and then click the Shut down the computer command.

15. Command Prompt
• • • Do not use system prompt; use command prompt instead. If necessary, be specific in naming the command, as in MS-DOS prompt. Use command prompt instead of C prompt, command-line prompt, or system prompt. If necessary, use a specific reference, such as MS-DOS prompt.

16. File Name Extensions
In general, do not use any file name extension in end-user documentation. Describe the type of program or file instead (an application, a text document, a worksheet, and so on). Precede file name extensions with a period. Use the article (a or an) that applies to the sound of the first letter of the extension, as though the period (or "dot") is not pronounced, as in "a .com file" and "an .exe file."

17. CD-ROM
CD-ROM is the acronym for compact disc read-only memory. When referring to the disc itself, use CD-ROM, compact disc, or disc (not disk). Do not use the redundant CD-ROM disc. Refer to the drive for a compact disc as the CD-ROM drive, not CD-ROM player or CD drive.

18. Check Boxes
• • Use the verbs clear and select with a check box. Always include check box with the label name. 46 of 54

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Use select or clear check boxes (not turn on and turn off, mark and unmark, check and uncheck, or deselect). Example 1. To clear the Mirror margins check box, click the check box. 2. Select the Spaces check box.

19. Data
• Data is generally used as a singular noun and normally takes singular verbs and pronouns. Refer to the section on articles for further details.

20. Drive letters
• • Use drive A, instead of drive A:, drive A>, or A: drive. Use network drive to refer to a logical network drive name, such as network drive X.

21. Percent versus %
• • Use the % sign along with or without numbers only when the % sign actually appears in the screen grab or is part of a syntax, code, etc. Do not use the % sign when referring to a percentage in the text box. Instead, express it in words.

EXAMPLES 1. % Processor Time Counter 2. While the average disk space used is less than 30 percent of the corpus, a maximum of 40 percent can be used.

22. Log on to, log off from, logon (adj)
Use log on to to refer to connecting to a network and log off from (or simply log off) to refer to disconnecting from a network. • Do not use log in, login, log onto, log off of, logout, sign off, or sign on. • An exception is when other terms are dictated by the interface. • Use logon only as an adjective, as in "logon password," not as a noun. Examples • You are prompted for your password while logging on. • Reconnect when you log on to the network. • Some networks support this logon feature. • Remember to log off from the network. Nonexamples VIMAL JOSHI only_vimaljoshi@yahoo.co.in 47 of 54 •

• • •

You are prompted for your password during logon. Log in before you start Windows. Remember to log off of the network.

23. Three-dimensional, 3-D (adj.), twodimensional, 2-D (adj.)
Three-dimensional is preferred, but 3-D is acceptable. Spell out at first mention. Use 3-D in tables and indexes and where space is a problem, as well as to reflect the interface. Hyphenate both the spelled out and abbreviated versions. Use 3D (no hyphen) only as specified by product names. Two-dimensional is preferred, but 2-D is acceptable. Spell out at first mention. Use 2-D in tables and indexes and where space is a problem, as well as to reflect the interface. Hyphenate both the spelled out and abbreviated versions.

24. Soft copy
• • Do not use soft copy; it is jargon formed by analogy with hard copy. Instead, use a more specific term such as electronic document or file.

25. Global
In technical documentation, global is acceptable to refer: • to memory that is accessible to more than one process. • to a variable whose value can be accessed and modified by any statement in a program (called a global variable). • to similar elements that pertain to an entire program. Do not use global in end-user documentation, especially in describing find and replace procedures. Instead, describe the action being taken. ExampleS 1. A cascading style sheet establishes global design formats. 2. Use the Find and Replace commands to find all occurrences of specific text and replace it with different text. Nonexample: Use the Find and Replace commands to find all occurrences of specific text globally and replace it with different text.

26. Abort
• Do not use abort in end-user documentation; instead, use end to refer to communications and network connections, quit or terminate for programs, and stop for hardware operations.

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Abort is acceptable to use in programmer or similar technical documentation if it is a function name, a parameter name, or otherwise part of a name in the API. In general text, use another appropriate word instead. EXAMPLES 1. To end your server connection, click the Disconnect Network drive on the Tools menu. 2. Quit all programs before you turn off your computer. 3. To stop a print job before it is finished, click the Cancel command.

27. Boot
• • Do not use boot in place of start, or restart to refer to turning on the machine Do not use bootable disk. Instead, use system disk or startup disk. However, it is acceptable to use boot disk in programmer documentation.

28. Upper left and Lower right
The words upper-right corner or lower-right corner (as adjectives) need to be hyphenated as adjectives. Examples • upper left or upper right (noun), • lower left, lower right (n) • upper-left corner • lower-right corner •

29. Uppercase and Lowercase
• Do not use uppercase and lowercase as verbs. • Do not use uppercased or lowercased. • Do not use the gerund form of these terms. • When lowercase and uppercase are used together, do not use a suspended hyphen. Example • You can quickly change the capitalization of all uppercase and lowercase letters. • Change all the uppercase letters to lowercase. Nonexample • You can quickly change the capitalization of all upper- and lowercase letters. Lowercase all the capital letters.

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30. Special Characters
• Do not begin a sentence with a symbol. In addition, spell out the character when used as general symbol (i.e. not used in a syntax or a formula), followed by the symbol in parentheses. Nonexample & is the symbol to be used for... Example Use an ampersand (&) for ... • Refer to Appendix B in the Microsoft Style Manual for the pronunciation and names of various special characters.

