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purpose systems The basic of arch¡teclure support higher layers ¡sto the ln manycompanies, oftheenterprise archit€cture. thesoftware hardware and portion theenteDrise's assets is important a significant represent of It total lhat enterprise afchitects not equate do thejrduties withthe obiects, the applications,themach¡nes comprise domain. fundamental or that their The purpose to support further business ¡s and the object¡vestheenterprise. of and obiects fundamentally are Hardware software transient exist to and only further purposes business. the ofthe Systerns architecture is alsoused partof theprocess keeping as of the goals enterprise architecture aligned thebusiness andprocessesthe with of organizatlon. irnportant understand technical lt is to the details theinfraof and within butalso hav€ knowlit structure theapplications running to the with edge participatetheprocess architectural to in of change theenteDrise architectural That team. involves followingr the . Defining structure the relationships, assumptions, views, and rationales theexjsting for systems architecture thechanges and in relationships, assumptions,rationales are views, and that involved in any changes required moving what tovhatis desired. for from is . Creation nodels, guides, of templates, design and standards in for üsein developing systems the architecture. fof As Letussetth€stage lu¡ther discussion focusing Canaxia. paftof by on , Maiorbusiness at information technology functionality canaria pointed is divided thatwere, in Myles out, among silo-applications Myles inter' was threedecades Here, ago. some cases, created vice who are rupted an executive president asked,'You not by going tell usthatwehave rew¡ite replace to of these applicato that We tried Myles firmly replied hehad tions you? have that." are Rather than any applicat¡ons. no plans replace of lhe legacy to going break down silos gettheapplicathe and replace, was he to other tions talklng each to ¡ Theterrorist the attack that completely destroyed worldtade recovery the ÍIont on centerin NewYork Cltyhasput disaster a architecture are issues crucialto disbumerfor Canaxia. Systems plan of architecture aspects asterrecovery {DRP}. systems fThe planning discussed in thischapter.) part As later datarecovery are Myles the side of hispresentation, briefed business onthesystems plan recovery that hadbeen sed¡onof a disaster architecture developed thearchitecture by €roup. . Myles discussed issues storage. asked He the the surfounding then data that, that executives realized at therate Canaxia's storifthey would equal the were rising, 200ó cost storage by the of age costs kom in The silence theexecutivesthe cunent budget. stunned lT fol roomtold Myles thiswasnewinformation theexecutive that for Myles saidhewould ask then also them theirsuppo in team. gaining fufthef a competitive costs thereby and controlling those advantaee Canaxia. for

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Canaxia Kellolamess has engineering Canaxia's of enterpse architeclure, lames Brings brought board architect, firstonein Canaxia's an on an the history. A¡chitect on Weare sitting on a seminal in meeting some Canaxia's with of C-level and Standish, new the architect. is bein€ He introduced to Board executives Myles
a semi-skeptical audience. beMyles's in thismeeting establish lt will task to the value Canaxia systems to of architecture by extension,systems and, a As was ior afchitect partof hischa¡ter Myles given oversight responsibility recommended changes thephysical in infrastructure fortheapplication and structure theenterprise means will be panof the a¡chitecture of That he as evolves team Canaria N,lyles begins rer¡arks giving quick his his by a rundown ofwhat research has uncovered thestate Canaxias about of systems architecture. The discussionproceededfollows as . Myles part that noted a large ofCa¡axia s fixed assets those like of mast lafge co¡porations. theapplications machines is in and that comprise Canaxias systems afchitecture corporations The in Canaxias business environment best that manage systems their architectures willtheieby a competitive advantage Cain . Henoted themaiority thebudget theinform¿tion of that of technology department is srvallowed bycosts related Canaxjas to llTl AProclicol Guld€ . ¡nlrastÍuctu¡e p¡esent most these Atthe time are lf of costs fixed lo Enleryise Canaxia togain aeillty managinginiormation wishes any in its tech. Alchileclure nology resources. have putinto systems it will to its architecture the necessary e[Íort. attentio¡ sharply , time. arrd to reduce costs those

compaamong high-profile The recent flurry bankruptcies large, of feporting on lhe rules of nieshasledto theimposition stringent These companiestheUnited in States owned toptierof publicly reporting capabilities from afmost real-time financial rules demand to is subiect the ITdeoartments. Canaxia oneol thecorcolations told manstringencies. bluntly thegathered Nlyles newreporting financ¡alsystemtooinflexible provide was to agers thecurrent that set and the anything than cülfent ofrepons that fastest more the Myles stated next that reports betufned is monthly. can out those would a highpliority his on financial reportin€ be accelerated This nods the agenda. blought from executives. into of up that l,y'yles brought theissue visibility thestate also ofa is an component complete Canaria's infrastructure important infrato a view ihebusiness. intended build reporting of Myles managenent and that line structure aflowed managers upper-level so could ascerintellicence disposal they attheir to have business impacting imporinfrastructure negatively was tainif thesystem's ln the ofhis metrics, asorder such fulfillment. back tantbusiness Archileclurs antiquated systems archi- Sysl€ms was that mind, l\¡yles certain Canaxias customcrs 3 ofsome the of dissatisfaction tecturewas rootcause the

were feeling about automanufacturer knew bringing the that He perfotmance theexist. met¡ics ofthecompany's infrastructu¡€ into (Bl) ingbusiness intelligence system animportant was component in restoring customer satisfaction Ievels. The cumulative impact thousands lowlevel of of decisions encumhas process with bered Canaxia an infrastructure doesn't that seNe business pu¡chase needs yetdevouÍs majofity thelTbudget. many and the of In cases, we¡e decisions made because technology 'neat" "thelatest the was and iust thing.'Under tenure will stop," my that Myles stated firmly"We talkinc are proiect about toomuch far money allow to that. Movin€ forward, v¿ellthe how with process, its return in'/estment matches theunderlyinC business and on (ROl) determine thesystem will where infiastructure Coes.' budget Then subiect money-the the of budget issue-came "You not up. are expectingbig increase budget accomplish this,areyou? a ¡n to all No money available budget is fof wa3 increasesany of size,' l¡yles irformed. Herespondedpointin€ thatthesystem by out infrastfucture entefof an pfise be should looked asaninvestment: investment. at a flajor aninvest, value ment whose should increase time, asanobiect with whose value not depreciates. underpeforming need berevampedreplaced. The areas to or growth, cost-reduction Theareas represent that income, or opportunilies need bethefocus. to Both Afterthemeeting, Kello Myles greatly both and felt encouraged. hadbeeninvolved ente¡prise in architecture and e[fotsthat hadfaltered failed. They bothknew theprime that was reason thefailure an inability for process keep to engage C-level the managers thearchitecture in and them involved. meeting This made cleafthat, fafasCanaxias management it as top was concerned, issues increased the of financial ¡eporting, disaster recovery andcostcontainment on the shoÍtlist of concerns. andKello were N¡yles would knew they that have support needed buildtheirafchitecthe they to would ture They knew thatarchiteclure have translate fulalso that to into fillment Canaxia of s business concerns.

the and the to aswell ag¡nC disruption thestakeholders. asmanag¡ng pieces partsThegoalis to improve process cteating selecting new the of and/or The thern systems. and of applications theprocess integtatlng intoexisting payolf to reduce operating byimproving efficiencytheexistthe of lT costs is inginfrastructure.

Additional Architecture Concerns Systems
when to take The following some are considerat¡ons intoaccount b!ildthc inga systems afch¡tecture to support enterprise: . Thebusiness prccesses theapDlications, and machines, netthat concern the of work supposed support. is theprimary to This a¡e needs to Hence, architect an systems architecture enterprise. foran ptocessestheapplications and büsiness to map allthecompany's it. mapping should infrastructure is supposed suppoft This that to lr all requi¡ements. the levelof business be taken down lowest pelcent between business lequirements likelihood, 100 fit the a andtheimplementation notbepossible. will . Any ofthe pan Aleas compromised. overall architecture isbeinc that architectures data and are thatoftensuffer thedataandsecurity quality. dataarchltecture because don'thave the suffers users The the oi and to knowledge expertise understand effects thei changes is architecture because suffers security often to procedure. Secuíty integlitysufData viewedbyemployeesasanunnecessarynuisance. people pressuredproduce in less and time to more fers because ate onthe are theproper cross-checks data notpelormed. . The involved, architecture. people The in the stakeholders systems includ¡ng following: the o The architectule individuals have who created existing the o The peopl€ that managing enhancing alchitecture and taskedwith people thebusiness will beaffected positively and o The who in alchitecture by changes thecurentsystems in negaiively any partners othet o The that and enterprises have business's tradin€ o[ functioning continued and existence a stake theeffective in thiscorporation o Anycustomerc withdirectly theInternet dealt over will a impact on of The needs concerns thestakeholders have lafce and change how and successful what bealtempted a systems ¡n architecture can anv architecture new willbe. . The encoÍtpasses. I¡ lhis context thenew that system architectufe realities which in systenls ú0rt¿xl to theglobal enterpfise lext, refers that to find lf you arch¡tects themselves. rea company is limited a you're will and single country, Ianguage, currency, thecontext probis corporation, its and simple. Canaxiaa global ably relatively be

Architectural Aoproach Infrastructure to
view It is importañt take holistic of alltheparts a system ali to a in and theitinl¿raaliakt. p¿th We suggest themost that effective to understanding a systemto is builda catalogue thei¡t¿dr¿¿J syster¡ of the exposes thero¡tr¿¡¿lssys' or the tem fulfills Focusingthecontracttheinterface it much on or makes easier to with move away a preoccupatio¡ machines programs move from and ¿¡d to on functionality thesystems provide that a focus theenterprise must Taken higher theárchitecture thecontract up stack, should directly the map to busiprocess thesyster¡ that obiects supposed are ness to enable properly, When creating implementing systems and done a new archiAProclicol Guide tecture changingeristing involves or an one managing pfocess which thc by loEnlerprhe the achieves newaÍchitecturewellas manaCing the as the Archileclure organization that assembly components make that of'the up architecture lt involves man' 4

Archileclure Syslems ¡

stakeholders many ifferent speak d languages liveina variety of and timezonesi its corporate thus culture a complex of many is mix regional ltures. cu Thisdiversityonbalance, is, factof that a positive increases Canaxia's competitiveness. . The data which systems with the architecture oeats.

Working Existing with Systems Architectures
Allcompanies nothad single person group has conhave a or that had sistent oversightthebusinesses of systems architecture. is thesituaThis tionthatMyles found himself Canaxia's in. systems architeciure wasn't planned company gone yeafs The had through ofgrowth without spending any serious or effort thearchitecture aDplications, time on of its network, or machines Companies have had systems that not a architecture consistently applied during €rowth thecompany probably whai the of will have is known a stovepipe as uchiLcturc. Suboptimal architectures characterized hodgepodgeequipare bya of ment software and scattered physical plantThis throughout company's the equipment soltware obtained short-term, and were for tactical solutions to problem themoment. thecoporate of Interconnectivityanafterthought was at best. Stovepipe architectureusually result large, is the wellplanned ol proiects were that designed fill a specifjc to functionality theenterprise. for These systems quite will often mission be critical, thattheeffective in functioning thecompanydependent them. of is upon Normally systems these involve anapplication thehardware funs The both and that it. replacernent of prohibitively these systems usually is conside¡ed expensjve. A numbe¡ of issues accompany stovepipe architecture . The process lhey systems fitrvell thebusiness don't with that ate tasked assistjng can due any thefollowing with This be to of o The process to build application software design used the ir¡perfectly ring business captu the requi.ements duringthedesign Dhase ¡ Theinevitable change business of requ¡rcments busiasthe nesscompetitive s landscape changes See Chapter Methodology 5, Overvlew, Chapter EnteDrise ó, Unified Process, Chapter Agile and 8, Modeling, mole for depth software on develoDmerlt Drocesses. Themonolithic design most of stovepipe applications maki¡g it difficult rationali¿e to processcs discrepa¡cies between busjness and application functionality The data integrating theentenrise model, not vith data usually due voc¿bul¿rf fo'rn¿t. d?t¿ ¡t oñary to d.to or d is\ue(

. Stovepipe not designed integrate to appllcations definitely being of application inteintoa larger system, ¡t a result enterprise be gration (EAl) supply-chain managemenl. or . It isdifficult obtain information intel. necessarybusiness foI to the process management. ¡igence business or . The system of and marriage application hardwardoperating thatis partof some and applications creating maintenance a stovepipe applications a having infle¡ibility results stovepipe that in upgrade (TCOl. high totalcost ofownership archiof systems Many times ¡suseful tr€at creation entelprise it to the problem. thebeginning, should you divide In tecture a domain-deflnition as you areas. will set the theproblem soasto exclude less-critical This allow to your Thls additional benefits on aleas. canyield concentrate efforts crit¡cal ptoblems sometimes themselves or become moot solve because smaller can you information seNices big while arelanding really fish.In themodern the ln a time be that is world, onlything is constant change. such

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reTypes Architectu Systems
a a slate toldto cleate newsysar,d Few afchitects b€given clean will Myles an Like architects, inherited existtems architecture scratch. most from with and who ingarchitecture, asthepeople arecharged supporting aswell and the systems ii and cies enhancing thefullsetofdep€nden among existing that depended them. must emphasized on lt be theparts ofthecompanythat personnel valuable is an tesoufce. ¡nfrastructure extremeiy theeilisting js afchiiectule ihei¡ types Followingan en0metationthesystems of work then with and to strengths, weaknesses, how b€st theh / LegacyAppllcatlons

can with characteristicsbeextremely Legacy applications thefollowing problematlc: . A monolithic ofa o[!rrocesses design. Applications consist selies that lvellwith others in mann€rwill play not con¡ectedanillogical 'green . Fixedand inflexible usel interfaces chalacte¡-based A use¡ example a legacy interiace of interface a common is screen (ul).lntelaces asthese difticult replace browservith are to such applications or into based interfacesto integfate workflow . lnternal. a¡e These definitions data hard,coded definitions data to and often specif¡c theapplicatlon dont confolm anentelp¡ise to Archileclure themcaninvolve Syslems Fufthermore. changing datamodel approach. applications refactoring downstleam all

AProclicol Guide lo Enlerpfise Archileciure ¡

a . Business thatareintemal hard-coded.such situaIn and rules in by to rulescaused changes business t¡on,updates business all to processes inventorying applications locate therelerequire affected components. rules vant business andlefactor¡ng . Applications storetheir own set of usercredentials that efforts integrale to can credential stores block Application-specific and single sign-on to with the application technologies enable management. identity quite have discarded' a fewhave applications been whilemañy legacy applications legacy to thepresent time Thesurviving forward been carried difficLllt impossibly vital and willusually both to theenteQrise considered be to andexpensivereplace legacy involved Much was situation. of itslTdepartment This Canaxia's the controlled cafmanufacturmainframe applications Several applications. (ERP)was the 1990s. planninC from eally lesource The incprocess. enterptise in was system, firstcreated a and Theinventory ordefsystem, mainframe (CR[¡) was application management relationship The 1985. customer financials ptinciples legacy The and recently deployed bujlt on modular concern immediate was for application Canaxia of mofe and Securities that was Canaxia oneof the 94t companies fell under it team (SEC) 4-4ó0, thearchitectufe knew so Exchange Commission Order than much more detailed thesysreports were financial that hadto produce produced. temcurrently The requilernents archi" these would support not financials The existing approaches, take knew it could oneof thefollowing that team tecture . It could linancial application. replace legacy the . It could into application a data pedorm from extractions thelegacy the to warehouse the datanecessary satisfy newreporting of fequ[ements. and at was application Iooked long hard the financial Replacingexisting ihat kncw if it The with risk was Considerable associated thatcourse team by the offailure have route, decidedcothereplace it would to reduce risk to areas were that had the levelHowevet, team other it costing outat a high lo all going require resources. it did¡ot want spend jts a¡d subst¿ntial to situatidn thefinancial feportirrg capitalon to applicationdo would the allo\v legacy extraction solution The data

is ptinciples theenteDrise of the accordingto accounting accounts not applications, granulat financial function legacy of tlreprlrne t0 access data. in will . Ld hocque¡ying,The in thewarehouse be avaiiabie dala userscan drill into accolding cubesthat muitidimensional of the lightens butden producing This to theirneeds. greailv reports. whatis necessary' principles onlydoing of . Accoldance agile with the implementlng datawarehouse to Youonlyhave wolryabout the to necessary produce desired the andcreating applications that the assuredthat financialrepofts theuser rest can reports.You and when needed in the to is cornmunityaccustomedwill appeal they accustomed fom to which are he foundat Canaxia' that applications Myles In termsof the legacy he themintactln particular' was100 to with concurred thedecision leav€ intact application financial the to percent the behind plan leave legacy financial for a to andhe moved impl€mentdatawarehouse canaxia's information. lt was withmanagement option was warehouse nota popular The data Rol notnegative' At onepointin move a clearly defenslve andhada low if proiect, architecture the of the discussion thecostof thedatawarehouse gullible and of were in and in team gene¡al Myles particular accused being any to area explore t¡menew is a valid This n€w toward technology" biased team the on brcught boardHowever' architecture had is technologybeing with ol the state costs thepfoiect and diligence could done góód ofdue a ¡ob as as was of theploiect kept small The of a highdegree confidence scope The the decreasing riskof lailure' alternative possible, substantlally ihereby and mole was legacy replacingthe application substaniially expensive move, the it wastfuethalblinging financial Also' of degree risk. ca(ied; hiehe; synergies of the opened possibility future data data theenterprise model into l¡ of the increase ROI thedatawarehouse general substantially thatcould cla' ¿re islhat applications they extremely with news legacy the terms, good ate secu¡ity usually and rvellPhysical data they do thev what dovery bleand ¡ expect They inflelible ale is Less excell€nt satlsfylngthatthey extremely to thell outputModifications producevery specific a lnput very specific and appliof the cases burden legacy task ate usualiy u major lnmany behaulor ro¡e) discletroñary i" thal is suppoft oneof thereasons so I'tlre calron lT in available most budgets. They applications mllst withlegacy to will Most a.chitects have wolk lhcil by strengths nlodilyrlrT lnh'rvr"l thel¡ to on ways o(plolt concentraie tl'ey aad they on and focus theconllacts lulflll theinterf¿ces 'arrcrf'Jse a¡ld unexpected unintcnded can in anyoneapplication have Changes Such in an applications olganization situations to the consequences other Ai degree to functionalitya high application legacy isolate thatyou mandate you to decomposedthepointwhele will been poini, function have a some to at This Archlloclure and atlits willunderstand inputs outputs isthelevel vhich extel' Sysloms functionalitY legacy nalize

r is wlr iril i. , u. , ir lloil, , ingwh( nr lt r it { to ( l o i 0 gl 'l l r ( '( l ¡ l ;Irn i n l ¡ {. l i r l ) l ) r o ; r i l l l lollowing, buys Canaria.the . N,'tuch it g¡eater LJsing responsiveness a datawarshouse teporti¡g iin3ncials view an is possible ploduce accurate of the(ompanfs to basis on a weekly oi the ol prime Reconciliation chart functions datawarehouses of

AProclicol Guide lo Enlerprhe . Mo¡e granular ofdetailClanular access datais oneoftho to level Archilecture

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7 Cllent/serverArchltecture >. applion effort a client into Clienvserver architecture is based dividing which which and application, fulcation, requests o¡ a service a server data can or fillsthose The and requests. client theserver beonthesame different popu, filled hole machines. architecture a definite andbecame Clienvserver va¡iety Íeasons. larfora of On was in of Access knowledge thebigd¡iver therise clienvserver the to users given data, they the but wjth applications, were macro level, mainframe which esse¡Ievel, came it down reports, to wanted On knowledge. themicro lt to view of easy getthestanda¡d tiallyarea particular on paper data. was data view from To setof reports themainirame. geta different of corporate Also, wete for ofthe could months thepreparation fepo¡t. reports tunon take not schedule. a standard schedule, ontheuser's of was big in Costsavings another factor the initialpopulafity cost applications. [4ainframe computers in thesix-to seven' clienvserve¡ cheaper to that figure range, do theapplications runonthemIt is much as desktop. something runs theclient's that on build buy or a factor. Normallythe cheap network technology alsowas The offast, rise connected by machines, client theserver and applications on separate are neirequires a good Hence, beuseful, to clienvserver some of a network. sort (LAN5)to enable localarea networks workOriginally, businesses constructed these netwolks. a¡chitecture ableto utilize \¡,as file sharing. Clienvserver and wide networks networking grown include alea has to Ente¡prise {U/ANS) Ethernet 3.4Mbs and token Bandwidth g¡own has froml0 Mbs theInternet. an with Ethernet starting make to Mbs ringnetworks 100 Ethernet Gigabit to of while has so the appearance. bandwidth grown, has number applications jssue is on network. Network congestionanever-present for chatting a given architects. of led and clienvserver architecture to thedevelopment marketingsome part powerful very applications have that become integral ofthe an desktop world.Spreadsheets personal are corporate and databases two desktop that become ubiquitous modern inthe enterprise. applications have of a application development tapped contributions the Clienvserver who at not Corporate employees large numbe! people we¡e plogrammers. of without burdenall levels developed rather some sophisticated applications inganlTstaff. revolution pretty has r¡uch The initial that hype sufrounded client/serve! facts it died downlt is now very a mature archilecture following about The nave emergeq: . The in a¡ch fe turned supDort involved clienyserver itectu have costs A number Pcshadto bebought of out to tje considerablelarge applications curandsupported. cost keeping The of clienvserver distributing releases applic¿iions new ornew rent ofphysically and A Proclicol Guids that them as to all thecorporate desktops requrred came a shocl: loEnleprise anothef one lT Clienlserve¡ applications are to many depaments Archileclure portion most budgets lT is a of of the¡easons such large that to devoted iixed to costs

. Manyof the user-built were applications not well clicnvserver data' the models in thepersonal used In deslgned.particular, data in Inaddition, a signif' completely unnormalized. bases often were were not data the in nümber cases, data th€desktop stole of lcant percent 100 clean. . Thehugenumbers th€se applications the pasitrendof and of to for difficult an alchitect made decentralization it extremely them. and locate inventorv has into penetrationcllenL/seRef applications corporations ol Therapid sp¡eadsheets. At especially helper by been expeditedclienlserver applications, data isthe hierafchy, spreadsheet premier analythe alllevels ofthecorporate of integlationspleadtools the development allow di¡ect sistool. clienvseNer of client. importance spreadsheet The ¡nto sheet funct¡onality the desktop for replacements when functionality betalenintoaccount architecting must spreadsl'eer is ln most cases, ifthe user expecllnc appllcatlons. clienvserver to it will capabilitiesanapplicetio.,, have bein anyreplacement. in team ln alchitecture was applications, theCanaxia Infegard cli€nlserver to inthe oflarge thesame as oosition mostarchltects coQorations followingwaysr . canaxia a large to applicationsbesupofclient/server had number ported. would to Furthermore, applications have besupported the years thefuture. into formany . cana{ia sti¡ldoi¡gsignificant appliof amounts clienvserver was to develoDment. wereiust enhancementsexisting Some cation proposals entirely iocused developing on but applications, several applicat¡ons. nev¡ cl¡enVserver . oneof theDroblems Myles withclienyserver alchitecture has that application a paron a on€-to.one:particular is thatit ¡sbasically a servet usually database desktop talking a particular to ticular of for do€s This server architecture notprovide gfoups colpolate The time. application the same at the resources access same to in to the team architecture wanted move corporationthedilection savings scalability and applications thecost to gain ofdistributed provided. thatthey on some ofgrip Canaxia's sort that toget The architecture knew it had team could approaches betaken lt knew client/seryer applications. thatseveral . lgnofe for appllca' approach those This them. istherecommended characteristics, tions have following that the to to expensivemove o A¡ecomplex would difficult be and/or and architecture. thin-client is not meaning application the o Have small base, usually a user anlTPriolity. ¡¡ a maintenancesteadt n Are much stabie. is,dor'tlequire lhat of that usually meaning suppo¡t th¡sapplil stfeam updates, of drain is cation nota noticeable onthebudget.