31. Enter and Type
• Do not use enter as a synonym for type except to indicate that a user can either type or click a selection from, say, a list in a combo box. Example 1. Type your password and press Enter. 2. In the File name box, enter the name of the file. Nonexample 1. Enter your password and then click OK. 2. At the prompt, enter the path and the file name. • Use type, not type in or enter, if the information the user types appears on the screen. An exception to this rule is that you can tell users to "enter" a file name, for example, in a combo box when they have the choice of typing a name or selecting one from a list. Example 1. Type your password at the command prompt. 2. Enter the file name in the File name combo box. 3. Type the path to the server or select it from the list. Nonexample 1. Type in your password. 2. Enter your password.

32. Memory
• • • • • To avoid confusing users, refer to a specific kind of memory rather than use the generic term memory, which usually refers to random access memory (RAM). Use the more precise terms RAM, read-only memory (ROM), hard disk, and so on, as appropriate. It is all right to use memory for RAM if you are sure your audience will understand or if you have established the connection. In lists of hardware requirements, however, use RAM. Follow the standard guidelines for using acronyms and abbreviating measurements such as kilobytes (KB) with reference to memory.

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In the noun forms referring to memory measurements, use of in a prepositional phrase, as in "64 KB of RAM." EXAMPLES 1. 800-KB disk drive 2. The Help files require 175 KB of disk space.

33. Microsoft
• • • At the first mention of Microsoft products, use the full name, such as Microsoft PowerPoint. After the first mention, you can shorten it to just PowerPoint. Never use the acronym MS for Microsoft with a product name. Two products always require the use of Microsoft, Microsoft Project and Microsoft QuickBasic.

34. Appears
Use appears as an intransitive verb (that is, a verb that is not followed by an object). Example • If you try to quit the program without saving the file, a message appears. Nonexample • If you try to quit the program without saving the file, a message appears on the screen.

35. Displays
• Use displays as a transitive verb (that is, a verb followed by an object). • If necessary in context, you can use the passive form (is displayed). EXAMPLES 1. The screen displays a message if you do not log on accurately. 2. A message is displayed if you do not log on accurately. Incorrect 1. If you try to quit the program without saving the file, a message displays.

36. Crash
Do not use crash in end-user documentation. Instead, use fail for disks or stop responding for programs. In programmer documentation, crash may be the best word in certain circumstances, but it is computer jargon. Example (for programmer documentation) • Although unaligned pointers degrade performance on 386 and 486 computers, they crash RISC-based computers.

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37. Acronyms
• • • Use only commonly accepted acronyms. Refer to the List of acronyms and abbreviations (Appendix A) in the Microsoft Style Manual. Ensure that the capitalization of the acronym or the expanded form matches the capitalization stated in the course manual and/or Microsoft manual. This should also be reflected in the wordlist. Abbreviations or acronyms must be spelled out the first time they are used in each topic, with the acronym in parentheses. Use the acronym after expanding it at its first occurrence.

EXAMPLE Java Virtual Machine (JVM). • The pronunciation of Java Virtual Machine (JVM) will be “Java Virtual Machine, also known as JVM” • Use either the acronym or the full form consistently, but do not use the two interchangeably within a chapter. Examples 2. A computer’s BIOS (basic input/output system) controls the power-on process. 3. Files in HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) format can be read by any Web browser. • Form the plural of an acronym by adding a lowercase “s”. Examples PVCs • Use articles according to the usual pronunciation of the acronym. Consult a dictionary if you are unsure. 1. A BIOS (buy-oss) 2. a MAPI protocol (map-ee) 3. an NLM (en el em) • The pronunciation of the acronym should be clearly specified in the wordlist. If it is to be pronounced as a single word, underline it. If the letters are to be uttered separately, underline each letter with a separating space in between. EXAMPLE • SAP • NTFS

38. Floppy and Floppy Disks
Do not use floppy alone as a noun to refer to a disk. It is slang. Distinguish between floppy disk and hard disk. Use disk unless you need to distinguish between floppy disk and hard disk. Do not use floppy alone as a noun to refer to a disk. It's slang.

39. Sample Frames/Text in a CBT
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Overview frames of a Title (Course) containing two modules:

TITLE Module 1 Module 2 FRAME 1st frame: TEXT Welcome to the title ALPHABET. In this title, you will learn about some letters in the English alphabet. This title contains two modules. The names of these modules are displayed on the screen. In the module ABC, you will learn about the first three letters of the English alphabet. This module contains three sections. To view the content to be covered in each section, click on each section name. GRAPHIC Alphabet • ABC • DEF Alphabet ABC • A • B • C DEF Alphabet ABC • A • B • C DEF • D • E • F Graphic: same as 2nd frame.

2nd frame:

3rd frame:

In the module DEF, you will learn about three more letters of the English alphabet. This module contains two sections. To view the content to be covered in each section, click on each section name.

4th frame:

You looked at the course overview.

Section Overview TEXT First one/two sentences talk about the relevance of the section. GRAPHIC List of topics

FRAME 1st Frame

• Practice Sample Text: You can now practice the procedure learned in this topic. • Section-end Practice: First frame Sample Text: You can now practice the procedures learned in this section. • Section-end Practice: last frame Sample Text: You practiced the procedures you learned in this section. VIMAL JOSHI only_vimaljoshi@yahoo.co.in 53 of 54

• ROP (Read-only Pop-up text) ROPs can have bulleted text and Notes. Sample Text (at the end of an ROP) Click to close. • Feedback in Mastery and Quizzes EXAMPLE 1. Correct. 2. Incorrect. Try again. Nonexamples 1. That is correct. 2. That is incorrect. Try again. • Note Do not have content under the label Note in the main text box. Note can be used only in ROPs. Convert the content into a tip or into the content of a new main text box. • Summary Sample Text: Section name: Summary State the task (and any other key content, if any) covered in the section in complete sentences in a bulleted list. (Follow the formatting/punctuation guidelines given in the Bulleted List section elsewhere in this document.)

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