Archil€clure s)'slems tI

o Involves even Attempting produc€ a to funciionaliry. spreadsheet powef would a be small subset a spreadsheet's ln a thinclient of pfoiect. thiscase, suggest accept' In we very and difficult expensive (GU interfac€ l) benefits that ingthe that rich fact the graphicaluser solution. are brings thespreadsheet to thetable theoptimal PCs on and Puttheapplication a sewer turntheusers' intodumb version 2000 latel.is and Windows Sewer, Microsoft terminals. rnode. allows lTdepan' the inmulti.user This ofoperating capable on by applications theservet justproviding ment runWindows to the machines attached it. Putting to updates individual to screen clienvserver the on makes job of managing application a server easier seveÍal of applications orders magnitudes of of the into Extract functionality application a se¡ies inter. the application a set of compointo Turnthe client/server faces. jnto can nents. Someconponents be incorporated other broken into lf the application been has applications client/server pieces,canbereplaced at ol it a piece a time, thebitsthatare leaving the drain yourbudget be replaced on can thebiggest rest functional. still

approach to a team canax¡a architecture decided take multistepped The applications of its library cl¡envserver to thern be" . About thirdof theapplicat¡ons fellln the 'leave clearlv a but be They category. would supported notenhanced be would I Between andI t pefcent theappl¡cations no longet of I0 suPPorted. using for . The ate applications candidates leplacement a rema¡ning architecture. thin,client is discussionsthe in that one matter is oftenoverlookedclienvserver a scattered thfoughout databases in thedesktop data enterprise sequestered with when approaches dealing the several among one choose buslness. can stores: data in data corporate contained user important . Extract fiomthedesktop move intooneof thecorporate it and it Connecll!iry vla Database access Open Usels obtaln databases. then applicatio¡s (ODBC) (iDBC] supported or into . ForthecllenUserv€r that aoplications atemoved thebrowset may necessary. be extladion distributed is atchitectulenota gocdfit for current While clienUserver lT corporate wo¡ldwe are in hasits place themode¡n it still apolications, As applications rathel monolithic interfaces than of advccatesusing staunch immediand onthebiggest most befoie, ¡ecommended con.entrate wehave ateofyourproblems.

AProciicol Gulde l0 Enl6rPise Archileclurc

in appl¡cations still thepreferred are solution many Clienyserver as requires a complex such that CUl, lf the situations. application produced Visual applica. Basic, PowerBuildeI, lavaSwing or a by to many things be donethatareimpossible can t¡onor applet, and in application, they fasler easiel and are duplicate a browser intensive Applications perform that to produce in HTML than to candidates. donotwant burden You computationexcellent are yourserver calculations useup youfnetwork bandwidth with or pumping to images a client. is farbetter giv€access the to It to lhat do Applications data letthecPU thedesktop thework. and on functionality bestdonein clienvservef are involve spreadsheet jn architecture. exposes its functionalitythe folmof Excel all (coM)components. components Model These common obiect and incorporated VBor N4iclosolt into canbetransparently easily ([¡FC) ln all Foundation Classes applications anycase, new intelfaces the to development should done be using clienVserver functionálity than lather monolithic applications architectufe. time, usuallv At this this Move them thin-client to them. is means creating browser-based applicationsreplace This to that an theideal approach those to clienVservef applications have the data lt impo(ant impact thecorporate model. has imporon con' tantsideeffect helping centralize dataresources to the of in tained theaoDlications

¿ Thln-Cllent A¡chltectüre presento approach decoupling 'lhifi-clie(ithitectur¿ popular is one 4t were rehash a tfir and logic dataOriginally cli¿rh frombusiness tation As terminal the replacing dumb with computing a browser of time-shale the in has the architecture rnatuted, somecases clienthasgained responsibility. costs the in hidden have applications substantial clienyserver Asnoted, themDrssatisfactlon and to Iheeffod involved majntain upglade fo¡m ol that factors ledto thecon' $,as costs oneofthemotivating withthese hidden all is architecturework per' systems With client." thin'client of ceot a "thin a serve¡ formed on isthat architectu¡es thc parts attractive ofthin-client of One thereally no and by is componentprovided a thirdparty lequires soltware client a in The on of expenseeffort thepadofthebusiness servel, thiscase web from aesponses and to up seryes content uSers'browsefsgathers seryef. applior the run them. aDDlicationsoneithel webserver ondedicated AII on All cationservers. the data ale on machines the businesss network. Archlleclure Syslerns
lt

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problematic Thin-client architecture several has areasl . A thin-client architecture produce lot of network can traffic. a pa¡ticularly a When connection overthe lnternet, the is via modem, round-trips the client the server become from to can unacceplably Iong. . The a¡chitecture Web initially ofthe was designed suppo{ to static pages page When next the fequest a static for comes theservef in, doesncare t about browsing the history theclient. of . Controlofwh¡ch browserused access thin-client is applica' to the tionis sometimes outside control lheteam the of developing the application. applicationonlyused If the is within corporation, a thebrowser beused bemandated theITdepatment to can by If parties over Internet, theapplication isaccessed byoutside or the a widespectrum browsers have be supported. of to Your may choices thissituation to give functionality in are up byprogramming thelowest to common up denominator give audience or to bydeveloping formodern only bfowsers. . Users demand inte¡active rich, applications. isinsufficient HTML to buildrich, interactive applications. developinC cUI when thin. to client applications, developmenl muststrive provide the team what want functjonality users accomplish they for to iustenough and no morc. Agilemethods have correct the approach this to problem do nomore and thanwhat clients request . Data must validated. data be The input theusercan validated by be ontheclient if there problems thepage, user with is and, are the alerted a pop-up. data can sent theserverand by The also be to validaled there. problems thepage Íesent theuser If with arise, is to a message identifying theproblems where are. . The web most common development a¡eusually tools enhanced texteditorsN,'lo¡e advanced rapid Web development application (MD)toolsexist. however, such D¡eamweaver FfontPagei as and they lallshort some all on level, usually to thefacts they due that give only automate productionHTML they little no the of and or withlavascriptwith development help or the HTN¡L ofseNer-side
,r ,,crvhl:, 1!( ¡h(l ll:;1,:i) J¡v;i IrJll,rirlt,¡, lr ,r, lirv,r rvrr l)ir{lc., . Se^,er resources be stfetched Webserye¡ can thin A single can handle srr4xrsrng a nurrb0r conne(tions all it is serving when ul) of ¡rc st¡tra Webpdges Whcnlho sess becones lhe o|] ¡nter¡ctive, resources consurned a client risedramatically. by can

graphing, heavily ca¡ the especially typethat involves Dalaanatysis, invoives a fof new Each request analysis and thenetwolk theserv€r burden m¡y to Then to the triptosend request theserver theserver have gcl network are once the hosting database thedata from üsually thernachine úe data. All the processing arerequired create graph' to steps CPU-intensive in hand, gfaph Then time take operations lotsof server andresources thenew these as obiect such a GIF bulky as usually a fairly network, overthe to has besent can lhe and to and Ifthedata anapplication anallze display data be orIPEG. s to withthedata hisor helheart concan the ovelthewire, user play sent This Iequests canbe client other can tentandtheserver be leftto service aÍc\itccture of thought asa semithin-client phones personal asslst¿nts can (orsld' desklop lPDAsl be and Mobtle that have browsers youcanuselo allowintefaction They ered clients. thin the within enterpfise and devices systems these between mobile and the 'Iherise client created ability theexpectation has ofthebrcwser users and face unified to extefnal internal a expose single, thatbusinesses into applications the s legacy the bringing business this Inevitably, willmean archiinto legacy lntegrating applications thin-client architecture. thin-clienl t\at appllcalions legaqy Those difficult or tecture beeasy it canbevery can challenging pleviously bequite can areas the e)úibit problematic discussed can databases and that Those arefullytransaclional arebuilton relational application poft with often aneasier thandealing a client/server be and via systems interfaces obiect of funct Exposingthe ionality thelegacy baich' the Adapling asynchronous first is wrappering the essential step. Intemet span totheattention oftheaverage processing mainfiame modelofthe detail in this We can user bedifficult. discuss ingreater later thischapter

Value System to Enhance Architecture Using Systems
and evolve maintenance as age syslems they and Assoftware haldware can and them. Maintenance enhancement be change activiti€s enhancement to of üe lo used anopportunity increase value a system theenterpllse as and via architectule maintenance of thevalue systems The to enhancing key stovepipe to as is to enhancement usethechanges an opportunity modity your This and applications components willmake into aDplicationsleusable jr|il an(l¡)r ¡'l)L¡'c you lo bc mo¡€ because wllllhcn lrcc r¡odify systcm agllc it tc'rd addition !vLll In application rather the a few components than entire oflered hv flexibilily because greater the ptooftheapplication to 'futurc { lhr gte ly t he .omponentsw l l l at lnct ease chancc' l I xl\ lln{ llv r lL\ ! 'l l' asthey requiremenls change business able fulfill to allthe isby ihe to The place begin process understa¡ding contracts best that all we fulfills. ú0¡tfalls, mean theagreements the By thatthestoveDipe of ¿s it to that withapplications wish use Then part the nakes stovepipe via thecontlact an externalizes theStovepipe or maintenance, enhancement it application legacy witha rnonolithic is As interface thisprocess repeated lools somc (onsume Fot of lo fu¡ction a set components er¿f.ple as beeins ior an coBoL copybooksand produce obiectwrapper" the moclules Syslems ^rchrleclurc books. inthe descdbed copy

The keysto stro¡gthin'client systems lie architecture in application designForexample application issues of suchas the amouf,t informatiorl in carried session objects, opening the database connections the time a¡r(l a of can on AProclicol Guide spentin SOLque¡ies have big impact the performancea thrnlf is machine ii loEnlerprhe clientalchitecture the Webbrowser running a desktop on Archileclu16 be possible greally to up the may sDecd perfoÍnance enlisting compuir¡g by of t4 power LllcclLcl machiril

Messaging technologya useful is technology integrating funcfor legacy tions into yoursystems architectu¡e With messaging, information the required thefunction is putonthewire thecalling fof call and applicatjon (pseudosynchronous) about business either waits a reply for or goes its (asynchronous). Messaging poweful thatit ro¡¡y'I¿t¿lu is very in abstracts ihe calle! from ca¡led the program function. language which seNet The in the is written, actual types uses, even physical the data it and the machine upon which runs immatetial theclie0t. it are to With asynchronous messaging program even offline callsthesewer can be when tequest made it the is and will fulfillit when is refurned service it to Asynchronous function are calls veq/ attractive accessing applications. can when legacy They allow legacy the application to fulfill requeststhemode which is most the in with it com[ortablebatch mode. Tobeofthegreatest utilityobject wrappe¡s should exposelogical a r¿l of theunderlying you functions think willfind We thatexposing funcevery tionthat monolithicapplication waste time effod funca has a is of and The tionalityto exposed be should grouped logical be into unitsofwork, that and un ofwork what it is should exposed be whatis thebest to expdse functionality? creatine way this when an w¡appet maio¡ object the consideration be themanne¡ which should in your plan systems atchitecture indicates thisinterfacecontract that or wiil beutilized. effort The should made minimize number network be to the of taiDs. Wrappering depends distributed on object technology its effectivefor ness. Distfibuted obiects available are underCommon RequestBroker Object (CORBA), Architecture and by usingMessaging lava,.Net, Oriented (MOM) Middleware technology. Distributed obiects uponan effectjve rely network int¡anet, WANI operate or to effectively. llnte¡net, In addition inc¡easing value a stovepipe to the of application to other segments enteprise, olthe exposing components application prothe ofthat vide following the opportunitiesl . The possibility ofsunsettlng st¿gnantobsolete or ro!ttnes tn€ ¿nd inc¡emental replacement of them components makes by that more economic to theentemrise sense . Thepossibility plugg¡ng an e)(isting of in component ls lhat cheape.maintainplace theIegacy to in of application foutine. . Outsourc¡ng func|onái¡ty appllcation provider (ASp) toan seNices lftheintedace ispropefly designed. application any accessing interthat face bekept \'ill totally ignorant ofhow business the contractbeing is ca¡¡ied out Therefore,extremely it is importantdesign prope¡y Cana¡ra to them The group an architecture has o¡Coi¡g proiect define to interfaces iorlegaq.applicat¡ons import¿nt and client/server applications were wf]tten that ¡n,house APfoclicol Guld€ The pl¿ce st¿rt best to when seeking understanding interlaces añ ofthe I-0 tnlerpflse c¿n defrled ¿napplication thesoutce buttheuser that be lrom is not code Archileclule good manuals Another source knolleclgea lecacy of of application,s con, ló

what know who its customers' users, usually exactly is tracts theapplication! its rules to is supposed do andthe business surrounding the application availis for documentation the application occasionally Useful operation. point, themore but at code to the Examining source has bedone some able. the easierwillbe iobofdecigathered the beforehand, fasterand information the phering soulce. data fol and protocol a setofagreements specificationssending is A netwolk protocols in usetodayLetsdiveintoa are network Many a over network. with this familiar usedio helptou become quickoverview protocols of decisions inf[astructule informed to domain allovyouto make

Network Protocols

TCP/IP
protocol is 1¿lPrcIacal ControlPtotocal|l^te IICPllP) the net'{ork Ttat$nissiaü use the thathas widest in industry. culrently systems . TCP/lP protocol stacks lor all operating exist in use. protocol and robust reliable It is anextrenely disparate between that which means it canbesent It is routable, networks. the Even systems Nelware alloperating forfreewith It is available protocolSPX' TCP/lP offe¡s network very home oftheonce popular protocol. to in addition its proprietary develhas functionality b€en suite security of robust Anextremely via oped communlcationTCP¡P fof other TCP/P Several by communlcationandlatgeuses Internet will They over protocols beandareused thelnternet can nelworl communi the However, lnternet later bediscussed in thisseclion. lP and all protocols SMTP, FTP use HTIP, HITPS, cation webseN'ces TCP/IP use . Messaging use Prolocols TCP/lP and . All remote such communication, asDColúlavaRML obiect CORBA use can TCP/IP

Subnets
w¡lh othetApetsan drcctly each ol subnett segrnen! o new* kot concomñlnicole orc Nef¡/ar|t añ wíth dircdly oll lheothetcon,pule5 lhol subnel con ano subnel coñmunkote net súnphry subnels nask by Prcpedtes orcvil inlr subnels thesubnel pono{ke TCPIP ta ond ¡@ odmi4tsrcton conbeused prc¡desecu'try' on wlh lo rcquie rcutets connun¡cate canlputes ollel subnets on Conpute! diflercnl sobnels

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Sys'ems Archllecluie

TCP/lP a suite protocols on a fourlayer is of built model: . Thefi¡stlayer the network is inteíace. These the LANtech. are nologies, asEthernet, RinC, FDDI, such Token and ortheWAN technologies, asFrame puts such Relay, Serial Lines, ATMTh layer or is frames andgets onto them thewire. off . The second is thelPprotocol. laye¡ tasked encaplaye¡ This with is sulating intoInternet data data€rams. ¡uns thealgolt also all rithms routi¡gpackets for between switches. Sub-protocolslP to are functions Internet for address mapping, communication between and hosts, multicasting suppon. . Above IPl¿yer thetransport This the provides is layer. layer the actual communication transpoft protocols in theTCP/IP Two are suite TCPand UserDatagram Protocol These be will {UDP). explained in greater inthenext detail section . The topmost istheapplication This where applicalayer laye. is any tionthat interactswith a networkaccesses theTCP,4p P¡otocols stack such HTTP FIP¡eside theapplication Under covas and in layer. the ers, allapplications useTCP/lp thesockets ptotocol. that use Sockets canbethought astheendpoints thedata of pipe of thatconnecis applications. Sockets been have builtjntoall flavors UNIX of and have been padofWindows a operating systems WindowsI, since 3 see Figu¡e l-2 protocol the actual Thetransmission is mechanism daradelivery of between applications. is themost TCP widely proused thetransmission of tocols theTCP/IP lt canbedescribed follows: in suite. as . TCP a packet-oriented is protocol Thatmeans thedataare that splitintopackets, a header attached thepacket, it is sent is to and f¡flrc l-l
Appllc¿llon

. .

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p'Jt has process repeated all theinformation been until is off.This onthewlr€. ihe requires proiocol TCP a connection-or¡ented in theta seryer ¡s information transnit it to to client connect It befote can is whena packel sent guaranteed delivery lo TCP aitempts offer then The a keeps copy. sender waitsfof an acknowl the sender lfthat machine. acknowledgebytherecipient of edgementreceipt Aftel is time, in isn't ment receiveda ¡easonable thepacket lesent will the a lo of number attempts transmit packel sender a certain an give andreport error up once the sequence packets they providesmeans propelly to a TCP arived. have all level a to feature give basic ofvalprovidessimple checlcum a TcP and header thedata. to thepácket idation in in will guarantees packets bereceived theorde! which lhat TCP were sent. they

place yet an TCP/IP it has import¿nt in lP much than less is UDP used of thefollowing, because communication a do . UDP Servers notlequile connection infotmation. btoadcasts server sit a¡ld car via A the over network UDP UDP data to send to rega¡d and such information asthedate timewithout broadcast is whether notanyone listening or that from to . IJDP nothave built-in facilities recover failure the does preventspartica failure, such lf TcPhas. a problem, asa network applica' the the from ularapplication receiving datagram sending TcP is delivery necessary' that lf rellable know tion witl never to will application have provide or be should used the send¡ng nature UDP of unreliable the to overcome inherently mechanisms TCP than . UDF faster requires overhead less and is data packets TCP large and tor . Typically, is used smalldata for UDP stleams.

Protocols Other
llansporl

Protocol

APrccllcol cuide loEnleprise Archiloclure

Network

ts

streamed All like technology Ethernet data network MM is a high-speed size cells. constant of thccells into down 53'byte The over are ATM broken capabilitics transmiss¡on higher issues can switching and p¡ovide simplifies between a connection TCP/IP Mbs Ethefnet. establishes 100 thanl0 or even set a a circuit fixed establish but mach¡nes, it doesn't and sender recipienl of will which thetlaffic gofortheduration thesesall through cf machines physical loute the to conditionsmodify actual network allows TCP/IP sion. and robust sell TcP/lP This a during s€ssion. makes will thatpackets take transor of problems thecase video voice ln of in healing theface netwolk Archlleclure pa the between comrnunicatingies Syslems a to have connection it mission,is best over can that. ,ATM provicle TCP/IP besent ATN'I can t9 and

protocol hasemerged Multiprotocol Another that is Label Switching MPLS competes ATM that it allows establishment with {MPLS). in the of paths labeled between sende¡ thereceiver ability establish the and This to paths made has private MPLS inte¡est thecreatorc virtual of to of networks. Unlike ATM, is relatively with¡.,1PLS it paths easy to establish across multiple layel transpoÍs Ethe¡net FDDI. also 2 like and lt outpelorms andoffers ¡'TM very path some useful control mechanisms. AT[,,], Like MpLS lp to send uses data over lnternet the

to pointof viewconverting vó system and a From hadware operat¡ng that on Thlsis based lhe facts all the maior to close cost'flee canbevery vó and bullt have systems vólP stacks intothem thatadding sup' operating update a software only such no,tto deuices asrouters lequires lt issue concern is a of is another of exhaustionthelP namespace The sucn lnnovations exhaustion is space facing that fact thecuÍentiPaddress the the (NATI postponed daywhen last have translation address asnetwork to lPv4 vó from tla¡sition time buying loranotderly is addtess assigned,

Translation Address Network
TheemergenceCigabit of Ethernet implementations provided has enough bandwidth allow raw to TCP/IP Ethernet compete ATM over to with forvideo olher and bandwidth,intensive applications. Thebigquestion consider TCP/lp whether utiljze to about is to lpv4 which released back 1980, to move was way in or towatd lpvó many lpvó. has featuresimponance infrastructufe enterprise: of to the ofan . Virtually unlimited address space. . A different addressing scheme allows that individual addresses for every device anenterprise in everyvheretheworld. in . A fi)(ed headef length improved and header format improves that theefficiency of routing . Flow labeling packets ol packets allows routers solt to {Labeling packets st¡eams, into making Tcp/lpvó much more capable than TCP,/IPv4 ofhandling stream-oriented such VOlp video traffic as o¡ streams ) . lrnp¡oved (Secure secuity privacy and communtcatlons atecompulsory vó, with meaning allcommunicationsina secu¡e that exist tunnelThiscanbe compelling somecitcumstances in The inc¡eased pfovided lPvó goa long toward security by will proway vidingSecLlre a Cyberspace.)
Ia in,¡de business ail thot is Neüotkoürcsstonslolion o Eúnology albv'a compLrets o to be ond t¡i t"s ol p a¿""es thotáieprivote cannot rcuted thelntenet iii inuii rhe i5 q canfit¡1noi possible on íi*"1 iiut" oi¿iiirt .*ot tu seen theina¡net oddrcss wlh to is oürcsstonslatot connectedtl''elntenel 0 os thot nothine is octing thenelwotk lP usingiheptivole canputes b os and tp -oddress oals o roulet allav\/ náÁol. routobh on¿Lselhelnleñet to lo addrcssesconnecl

to devrceslhe inconnecli¡8 imProvemenls incfemental numerous lPvS contains ¿nd sp¿ce lre dooressr¡8 ol expansionthenaming lnrernet enomous lhe t0 lo on dwice thepl¿nel becon¡e(teo for it th¿t chanees make possible every o¡ly For formosl are revolutionary enterP'isescanaxt'.nol c¿n thel;ternel üuV vr¿ locarlon to be one in machineevery ol itsplanls con¡ecleda cerlr¿l everv rts can of th¿t subcoÍnponenl m¿chine h¿ve ownc0'1br¡ evely thátnternet. wilhó via can niaán.Áii.áo* dt ¡t"atehbuses bemanageo thelnternel lnelr c¿fs conne( s¿Les dealers Gnarta c¿n connection, selling secute lntemet C¿¡a{i¿ lo a depalmenls cenlr¿l and their rüeit ¿ep¿,tments, sérvice io-oa pans f¿cility. manaBement to is to enterprise IPvó notgoing becost" of converslonanexisting The protocol stacl( an may systems nothave lPvó of versions operaling hee. Oldet ln their perhaps necessitating replacement a laEecorporallon available, wilh seamlessly vóvill will applications work thai ascertaining all existing with lPv4 coexist vó But theory can a substantialundertaking.ln orobablybe that to r¡ith to that wesay if youhave mixlPv4 vó youwill have plove there ploblems. arenocoexistence when as be the We recommendfollowing used a template conlenlplating to aonvftsionIPvó i¡ternational firm . tfyouareasmall medium'sized vithoutany ot vLll Inany manciatoty c¡seyou it presence, until isabsolutely wait of vóon to getbywith implementing theedge thenet' Leable lust you with whe¡e intedace theIntelnet work, or cofporation a lilm thathasa large . I[ youarea multinational you fofaddresses should lnteÍnet that of number devices need look and planstartat theedge a[vays fot a mulate vóconvefsion Archilsciure Syslems 2l

Secure Cyberspace
1 ] t' ln | l!Nl| | ¡ t' ' I1 \I]l¡ lw¡ ]¡ ,1 lfllty| | L xt[L ]l .|](t^h|'L|u|¡'kj |.n|]l l l !1|!|J|l h||l 'u¿j colastaphK events a nucleotwat. Ihe nlrcsltuctue, úe netpan, js secure as hon otto.k. Hawevet,lhe sttuctue aí the lnte.net prcvides secunq/ o single no for node,rcutet,ar (jm. pulet connected lhe lnletnel la Unprote(ed canpüte9 orc the key to one al the Eeotest cune tlveotsto the lnternet: den¡al.alseNtce ottocksIhe alhersarc wotns ond ernailv¡ruses eat up bandwidth. that govennent hosauthned natiornls¡alegyIa prctectthe tntenel.fot detoits seethe a A Procllcol Guido TheU.5. drcftNpet entiled "NotonolStrctEy to SecueCybe\poce,al wwv.whjtehouse.gav/pcipb l0 Enlerprh€ Archilecfure

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application you shouldhave incompatibilities.course, of exhausted options such using as nontoutable address€s along lP withNAt . lf you decjde convert, altheedge tryto practice justdo to start and in-time conversion techniques. Because its size of andinternational reach, Canaxia formulated has a strategyconvetolPvó efforlwillbe to The spaced a decade. sta¡t over lt will atthe edge, whe¡e Canaxia inte¡faces theIntetnet with WAN. with and its New sjtes bevófrom very will the staf.Existing wil¡beslowly sites with migrated, this effortnot due to beginlor another years. applications five As are upgraded, replaced, or purchased compatibility IPvó bea ¡equirewith will mentas much !s econom¡cally as feasible. Canaxias atchitectu¡e is team (onfident c¡isis occur no will anltime thenext yeats to lack availin l0 due of able Internet add¡esses.

Systems Architecture and Business Intelligence
lfyour enterprise ontopof a distributed heterogeneous runs infraand the structure, health theinfrastructu¡e vital thesuccessyour of can be to of In business.thatcase, architect need provide the will to visibility the into status theente¡prise of systems. ability provide real-time The to near data perfolmance on system to business customercclitical. is Followingan is exanple' . The Web seruer up 99percent thetime, was of which means it vasdown 3 hours month. 7 last What happenedsales cusof to tomer satisfaction those du¡ing hours? thecustome¡s t lf didn seem care. to should spend money goto 999 percent we the to u p t¡me ? . The seNer up, what theav€rage to deliver Web was but was time a page? vhat did custorner satisfaction likewhen pa€e look the delivery was slowest? time the . How the about nerwo¡k'? of thesystem stillon l0 ¡,4Bits/ Paft is second wiring. oÍten lt afflicted packet How is with With storms? \¡/h¡t othor v¡ri¡blcs those do storm times corÍelate? . Part these¡vrce isexperlr¡enting wireless ol staff with devices to gather dataon problem systems What wastheirproductivity

an after in for be It should possible a managel ma*eting' receiving angr-v f¡omsysto client, drill intothedatastream from complaint an important between is and the underpinning enterprise seeif there a correlation tems with needed work to the the thetimeit tooklo display webpages customer that of several thetimes Perhaps of andthesubstancehisor hercomplaints. was wherlhis cuslomer with co¡ncide times was theWebserver down tloullle spots W¡thout fÍomall thepossible data to attempting dobusiness. oftheproblem the to pin it willbeirnDossible down lealsource dataof the to the ln most organizations,tools monitor health networks overinto are inf¡astructufe notplugged theenterprises bases, theWeb and provide that applications either stand-alone They usually all Bl system. are ng - loalog apar t iculalsyst em or dum pPver yt l' snapshol srntoth ehealt hof scripts are basis. at thatis looked onanirregular oftenthey littlehomeglo\'n problel¡o¡ theya¡e a to together solve palticular throrvn or applications less and wete simple¡ much when systems much lhe f¡om inherited thepast interdependent. system pelform¿nce [o¡ indicato¡s your with impo¡tant Start themost utilization bandwidth or hits they Perhaps arepage persecond percent oiyou!entel" the first. into lntegrate data theBlsystenl Pelhaps segnent lhis bustness aligns pnse a¡chitecture withoneof thecrmp'rnys infrast¡ucture il ¿nd outptrt plesent lo the metrics unitsFittheDelformance to theunits u¡it. makers vour for decision time is planning fora new system anexcellent to buildperforstage The oitenare New inio its architectufe systems met¡ics measulement mance as regafding metdcs such set using conceived a¡ optimistic of assumptions you online, comes whenthatnewsystem úptime. and Derformance system how to the lo for willbegfat€ful theability generate data ouantily acculate becomes the crop were. theinitial assumptions lf problems upwhen system when ploblen the to you the ope¡ational, will have datanecessaryidentify fingertips. liesatyoür

Level Service Agreements
attrib' (SLA5) of level Service agreements area folmalizationthequality in a exte¡nalized docLlbeen that and utes availability pefforrnance have of lo morc becomc vital buslllesscs and mentAsinfrastructu¡eapplications guaranteew¡itlng. in assets of that they demanding theprovidersthose are Sl.As reqtlires afea and that thelev€ls performancestability thebusiness of h¡s ce of how manifeslation lmpoÍtant ainlTfun(tion¡lity luonx'lo lrro\l' processes. ernbusiness about cafefully the is part with The crucial of deallng anSLA to think e to it. are to metrics requiredsupport lfyou requlredprovideI'tge"spon<e page nse you to 3 timeunder seconds. willhave me¿sure resp( tilles o' ¿nd when limes !¡,hat happens lesponse detenor¿te youcdrno But course gathered data the have your At meet SLA? thatpointyouhadbetter longer .tf Svslems Has occurred theolerallus¡€e out necessaryfigure whytheproblem to Archileclure is Web architeclute where existing server the to thepoint thesite increased ,¡

ln temt ol quohly otlnbules, lallovling lhe liguesfor uptirne rctote o\,alob¡t¡ry: to , 99percenl pet uptine yeotequotes J.65dop ot dowttrne. to uplmeequates .365doys 8.76houts to pet ot dawn yeot. A Procllcol Guide 99.9percent upttreneons thesls.ten dat^n ñore thon m¡nutes .ny thol is no ¡n lo Enleerhe. 9999percent 52 Archil6clufe g^enteat. ,

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overlo¿dedr,what memory onthe does thc usage seNer like? examlook For pte. garbage lava collection a very is erpens¡ve operation. reduce fo gffie srte runnrns p¡or,r.r, e)(amrne rava lava the code the in ::l:,tl:l :':

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The botton isthts: line When plannjng systems rne architectute will you , h¿ve thinlbeyond metric theaB; to the In

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-Ihe conven approachto attach stofage tional is the devices, usually ,,.. directly hard dnves. tothe machine isdirect This attac¡.¿ito"C. to¡sl u;áüln excettent forsjtlarions which choice in tight*.ri,v ,r"rii1 ,riiüi..j in rlresronce device. do"wnsidet¡a it ¡s tts r io ::::]T andmaintain !::, upgrade upgrade a¡ise ""pensjue costs more from t¡..ortr.,ri.1ulio move applications datafrom and ;;-il;;;;;;; l::::^*^fl1"ll1 to thenewer. devi(e f¡om btgger "td;; tothestora;e than thecosts related :evlcl Inaddirion, sror¿Ce rhis nechanism ir ditfi.ul, uri""Omakes ,o l::'::.],:"tf,*,rhe s-e¡¿gs or tt-eorsani¿ar.on ¡651. areandro m"nage ;il::.".j,l area netwotks fSANs) basically offe¡ unlimited .Storage sto¡age is thal d rJÍnB dara lransfel : :,lill such Tl "¿rnrdrnL,(t exrremety,Igh.spee(J l":l as nrernod\ FDDI .r pors.ble remove rt to t¡"""1g. ,"d¡rlr"r;i;ii connectionthecornputefs to backplane without af..tinj p",ior.rn* iañ, *,lpiise-lev€t sroraee jse..v,oir*c. .nd; rhat ::::i:.-:i:.i::t c,;* r.SeNis a large operation requires that tiorougir .o-11 1l?,.r:n,ine ;rJiLoj.orr cosrsHowever, ROt mos( A Proclicol cuide :1.:ll._,,:lr-llil rr,t subsrdntr¿t the fo. loEnlerprlse Afchiteclure

upgrade enhance and tl.e storage devjces. problem.wrth costs that storage is thereal to theente¡pnse cost , ,,One hundreds ts ntdden In orthousands ofplaces Uurin"rrar Vort rpgol" ltorrCu a machine and-¿ drive a time This hard at resufo ,.0*, áil,n¿ruJ, "oi in purchases never rhat showup as lrne¡tems rhe rT on :T-"]! il.!rÍil: depa¡tments budget Figure see l_3 is notthatyou aoopr particulaf a arch¡recture ,,^,l!: lil"n:* ig,.t but

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Systems Archltecture Storage and The majority vast ofbusinesses data s

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If themachi¡es beconnected geographically to are remote, diffetent stora€e architectufe is required. Nelwo* attached (NAS) storage devices ¡ow-cost, a¡e very-low_rnaintenance devices provide that storage donothing youplug NAS thenetand else. a into wo* turn on. it andyou havesto¡age. and Setup maintenance are low. costs very theonlycost¡sto relocate ex¡sting, the attached storage theNAS. to These devices pefect increasinC togeograph distributed are for storage ically machines. The maio¡ determinantchoosing fof between andSAN NAS should be thedata storage architectu¡al Thefollowing helpyouchoose design. will between two: the . Disaster recove¡y stro¡gly favors because theease SAN of with which can distributed large it be over distances ofthis As writing, fiber exte¡d to 150 can up kilometers miles) without amplifica_ {95 t¡on. ¡¡eans dat¿ beminored This that can transpatently between devices are kjlometers miles)apart that 300 (190 . Di\tributtd p{rrfo¡n.{r be cr wilh ts S^Ns . The iollowi¡g functjonality SANs: favors large applications " Very database o Application duties server . File storage defjnitely favors NASS. . E¿se administ¡ation tie.In thejr of is a ownways, storage both solutions easy admjnister a NAS, plug intothe are to With you it wall intothenetwork youhave and and stotage. work in The lies pa itioning storage. the moving onto device, pointing data the and use¡s thedevice to SANs requite a bitofup"front quite design and setup. once but online, adding storage ve0, is simple more and transpare¡t with NAS tha¡ a . High availability ispretty much tie The a SAN mirror for can data recovery, theNASS have and all hot-swappable drives a hard in MID5 configuration. . Cost favors NASS. costs Initial foranNAS storage installation are about one,fifth cost a sirnilarsized storage the of SAN installation Howeve¡ ongoing of a SAN usually than a the costs are less for simllar l hisjs.lue thefollowing NAS to factofs: . Stailing afeless to thecentralization storage costs due of the devices makes task ¿dding This the of stotage quicker much ancl eas el : ll¿rd\lare are costs less. is spent slot;tge Less on delices Less (lrsk space ¡eeded a SAN ts wjth because afemore thcy €lficient iñtheutilization ofstorage Normally. slorase average SAN lvill ;5 to 85percert utllization while utilization sonre for NASs stüaee devices bel0 to It pe¡cent. \,ilL AProclicol Guide . llN jnl¡¿st(rcture spe[dingless. loEnlerp is se NASS accessed the are over net\vork. backups usually afd Archilecluro are conducted thenetwork over This increasenenvork can if traific force costly ¡etrvork upgrades 26

mission-critic¿l databases that thc has Canar¡a a SAN hosts company's physically to of data.Poftlons that dataare mirror€d datacenters and each campus In center itsetf. addition, campany flom removed theopention of of numbers rackthat consists lar€e file-storage facility hasa cenlral to ale sewers connected the SAN NAS Mostapplication mounled alIays. rate,but the costof continue growat a steady to requirements Stofage been cenas dropped thedalahave has this administrating storage actually NASS. onto and tralized theSAN various that lt is architectures. impcttant Nlost ofyou us€ mixof theth¡ee will a to and for a¡d architecls beeasy managerscost by ihismir beplanned your to iustifv ploviding of plannincnotabout backup a comis while recovery disaster the of can panys chosen make task protecting data, slorage the alchitecture lt and cheaper easier materially th€ data and¡ecoveringenteDrise stolage jn (DAS) robust as stolage direct attached effoft lvilltake significant to make such alchitecture, asa sANof a storage of as theface disaster disfibuted

Related Interests

rilh is (a rccovcrypo\sit)|. ¡ ,vith Ouick fcwhoursl mirrorlng NAS remote architecture. SAN

SystemsArchltecttre Aspects of Securlty that on operation touches security a wide-ranging is Ensuring enterprise inte¡' to out As it area a business such. has grow ofextensive of aimost every team and management thearchitectule One between company's the actions archifirst of theissues has beonthetable is howto builda security that to 1s Si¡lce advantage seculity a companys competitive thatincreases tecture team architecture is the an enterDrise-wide endeavot inputof the entire the and a appfoach apply proper to fequired.is inpo¡tant adopt graduated lt spots theenlelplise. in levels theproper at secuÍity consists thefollowing: of cnterDrise secufity Effective policies . Effective, thought clearly seculity comnunicated well out, policies a com. Effective, by of these ¡mplernentation consistent pany thatis motiYatedprotect businesss security the to staff . A systems secuÍity considelatLons the thathas proper architecture level. built al every in rs to mattcrs discr.rss one enterprise sccurity ofthefiÍst When discussjng lof isaporopriatethat levelofprotection and $/hat needs bepfotected what to lllanfronl particular A useful of thumb beborrowed lr)ventory ca¡ item tule proper A into lerels B divides inventory management articles three agement provl' ¡ecuritl valuable extensile and are A items themost andC The level and Trade credit forthem. seclets, cadnumbers update are sions appropriate th¡t systems iusta fevol theitenls Nould Syslems are access financial to Archilecture anddelete considerations but to need be plotected, security be on anA Iist.B items 41

against C require litdefinitely to bebalanced need operational needs. ¡t€ms protection. a ruleof thumb, percent thelistshould tl€ or no security As t of l0 be be A ¡tems, to l5 percent should B items, the restshould c be and items. similar A analysis appropriate thesecurity is for aspects anenlerof prise's systems arch¡tecture.data The assets located machinesthatale are on partof its syslems archiarchiledure.addition, ln elements thesystems of tecture, asthenetwork, most such will ofte¡beused attacks thebusi, in upon vital oi ness's dataresources following a list of the maiotclasses The is in order f¡equency, must considered that be when security attacks, rough of part buildin€ security of thesystems the architecture: . Vi¡uses worms and . Attacks dishonestmalicious by or employees . Destructioncompromise impoftant resou¡ces to or due of the data employee negligenceignorance or . Attacks theoutside hackers from by . Denial-ol'service attacks problems. vast Viruses worms themost and are IT The comrnon security years maiority theviruses worms have of and that appearedthelastfew in do not actually damage thatareresident the computer hasthe data on that virus. However,thep¡ocess replicating in of and a themselves sendingcopy on mailing viruses wo¡ms list, and consumelalge a to everyone a corporate impact amount network of bandwidth usually a noticeable onproand cause vifuses been ductivity. thelastcouple For ofyears most have the common psychological viruses. exploit wellknown security vulemail They ertremely ne¡abilities businesss in a employees. ln addition, person group some or of pe¡sons cofporate in infrastructure will comsupport berequired monitor to puter viruses to immeand news daily theappearance email sites for of new get apply prope¡ prevent diately and the antivirus updates hopefully, to, the business becoming from infected thisnew by emailvirus Unfotunately, the state issuch defensesviruses only lor can current ofantivirus technology that becfeated thevirus after appears Themaiority ofattacks against corpolate andresources perpedata are your To utilize trated employeesprotect organization inside by against attack, thefollowine . . . . groups clfecti!e gfo!p'level permissions User a¡d p¿ssword policies pfotect Eflcctiv€ to accesssystqm to Íesources regular ¿udits Thorough. security Effective logging security

group designing policies Assigning to theproper use¡s and security thatcompletely, restricts totally access only data resources to the and the AProclicol Guide group its is requires perform functionsthefirst of defense to line against lo Enlsfpriss Don to who attacks inside¡s t forget remove accountsusers have by the of Archllocluro leftthefifm

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on anolher fol effecarea For those enterprises stillrely passwords, that passat architecture is effective level tivesecufity Intenention thesystems policies. addition mandating use effective passwords, the of make word In to orwell-known such are sur€ noresources, asdatabases, leftwithd€fault that passvords place. passwords user thatareused applicatjons by in All and lDs form, to access systems resources should keptin encrypted notasplain be method ofauthentication textinthesource Passwordsthecheaoest code. are passwords assigned users, passwoÍds the be ifstrong are to andcan effective writedown theirpasswords afechanged a regular on basis, usefs and don't passwordthey if to one Users reasonablyexpected remember strong can be basis. a of use password at least daily that on a since multitude applications we In most envitonments, recommend arepasslvord-pfot€cted enterprise system logon name user thatenterprises standardizewindows on operatinc every othcr ¡s for and andpassword the standard authentlcation ¡equire This as applicatlon theWindows use authentlcationits authentication. can service bythe or mak¡ngcallto thewindows a security beviatheapplicat¡on ticket system appllcátlon accepting a Kerberos fromtheoperating ol have the malority enlerp¡ises a muhitude appliof Unfortunately,vast have As most usels that a name password. a r-.sult, and cations require user passwords passwords beused will times fifteen Some several a iive, even ten, cannot day, some willbeused couple a oftlmes yearoftenthecorporation a will seve¡alofthose, even standardizea slngle on usetname, theuser have so maintain written usemame and such most too.ln situation asthis, userswill a password The ls clairn is for cost,The lists. iust¡fication thissitualion always passwordall made that it \¡,ould too muchto replace the current cosl pfotectedpfogramswithonesthatcouldgetauthentication from thewindows the When with it is document operaling system. faced thisargument, usefullo passwords theproductivity by lost on and timeandmoney spent resetting job that need dotheir we to users arelocked of anappl¡cation they who oui per per you expect willdiscover intherange Sl0to $20 ernployee year costs of if that occur Those figures, coupled theknowledgethedamage could with of lists hands, r¡ightget youthe oneof the password fell into the wrong solution resources necessary to lnstitute single a sign"on can card and devices authentiDevices assmart readers biometlic such devices extremely allow süong using fingerprints retina and scans. These cate daily authentication methcds, aschanging thepassword or even such of passwotd afteftheyhave on right logged Thecostol changing user's the with is a¡d rquipping entire an enterprise such devices conside¡able.they lf onlygetyouintóthe operating system. lhe uscrhastcn p¡ssvo¡dprotected programs deal has withonce or sheis logged thedeljce he in. to you devrces with notbought much. Protecting A-level assets oneof these makes excellent sense. asingle and oi For maiority employees themaiority businesses. signthe of passwo¡d everycou' one onsolution theuserexpecled with to memolize stron€ pleof months adequate cost.effectilc solution is security themost and you vulne¡able what attacks exploit can where are and You need know to vulnerabilit¡es have runa security ¡¿leplan'ledo Ifyou not aud.t these syslems Arch¡l0cluro rhc ^ to consultants audrt enteprises *an, ro angrgu may ouiride so Large 29

entire firm. analternative, software As some packages effectively probe can yoursystem vulnerabi¡ities. might fo¡ You consider building a security up cadre individualsyour of in organization. would tasked knowine They be with and understandin€ cur¡ent alllhe hacke¡ aLtacks can mounted that be againsi systems ofyour and type withrunning security any auditing software thatyou purchase. might Finally, effective, tampefproof systems allow to detect audit will that vou anattack occurred willprovide withtheidentity theattacker has and you of Thisis where scrupulously removing expifed accounts important. user is lf Bob Smith left company hisuseraccount exists. account has the but still that can compromisedused anattackwith having clue towho be and in you no as perpetrated really it. Inany case cost implementingpatch thevulnerability the of the to has to bebalanced against se¡iousness threat theprobabÍlity the ofthe and that someone yourorganizátion have sophistication in would the necessary to carry such assault themost out an Lock important Ílrst. doors Inadvertent damageorcompromise to ofbusiness bywell-meanin€ data or rgnorant employees causes substantial business losses annually While this ofdamage ro mallcious type has component.results thesame the are as for a malicious attack. Inadve¡tent damage beprevented a variety can in of ways. Training firstandforemost. is When cofpofate new applications are bein€ brought online, is c¡ucial people willbeusjng it that who them are thoroughly trained. Effective providespositive Aftef appl¡train¡ng a ROl. an cation i¡ regula¡ is oper¿tion. tmportant expe tr is that enced oDeratorsbe given time resources the and to tra.randmentor operators. new Howeve¡. even best the programs not100 training percent are effective. also lt is importantio make thatpeople in theproper andthatthesecurity su¡e are foles parametefs ofthese are crafted people given least roles so that are the oppottunityto do damage without rest¡icting ability carry thei¡ their to out assigned f!nctions. trails Lrseful establishin€ what Audit are for exactly was damagedcompromised. thathas or Aftef been asce¡tained,therole it is of thebackups h¿ve applied this that been to data willallow to fecover that vou lror¡ sltuation the Hacker attacks high-profile that are events invariably become ite¡ns news when discovered.difficult accurately thesjze business lt is to oi losses iudge caused hacke¡ by attacks theInte¡net any ffom you ln case, have take to them se¡iously companies expect experience All can to hundreds low,level of "doorknob tattling attacks. as portscans against such run them. the in course a year thepositive thevast of On side. maiotity technical of hackef exploits wellknown themeasures are and necessary todefcai are them stanparts allcompanies' dard of Internet defense systems major The tesponse lhatha(ker atacks prompt you will is keepirg your all machrnes inside borh thefirewall in theDMZ pe¡cent to date secu¡jty and 100 up patches. on Any stratagem youcandevise stteamline applicationsecurity that to the of patches gtve youf wlrl company a slrateCic advanlage a comp¿ny over that A Prccllcol ouldg does allbyhand it or ienores problem the completely loEnlenrlse ihat the Arch¡lscluie Of the attacks canoccuff¡ornthe outside-fíom lnternetdenial-of-seMce attacks theleast (DOSI are common potentiallymost but the 30

DOS ¡nvolve recruitmerrtlarge the destruct¡ve. attacls ol numbe¡s outside of your and ization them flood of to with computersystemsthesynchron system a ¡rumber requests it either of that such large crashes becomes ol unable to to respond legitimate sewlce requests yourcustorne¡s. by Fortunately, to due effort thelarge-scale involved the partof theatiaciiers, attacks on DOS are and rare arenormally directed against high,profile targets. attacks DOS are difficult combat, it is beyond scope thisbook disto extremely and the of to methodsdealwith cuss to them.lt imponant. is though, ifyourcompany that enough lmportant and is large enough be a possible to target a DOS for you attack, begin to research to pul lntoplace now and countetmeasures to fend a DOS off attack. Allsecurity polimechanisms, asencryption applying such and security performance. cies, have impact syslem will an on Providing certificate ser, vices principles thedesign mstsmoney. applying architecture By agile to of part you substantially thissecur¡ty ofyour systems architecture, can mitigate these impacts. beagile th€area To ¡n ofsystems architectufe security design r,'reans applying theright ¡evel security iustthe¡ight of at time lt means iust being realistic your about companys needs limitin€ intrusecurity and the piovisions theapplications machines make sionol s€curity into and that up your systems architecture. enough security should applied give be to the Just maximum ROIand more. no physical Asa finalnote, notforget do security any for machine hosts that sensitive business There programs allow data. a¡e that anyone access with to a computer its bootdevice grantthemselves and to administrator rights. paradigm. Once more, reconmend 8.,and we theA-, C¡evel C-leveldata and g.level andresources physical resources nospecial have security. data have a minimal of security level applied. Aleveldataandresources, sugFor we gest setup security you containment alsoaudits lhat who exactly is in the roorn theresou¡ceanv lvith at time.

SystemsAtchltectü¡e and Dlsaster Recove¡y planning sometimes Disaster recovery ls tefetred as"business to contiplanning." forlheenterprise nuity DRP system infrastluctute major is a svstems architect responslbility. pueose DRP to produce ofplans deal ¿severe.iisThe of ls a set to with iüption a companys of operations. is independent modalitythe DRP ofthe of (flood, earthquake, disaster fire terforist attack soon).it involves and the following, . ldentification functions are of the that essential thecontinuitv for oftheenterpdses business . ldentification resoufces arekevto theoDeratiotr those of that oí functions, as: such o Manufacturing facilities o Data Syslems Archileciure o Voice data and communications

3t

o People o Suppliers o Etc. Prioritization of those fesources key Enumeratio¡ assumptjons have of the that been made duflng the process UKP Creation proceduresdeal of to withloss key of resources Testjng those of p¡ocedures Maintenance plan o[the DRp normally is a large project involves from that input every inthe unit comp¿ny sheer of tfe elfort Tl'e srze can ,.1. , *.rn p,"t,¡,ii"j¡, s.ve. isla¡gely money. DRP peÍect about disaster protection willcost"rp.ri anenormou-s,amount A disaste¡ of it. coupled ina¿equate with ¡np.an ¿eltro}, u n**ul theDRp process betit. uny will ot¡.,.orp.nvp,o.Éri :-o1Til size rn¡har the andcosr rheDRp of effo¡t beadi,ju.¡t" iit ,,l"illbi. .".l will p¿ny tesou¡ces To.provjdebest forthe the DRp a*ilr¡f" that an¿lysts correctlythefollowtrg: "rou,*r,,t ouital the ph¿se do . ldentifiesthekey all resources . Accurately prioritizes key the resources . That provide it accutate costing protect¡onthose fof of tesources . That prov¡de it accurate estimates probability destrucofthe ofthe tionol thekey resources oivenan accurate resource aralysrs lT/business canwork the team . together.to anaflo¡dable when build DRp costing Onlprogram. nái the Ao neglect maintenance plan the ofthe DRP plannrn€.lor enterptisesinvotve most wjll rhe , DRP of indtvrdrlal pJans a vanety departments coofdination ftom of We foc,ls C¿nax¡as on DRp andthep¡ocess itscreation of disaster planning (DpT) created team was and tasked with -_--Jnitially,-the Canaxia creatrnC a DRp pfocess. s architecture was co¡e of that group a part teamIt quickly became obvious Canaxia that

. Voice data anrl communicatjons. clependedtl)eIntetnet Canax¡a on for the communtcatlo'r necessary k.it';c;i;; ro ¡;;";;;^; departments. . The ente¡prise resourcc planning system totally {ERp) th¿¡ auromated of Canaxia! all manufactu,-ring ard supply actrvities . A^core group lTemployees haddone of that theinstallation the of Loss rhemanager twooi rhea.uurop.,, and *orta fe^s^y:T.i. negative 9j nave severe a iropacl thefunctionjngthe¡npsyster¡. on of Once critical resou¡ces been jdentified, were had tltey . divided th¡ee into calegor¡es: . Survival critical. Survival critical I

act¡/ities mustbe restored v/ithin h"r,, D;i.,;p;fi;;;;., 24 ¡nfrasttucture, and physical facilities iequirecl tf,"0.."p,",,.0,,i lo¡ otders themovement ccrmpleted and of vehicles ,nunrtuiiurfrorn ptants examples survival rng are of critic¿tl resources Canalia fo¡ . Misslon critical. Missio¡ critical resources fesources ¿fe ¿te that absolutely.rcquired continuednct forthe fu ion inc;i;;; i;;;;.. However, company livewithout the can these re;u,.", ;;;;;;;, weeks. . OtherThiscategory contajned the ¡esources couldbe all that destroyeda dlsaster were deemed ¡n but not to besurvival mis_ o¡ sion criticaL they lí were replaced, it woulcibe mo.t¡i", v..rr.ii", *ng".O,rheream arr¿ched a probabijity theresource thdt ,,,^.|YIll:r:n u¡available wourc become and cost protect Alltheassrmptrors a to it usJ rntheanalysis wefe p¡ase deta¡ledajlow i.di"dr.i, to the ,uJJ;;;;;: Ing DRp doa reality the to check thenumbers them. on given Docu,menting proceduresthat existing so others could o- lhefunc. ,. tate tio¡rng_of Canaxh key employees ¿ subst¿nttal oftheDRp was pa¡t Canaxt¿. irKe,many enterprises, neglected other had dorumentation long fora time. ihat

,eq1,ied ror survivar the ;';;:;d::;'i,"il:i;::;i i:i:lllXl

Continuity was IDBC) createcl Followingare ofthe some citicalCanaxia resources DRp thatthe identified: . Lngi¡e manulactu¡in€ facilities.eng¡nes theCanaxia AII for line of vehicles manufactured facility. were in one . Brake ássemblies. Canaxja a unrque used brake system available A Procl¡cot supptief supplier ro.rt.O'in por,ti.riiy Gutde That was u l::l^: :'l¡l: unstabte of theworld region lo Enlefpr¡se Archilscture . Data themountain 0l ofdata Canaxia that maintainedpercen,! I0 was absolutely critical daily to functiontng. Fu¡thetmote.45 Defcent ofthe data deemed was írrepiaceaore

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help s¿les C.n^io alr., Syslems Archiiecture *y:rt rule srronety that drsca¡¡¿gu6 r,]rc sel[,8 srri.c. ill"-?51Í : relationships source supplier 3inthe futurF

or setring and ijill l,.I.I:1" y* a"ne itstechnical points, ,r.rr.r;;; Kn€s,that to generic would moving brake not

resoufce aM critrcalityof ¡esource toss, the ,*,,* ,.. r*¡ i.l*,.,._",, ' rnerneassumpflons theanalysis from phase aciuraci for hry.",,obe mainta¡ned. sysrems As and business ¡eeds cnange, DRp "¡.^-1^Oll :ll will have be revised. some the to In cases, Onpneeds the can q:.':,*s. canaxia made decision rno_" the ,o ,o *...u, l:ll^ 1:'::: ora(e assembly could obtained a uarietyol that " be from sorrrces as Ciia

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l:!l::,l:yld decades oocumentation aftela system builtw"rld b" r;;*;;".;;'" was enume¡ate ot tesls w.lt a set rrdr r.to{.t-e conrpany have 1ll,h.*to theDRp to "."..:tjl^O-*l confidence in Ru nntnE

hi*,9 b"reclified ofrhe rn part DRp ,.nv."r..lproJr.¡* as

--

Werecommenditeralive an approach DRp to First thetopof thesur_ do vival critrcal all theway list through testing phase theexperience the Use gained thatpfocess make nextincrement focused effi, in to the more and cient. job T¡ying dotheentj¡e in onebigeffort cost time to risks and overruns thatcancause process beabandoned anythi¡g protected. the to before is There three afe important aspects emphasize systems to about architecturel COnCIUSiOn l. lt must align thebusiness oftheorganization. with €oals provide thestakeholders to perform func2. lt must what need their tions. isa two-way The This street a¡chitectuÍe should team take ¡esponsibility toestablish communicationsystems with architecture stakeholdersto understand issues. and their 3, Thesoftware hardware and infrastructurean entetp is a of se majof asset must manaCedprovide gteatest that be to the return onthat investment. The followi¡g should considered be assystems architecture ptactices: best l. Know business the processes thesystems that atchitecture is suppofting them Know inside out. and 2, Keep suppo¡t those of processes andforemost business fitst on youf agenda Know thebusjness andkeep busiwhat needs the ness aware your side of accomplishments. 3, Know componentsyoursystems the in architecture,the all mach¡nes, applications, connections,soon. network and 4. Instfument, system. is,install your That monitoring meas, and urement systems allow to findtheproblem that you areas and thebottlenecks 5. Attack cheap easy the and problems That build first will and help rnaintain credibility t¡ust thebusiness ofyour and with side company ó. Prioritize beproactiveyouarenotconstrained and lf to ptoduce immediate results identify ntost the inportant systems a¡chitec, tuÍeproblems attack and themfirst.even before become they problems Cood system rneasurements to being to arekey able problem inyour identify areas systerns atchitectu¡eto est¿b_ a¡d lirhthemost effective to dealwith me¿ns them 7. Know your all stakeholde¡s people The aspectsyour of systems ¿rchitecture least jr¡portant themachines a¡e at as as 8. Only asmuch buy security youneed. upontheidea as Cive of prioritize secu¡ity becoming invulnerable your issues A, B. into and lists C architectuÍe system a fa¡ilyofsystems one thc ofa or ha\ ol The software |' rnost significafit ¡mpacts thequality anorg¿nizaiion on of s entetp¡.sc architecture thedeslgn softwa¡e lvhi¡e of systems concentrates onsatisfying thefunctional requlremenls a system, design thesofrwarc for the oi archr_ tecture systems for concentrates the nonfunctional quality on or requircments syste.rns. quality fof These requifemenis concernstheenterprise aÍe at level. better organization The an specifies characterizes softvare and the architecture its systeins, better cancharacterjze manaee for the it and its enteDrise architecture. Byexpl¡citly defining sysiems the solt*ar. tec. arch tures, oreanization bebetter an w¡ll ableto reflect priorities tradethe and oflsthatareimportant theorganization software it builds to in the that The softwafe architectufea system of suppo¡ts most the c¡itical require_ for For if r¡ustbe accessible a . ments thesystern. example,a systetn from wireless device, if thebusiness fora system or rules change a daily on basis thenthese tequirements drastically thesoftware affect atchitecture the fo¡ system. is necessary anorganizátioncharacterize lt for to softwa¡e architectures thelevel qualities their and of that system s support lully to u¡derstand lheimplications ofthese systems theoverall on enterprise a¡chitecture Since book a focus a€ile this has on methodolo€ies intnort¡r)l it is to , d.s(uss relationship lhe between soft$are a¡chrlert.,rc,rl.LI¡Rrl, l. . -llr\.r. giesTherecent push software in development toward aglle methodologies such ext¡eme as (Xp) Programming {Bect lg99l, some in \vays counrels thc belief ¿nexplicit fo¡mal in and definitionsoftw¿re ol ¿rchrtectujp dutlc \,¿,tv methodoiogists thatsoftware asse desiCntheresult ire¡orrre is of reÍ¿ct'oringof a system deve¡opers a sufficiently by until workable design emerges Howevef,XPthese in iterative refactorings done a small, ate in easily unde¡_ standable conceptual framewotk thesysten for c¿llÉd (tstr,,r tl.e nr.l¿?¡fo, The system metaphor a simple is shared forhowthesystem story workslt consists thecore of concepts, patterns, external classes, and metaphors I E that

Software Architecture
Maps ¿ne|wage boldness. n' lú¿ (uptti l e ht,'ts Ihett Th.?U lr,UtÍ,ing p0ssi6k. mdft( seen ,To jenkins Timbuktu. Mark

A Proclicol Guid6 lo Enlen se Asarchitects with business toalig¡ team the side systems business with AÍchlleclure processes keep and them aligned business evolve, willget as needs they the 34 opportunity to develop in understanding skills thebusiness working and wrrh fina¡cial algo¡ithms calculations and

plays same the rolein thc shape system the beingbuilt.Thesystem metaphor software lt a development a system conceptual of as architecture. provides system vjsionfor the development the softwarc, it isthe goalthateach of and architec. stakeholder muststrivetoward. lo¡maldefinitionof the softwafe A metaphof, both playthesamerole ture is mofetechnical thanthe system but development. exte¡t to which The in providing centralconcept system a for of to a description the alchian organizalion needs provide formaltechnical it depends manyfactols. on Clearly, wouldnol becost" tectures its systems of for to architecture a smallnoncritical effective formallydefinelhe software to application, it wouldbe unacceptable nol forand depafimental softwa¡e telecommunicaarchitecture a highlyavailable of mallydelinelhe software need is and systemEach o¡ganization diffe¡ent hasa different tions software principle "lf youdont need it, software architecture. agile The of fo¡detailed architecture well as to all the other as then don t do it" appliesto softwaÍe partsof an organizationenterprise For s arch¡tecture. moreon agilemethods see 9, Architecture andarchitecture, Chapter AgileEnterpfise

deslgn dcclslons support deslrdsct of qualities thc systen a th¡t provide conshould s{pport besuccessfr.¡I. to The design decisicns a ceptual forsystem basig development, suppon. maintenance and Creating softwafe archltecture difficult is a endeavor, thesoftware and a¡chiof jobs project. or shemust TheRole tecthas ol themost one difficuh in a software He the have confidence all thestakeholde¡s. confidencebased a a Software of This is on proiects the respect the develope¡s track record successful of who Atchitect and of regard or herasa technical him leader architect beableto comThe must municate varied with constltuencies.or shemusthave He excellent design skills, technology andanunderstanding skills. of softuare enginee¡ing best practices. oÍ she politics He must abte ¡avigate be to through organizational to €ettheDroject correctly ont¡me. software done and The archiLect be must a leader,mentor, a courageous a and decision make. people great Atchitecture, life,is all about people. like the Creat deliver archi¡ecture,thereversekue. techniques and is The outlined this in chapter willgive archited great an some concepts tipsfordelivering architecture and great butthebest to trulydeliver wa!, architecture start is to withtrulygreat architects ln cartography, a single mapcannot lly characlerize fu a place. There many are kinds maps, ashighway of such maps, trailmaps, elevation maps WhyWeNeed bike and physical Soltware Each tiype explains describes and different aspects the same of place. Each is relevant a different or stakeholder family map to user The on Architecture vacation interestedhaving highway in itsglove is in a map compartment The cyclist needs bike map, a mountain the trall and the climber needs elevation map. addition,map In a do$n'thave bepelectly to accurate beuseful lf to given visitors WaltDisney a perfect scale of rid€s paths map and were to to world, would accurate somewhat it be and useful. How€ver, mapthatis the pretty pictures the actualiy handed at WaltDisney out World contains of interesting andthepaths notto scale. theDisney rides are World visitor For thismapis more interesting, though useful, it impans better and a understanding theiayout ol oftheparkthanca¡tographer's a mapwould same The holds in software lrue aichitecture. architecture is p¡esented the The that to end-user contains informat¡on is more less and interesting, focuses but on thécritical aspects thesystem theparticula¡ of that stakeholder community should understand. software The architecture is needed develooe¡s that bv can mo.e a cartographer's be like depiction thesoftware architecture. lvith of multiple outlining multiple maps the aspectsthesystem ñro¡e of in det¿il the of afchitecture to impart is an lust likemaps, purpose software u¡derstandingof thedesign thesystem thcre¡der. poi¡tofsofhrare of to The architectu¡e communlcate is to anidea. takes feader thesoitvate lt the into and explains imponant the concepts helps lt them understand important the aspects thesystem gives ol without and them feeling a system a for actually having see to inside it. Despite inventionsatellite we the of image¡y, are important. maps still picture Earth anylevel detail needThe piccan nowgetanexact of we of at tufes show rivers, oceans, moreaswellasthelayout Walt and ol Dis¡ey Sofwore Archileclurc World their ln exactine detail sl

Whatls authorsand fesearchers attempted defin the letm sollv'drc archil\lure. have lo e Software Following someof the mostnotable are definitionsl Architecture?
'"Ihe software is system the architectu¡e a prcgfam compüting of of compostructu¡e structures the system, o¡ of which comprise softwa¡e properties thosecomponents, the and visible nents, externally lhe of Len Paul rclationships among them;'Sah';i¡aft ñchil¿cluftPrdcli¿¿, Bass, ¡n and Kazman, Addison'Wesley, 1997 Clements, Rick

However, m¿ny No singlestandard definitionol software architectu¡e exists.

''An is decisions about organization the architecturethesetofsignificant and o[ elements their of a soflware system, selection the st¡uctural the with interfaces which systen composed, by the is toeether theirbehavjor the asspecified the collaborations in among those elements composi lafger tionofthese structuraland behavioral elements progressively into subsystems. the architectu¡al that guides organizationand style this elements thei¡interfaces, collaboÉtions thei¡comand their and these position Tf¿ UML Mod¿1i,14 L.angu\qe C¡1¡d¿, Uw Booch,Jacobsen, Addison-wesley. Rumbaugh. ¡999 'software about the a!chitecturca setofconcepts design is and decisions to structure texture software mustbe made and ol that Ddor concurent significant engineering e¡'iable to effective satisfactio¡ architecturálly of functional quality rcquirements of erplicit and requireme¡ts implicit and the pfoductfamily, p¡oblemand the solutio¡domains SdÍl4r¡4 the AKhil¿ lor Prcdu(l uE Flu¡lits:Pr¡ndples Prd(liú¿, lnd N4ehdi lazayeli Aiexander FranL derLinden R¿n. van Addison-wesley, 2000 guide a These delinitions ¿ bit academic, a practical are and must include p¡actical for one. definition software of architecture the reasons having and woulda of have but L¡ountains résearch beendoneon the subject, whyexactly proiect With need todefinethe softwarerchitectu of thesystem is building? a re i! guidein mind.weoffe!ourdefinition software architecture, thispractical of consists The software architectu¡e system a collectionsystems ofa or ol and oftheimportant decisions thesoftware about stÍuctules the design These inteúctions between stfuctures cornDrise svstems those thát the

Guide A Proclicol loEnlerpise Archileclure

'Maps thecharacter hav€ ofbeiñg textual thatthey words iri have assowith c¡ated them, they that employa system ofsymbolswithin thehown syntax, theyfunctionform that asa (inscription), ofwriting and thatthey are discurslvely embedded broader úithin contextssoclal of actio¡ and "Text, power" lohnP¡ckles, Hermeneutics propagandá in and Maps, Trevor Barnes lames Dunca¡, W¡iti¡g and I. S. eds., Worly't D¡ro(s¿ d¡rd M¿Idphor Rqt¿t¿ñtaliok h the olt-í¡ds.ap¿, London: Routled€e, I93. 1992, Maps architecture describe and don't ¡eality. arerepresentations They of reality vithina chronological cultural and context. alsohave djstinct They a jn pefspectivetheplace describe.other on they wotds, reverse enginee¡ing a (UML) Unified Modeling Languace diagram thesource ol thesisfrom code temdoes create atchitectural not an model architectural commu, The model nicates important the design decisions were that made a particular at time and were that importanta particular ofpeople. group to The cartography metaphor wofks, except thefactthatafchitecture for is anupfront activity. canography, arecreated exjsting In maps places. for They aremeant describe to something hasaheady created. software that been In architecture.maps models the or depict software isyetto becreated. that The models embody important the design decisions have that b€en made about thesystem cteatin€ contfasting By and dilierent models software fulof that purpose, fill thesame intelligent decisions bemade can about which designs arebetter others. is thesecond than This pueose software of a¡chitecture

The Mlddle oí the Road Sowhatdoes thishave do withsoftware all to architectuie? Sofhvare architecture middle between design complete is the load no and design is lt a vlew thesystem of design shows thedesign that how satis¡i€s criiical the requirements system. ¡stheroleof thesoftware oí the lt afchitect design to thestructuresthesoftware thatthose of such critical lequirernents sat;_ are fied. is also goal thesoftüate lt the of architecturefacilitate developto lhe ment thesystem multiple of by teams parallel. addition, multiple in In if teams depaftments anorganization support maintain or withln wilj and the soft$,are, software the architecture al¡ow will parts thesyste¡n be those of to managed maintained and separately.most The important thatthesoftrole ware afchitecture is thatof an ofganizing has concept the system for The softwa¡e atchitect an ideahowthe system has should wo¡k.fhesoftwate architecture communicat¡on ¡dea other is the of that to system stakeholders sothateveryone understands thesystem andhowjt does what does it 1n practical tworules a sense, determine whether nota design or detail should included thesoftware be in architecture: l. The design detail must supportquality a requirement 2, The design detail must detract stakeholder noi lrom unclerstand. ingof thesoftware architectu¡e. ¡fthedesjgn does somehow detail not improve a quality on ¡equireme¡t of the system, should leftout.Forexample, architecr it be the mjght not choose dueto performance XML concerns. However system the mighi bene_ fit more from modiflabilityXML. the of without elicitation th; qualiry an of ¡equirementsthesystem, types decisions for these of might made be based on personal preference Instead quality of requirements. il a design Also, detail complex cannot describeda simple thatstakeholde¡s is and be in way can understand, it should beincluded thearchitecture. not in A design detaij thatisnotunderstandable a sign a bad isalso of design. Many people believe thesoftwaie that architecturemeant forclevelis only opers use an overall to as guide system for design construction. System and While The thismay thesoftware be architecture's primary purpose, syster¡ other stake_ Stakeholders holders use architectute basis guide can the asa to their activitieswell as The following some thesystem afe of stakeholders . Developers . Mana€e¡s . SoÍtware architects . Data adrninistrators . System customers . Operations . N,,larketing . Finance . End-userc
Sofly/ore Archileciuie

Ine lw0txtfemes
Softwafe development approaches between extremes. first vary two The method involves or noupfront little modelingdesign. is the.shanty or This town'method system of development in whjch fewdevelopers with, a code picture theifheads outa mental in about system arebuilding. the they Also, some manaCers believe if developers coding, afen't that aren't they working. project These nanagers believe thesooner also that developers codbegin ing, sooner will bedone. stems theincorrect thata the they This hom belief constant amount timeis involved thecoding thesystern mattet of in of no what process used. thislypeof environment, upfront is ln developers t don fullyunderstand requirements the system. the for Some these of environ, ments deliver decent software through heroics developers frequent by and rewrites, although approach repeatable,it isextremely this is not and risky. The other extreme softwa¡e in development is,ivory tower" softwa¡e archijn tecturc which design a team a single o¡ architect design system eve¡y a in detail, down th€class method The to and level afchitect a cleaf picture has in hiso¡ herhead about design thesystem hasnotjeftmany the of but ofthe impleme¡tation to thedevelopers beliel these details The in environments is that architects themost the a¡e experienced developetsand can thus design the possible best system staft finishNoo¡epeÍson sma rearn oosfrom to o¡ can sibly undeGtand therequitements, every all predict change ¡equirements in AProclicol Gu¡de and havee{pe¡tise technoloey theproject builtupon. inevery that is Developers lo Enlerplse these in envitonments suffef lowmorale also from because are they percejved Archlleclur€ somehow as infefiortothe designers ofthesystem isalso poorbecause Motale fnust the in 3S thedeveloperc implernent design a presc¡iptive withlittle no way or input thedesign thesystem into of

39

Cenefal rnanagement Subcontfactors Testing quality and assurance Uldesignels lnfrastructure adrninistrators Process administrators Documentation specialists Enterprise architects Data administfatots The softwafe architect elicit must input f¡om thesystem all stakeholders to tully understand tequtremenls architecture is imDortanl the forthe Thts because requirements builtftomtheperspective the are ofwhat systern the should However a¡chiteclure reflect thesvstem Derdo the must how wtLl form those functlons The system s customers thesystem beof high want quality. want to They thesystem bedelivered a tirnely to in mannet they And want to bedevel, it oped inexpensively as aspossible. js looking a vision thesystem is The development organi¿ation for fo¡ it going design develop wants know theafchitecture to to and lt to that is easv implement has lr hard deadlines it muslmeet, reusabilityimporthat so is tant. developersgoing beIooktng technologies architecThe ¿te to lot ir the ture they that cufrently understand Theywant architecture the to match their platforms, desired development libraries, f¡ameworks. need tools, and They to meet dates, thearchitecture ease development ly'ost so should their effort. ofall,they anarchjtecturethey participated want that have indeveloping and evolving throughout lifetime theproduct. the of The opefat¡ons wantsproduct issupportable maintaingroup a that and able. product notfail lt has meet The must to service agreements level that it can meet only productreliable. system down. group ifthe is lf the goes this is on thefÍontlines jt t¡fingto getit back When does theopefators up. fail, need findoutwhy thatthep¡oblems befixedTherefo¡e, svstem to so can the pÍovide should some t¡aceability system for transactionsthatwhat so went wrong betracked can downThe operations also theresponsibility group has forinstalling machines upgradin€ new and platformsa schedule software on It needs softwa¡e beflexible po¡table thatmoving to a new the to and so it macnrneonto new or a version theoperating oi systemfast easy is and The people lookinC anarchitectu¡ecan ma¡ketin€ a¡e fot that delive¡ the greatest number featurestheshortest of in amount timeAnarchitecture of thatis flexible can and integ¡ate oflthe.shelf packages wintheir will hearts. lnaddition, ptoduct a comme¡cial if thé is product, architecturebea the may pornt (ustomersconmercial key selling Sawy of products recognize wrll a architecture a badone. from AProclico¡ Guldo €ood lo Enlorprho End-users g¡eat need pefformance thesvstem. must from lt helD thenr Archltoctuf€ their done get quickly easily. system beusable. more and lobs The must The must with 4o intefaces bedesigned end-usef in mindand. tasks ideallv the

system should cusiomizablethatend-use¡s choose they be so can hov/ wish to use it. Every stakeholder h¡sor hefperspectivewhat important the has is o¡ for systen do.lt is uptothearchilectto to mediate among these individual concerns. all stakeholders get everythinC wantall the time Not can they Sometimes, a requúenentcaneasily without be met detracting another from fequ¡Íement. Somet¡mes trade-offs to be made have among various ihe requirements. afethedecisions thearchitect facilitate These that must within theconsüaints theproiect places timeandmoney that sponsor on Ourfictitious automobile manufacturer was Cana(ia Iosing sales other to a manufacturels it relied because comDletelyitsdealer on nehvork sellits Creating to carsOther manufacturers Web aulo created sites alloN that custorncrs Software t{l customize order car and their online. other manufactute¡sthe Arch¡tecture: The auto ship cars f¡omtheirmanufacturing facilities difectly the customers to through AnExample local dealerships. resulted greater This in custotner service reduccd and th. p¡ocess hasslebuyingcar of a lrom dealership struggling thes¿les a and with Canaxia about years was two behind competitio¡ managerne¡t their The ofthe company decided fund proiect twelve has to a fo! r¡onths crealeWL'i) to ¡ siteañdrelated infrastructu¡e exceed capabilttyiheir that the of competition. Canaxia a malnframe has system orders, for inventory, financials and lts irtvento¡y order and system written the 1980s. systerl was in lhe lu¡ctions. butit is very expensile chanCe. f¡nancial to The was system purchased and custcmizedthelate1990s. infraskucture in Thc architects decided have th¡t lBlúlvlQseries beused integrate theenterpnse will to all syster¡s. stanThe dard Web fot development company Java J2EE. in the is and The atchitects theproiect o¡ faced difficult They a fealized the that iob. software architectufe is implemented beginning, at the middle. endot and proiect. every However, mofeemphasjs on it at the beginning much is of proiect. every Before architects the stafted. createdchecklist princrthey a of ples would they strive follow to while created architecture, they the l. The architecture bethin. should 2. The architectufe should approachable be 3, The a¡chitecture should readable be 4. The architecture beunderstandable should 5. The ¿rchitedure becredrble should ó. Thc a¡chitecture have bepelect does¡'t to 7. Don dobiguphont t design lfgivenachoicebet$ee¡ N¡kin{th(. perfect implementing model or it,implement it possibly withour 8. Dothesimplest thatcould pfecludthing work ing[uture requirements. 9. The architecture shared is a asset. 10, lnvolve allstakeholders butmaintain control I l. The architecture should small. team be 12.Rememberdifference the between and chicken a oie a Sollwafe Archileclufs ñ

1
ThePig theChicken and
o pig decide¿ open restoúrcnt. Onedoyono fom neotConox¡o, ondo chicken to o Ihep¡gtumed lhech¡cken osked 'Soúlhat Io ond hin, should collthis we rcstouanl?" 'HM Ihe ó,¡c*en rcpl¡e¿, obout tkn h' EWI lheptgthought o nonentondso¡d, donl think fot "t goo¿ thot's very o ¡deo. would You be inwluEd, I wovld connitted.' but fu Ihe Sdun (Schwoberol.2001 &velopnent eI meko¿ology th¡s osthecentrol uses s|ory ) thenetotd¡i¡nfu¡shing futween peaple orcp¡gs (oss¡gned ondthose those who wa*) who (¡nfercsted, notv@tking). otech¡ckens but Vy'hen cteatng saf¡worc otchrcdue, chikens Meckthepocess twowoys. chr',kens con ¡n I just up arcon theotch¡lectute pu shauU g¡ve ondopen rclouont.Assunng leon, o thot theorchiEcturc cons¡slsollpigs, leo¡n o{ nokesutethotke architedue addresses conthe .ens o[ thepigs the in orgon¡zot¡on. letke ch¡ckens ¡noneggorI' o on¡lñoke Don't sneok yaudes¡gn someth¡ng isn't t'ot that teov irnponont.

speci¡y the how the rüuircuenlt.lr addition, usecases known f!¡4i0Í¿l as k¡own "nonfunctional as are clauses will These modifying interaction occur presses entel enters amount, the t(s¿, requirements. example, lr5¿ "ljser For A nonfunctional is displays invoice" a functionalrequirement. the andsystem presses phrase, as"Userenters enter, amount, such requirement modifiesthis is The t seconds." "within,seconds"a and displays Involcewithln the system qual¡ty of lhe nonfunctionalor requirement system. the will how Thearchitect document the system accept amount must validating lequest, the inteface, by a described theusecase using user h for an in and storing data a database, generating invoice theuserThere ihe all must but is no architecture theusecase, thearchitectufe satisfy the for The oI quality lequi¡ements architecthe use cases, including nonfunctional enters data such of tureshould address pattern intefaction, as"User each o¡ is aresaved database, to a result anerror displayed." data but were At canaxia, requirements welldocumented, evennore the stage theproiect of in were importantly, repfesentatives involved every user o[thc provided input thearchitecturedcvelopmelrt syst.nr and iuto and daily

Thefollowing sections describe steps thearchitectsCanaxia the that at performed (Bass, to create architecture Clements, Ka¿man their and 1997).

or the Creating Selecting Architecture
requiregathering process a deliverssetof functional The requirements these At requilement Canaxia, identified each with ments withqualities had use stofies Each case a set cases usel or requlrements a setof use were The by that to of qualities needed be supported theusecase. a¡chitecture and all lequirem€¡ts qualineeded support these to thatcanaxia selected technolotechniques, were met ties. Some therequirements easily using of were gies, practices which developers architects familiar and with the and ll"ose part was the The dilljcult of selectinC architecture sattsfying qu¿lifiPs and that lisky unknown andtechnologies wefe using techniques the risks and the Toaddress reduce tcchnical in theproiect, architects qealed ltchitcclurc Thiswasthemainmilestone thedevelopin baJ¿lifl¿. ar' 1998) architecRumbaugh The Booch, ment thearchitecture of {lacobsson, portion thesystem.srnáll thread A of executable ture baselinethefústfully is to that was all layerc completed plove thesysof execution through system team the baseline, architecture be To an temcould built. create architecture wetc palagraphs These steps in described thefollowing folloved steps the lperlormed iteretive voÍking Iovard a¡cL ¿r wilh Inan manner theatchtte(ts lorlh. Íeqrlircrnents and the tecturc baseline s¡tisfied functional qu¡lity that syslcm S el ect U se C ases lL'I the flom asmallnumbetofcases therequirements sYStem use Select cf risky the technically aleas thes,Ystem These selectedaddress most are to 'lhissubset use [or use 5¡rrlii(t¡ll cases cr'¡f]plc. cases the¿¡ÍÍileúlür¡¡ll, is of fronl package printing documents thesysfor chose softwate Canaxia a new lp'lLre r'1 documenlstl" aÍch cases printing for tem. lncluded use lt the $.rq Sotlwore to baselinedemonstrate theinteface tlrenc$so[t\v¡r. to that l)¡rk¡cc ^rchilgcluro golng vorK. Io

The Business Case
Canaxia luckyi involved archileclure when cfeated was it the team it the business forthesystem. organizationsnotinvo¡ve architect case Many do an at project conception. architectute wasinvolved thestartof The leam from theproiect. business The customers needed understand relat¡ve to the costs of the various solutions were they contemplating. architectufe The team processes, undefstood current the technical environrnent thetools, and and personnel required implement various to presented thebusi, the oplions by ness community. business The customers tealized a great thal solution that is lateis sometimes than mediocre worse a quickly solution isdelivered that Onlythe architecture canevaluate various team the oDtions Drovide and input thetime into requiredcreate one. to each AtCana¡¡a, afchitect involved fro¡twith the was up auto dealefs, managementthecompany, at systern e¡d-users, thedevelopment The and team. business took consideration case into thetimeframe thetechnical and com.
l I l .xily in v( ) lvr { ir r ( ft' ¡ lin ft n Wcl)sltc ' ( jr l hc ¡¡¡l ontol )i l o büf;i ncss

UnderstandingRequirements the
Canaxia reali¿ed anarchitect that couldn't buildarchitectu¡ea svstem for that orshe he didn't understand requirements stakeholders provide The ofthe A Proclicol Gu¡de thearchitect a context which createdesien.use isa comwith from to a A case lo Enlsrprlse way capturing mon of a requitement. use The case desc¡ibes action some that Arch¡leclure system perform usecase the mqst A desctibes detail in every inpuvoutput pe¡fo¡ms a user another 42 interaction thesystem that with or These system are

4a

tdentlfy lmportant oüalltles Canaxia couldnot get lhe architecture requires trade.offs. Software possible Therefore, way. requirementthebest ¡n to every architecturesatisfy For were should suppo¡t prioritized. exam' that thequalities thearchitecture required ple, pelormance modifiability. decisions When valued over Canaxia quality what it was to between attributes, helpful understand quala kade-off were more in ity attdbutes desired thanothers thesystem.

Know When You Are llappy wlth the Deslgn whethel notthe or how team to The architeciure tried establish to know warn' of good lt adopted follolving checklist early the was one. architeclure a (Abowd al 19961: et astray be when things might going ingsigns organization is l. Thearchitecture folcedto malchthe current someone because is a Sometimesgoodarchitecture changed can Alchitecture be polluted says, i st don'tdo th¿lhe¡e." We of the infrastructure olganiand because practices technical the for withthe alchitecture the proiect['4any zation don'tmesh to are ¡n times, complonises thearchitectute necessaryensure of integlity thearchi' consistency, theconceptual but enterprise as as should maintained much possible. be tecture (too components architectulal 2. There too manytop-level are a reacheslevel of lf the much complexity). numbef cornponents for too (usually than thearchitecture becornes complex mofe 2t). of and integrity roles lesponsibilities The it to have conceptual of consists too When system the must each component beclear. tend ofthc theresponsibilities component to manyconponents, into other. blend each proiects are Some of drives requirement therest thedesign. 3. One the goal that overriding in mind is sometimes buiitwitha s¡ngle proiect o! managet proipetfequjrementtheproiect sponsor of overiding a is builtaround single when ectafchitect. thesystem may other requirem€nt, fequirements notbeaddressed presented the by depends lhe alternatives on 4. Thearchiiecture is platform chosen thewrong the Sometimes platfcrm operating a that a For onefortheproiect. example,ploiect requires high for chosen if not might bepossibletheplatform level usability ol is terminal. display a 3270 theuser standard instead ofequallygood arc components used 5. Proprietary cool luted thelatest by are and ones. fuchitects developers often stanhave alternative that designs may or technologyinteresting proiects take should advanFor example, dard technologyavailable. when technology seNel of tageof the capabilities application oI schemes pelslstence load developerc creating balancing b€gin lt is that an Í¡ameworks, usually ¡ndication thefe a problem it is of¡¡;rl)dicrliorr capabilitics to the {ouldbebette! use standald the to software solve business dme server spend developing and features problem new rather creating technical tha¡ divi' from comes thehardware definition comDonent division 6. The without tegatd the for should designed be The sion. components thal physical to except recognlze a nel\orl' topology system. ofthe The components. compo' data is involved transmilting between in function ofthe o¡ businesstechnical map nents should toadiscrete take should components built.These that application is being Archileclufe Sofwore systems coriputing of featuresmode¡n scalability advantageofthe 45

Deslgn Archltécture the
the that able implenent use to designed architecture was an canaxia one for This adopting or mole that chosen thesystem. involved cases werc out and later st¡'les orc^iteclutal (described in this chapte0 fleshing those well' decided usethemost to detailed design. canaxia stytes a more into style architectural architectural style,the model-view-conttoller known il was wrth step when decisions making done thrs the canaxia it was knew to on Iess information which harder harder and because tancible becarne was rely available. Set Up a Developme[t Envllonnent that environment ¡ncluded: canaxia setupa development then . Serv€rs space servers application and on suchas file servers, and servers servers, database tools Modeling drawing and Whiteboards pictures whiteboards of Digital camera taking lo¡ web Proiect siteandfilesubfolder with they to Software which needed integrate (lDE) development environment Integrated (XUnit) fiamework Unittesting Version software control build Automated process l m p l e me ¡t th e D e s l g n This stafted implementing design. wasdoneby first the Canaxia fleshed the out for Writing tests the the implementing tests thedesign the when began implementingdesign, cont¡actsthemodules. canaxia in what will what t lmplementationprove was it leaÍned didanddidn work. of the understanding and a in theory thedesign willprovideconcrete iust when implementing it being Canaxia stopped architecture developed. Guide exhausted initial AProcllcol the improved when happened, this Canaxia designs the lo Enlonrlse design implemented of theafchitecture r¡oleitelain sevelal more and Archllocturo were with happy it tions untilthey

u

Ff¡r. t-l
arch ure Soltware itecl volatiliw thrcushour develop. asoftw;re proiecl ment gn

Soltwaf Archit€clure o Voliiility

tema¡d how arch the ¡tectu wou suppolthe¡r re ld needs. Therefore, archithe providedstotyboard a prototype describe This a lery tects a and to that. was effective means conveying aspects thearchitectu¡ethiscornof those of to munity. support The organization wanted know to maintain syslo how the tem, a discussionthesoftware so of desi€n using UML data and ¡¡odels was anappropriate means conveying information them of this to

Analyzing Evaluating Architecture and the
Throughout developm€nt system, the of thc Cana¡ia ca¡eful conwas to tinuously evaluate architecture sure it met needs the the to make that the of proiect.knew thearchitecture isn't lt thal really finished thep¡oecris untli delivered, perhaps even thesystem retifed used iterative and not untll an is lt process ofevaluating evolving architecture and the to improve asnecessary it process the througho'Jt system cycle. architecture thc life The evaluation in phases a p¡oiect done initlal of was th¡ough scenario-based te(llniqucs 1. evaluate software architecture, identified architecturally Canaxia signilithe cant scenariosthearchitecture for to support Some methodologies.as such provided context XP, these call ri¿¡ scenarjos rto¡ir5. These scenados a irom which quality the attributes thearchitecture be estimated the of could As ploiect developed, estimates the became measufements testcases and for quality verifying thedesired that attfibutes actually were suppoed bythe softwale was that being created. example, thea¡chitectu¡e cre' For when was ated, teanestimatedthe ofperformance thearchitecture the level ihat should support based thenUmber computations network on hopsOn.ethe oi and architecture baselinewas completed, estimates the became measurements of performance the setof scenarios were for that implemented. pedorlf the mance requifernent notmetorexceeded, architectu¡e fedesigned was the was to support requiremeni. the process, architecture evalu' At each stage thedevelopment of was lhe ated. later At stages theproiect, estimates very in some were p¡ecise becaLrse theywere based realworking on code. Howevet some thequality of att¡ibules were difficult measure were to and somewhat subiective. examDle. For it was easy use stopwatch measure performance t¡ansaction to a to the of a th¡ough system, the however estimating maintainability system the of the was much more difficult. maintainability The was estirnation based many o¡ criteria included technology was that the that used, whether notthesysor tem srfficiently was modulat how and much data used configuration were to pafticular configure system run-time,well many the at as as other criteria to thesystem was that built. was was Estimating even thesyste¡r bu¡Lt this after difficult stillsomewhat and subiective. Canaxia to ¡ely thearchitec' had o¡ tureteam's andexperience theorganization withsoftware skill within and designs deliver right of maintainability proiect to the level fo¡the Canaxia considered popula¡ forevaluating three nethodologies softvare architectures Kazman, Klein and 2002) lClements, (ATAMI l. Architecture Trade-off Analysis N¡ethod 2. Soft\rare A¡chitectufe Analysis Method lSAANIl 3. Active Revievs lnte¡mediate (ARID) for Desiens Sollworc Archileclur€

7. 'lhe design exception theemphasis theertensibilis driveni ison ityofthesystem rather onthecore than tequifementsthesysfo¡ tem.By"exception driven," do not mean we except¡on handling butrather thesystem that should bedesigned not exclusivelywith the requirements someday that might necessarymind. be in li should designed solve mo¡e be to the immediate requirements. Thearchitecture fin¡shed baseline team the architecture feltgood and "code about was it.lt careful notice to smells'duringthe ofthebasecreation line. These aspects code iustdjdn feel were ofthe that t When team right. the saw something in thatdidn'treally sneak belong required or extensive refactoringit had courage rip it outandsta¡t the to over Asshown Fi€ure thearchitecture in 2-1, isvolatile thea¡chitecture until period baseline iscomplete Duringthe oftime thearchitecture that baseline is wo*ed out,major design decisions change. will Du¡ing period, this the overall design p¡oven is When architectural the baseline complete, is the architecture thesystem for should settle down thatfulldevelopment so can bedone based thestable on baseline. architecture lf the isvolatile through" process, proiect likely outthedevelopment the will fail.

RepresentingCommunicating and theArchitecture
ThearchitectsCanaxia forthearchitecture effective. at knew to be it needed beeifectively to communicated thestakeholders svstem. to all ofthe After architecture hasnoolherpurpose to provide concepl all, really than a forth€system about bebuilt. architecture to The needed beclear to concise. andunde¡standable theimpo¡tant sothat concepts thearchitectu¡e within could implemented supported thestakeholdefs alchitects be and by The that AProclicrl Guide understood it wasthese important concepts ¡n many ways that deter" toEnlorprlsomined success failure theproiect every the or of at stage its lifecycle of &chlleclure Toeffectively comnunicate atchitecture various the to the stakeholders, created 4ó the team targeted material each for stakeholder conrmunitv Fot example. user the commun¡ty very vas inteiested Usability sys, in the ofthe

ti

Canaxia understood forcritical proiects require lafge that that a amount of rigorduring development process, the formal methods to formally help evaluate software the a¡chitecture systern. ATAM SAAI¡ ofa The and methods for evaluating software architectures comDrehensive. the ARID are while method meant inte¡mediate reviews ensure thearchitecis fo! design to that tureisontrack foughout project. th the purchasedthe Canaxia bookEralüalir4 Sollu,arc Neúil¿cturc Kazrnan, Klein and 2002) learn lclements, to about each method depth. theend, in ln Canaxia created own hocmethod evalits ad to uate softwarc the a¡chitecture was that pa¡tially based thethree on methods presentedthebook. in

nany lhe ontl thrcugh l¡{eoFle oddrcsses ot ond 2.0 UML nows coÍ¡¡}í/¡,ents @nneatols Itrese conce¡ns.

Ensuring Conformance
Theafchitecture realized evenwith the bestarchitecture, team that development teams dont always implement architectu¡e an correctly. Usually. is thefault a poo¡ this of architecturepoor or communication of the architectufe to developers Inorder thearchitecture fo¡ to ¡¡attet, archi, the tectufe concept become in must executing jn a system. Canaxia, code At the architecture implemented was correctlythefinal in system. thedesired All qualities met thesystem delivered time undef system were and was on and budget ln addition, architects developers the and realized thearchitecture that is anongoing effort refinement, after proiect completed. in even the is The architects understood needed beinvolved only they to not during design and construction also but du¡ing maintenance system. of the

Arch¡t€ctu tionof howsoftware r€ architecture should represented difficult be is a one. Descdption Stakeholdersthe systern of needtargeted material speaks them that to above stakeholders understand atchitectute must the in [anguatesbecause, all else, o¡de!to implement co¡rectly. technical it Fo¡ stakeholdercthose or who and UMI undefstand soltwafe

At Canaxia at every and other company is developing that software, questhe

d€velopment, is the mostpopular U[4L ¡otation to describe design software the of systems. thesurface, apDearsbe On UML to well suited a notation describing as fot softwa¡e architectures has IJML a large of elements canbe used describe set that to software designs. The (RUP) represents v¡ewpoint U[,41 Rational unified Process best the that is adeq!ate representing for soltware atchitectures RUP an 'afchitectute.centric" thatpromotes use IJML is process the of lor depding softwarc aÍchitccture Howevet academics ouestioned have UML a means as ofdepicting (N,,ledvidovicTh!s software architecture 2002). is mostly because versionsUML notcontain early of did notations compofor nents connectots and asfirst,class elements consttucts imponant Othe¡ ate when describineaoftwale atchitecture, asports points interaction such or of with component roles points interaction a connectortJ¡\¡L a and ot of with ln I 5,components expected beconcrete, are to e)(ecutable software conthat AProclicol ouide sumesmachines a resources memory. and Although pads software some of lo Enlo0rise archrtecture a¡econcrete components, all architectural not components are Archilecture concrete soltware entitles They bean entire may system a federation or of 4S systerns need bedepicteda si¡gle that to as component prolidessinthat a ple function

somenolion is ln addiiion. connectoranarchltectural thatdescribes a to componentsoneor many a from thing providesconduit oneoI many that and the may The components. connector alsoadapt plotocol fomatol the a not Uf¡L I 5 does provide simito message onecomponentanothel from as get a this although could alound bydepictingconnector on€ la!concept, or a setof cooperating classes asa component. issues many in and 2.0 released lune2003 addresses ol these UML was to an can ln UML a inthelanguage. 2.0, component bedepicteduse interlace port and a A can andprovideport. port b€a complex thatprovides consumes with that can Each multiple interfaces. intelface bedesignated attribution and whether notit is a service has or of indicates visibilily theinlerface, the becor¡ing towald strides UML is making 2.0 capabilitynot. o¡ asynchronous alchitectules notation depictinC for thestandard notation for a oi the advantagebeing standard Using UMLhas distinct architec' softwa¡e to desi€n. is desirable useUMLfol describing lt software ol for versions UlL thispurposc To turebecauseis standard. useearlier it their to must description bewilling suspend archilecture readers theUML of by could componenl bedescribed a anafchiteclufal For disbelief. example, ¿ popular is apploachlo use Anothel in UIVL componenta UflLdiaglam this not does take to as ste¡eotyped This wolkaslong thereader class. will a entity is software andthatit desclibes mean thecomponentanactual that not conceptual component, a phys¡calone. description architecture several have ln addition, res€afchers created for elements allow thefist-class that a set languages have small of core that focus These representation of architecturalconcelns. languages on a precise to that architecture. algue theonlyway assess They of software descriotion is archibctureto precisely and ofthe thecompleteness correctness softwale suffer and These the architecture. methods languages irom describe softwale the are of and all that thefact there dozensthem, they have go¡lof precisiorl over und€¡standability. for notation documentinq is bottorñ is thatthere nostandard line The laIg'raiea mooe'rre w\en The critetia choosrng atchitecture key sollware the fúrther that own whether UML, ADL, youl notation-is it shorrld it is an or who il bythosc Ic¡<l 1lrI rrrorltlslrottl,l of thc understa¡rrling atchltectufe Lt goal used do.unle¡t ofthe accomplish p mary re€aldless notation tLi this plomotes th. an(l enforces, l¡edl,is architectute system ofa The soft$,are are attriLrutesthose Qual¡ty quality will ouality system suppon. attributes the that that of prope{ies andabove functionalitythesysiem mak(' Attr¡butes the over system perspective ¡ri' Thele one a thesystem good or a l¡adoneíroma techliical ¿nd atÍun-time thos. those are ofquality attributes, that measuled two types a¡chltecSince through inspection. thesoftvare be that only estimated can Archilecl!fe Soflwore il belore ,5Lurltrt F rl, design a syctem of is lureof a system a palt'al qualit! attribuies49 those to architect identify resDonsibilitv software of the thai an to important then and attempt design alchitecture thatafemost

treflects those attributes. quality.. The be concerned ate{Bass, with Clements. Kazman Klein20021: I. 8l{f.Q{n¡¡fJn-a measurement system of the response fora time functional tequitement. 2. Availability-the amount timethatthesvstem uDandrunof is ning. ü measuredthelength time'between ft by of iailures. as wellasby howquickly system ableto restart the is operations after failure. example,thesystem down oneday a Fot if was for outof thelasttwenty, availabilitythesystem thetwenty the of fof days l9/19+or95percent is I availability. quality This attribute is closely related reliability. morereliable system the to The a is, more available system be. the will 3. Reliability-the abilityof the system operate to overtime. Reliabil¡ty ismeasured mean-time-to-failure bythe ofthe svstem. 4. Functionality-the ofthesystem perfom task was ability to the it created do. to 5. Usability-how it is fortheuser understand operate easy to and thesystem. 6. Secufity-the abilityof the system resist to unauthorized attempts access system denial,olservice whjle to the and attacks stillprovidin€ seNices authorized to users 7. ModifiabilityJhe measurement easy is to change of how ¡t the system incorporate tequifements. two aspects to new The of modifiability cost time. system anobscute are and Ifa uses tech, nology requires that high.piced consultants, though may even it bequick change modifiability stillbelow. to its can 8. Portabi¡ity:-measu¡es the ease withwhich system be the can platforms. platfo¡m consist hardmoved different to The may of ware, operating system, applicatjon software, database seNer or seryet software. 9, Reusability-the to reuse abiliry podions thesystem other of in applications. Reusability in many comes forms. run-time The platform. source code libra¡ies, components, operations, and processes all candidates reuse other are fof in applications. 10,Integrability-the ol the'system integrate other ability to with systems integrabilitya system The of depends theextent on to which system open the uses integration standards how well and theAPI designed that is such other systems use compoca¡ the nents ofthe system built. being I l. Testability-how easily system be tested the can using human effort, automated testing tools, inspections, other and means ol AProc,llcol Guldo quality testing system Cood testabilitv related themoduis to lo Enlerp se ' Iarity thesystem thesystem composed of lf is of components Archlleclure with well-defined intefaces,testability its should eood be new can 12. ElhUiliv-how wellthe architecture handle requrlemay requirements fotmsNew in comes several ñÑs. Variabiliw time the systern At ot be planned unplanned development At new to extend perfoim functions easyto code souice mightbe that components pluggable allow might the run-t¡¡ne, system is attribute closely This on behaviol thefly. quality system modify modifiabilitY. to related ol a to ability 13. S-ubl9!¡úlllly-the ofthesvstem suppon subcet lhe it ic For tvstem inclementaldevelopment Gñrf,iieiui;e¿¡vt¡e todemonscme can that important asystem execute functionality lt is product development thepropduling iteratio¡s strate smali set a sm¿ll of ¿nd it tobuild execute that of system allours erty the is system the over andto addfeatures timeLIntil entire features on propeftythetimeor resourceslhe if is built This animpoftant ofthe itectu lf plojectalecutthesubsetability arch reishigha subproducllon it may set featules stillmake into ot thearcl"rte'turetÓ'omnru¡r' I4. Conceptqalintegnty-theabiliiyof wrr'et I Fled uisiou Ihesystem Broofs for caie ilearconcis¡ a tc is lnle6rily cenrrdl Conceptudl Ihan convinced evef ammole lmportant is alchitect lhemost a system quality. product Having a teachingsoltintegrity After conceptual step single toward to more labotatory than20timesl came insist ware engineeri¡g ano a choosemanage¡ foul tea lhatstudent msassmallas people that l99t) KentBeck atchitect(Biooks a separaie -helieves part oí the extleme are metaphors the most important is (Beck The methodology 1999). metaphor a powProgramming lor concepts a syscentral one ofproviding ot more eful means vlsion a 'haled and providescor¡mon a tem Themetaphol provides a The stakeholders. metaphor for vocabulary atlsystem of the When design the integrity conceptual to means enfolce Ihe of goes the system oulside bounds then'et¿phor' met¿phor otheNisethe must metaphors be added; ol change new must Ifanyofthesedesigndeci' direction in wrong is designgói¡g the righttheconceptual feeling the without concept made sion;are the will system be lost Sometimes syslem of integrity the o¡ as pattern such MVC Blackboa¡d is metaphoranafchilectural prop¿tterlq arch These lecturdl chaptel) later ldiscussed inthis who o¡ developels othels for metaphof system videa common thc they t However' don help stákchol(lthe unde¡standpatte¡ns ¿bout th¡ng one withthepattelns good who t familiaÍ aren ers describe is pattelns thesystem thatthey for alchiteclulal using on detail lhodownsidc in of the;tructuresthesoftwaremofe the willunderstand leferences' notall stakeholders (a¡ be or not 15. Build¿bilrty-whether thedrchilecture r' ason¿bly t hc andt im eavailablef or dcliver yof bui l tusi ngt hebudget , st af f qualrty is project. nuildability an often-overlooked att¡ibute for too are architects simply ar¡bitiorls a the Sometimes, best Archileclufe Solfwofe project given co¡straints team Dro¡ect to complete ;a
al

50

ls Agilitya Quality Aftribute?
Some orchlects thetem allleto desd¡be odlitedue. While use thei flujbtlryondoElry orc inpotohl kese'aodshovenony diñehs¡atÉ he orchitedurc ogile, ¡s ff daeshot neon thotf ¡seoiy chongep ¡t eosy ¡ntErcte kto ke enHpt¡se? ¡t ponoble, ls to it ls quest¡ons rcusoble, testobh? onswet olllhese lhe to ¡sptobobly'pt' Ag¡liryo cornposte is quoliq ¡ncludes al ke bose nony quol¡ty potto. thol oftt¡buteske levek noinloinobilitl, lt of b¡liv, testoüiy, kEgtoüliry high, orchibd.ue most onog¡le ond o@ the ¡s lkely one.

$!iriJ-

ola what is the impact failure? ideñtified? failures and archardwate softwale How failure? afteta system be Howquictlymustthesystem opeGtio¡al of overin c¿se a failure? cantak€ that systems Arethelefedl¡ndant replicated? have functions been that Howdo youknow all cdtical the up to How done? longdoesit take back andiestore system? Arebackups houlsof operation? what arethe e¡peded pe! up-time month? what is theexpected ls system? thisacceptable? is Howavailable thecurrent

(on\^',q\: \ ¿.4\. Reliability.
faihre? or ofa what is the impact softwa¡e hardwarc reliabilitv? impact will bádpelotmance on system thebusiness? of whatis theimpact anunreliable

It is important thesystem enteFrise for and to architecture designeF understand desired the that oualities thesvstems e)úibit. doso.the must To

ofthe databecompromised? Cantheintegrity

quality architects enióiiácupi.iirii i';!áiil;iüí6ftf; áÉsired shoutd .r
providesway ensuring completeattr¡butes possible.checklist as A a of the ness thespecif¡cat¡on. of Following some thequestjons askin order are of to quality to fullycharacterize desired the attributes a system for [Clements, Kazman, Kle¡n and 2002r Mccovefn, Stevens, Mathew Tyagi, and 2003):

Fünctionality
"Dóes sntemmeet thefun.ticnal by specified theJsels? requirements all the requireme¡ts? to andadapt unanticipated respond Howwellcanthesystem

Ulability
undetsta¡dable? ls the userintedace with ofpcople disabiliUes? the to adaptablesuppod needs tstheintedace usable the for find Dothedevelopers thetoolsprovided creating system andunde|standable?

Perlorm¿nce
what is theexpected ¡esponse foreach case? time use Whatis theave.age/ma)dmin e,(pected response time? Whatresources beine are used LAN, )? etc {CPU, Whatis theresource consumption? policy? Whatis theresource a¡bik¿tio¡ What theexpecled is numbe¡ ofconcuÍent sessio¡s? Afethere pafticularly computations occur any long when certain that a state is t¡ue? processes AreseNer single multith¡eaded? o¡ ls the¡e sufficre¡t network bandwidlh all nodes thenetworl? to on multiple threads processes Arethere or accessing a shaled resource? Hov is access managed? Will badperfcírmance dramatically usability? alfect ls the response synchronousasynchrcnous? time or

5€!.u.rlty
is Howcritical thesystern? failure? ofa what is theepectedimpact seculity identified? lailu¡es How¿Iesecudty impact? vas in failu¡es thepastwhat lhere any been security have lfthere vulnembilities? anY AletheY known issues? in tralned security been usels Have breach a to in te¿m place handle security añd a Arethere process a tespo¡se

Modifiability/vatiabilitY
to be Howoftenwilla change required thesyslenr? in adding futulelersio¡sof the do what nev functionality youanticipate system? platlorn? ofthe ¡ev handle releases execution willyou How

AProcllcol Guide loEnlsrprise Afci¡l€ctur€ 52

Whatis theexpected batch cycle time? Howmuch peÍormance based thetimeof day, can vary on week. monthor system load: What theexpected is ofsystem load? €rowth

Archileclurc Sollwore

53

Doanycompone¡ts access thelmplementation have to details ofglobal variables? Doyouuseindirection mechanisms aspublish/subscribe? such Howdo youhandle changes message in formats? wefedesign compromises to eñhance made pefomance? intedaces cha¡ge a result change a piece Howmany must as ofa ln oi fuñctionality? Does soltware metadatato conf¡gure using the use itself declarations rcther thancode? Cantheuser inteface change indepe¡de¡tly logi. components? of What changes result fromadding ¡ew datainputsource? a preparcd move ls thesystem to frcma single processor a multjprocessor to platform? much it cost? execution How will Howlongdoesit take deploy change? to a Whois expected make change? to the

Testabil¡iv
prccesses, t€dniques place test Are iher€ tools, and in language to classes, componcnts, selv¡ces? and Arcthere hooLs thef¡amewo*sperform tests? in to unit Can automated tools used test system? testing be to the Can system ina debugger? the run

s.s!*!¡!!lig
lsthesystem modular? Arethe¡e many dependencies betveen modules? Does change cnemodule a in rcquirc change othe¡modules? a in

Conceptual InteSlity,
questions Dopeoole understand alchitecture? there many the Are too basic being asked? ls there centr¿l a metaphor thesystem? so,hownrany? lor lf Was architecturalstyle Howma¡y? an used? Were contndictory decisions made abouithearchitecture? Donewrequirements i¡to the a¡chitecturc fit easily. do newfeatu¡es or requirecodesmells"? Ifthe software stans "stink,theconceptual to lntegrity pfobably has bee¡lost.

Portab¡litv Do benefits pfoptietary outweighdrawbacts? the platform ofa the
Can e¡peñse the ofcreating sepatation be lustifled? a layer At whatlevel portability provided? theapplication, should system be At application seNer, operatin€ system, hardware or level?

Reusability
ls thissystem stanofa new product the line? Willothefsystems builtthatmo¡e less be or match characteristics the of thesystem under const.uction? whatcomponents bereused lf so, will in those systems? What existing cot¡ponents avajlable reuse? are for Areihercexisting fÍameworlG other oa code assets canbe reusedt that will othe¡ applications thetechnical ¡euse infrastructure is c¡eated that for thjsappljcatio¡? tsthere existing technical infrastructu¡e thisapplication use? that can what¿re asrocráted risks. benefits the cosls. ¿nd ofbuildi¡g reusable co|l1ponc|l1\r

Buildability
Areenough time,money, rcsources and available buildanarchitecture to
h:.él i ñF 2nd r hF ñr ^ i . . t t

lsthearchitectufecomplex? too parallel lsthe architecture modulaf development? sufficiently to promote Are therc many too technical flsks? is This bynomeans exhaust¡veof questionsask an list to about architecproiect, are questionsaskabout ture design. €very ora On there specific to the domain thatproject organization.example, o¡ganl¿aticrrl ol and For if an questions uses messaging middlewale,-th€re of very is a list specific about howthatmiddleware is used whethe¡ notthf archiiecturc system and or uscs cffcclivcly cotrcctly. otB¡ni¡¡lr(nr,ll rn-h('1r!. it and lf lllc fi,I¡t\(,,r1. h.ili lorcreating components services, is a listofquestrors the and thefe abc.ul design componentor thatuses framervork questions ofa seryice The that that project lt is important thear.hitectirrc must asked each be vary. on that learr u¡derstand intricaciesthe organi¿ations the thr of domain a¡chitecl re that supports and,especially, obstacles rnaybe encountereJ it, the that sothatlhey beavoided il a design is ¡war.¡i tht',l¡t¡ils can Only te¡m o[ particular in ofgani¿ationit pfope¡ly can detign slslen] runs llr.¡i Soltvofe a th,rt Archileclur€ .; organizatio¡
c5

Integrability
APfoclicolGuldo l0 tnlefpftO Afcnfecrufe ?{ Arethetechnologies to communicate othersystems used with based on standards? interlaces Arethecomf,onent cñnsrslenl underst¿ndablel and ls there process p'¿ce \e.sion ¡ tr lo compone¡t Interfaces)

Nonfunctional Requirements and Attributes Quality
sane ry,9jlun.tlg$lt9q,ri,gre_ltq it.ei¡!nlast.!¡e. .a:qlaliryauributes. Nonf unctional reqqüqt0enllgJ.e_qg.r¡ed as$É ng¡ob5gryaf lgpropertres -ot the,ystem. classical A funct¡onal requirement bestated a noun-veib can as phrase, as"rheslstell such require4*lpHti€,ÍW$. A nonfuncrional ment bethought asa modifying can ol clause. as-The such system displays seco¡ds." !h9.Iep.gtlvi{hls: wofds, functional In other a requircment is stated mathematical in terms. An inputis given a function. thefunction to and returns outDut. nonan The requ functional irements howthe state functions slstem p€¡formed. ofthe willbe Thebigproblem nonfunctional with requirements most is that require, gatherine ments teams to leave tend these requirements ot they not out, do fullystatethe nonfunctional requirements system. ofthe Theydothis because they focus onthebusiness fotthesystem. concentratethe only case They on business stakeholders noton thetechnical and stakeholders systern. of the Requ¡rements asmodifiabjlity, such security, soonare sually and u overlooked because arenotperceiveddirectly they as impacting cost-benefit the the for system. These requirements perceived being a¡e as onlytechnically related requirements is not true. This Nonfun(tional requirements.¡re critically imponanr thesuccess any to proieft. of They are.te_chnical that,ri not risks adüessed, make break cen or a.syste$¡or examiie. i?'i*reirjri'¿¡sptavs corectly it does in thirty but so minutes instead a more of reasonable thúty seconds, functional the requirementmetbut the syst€m not usable is is becausedoes meet usef's it not perfomance the expectation. hacker If a is ableto retlieve credit cardinformation the businesses for customers, for example. futufe thecompany bein ieopardy. the of nay Nonfunctional requirements only are not within iurisdiction proithe ofthe ectunder development quality The atttibutesa system supportedthe of are at enterprise Typically, ¡eljability, level. p€rformance, other the availability, and quality attributes supported platform which proiect deployed. are bythe on the is

goes inthe hold All The same forarchitecture.stakeholders architecture perspectives proiect within onthe and theirdifferent viewpoints speakto that descliption to the It is impoftanl separate archilecture theotganization. also can diifer viewpoints thata single stakeholder understand so intodifferent entaspects thearclriteclule. of

Architecture 4+ l View iVodel Software of
for must standard of viewpoints be described softrva¡e set No single the we In architecture fact, discuss ¡l$Jlgpulfl'ttCggll illusllate poifl .!g softrare Krut(lten Ratlon¿l fiom are Pfl¡lippe thatmultiple v¡ews necessary. (Kruchten discussed Ln 1995) into model divides architecture the4+l view thefollowing sections. Logical Vlew ¡lodelfor the view. logical architectur€. oblect is ihe Thelogical o! that of design Cescribes shuctures thesoftware sollelheiunclion,¡l It the The classes system ofthe isa ofallthe syslefn.lt subset lgquirementstcrthe includlng irnporthe viev view a logical is stfictly structural ofthesoftwate ¡elationshjps architecture in the tant classes class and ProcessView proless 9r. the of view, plolelq.ilchilcc!-ur,e, The describes view thea¡chiproceFses lnslantiated that obiects eristin th3tjnll.vdes and teciure running jmpoftant issues concurrencysynch¡onization and the¡ystem.describes it DevelopmentI'lew organization view on The architectule focuses themodule development and into how ate ofthesoftware. lt shows classes otganized packages, it outpackages of ofsoftwa¡e is theview the This between !inés dependencies thé and the structures software what respon' o[the design shows layered that the are. ofeach in thesystem laye¡ sibilities PhyslcalVlew and physicaLview that The describes machines Iunthesollware how the and machines ate onto componenls, objects, processesdeployed those and see 2-2 thcir configur¡tio¡rs at fun-time, Figl¡re

Architecturaldocument they how willbe fulfilled?Creatingthesoftware arch¡tectureofa sysViewpoints temcan a large be endeavor, depending thesize complexitythesyson and of
tem.The software architecture should pa¡titioned multiple be views into so thatit is more understandable. wedesc¡ibe entity*be anarchjWhen any it tecture,pfocess,anobject-the¡e manydiffefent a or perspectives are orviewpoints describe. example. were to For ifyou todescribe orange sorneone, an to you about color would talk its weight, sweetness,thickness, other skin orsome attribute theoranBe? a[ributes youwould ol lhe that choose describe to lvould depend therole theneeds theperspectivethepefson on and of to you describing orange thepercon a pu¡chaser gtocery whorn are the lf is ata store, pufchaserwould interestedthecolorof oranCe that the bemote in the so would the customers buy orange.consumeroranges bemore A of would interested thetaste theorange thecolor. chemist is consjdefing in of than A that AProcllcol Guldo using jn product orangesa cleaning in solutlon lvould interestedthechem" be lo Edsns0 ¡calpropenies oranCes of thatcouldbe applied cleaning to solutions. The Archileclure point thateyery is stakeholder in oranges a dilferent anda diiferent has need 5ó pefspective. th!stheorange bedescribedthem different and must to in wavs

Once quality the attÍibutes system been ofthe have characterized doyou how

th¡l + model desc¡ibessce¡arios thearchitecthe The I inthe4+I view requirements The represent important the ture meant satisfy scenalios is to th,rt The th¡t chos€n af|'thosc ¡rc must that system satisfy scenarios ate the lrequently cxe' the they eithel mosl importantsolve to because ale themost out pose that be risk or some technical or unknolvn ntust plolel) cuted they Archileclure Sollwofe on are The four bythearchilecture baseline. other vietvs centerL'.i thesetol for ofthe scenarios are thaf chosen thecreation arahttectufe

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ModuleVlow The moqlJLeJe-w.-ol'igjlwgrgef ofthe chiteclu re.rhatry$. elements. bgw.the sgf.!wpI,9,,9R$e9ffdiq¡9.&Cd$E The moduIe architecture S0,$ubsystems. view shows thesystem bepanitioned separate how will into run-time components. ofthequestions are Some that answered bythisview asfollows are
platform? mapped thesoftware to -t:Howisthep¡oduct , Wiatsystem supporlseNices it use where? and does How testing supported? can be
4. How dependencies can between modules minimized? be
Krulchen. Tfu4 + I Vi¡¡' P M0d¿10/ A¡(újl¿rl¡rr¿. Softwarc 42_10. |EEE pp. November t995.

). llowcanrcuse modules subsystems of and bemaximi¿ed? ó. what techniques be usedto insulate product can the ffom
platform. changesthird"party in softwafe changesthesoftware in
,\r .h:hdF < r ^ . rá ñ d ¡r¡l (l

Applied Softvvare Architecture Viewpoints
The I view 4+ model onlyon€ several is of suggest forthe ions viewpoints . thatshould included software be in archltecture Nord, .H9Jr¡giSte¡, andSon¡ (1999)_propose a different of viewpoin$. set ConceptualArchlt€cture Vlew The conceptualarchitecture similarto view is thlhglqO,L,v,iew ¿+t in the view.model. However, co¡ceptual the architecture ü moieconceptual viil andbroader scope. tatesintoaccount ¡n lt existing software hardware and integration issues vrew closely to.the This rs tied appl¡cation domain, The runcoona ot thesystem mapped architectural ty is to elements called colraplüalJoüpo¡?filr. conceptual These components not mapped are directly to hardware, they mapped a function thesystem but are to that performs. íhis view provides overviewthesoftware an of architecture.It fjrstplace ¡sjhe that people goto find how system what is supposeddo,The will out the does lt io concerns addressed conceptual include following inthe view the l. How does system the fulfillthe requ¡rements? 2. How thecommercial afe off,the-shelf (COTS) comoonentsbe to integrated. how rhey and do inte¡act a function¿l with {at level) therest thesystem? of 3. How domain-specific are hardware and/of software incorporatecl into system? the 4.. How functionality is partitioned p¡oduct into releases? thepfoduct, how it support and will generat¡ons? future How product supported? are lines ó. Ho[,cantheimpact changes thetequitements of in domain be minimi¿ed?

ExecutlonVlew view Theexecution of software architecture shows holvmodules are the entrof the.syste0r view This shows run.time thel¡ardware Tgp.!e-d-grtlo and tieS theirattributes how ánd and these entities assigned machines are to processor lt usage, usage, network and usage networks.shows memory the expectat¡ons. vjs{.ihg}yr Th ishardware systems between üeflowof confrol questions thrsvrew thal gxgcule-the software the system of that Some

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l. How recovery, reconand does system itspe ormance, the meet liguration requirements? 2, How resoürce balanced? is usage in 3. How concuffency, are replication, distribution and handled the system? platform 4, Hov canthe ¡mpact changes the run-time be of i¡ rninimized? Code Vle$ view The code shows thesource andconfiguration organhow code are package i¿ed p¿ckages, into including It also how dependencies. shows the po(ions thesystem built executable of aie from source ¡nd.onl¡f]' the c,.de quesiions, This answefs lollowing uration view the t. How thebu¡lds are donc? long thejtake? How do 2. How versions releases afe and managed? whattools needed support development configu¿nd are to the ration management environments? 4. How integration testing are and supported?

), How thesystem doe; incorporate portions generations ofpriot of

APrcclicol culde lo Enlerprise Archileclure 5S

Sollwore Archileclure 5

your How important¡ttodefine architecture one ¡s using ofthese standard is: views presenied to give here sets vlews? answer notat all.These of The are youanidea thekinds quest¡ons need beanswered youdefine of of that to when yoursoftware architecture.

1999) to get book proiect every keep but and organlzalion forthe kindsofthingsto inmind, every is to The way sound software architectures have are different. best to develop architecls developers. whounderstand intriand the thebest software People processes. pol¡tics of and ofyour or€anization who and cacies thetechnology, of concepts will can apply some thefundamental outlined thischapter sucin possible forcapin the software architectures. method Ifthe ceed cfeating best is completely ad-hoc loosely or based theabove on tur¡ng architecture the methods, is fine Again, most that the important is thattheimportant issue get questions answered thateveryone what a¡swers what and knows the aie. is format style is notimportant theparticular of oftheanswers

wrll who with systems Anyone is familiar IJNIX PiDesn¡d filters. pattern pipe¿ndfrltelp¿ttern The rlffirl¡]iTrc¡iieaulal programs /iicalled from allows system beassembled small a to The are an and l¿r5. filterhas input anoutput. filters assembled A filtef the data from p¡evious intoa chain which filter in each gets processes data, passes data thenext the to the and in thechain. is and The example a pipe iiltersystem of filterin thechain. best semantic analysyntax The analysis, analysis. a compilef. lexical occur code and sis,intermediate generation, optimization in a pipe filter chain. style and layels the of is djfferent 4. l14yers,layeled A system onein lvhich Each function thesystem layer oi take ofa system care specific that a of architectural is a packagesoftware has style in a Iayered with well-known dependencies interface a few and well-defined within lunction one layers layer Each implements technicai other layer For a data theapplication. example, access is respo¡s¡ble lor a datab¿sc means accessine forencapsulating thetechnical gc the access access requestsa database thlough data to Aildata The access has responsibil' layet the layer that foI databasc. data itorn layers mechanism upst¡ea¡I lll the acccss ityof hiding data ln layels may adiacent layer a a closed system,layer onlyaccess irl may an'/ system, layers access othellayer the an openlayer not the to they system, iust ones which aleadiacent patterns used provideconcepa popular to architectural are Many other archi' An can one for architectule application use or more iualbasis so[tware usi¡g can pattems itsdevelopment Different subsystemsbebuilt in tectuíal can patterns. themethods compone¡t interactlon follov for Also, different could implementations components of the while internal the onepattern pattern use diffe¡ent a people use undeland patterns meant software to are fol Architectural N,IVC the study pattern undelstandconcept o¡pipes the and stand. must One betweenarchian in life. difierence lilters little nobasis Ieal The have o¡ and rs metaphofundel' pattern a system metapholthat system is a and tectural a people alike.For example. and customers by standable soltware pattern In publish'subscribe isalso system a metaphora publish-subscribe publjsherá bo.lk provides data a nervspaper or like a publisher the system. toplc to publisher article Each newspape¡ or bookrelates a particular i¡ artiale When ntagazine ora book a tova!ious topics consumers subscribe buy comes which suscribers interested out they theboolor nl¡g¡¿]¡f are ¿rc metaphots nolalw¡!s As can syste¡¡ artiale you im¡gine, l'lllc Nl¡R¡ilrr. \ lt magazine,iusl not ¿rliclcs hi¡lhenl,ld tothe subsctibers subscribe entire them to books, purchase they don't ln consumels subscribe azine addition, "The llke is syster¡desi€ned a metaphor usually outwith starts A system conre products concepts sofhvare in developmeft llom and Many Following a lewexamples: are metaphors . Library . Sta.k
Afchileclure Sollwore

I Architectura and system The is a metaphor? answernotmuch. architectural (Bass An style pattern Styles, et al.1997) anarchitectural (Buschmann 199ó) e5senand et al. are A system melapho¡.iÉ€imilar.but.no¡e.conceptu¿l than Patternt and tiallysynonymous. patlern anar,chitecture or anarchitecturAl_style,relates to a realandit mqre Metaphors
wo¡ld style concept to a software than engineedng concept afchitectural An pattern similar a design pattern thatthey andanarchitectural are to in both a describesolution a problem a particular to in context. onlydilference T¡e pattern, is thegranularitywhich describe solution. a design at they the ln the is fine and of solution relatively grained is depicted thelevel language at pattern solution coafser grained is In the is a¡d classes.an architectural or modules their and described level at the ofsubsystems and relationships pattern Each or withinan aÍchitectural collabo¡ations. subsystem module patterns. language consistsmany of classes are that desig¡ed design using Every system needs central, a organizing concept The conceptual integrity thesystem of depends how on stfong organizing concept for is this thesystem whatis an organizing So concept? Some examples architecof (Buschmann 199ó) tu¡alstyles patte¡ns and et al. include following, the pattern l. Model-View-Controllerarchitecture TheI\¡VC {MVC) style architectural i5a popular organizrng co¡cept systerns. for model ¡ep¡esents The the data forthe system, view the rep¡esents afc lheway dala p¡esentcdthc!ser, thecontrollcr the to and handles logic thesystem the for publish-subscribe pattern 2. PubliSh-subscibe. The architecture is publishes on a bus a system whicha publisher in data Subscribels subsc¡ibe to portions data a¡e ofthe that published when bypublishers thebus. on They fegister various for topics a message appears thebusthatmatches topic which on the in a sub,scribef isinterested.bus the notifies subscriber sub. The the can read scribe¡ then themessaÉe thebus. ÍÍom

pallem What thedifference is between architectural anarchitectural an style,

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Oueue Desktop
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Directory window Scheduler Dispatcher have many metaphors. the metaphors to make but can A system have jts For rnteglily. example within system maintain conceptual the to sense wouldit have windows a desktoo contains has thal windows. Microsoft to windows mea¡t move to on better forwindows beplaced a wall?Are been of multiple metaphors, aspects the some By on around thewall? combining with and must metaphorc be forgotten othermustbe emphasized. time, jtselfcanbecome metaphor. no longer we thinkaboutthe a the system to relating an relating a physical to desktop a window or desktop windows in FoI can metaphofsthemselves. example, Products become actualwindow. desktop. is inteface likethewindows sysLem say theuser could that a new

Service-0riented Architecture

ConclusionIlgJSJLlg.0egf what important thedesig4.and about commu¡icates captures is architecture
architecture ¡s on the cgtrcgpt$ tl-o.-s.-e- to the.stakeholders proieclEnterprlse of the alchitectures sys' ways product thecombined a of softwafe in many Therefore.i9jmpQrta¡t. 8etthearchitecture it te temsin theorganization. readable, approachable, the should rightTobecredible, architecture bethin, and baseline with focus thearchitecture on andund-erstandable.anintense as of architectureit is being analysis thesoftware a quality attribute,based will the of it that buih. is likely thearchitecturesuit needs theploiect. product product ljnes lines. Software 4, ln Chapter welookat software p¡oi' great itectu multiple to leverage arch reacross willallowan organization great Using architecture a productand have ilar racteristics. ectsthat sim cha great il, can to lineapproach delivering anorganization achieve enterprise architeciure.

software *henit comeE.rq.cre4lingsoltvlerg.aqhitectl¡te

(SOA) architecture is anarchrtectural th¿tform¿lly style |(\erv¡ce-Oriented which that can sewices, arethefunctionality a system provrde. Dseparates whlch that Th¡s f¡om service consumers, aresystems need functionality. that conlfa¿I, couis by known a r¿¡r¡¿¿ as separationaccomplisheda mechanism pled for and to witha mechanism providers publish to conkacts consumers the that the that than locate coniracts provide service theydesireRather lvith aspects invokof coupling consumer theseruice temsoftechnical the in ingtheservice, separates contract theccmponent implethe from or SOA inwhich mentation ofthatcontract. seDaratio¡ This oroduces a.chitecture a¡ the ofthe and that thecoup!ing between consumer service themodules prothe is loose reconfi€ured. duce work extremely andeasily preceding Syst€ms Architecture, discussed we integrati¡g ln a chapter, in legacy clienvserver and applications encapsul¿ting functionality by their and that inteÍface. is iustthefirst That step in obiects publishing obiect's integrating Thi5 exploles next functionality thÉpilcess. chapter the step, intoanSOA. with web are SOA should beequated websewices services a real' not irnplementations have been c¡eated that ization SOA, SOA of bui canaird webservices have rrothingdowith to benefit the modern to enterDrise Drovldes lt an SOA beof enormous can of ¡ew [or C¡eatints ¡ppl¡.¡- Eenefits an ncw imporlanl avenue integration of appli.ations s0A of tions under SOA an offersslgnificant a increase qualitjesavailabilin the maintainability, reliabilitythose lo¡ apFrlications Fot ity, interopefability, and inlo ope¡atLng costs as the translates lo$/er theenterpfisea whole, SOA quality, greater corporat. agility lolver development higher costs and

AProclicol Gulde lo Enloryrise Ar¡hilecluie 61

63

Related Interests

¡orld, can the your andpatience toollo reap benefits its the ally

reTypes Architectu Systems
a a slate toldto cleate newsysar,d Few afchitects b€given clean will Myles an Like architects, inherited existtems architecture scratch. most from with and who ingarchitecture, asthepeople arecharged supporting aswell and the systems ii and cies enhancing thefullsetofdep€nden among existing that depended them. must emphasized on lt be theparts ofthecompanythat personnel valuable is an tesoufce. ¡nfrastructure extremeiy theeilisting js afchiiectule ihei¡ types Followingan en0metationthesystems of work then with and to strengths, weaknesses, how b€st theh / LegacyAppllcatlons

can with characteristicsbeextremely Legacy applications thefollowing problematlc: . A monolithic ofa o[!rrocesses design. Applications consist selies that lvellwith others in mann€rwill play not con¡ectedanillogical 'green . Fixedand inflexible usel interfaces chalacte¡-based A use¡ example a legacy interiace of interface a common is screen (ul).lntelaces asthese difticult replace browservith are to such applications or into based interfacesto integfate workflow . lnternal. a¡e These definitions data hard,coded definitions data to and often specif¡c theapplicatlon dont confolm anentelp¡ise to Archileclure themcaninvolve Syslems Fufthermore. changing datamodel approach. applications refactoring downstleam all

AProclicol Guide lo Enlerpfise Archileciure ¡

a . Business thatareintemal hard-coded.such situaIn and rules in by to rulescaused changes business t¡on,updates business all to processes inventorying applications locate therelerequire affected components. rules vant business andlefactor¡ng . Applications storetheir own set of usercredentials that efforts integrale to can credential stores block Application-specific and single sign-on to with the application technologies enable management. identity quite have discarded' a fewhave applications been whilemañy legacy applications legacy to thepresent time Thesurviving forward been carried difficLllt impossibly vital and willusually both to theenteQrise considered be to andexpensivereplace legacy involved Much was situation. of itslTdepartment This Canaxia's the controlled cafmanufacturmainframe applications Several applications. (ERP)was the 1990s. planninC from eally lesource The incprocess. enterptise in was system, firstcreated a and Theinventory ordefsystem, mainframe (CR[¡) was application management relationship The 1985. customer financials ptinciples legacy The and recently deployed bujlt on modular concern immediate was for application Canaxia of mofe and Securities that was Canaxia oneof the 94t companies fell under it team (SEC) 4-4ó0, thearchitectufe knew so Exchange Commission Order than much more detailed thesysreports were financial that hadto produce produced. temcurrently The requilernents archi" these would support not financials The existing approaches, take knew it could oneof thefollowing that team tecture . It could linancial application. replace legacy the . It could into application a data pedorm from extractions thelegacy the to warehouse the datanecessary satisfy newreporting of fequ[ements. and at was application Iooked long hard the financial Replacingexisting ihat kncw if it The with risk was Considerable associated thatcourse team by the offailure have route, decidedcothereplace it would to reduce risk to areas were that had the levelHowevet, team other it costing outat a high lo all going require resources. it did¡ot want spend jts a¡d subst¿ntial to situatidn thefinancial feportirrg capitalon to applicationdo would the allo\v legacy extraction solution The data

is ptinciples theenteDrise of the accordingto accounting accounts not applications, granulat financial function legacy of tlreprlrne t0 access data. in will . Ld hocque¡ying,The in thewarehouse be avaiiabie dala userscan drill into accolding cubesthat muitidimensional of the lightens butden producing This to theirneeds. greailv reports. whatis necessary' principles onlydoing of . Accoldance agile with the implementlng datawarehouse to Youonlyhave wolryabout the to necessary produce desired the andcreating applications that the assuredthat financialrepofts theuser rest can reports.You and when needed in the to is cornmunityaccustomedwill appeal they accustomed fom to which are he foundat Canaxia' that applications Myles In termsof the legacy he themintactln particular' was100 to with concurred thedecision leav€ intact application financial the to percent the behind plan leave legacy financial for a to andhe moved impl€mentdatawarehouse canaxia's information. lt was withmanagement option was warehouse nota popular The data Rol notnegative' At onepointin move a clearly defenslve andhada low if proiect, architecture the of the discussion thecostof thedatawarehouse gullible and of were in and in team gene¡al Myles particular accused being any to area explore t¡menew is a valid This n€w toward technology" biased team the on brcught boardHowever' architecture had is technologybeing with ol the state costs thepfoiect and diligence could done góód ofdue a ¡ob as as was of theploiect kept small The of a highdegree confidence scope The the decreasing riskof lailure' alternative possible, substantlally ihereby and mole was legacy replacingthe application substaniially expensive move, the it wastfuethalblinging financial Also' of degree risk. ca(ied; hiehe; synergies of the opened possibility future data data theenterprise model into l¡ of the increase ROI thedatawarehouse general substantially thatcould cla' ¿re islhat applications they extremely with news legacy the terms, good ate secu¡ity usually and rvellPhysical data they do thev what dovery bleand ¡ expect They inflelible ale is Less excell€nt satlsfylngthatthey extremely to thell outputModifications producevery specific a lnput very specific and appliof the cases burden legacy task ate usualiy u major lnmany behaulor ro¡e) discletroñary i" thal is suppoft oneof thereasons so I'tlre calron lT in available most budgets. They applications mllst withlegacy to will Most a.chitects have wolk lhcil by strengths nlodilyrlrT lnh'rvr"l thel¡ to on ways o(plolt concentraie tl'ey aad they on and focus theconllacts lulflll theinterf¿ces 'arrcrf'Jse a¡ld unexpected unintcnded can in anyoneapplication have Changes Such in an applications olganization situations to the consequences other Ai degree to functionalitya high application legacy isolate thatyou mandate you to decomposedthepointwhele will been poini, function have a some to at This Archlloclure and atlits willunderstand inputs outputs isthelevel vhich extel' Sysloms functionalitY legacy nalize

r is wlr iril i. , u. , ir lloil, , ingwh( nr lt r it { to ( l o i 0 gl 'l l r ( '( l ¡ l ;Irn i n l ¡ {. l i r l ) l ) r o ; r i l l l lollowing, buys Canaria.the . N,'tuch it g¡eater LJsing responsiveness a datawarshouse teporti¡g iin3ncials view an is possible ploduce accurate of the(ompanfs to basis on a weekly oi the ol prime Reconciliation chart functions datawarehouses of

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t

7 Cllent/serverArchltecture >. applion effort a client into Clienvserver architecture is based dividing which which and application, fulcation, requests o¡ a service a server data can or fillsthose The and requests. client theserver beonthesame different popu, filled hole machines. architecture a definite andbecame Clienvserver va¡iety Íeasons. larfora of On was in of Access knowledge thebigd¡iver therise clienvserver the to users given data, they the but wjth applications, were macro level, mainframe which esse¡Ievel, came it down reports, to wanted On knowledge. themicro lt to view of easy getthestanda¡d tiallyarea particular on paper data. was data view from To setof reports themainirame. geta different of corporate Also, wete for ofthe could months thepreparation fepo¡t. reports tunon take not schedule. a standard schedule, ontheuser's of was big in Costsavings another factor the initialpopulafity cost applications. [4ainframe computers in thesix-to seven' clienvserve¡ cheaper to that figure range, do theapplications runonthemIt is much as desktop. something runs theclient's that on build buy or a factor. Normallythe cheap network technology alsowas The offast, rise connected by machines, client theserver and applications on separate are neirequires a good Hence, beuseful, to clienvserver some of a network. sort (LAN5)to enable localarea networks workOriginally, businesses constructed these netwolks. a¡chitecture ableto utilize \¡,as file sharing. Clienvserver and wide networks networking grown include alea has to Ente¡prise {U/ANS) Ethernet 3.4Mbs and token Bandwidth g¡own has froml0 Mbs theInternet. an with Ethernet starting make to Mbs ringnetworks 100 Ethernet Gigabit to of while has so the appearance. bandwidth grown, has number applications jssue is on network. Network congestionanever-present for chatting a given architects. of led and clienvserver architecture to thedevelopment marketingsome part powerful very applications have that become integral ofthe an desktop world.Spreadsheets personal are corporate and databases two desktop that become ubiquitous modern inthe enterprise. applications have of a application development tapped contributions the Clienvserver who at not Corporate employees large numbe! people we¡e plogrammers. of without burdenall levels developed rather some sophisticated applications inganlTstaff. revolution pretty has r¡uch The initial that hype sufrounded client/serve! facts it died downlt is now very a mature archilecture following about The nave emergeq: . The in a¡ch fe turned supDort involved clienyserver itectu have costs A number Pcshadto bebought of out to tje considerablelarge applications curandsupported. cost keeping The of clienvserver distributing releases applic¿iions new ornew rent ofphysically and A Proclicol Guids that them as to all thecorporate desktops requrred came a shocl: loEnleprise anothef one lT Clienlserve¡ applications are to many depaments Archileclure portion most budgets lT is a of of the¡easons such large that to devoted iixed to costs

. Manyof the user-built were applications not well clicnvserver data' the models in thepersonal used In deslgned.particular, data in Inaddition, a signif' completely unnormalized. bases often were were not data the in nümber cases, data th€desktop stole of lcant percent 100 clean. . Thehugenumbers th€se applications the pasitrendof and of to for difficult an alchitect made decentralization it extremely them. and locate inventorv has into penetrationcllenL/seRef applications corporations ol Therapid sp¡eadsheets. At especially helper by been expeditedclienlserver applications, data isthe hierafchy, spreadsheet premier analythe alllevels ofthecorporate of integlationspleadtools the development allow di¡ect sistool. clienvseNer of client. importance spreadsheet The ¡nto sheet funct¡onality the desktop for replacements when functionality betalenintoaccount architecting must spreadsl'eer is ln most cases, ifthe user expecllnc appllcatlons. clienvserver to it will capabilitiesanapplicetio.,, have bein anyreplacement. in team ln alchitecture was applications, theCanaxia Infegard cli€nlserver to inthe oflarge thesame as oosition mostarchltects coQorations followingwaysr . canaxia a large to applicationsbesupofclient/server had number ported. would to Furthermore, applications have besupported the years thefuture. into formany . cana{ia sti¡ldoi¡gsignificant appliof amounts clienvserver was to develoDment. wereiust enhancementsexisting Some cation proposals entirely iocused developing on but applications, several applicat¡ons. nev¡ cl¡enVserver . oneof theDroblems Myles withclienyserver alchitecture has that application a paron a on€-to.one:particular is thatit ¡sbasically a servet usually database desktop talking a particular to ticular of for do€s This server architecture notprovide gfoups colpolate The time. application the same at the resources access same to in to the team architecture wanted move corporationthedilection savings scalability and applications thecost to gain ofdistributed provided. thatthey on some ofgrip Canaxia's sort that toget The architecture knew it had team could approaches betaken lt knew client/seryer applications. thatseveral . lgnofe for appllca' approach those This them. istherecommended characteristics, tions have following that the to to expensivemove o A¡ecomplex would difficult be and/or and architecture. thin-client is not meaning application the o Have small base, usually a user anlTPriolity. ¡¡ a maintenancesteadt n Are much stabie. is,dor'tlequire lhat of that usually meaning suppo¡t th¡sapplil stfeam updates, of drain is cation nota noticeable onthebudget.

Archil€clure s)'slems tI

o Involves even Attempting produc€ a to funciionaliry. spreadsheet powef would a be small subset a spreadsheet's ln a thinclient of pfoiect. thiscase, suggest accept' In we very and difficult expensive (GU interfac€ l) benefits that ingthe that rich fact the graphicaluser solution. are brings thespreadsheet to thetable theoptimal PCs on and Puttheapplication a sewer turntheusers' intodumb version 2000 latel.is and Windows Sewer, Microsoft terminals. rnode. allows lTdepan' the inmulti.user This ofoperating capable on by applications theservet justproviding ment runWindows to the machines attached it. Putting to updates individual to screen clienvserver the on makes job of managing application a server easier seveÍal of applications orders magnitudes of of the into Extract functionality application a se¡ies inter. the application a set of compointo Turnthe client/server faces. jnto can nents. Someconponents be incorporated other broken into lf the application been has applications client/server pieces,canbereplaced at ol it a piece a time, thebitsthatare leaving the drain yourbudget be replaced on can thebiggest rest functional. still

approach to a team canax¡a architecture decided take multistepped The applications of its library cl¡envserver to thern be" . About thirdof theapplicat¡ons fellln the 'leave clearlv a but be They category. would supported notenhanced be would I Between andI t pefcent theappl¡cations no longet of I0 suPPorted. using for . The ate applications candidates leplacement a rema¡ning architecture. thin,client is discussionsthe in that one matter is oftenoverlookedclienvserver a scattered thfoughout databases in thedesktop data enterprise sequestered with when approaches dealing the several among one choose buslness. can stores: data in data corporate contained user important . Extract fiomthedesktop move intooneof thecorporate it and it Connecll!iry vla Database access Open Usels obtaln databases. then applicatio¡s (ODBC) (iDBC] supported or into . ForthecllenUserv€r that aoplications atemoved thebrowset may necessary. be extladion distributed is atchitectulenota gocdfit for current While clienUserver lT corporate wo¡ldwe are in hasits place themode¡n it still apolications, As applications rathel monolithic interfaces than of advccatesusing staunch immediand onthebiggest most befoie, ¡ecommended con.entrate wehave ateofyourproblems.

AProciicol Gulde l0 Enl6rPise Archileclurc

in appl¡cations still thepreferred are solution many Clienyserver as requires a complex such that CUl, lf the situations. application produced Visual applica. Basic, PowerBuildeI, lavaSwing or a by to many things be donethatareimpossible can t¡onor applet, and in application, they fasler easiel and are duplicate a browser intensive Applications perform that to produce in HTML than to candidates. donotwant burden You computationexcellent are yourserver calculations useup youfnetwork bandwidth with or pumping to images a client. is farbetter giv€access the to It to lhat do Applications data letthecPU thedesktop thework. and on functionality bestdonein clienvservef are involve spreadsheet jn architecture. exposes its functionalitythe folmof Excel all (coM)components. components Model These common obiect and incorporated VBor N4iclosolt into canbetransparently easily ([¡FC) ln all Foundation Classes applications anycase, new intelfaces the to development should done be using clienVserver functionálity than lather monolithic applications architectufe. time, usuallv At this this Move them thin-client to them. is means creating browser-based applicationsreplace This to that an theideal approach those to clienVservef applications have the data lt impo(ant impact thecorporate model. has imporon con' tantsideeffect helping centralize dataresources to the of in tained theaoDlications

¿ Thln-Cllent A¡chltectüre presento approach decoupling 'lhifi-clie(ithitectur¿ popular is one 4t were rehash a tfir and logic dataOriginally cli¿rh frombusiness tation As terminal the replacing dumb with computing a browser of time-shale the in has the architecture rnatuted, somecases clienthasgained responsibility. costs the in hidden have applications substantial clienyserver Asnoted, themDrssatisfactlon and to Iheeffod involved majntain upglade fo¡m ol that factors ledto thecon' $,as costs oneofthemotivating withthese hidden all is architecturework per' systems With client." thin'client of ceot a "thin a serve¡ formed on isthat architectu¡es thc parts attractive ofthin-client of One thereally no and by is componentprovided a thirdparty lequires soltware client a in The on of expenseeffort thepadofthebusiness servel, thiscase web from aesponses and to up seryes content uSers'browsefsgathers seryef. applior the run them. aDDlicationsoneithel webserver ondedicated AII on All cationservers. the data ale on machines the businesss network. Archlleclure Syslerns
lt

t2

problematic Thin-client architecture several has areasl . A thin-client architecture produce lot of network can traffic. a pa¡ticularly a When connection overthe lnternet, the is via modem, round-trips the client the server become from to can unacceplably Iong. . The a¡chitecture Web initially ofthe was designed suppo{ to static pages page When next the fequest a static for comes theservef in, doesncare t about browsing the history theclient. of . Controlofwh¡ch browserused access thin-client is applica' to the tionis sometimes outside control lheteam the of developing the application. applicationonlyused If the is within corporation, a thebrowser beused bemandated theITdepatment to can by If parties over Internet, theapplication isaccessed byoutside or the a widespectrum browsers have be supported. of to Your may choices thissituation to give functionality in are up byprogramming thelowest to common up denominator give audience or to bydeveloping formodern only bfowsers. . Users demand inte¡active rich, applications. isinsufficient HTML to buildrich, interactive applications. developinC cUI when thin. to client applications, developmenl muststrive provide the team what want functjonality users accomplish they for to iustenough and no morc. Agilemethods have correct the approach this to problem do nomore and thanwhat clients request . Data must validated. data be The input theusercan validated by be ontheclient if there problems thepage, user with is and, are the alerted a pop-up. data can sent theserverand by The also be to validaled there. problems thepage Íesent theuser If with arise, is to a message identifying theproblems where are. . The web most common development a¡eusually tools enhanced texteditorsN,'lo¡e advanced rapid Web development application (MD)toolsexist. however, such D¡eamweaver FfontPagei as and they lallshort some all on level, usually to thefacts they due that give only automate productionHTML they little no the of and or withlavascriptwith development help or the HTN¡L ofseNer-side
,r ,,crvhl:, 1!( ¡h(l ll:;1,:i) J¡v;i IrJll,rirlt,¡, lr ,r, lirv,r rvrr l)ir{lc., . Se^,er resources be stfetched Webserye¡ can thin A single can handle srr4xrsrng a nurrb0r conne(tions all it is serving when ul) of ¡rc st¡tra Webpdges Whcnlho sess becones lhe o|] ¡nter¡ctive, resources consurned a client risedramatically. by can

graphing, heavily ca¡ the especially typethat involves Dalaanatysis, invoives a fof new Each request analysis and thenetwolk theserv€r burden m¡y to Then to the triptosend request theserver theserver have gcl network are once the hosting database thedata from üsually thernachine úe data. All the processing arerequired create graph' to steps CPU-intensive in hand, gfaph Then time take operations lotsof server andresources thenew these as obiect such a GIF bulky as usually a fairly network, overthe to has besent can lhe and to and Ifthedata anapplication anallze display data be orIPEG. s to withthedata hisor helheart concan the ovelthewire, user play sent This Iequests canbe client other can tentandtheserver be leftto service aÍc\itccture of thought asa semithin-client phones personal asslst¿nts can (orsld' desklop lPDAsl be and Mobtle that have browsers youcanuselo allowintefaction They ered clients. thin the within enterpfise and devices systems these between mobile and the 'Iherise client created ability theexpectation has ofthebrcwser users and face unified to extefnal internal a expose single, thatbusinesses into applications the s legacy the bringing business this Inevitably, willmean archiinto legacy lntegrating applications thin-client architecture. thin-clienl t\at appllcalions legaqy Those difficult or tecture beeasy it canbevery can challenging pleviously bequite can areas the e)úibit problematic discussed can databases and that Those arefullytransaclional arebuilton relational application poft with often aneasier thandealing a client/server be and via systems interfaces obiect of funct Exposingthe ionality thelegacy baich' the Adapling asynchronous first is wrappering the essential step. Intemet span totheattention oftheaverage processing mainfiame modelofthe detail in this We can user bedifficult. discuss ingreater later thischapter

Value System to Enhance Architecture Using Systems
and evolve maintenance as age syslems they and Assoftware haldware can and them. Maintenance enhancement be change activiti€s enhancement to of üe lo used anopportunity increase value a system theenterpllse as and via architectule maintenance of thevalue systems The to enhancing key stovepipe to as is to enhancement usethechanges an opportunity modity your This and applications components willmake into aDplicationsleusable jr|il an(l¡)r ¡'l)L¡'c you lo bc mo¡€ because wllllhcn lrcc r¡odify systcm agllc it tc'rd addition !vLll In application rather the a few components than entire oflered hv flexibilily because greater the ptooftheapplication to 'futurc { lhr gte ly t he .omponentsw l l l at lnct ease chancc' l I xl\ lln{ llv r lL\ ! 'l l' asthey requiremenls change business able fulfill to allthe isby ihe to The place begin process understa¡ding contracts best that all we fulfills. ú0¡tfalls, mean theagreements the By thatthestoveDipe of ¿s it to that withapplications wish use Then part the nakes stovepipe via thecontlact an externalizes theStovepipe or maintenance, enhancement it application legacy witha rnonolithic is As interface thisprocess repeated lools somc (onsume Fot of lo fu¡ction a set components er¿f.ple as beeins ior an coBoL copybooksand produce obiectwrapper" the moclules Syslems ^rchrleclurc books. inthe descdbed copy

The keysto stro¡gthin'client systems lie architecture in application designForexample application issues of suchas the amouf,t informatiorl in carried session objects, opening the database connections the time a¡r(l a of can on AProclicol Guide spentin SOLque¡ies have big impact the performancea thrnlf is machine ii loEnlerprhe clientalchitecture the Webbrowser running a desktop on Archileclu16 be possible greally to up the may sDecd perfoÍnance enlisting compuir¡g by of t4 power LllcclLcl machiril

Messaging technologya useful is technology integrating funcfor legacy tions into yoursystems architectu¡e With messaging, information the required thefunction is putonthewire thecalling fof call and applicatjon (pseudosynchronous) about business either waits a reply for or goes its (asynchronous). Messaging poweful thatit ro¡¡y'I¿t¿lu is very in abstracts ihe calle! from ca¡led the program function. language which seNet The in the is written, actual types uses, even physical the data it and the machine upon which runs immatetial theclie0t. it are to With asynchronous messaging program even offline callsthesewer can be when tequest made it the is and will fulfillit when is refurned service it to Asynchronous function are calls veq/ attractive accessing applications. can when legacy They allow legacy the application to fulfill requeststhemode which is most the in with it com[ortablebatch mode. Tobeofthegreatest utilityobject wrappe¡s should exposelogical a r¿l of theunderlying you functions think willfind We thatexposing funcevery tionthat monolithicapplication waste time effod funca has a is of and The tionalityto exposed be should grouped logical be into unitsofwork, that and un ofwork what it is should exposed be whatis thebest to expdse functionality? creatine way this when an w¡appet maio¡ object the consideration be themanne¡ which should in your plan systems atchitecture indicates thisinterfacecontract that or wiil beutilized. effort The should made minimize number network be to the of taiDs. Wrappering depends distributed on object technology its effectivefor ness. Distfibuted obiects available are underCommon RequestBroker Object (CORBA), Architecture and by usingMessaging lava,.Net, Oriented (MOM) Middleware technology. Distributed obiects uponan effectjve rely network int¡anet, WANI operate or to effectively. llnte¡net, In addition inc¡easing value a stovepipe to the of application to other segments enteprise, olthe exposing components application prothe ofthat vide following the opportunitiesl . The possibility ofsunsettlng st¿gnantobsolete or ro!ttnes tn€ ¿nd inc¡emental replacement of them components makes by that more economic to theentemrise sense . Thepossibility plugg¡ng an e)(isting of in component ls lhat cheape.maintainplace theIegacy to in of application foutine. . Outsourc¡ng func|onái¡ty appllcation provider (ASp) toan seNices lftheintedace ispropefly designed. application any accessing interthat face bekept \'ill totally ignorant ofhow business the contractbeing is ca¡¡ied out Therefore,extremely it is importantdesign prope¡y Cana¡ra to them The group an architecture has o¡Coi¡g proiect define to interfaces iorlegaq.applicat¡ons import¿nt and client/server applications were wf]tten that ¡n,house APfoclicol Guld€ The pl¿ce st¿rt best to when seeking understanding interlaces añ ofthe I-0 tnlerpflse c¿n defrled ¿napplication thesoutce buttheuser that be lrom is not code Archileclule good manuals Another source knolleclgea lecacy of of application,s con, ló

what know who its customers' users, usually exactly is tracts theapplication! its rules to is supposed do andthe business surrounding the application availis for documentation the application occasionally Useful operation. point, themore but at code to the Examining source has bedone some able. the easierwillbe iobofdecigathered the beforehand, fasterand information the phering soulce. data fol and protocol a setofagreements specificationssending is A netwolk protocols in usetodayLetsdiveintoa are network Many a over network. with this familiar usedio helptou become quickoverview protocols of decisions inf[astructule informed to domain allovyouto make

Network Protocols

TCP/IP
protocol is 1¿lPrcIacal ControlPtotocal|l^te IICPllP) the net'{ork Ttat$nissiaü use the thathas widest in industry. culrently systems . TCP/lP protocol stacks lor all operating exist in use. protocol and robust reliable It is anextrenely disparate between that which means it canbesent It is routable, networks. the Even systems Nelware alloperating forfreewith It is available protocolSPX' TCP/lP offe¡s network very home oftheonce popular protocol. to in addition its proprietary develhas functionality b€en suite security of robust Anextremely via oped communlcationTCP¡P fof other TCP/P Several by communlcationandlatgeuses Internet will They over protocols beandareused thelnternet can nelworl communi the However, lnternet later bediscussed in thisseclion. lP and all protocols SMTP, FTP use HTIP, HITPS, cation webseN'ces TCP/IP use . Messaging use Prolocols TCP/lP and . All remote such communication, asDColúlavaRML obiect CORBA use can TCP/IP

Subnets
w¡lh othetApetsan drcctly each ol subnett segrnen! o new* kot concomñlnicole orc Nef¡/ar|t añ wíth dircdly oll lheothetcon,pule5 lhol subnel con ano subnel coñmunkote net súnphry subnels nask by Prcpedtes orcvil inlr subnels thesubnel pono{ke TCPIP ta ond ¡@ odmi4tsrcton conbeused prc¡desecu'try' on wlh lo rcquie rcutets connun¡cate canlputes ollel subnets on Conpute! diflercnl sobnels

n

Sys'ems Archllecluie

TCP/lP a suite protocols on a fourlayer is of built model: . Thefi¡stlayer the network is inteíace. These the LANtech. are nologies, asEthernet, RinC, FDDI, such Token and ortheWAN technologies, asFrame puts such Relay, Serial Lines, ATMTh layer or is frames andgets onto them thewire. off . The second is thelPprotocol. laye¡ tasked encaplaye¡ This with is sulating intoInternet data data€rams. ¡uns thealgolt also all rithms routi¡gpackets for between switches. Sub-protocolslP to are functions Internet for address mapping, communication between and hosts, multicasting suppon. . Above IPl¿yer thetransport This the provides is layer. layer the actual communication transpoft protocols in theTCP/IP Two are suite TCPand UserDatagram Protocol These be will {UDP). explained in greater inthenext detail section . The topmost istheapplication This where applicalayer laye. is any tionthat interactswith a networkaccesses theTCP,4p P¡otocols stack such HTTP FIP¡eside theapplication Under covas and in layer. the ers, allapplications useTCP/lp thesockets ptotocol. that use Sockets canbethought astheendpoints thedata of pipe of thatconnecis applications. Sockets been have builtjntoall flavors UNIX of and have been padofWindows a operating systems WindowsI, since 3 see Figu¡e l-2 protocol the actual Thetransmission is mechanism daradelivery of between applications. is themost TCP widely proused thetransmission of tocols theTCP/IP lt canbedescribed follows: in suite. as . TCP a packet-oriented is protocol Thatmeans thedataare that splitintopackets, a header attached thepacket, it is sent is to and f¡flrc l-l
Appllc¿llon

. .

. . .

p'Jt has process repeated all theinformation been until is off.This onthewlr€. ihe requires proiocol TCP a connection-or¡ented in theta seryer ¡s information transnit it to to client connect It befote can is whena packel sent guaranteed delivery lo TCP aitempts offer then The a keeps copy. sender waitsfof an acknowl the sender lfthat machine. acknowledgebytherecipient of edgementreceipt Aftel is time, in isn't ment receiveda ¡easonable thepacket lesent will the a lo of number attempts transmit packel sender a certain an give andreport error up once the sequence packets they providesmeans propelly to a TCP arived. have all level a to feature give basic ofvalprovidessimple checlcum a TcP and header thedata. to thepácket idation in in will guarantees packets bereceived theorde! which lhat TCP were sent. they

place yet an TCP/IP it has import¿nt in lP much than less is UDP used of thefollowing, because communication a do . UDP Servers notlequile connection infotmation. btoadcasts server sit a¡ld car via A the over network UDP UDP data to send to rega¡d and such information asthedate timewithout broadcast is whether notanyone listening or that from to . IJDP nothave built-in facilities recover failure the does preventspartica failure, such lf TcPhas. a problem, asa network applica' the the from ularapplication receiving datagram sending TcP is delivery necessary' that lf rellable know tion witl never to will application have provide or be should used the send¡ng nature UDP of unreliable the to overcome inherently mechanisms TCP than . UDF faster requires overhead less and is data packets TCP large and tor . Typically, is used smalldata for UDP stleams.

Protocols Other
llansporl

Protocol

APrccllcol cuide loEnleprise Archiloclure

Network

ts

streamed All like technology Ethernet data network MM is a high-speed size cells. constant of thccells into down 53'byte The over are ATM broken capabilitics transmiss¡on higher issues can switching and p¡ovide simplifies between a connection TCP/IP Mbs Ethefnet. establishes 100 thanl0 or even set a a circuit fixed establish but mach¡nes, it doesn't and sender recipienl of will which thetlaffic gofortheduration thesesall through cf machines physical loute the to conditionsmodify actual network allows TCP/IP sion. and robust sell TcP/lP This a during s€ssion. makes will thatpackets take transor of problems thecase video voice ln of in healing theface netwolk Archlleclure pa the between comrnunicatingies Syslems a to have connection it mission,is best over can that. ,ATM provicle TCP/IP besent ATN'I can t9 and

protocol hasemerged Multiprotocol Another that is Label Switching MPLS competes ATM that it allows establishment with {MPLS). in the of paths labeled between sende¡ thereceiver ability establish the and This to paths made has private MPLS inte¡est thecreatorc virtual of to of networks. Unlike ATM, is relatively with¡.,1PLS it paths easy to establish across multiple layel transpoÍs Ethe¡net FDDI. also 2 like and lt outpelorms andoffers ¡'TM very path some useful control mechanisms. AT[,,], Like MpLS lp to send uses data over lnternet the

to pointof viewconverting vó system and a From hadware operat¡ng that on Thlsis based lhe facts all the maior to close cost'flee canbevery vó and bullt have systems vólP stacks intothem thatadding sup' operating update a software only such no,tto deuices asrouters lequires lt issue concern is a of is another of exhaustionthelP namespace The sucn lnnovations exhaustion is space facing that fact thecuÍentiPaddress the the (NATI postponed daywhen last have translation address asnetwork to lPv4 vó from tla¡sition time buying loranotderly is addtess assigned,

Translation Address Network
TheemergenceCigabit of Ethernet implementations provided has enough bandwidth allow raw to TCP/IP Ethernet compete ATM over to with forvideo olher and bandwidth,intensive applications. Thebigquestion consider TCP/lp whether utiljze to about is to lpv4 which released back 1980, to move was way in or towatd lpvó many lpvó. has featuresimponance infrastructufe enterprise: of to the ofan . Virtually unlimited address space. . A different addressing scheme allows that individual addresses for every device anenterprise in everyvheretheworld. in . A fi)(ed headef length improved and header format improves that theefficiency of routing . Flow labeling packets ol packets allows routers solt to {Labeling packets st¡eams, into making Tcp/lpvó much more capable than TCP,/IPv4 ofhandling stream-oriented such VOlp video traffic as o¡ streams ) . lrnp¡oved (Secure secuity privacy and communtcatlons atecompulsory vó, with meaning allcommunicationsina secu¡e that exist tunnelThiscanbe compelling somecitcumstances in The inc¡eased pfovided lPvó goa long toward security by will proway vidingSecLlre a Cyberspace.)
Ia in,¡de business ail thot is Neüotkoürcsstonslolion o Eúnology albv'a compLrets o to be ond t¡i t"s ol p a¿""es thotáieprivote cannot rcuted thelntenet iii inuii rhe i5 q canfit¡1noi possible on íi*"1 iiut" oi¿iiirt .*ot tu seen theina¡net oddrcss wlh to is oürcsstonslatot connectedtl''elntenel 0 os thot nothine is octing thenelwotk lP usingiheptivole canputes b os and tp -oddress oals o roulet allav\/ náÁol. routobh on¿Lselhelnleñet to lo addrcssesconnecl

to devrceslhe inconnecli¡8 imProvemenls incfemental numerous lPvS contains ¿nd sp¿ce lre dooressr¡8 ol expansionthenaming lnrernet enomous lhe t0 lo on dwice thepl¿nel becon¡e(teo for it th¿t chanees make possible every o¡ly For formosl are revolutionary enterP'isescanaxt'.nol c¿n thel;ternel üuV vr¿ locarlon to be one in machineevery ol itsplanls con¡ecleda cerlr¿l everv rts can of th¿t subcoÍnponenl m¿chine h¿ve ownc0'1br¡ evely thátnternet. wilhó via can niaán.Áii.áo* dt ¡t"atehbuses bemanageo thelnternel lnelr c¿fs conne( s¿Les dealers Gnarta c¿n connection, selling secute lntemet C¿¡a{i¿ lo a depalmenls cenlr¿l and their rüeit ¿ep¿,tments, sérvice io-oa pans f¿cility. manaBement to is to enterprise IPvó notgoing becost" of converslonanexisting The protocol stacl( an may systems nothave lPvó of versions operaling hee. Oldet ln their perhaps necessitating replacement a laEecorporallon available, wilh seamlessly vóvill will applications work thai ascertaining all existing with lPv4 coexist vó But theory can a substantialundertaking.ln orobablybe that to r¡ith to that wesay if youhave mixlPv4 vó youwill have plove there ploblems. arenocoexistence when as be the We recommendfollowing used a template conlenlplating to aonvftsionIPvó i¡ternational firm . tfyouareasmall medium'sized vithoutany ot vLll Inany manciatoty c¡seyou it presence, until isabsolutely wait of vóon to getbywith implementing theedge thenet' Leable lust you with whe¡e intedace theIntelnet work, or cofporation a lilm thathasa large . I[ youarea multinational you fofaddresses should lnteÍnet that of number devices need look and planstartat theedge a[vays fot a mulate vóconvefsion Archilsciure Syslems 2l

Secure Cyberspace
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Systems Architecture and Business Intelligence
lfyour enterprise ontopof a distributed heterogeneous runs infraand the structure, health theinfrastructu¡e vital thesuccessyour of can be to of In business.thatcase, architect need provide the will to visibility the into status theente¡prise of systems. ability provide real-time The to near data perfolmance on system to business customercclitical. is Followingan is exanple' . The Web seruer up 99percent thetime, was of which means it vasdown 3 hours month. 7 last What happenedsales cusof to tomer satisfaction those du¡ing hours? thecustome¡s t lf didn seem care. to should spend money goto 999 percent we the to u p t¡me ? . The seNer up, what theav€rage to deliver Web was but was time a page? vhat did custorner satisfaction likewhen pa€e look the delivery was slowest? time the . How the about nerwo¡k'? of thesystem stillon l0 ¡,4Bits/ Paft is second wiring. oÍten lt afflicted packet How is with With storms? \¡/h¡t othor v¡ri¡blcs those do storm times corÍelate? . Part these¡vrce isexperlr¡enting wireless ol staff with devices to gather dataon problem systems What wastheirproductivity

an after in for be It should possible a managel ma*eting' receiving angr-v f¡omsysto client, drill intothedatastream from complaint an important between is and the underpinning enterprise seeif there a correlation tems with needed work to the the thetimeit tooklo display webpages customer that of several thetimes Perhaps of andthesubstancehisor hercomplaints. was wherlhis cuslomer with co¡ncide times was theWebserver down tloullle spots W¡thout fÍomall thepossible data to attempting dobusiness. oftheproblem the to pin it willbeirnDossible down lealsource dataof the to the ln most organizations,tools monitor health networks overinto are inf¡astructufe notplugged theenterprises bases, theWeb and provide that applications either stand-alone They usually all Bl system. are ng - loalog apar t iculalsyst em or dum pPver yt l' snapshol srntoth ehealt hof scripts are basis. at thatis looked onanirregular oftenthey littlehomeglo\'n problel¡o¡ theya¡e a to together solve palticular throrvn or applications less and wete simple¡ much when systems much lhe f¡om inherited thepast interdependent. system pelform¿nce [o¡ indicato¡s your with impo¡tant Start themost utilization bandwidth or hits they Perhaps arepage persecond percent oiyou!entel" the first. into lntegrate data theBlsystenl Pelhaps segnent lhis bustness aligns pnse a¡chitecture withoneof thecrmp'rnys infrast¡ucture il ¿nd outptrt plesent lo the metrics unitsFittheDelformance to theunits u¡it. makers vour for decision time is planning fora new system anexcellent to buildperforstage The oitenare New inio its architectufe systems met¡ics measulement mance as regafding metdcs such set using conceived a¡ optimistic of assumptions you online, comes whenthatnewsystem úptime. and Derformance system how to the lo for willbegfat€ful theability generate data ouantily acculate becomes the crop were. theinitial assumptions lf problems upwhen system when ploblen the to you the ope¡ational, will have datanecessaryidentify fingertips. liesatyoür

Level Service Agreements
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If themachi¡es beconnected geographically to are remote, diffetent stora€e architectufe is required. Nelwo* attached (NAS) storage devices ¡ow-cost, a¡e very-low_rnaintenance devices provide that storage donothing youplug NAS thenetand else. a into wo* turn on. it andyou havesto¡age. and Setup maintenance are low. costs very theonlycost¡sto relocate ex¡sting, the attached storage theNAS. to These devices pefect increasinC togeograph distributed are for storage ically machines. The maio¡ determinantchoosing fof between andSAN NAS should be thedata storage architectu¡al Thefollowing helpyouchoose design. will between two: the . Disaster recove¡y stro¡gly favors because theease SAN of with which can distributed large it be over distances ofthis As writing, fiber exte¡d to 150 can up kilometers miles) without amplifica_ {95 t¡on. ¡¡eans dat¿ beminored This that can transpatently between devices are kjlometers miles)apart that 300 (190 . Di\tributtd p{rrfo¡n.{r be cr wilh ts S^Ns . The iollowi¡g functjonality SANs: favors large applications " Very database o Application duties server . File storage defjnitely favors NASS. . E¿se administ¡ation tie.In thejr of is a ownways, storage both solutions easy admjnister a NAS, plug intothe are to With you it wall intothenetwork youhave and and stotage. work in The lies pa itioning storage. the moving onto device, pointing data the and use¡s thedevice to SANs requite a bitofup"front quite design and setup. once but online, adding storage ve0, is simple more and transpare¡t with NAS tha¡ a . High availability ispretty much tie The a SAN mirror for can data recovery, theNASS have and all hot-swappable drives a hard in MID5 configuration. . Cost favors NASS. costs Initial foranNAS storage installation are about one,fifth cost a sirnilarsized storage the of SAN installation Howeve¡ ongoing of a SAN usually than a the costs are less for simllar l hisjs.lue thefollowing NAS to factofs: . Stailing afeless to thecentralization storage costs due of the devices makes task ¿dding This the of stotage quicker much ancl eas el : ll¿rd\lare are costs less. is spent slot;tge Less on delices Less (lrsk space ¡eeded a SAN ts wjth because afemore thcy €lficient iñtheutilization ofstorage Normally. slorase average SAN lvill ;5 to 85percert utllization while utilization sonre for NASs stüaee devices bel0 to It pe¡cent. \,ilL AProclicol Guide . llN jnl¡¿st(rcture spe[dingless. loEnlerp is se NASS accessed the are over net\vork. backups usually afd Archilecluro are conducted thenetwork over This increasenenvork can if traific force costly ¡etrvork upgrades 26

mission-critic¿l databases that thc has Canar¡a a SAN hosts company's physically to of data.Poftlons that dataare mirror€d datacenters and each campus In center itsetf. addition, campany flom removed theopention of of numbers rackthat consists lar€e file-storage facility hasa cenlral to ale sewers connected the SAN NAS Mostapplication mounled alIays. rate,but the costof continue growat a steady to requirements Stofage been cenas dropped thedalahave has this administrating storage actually NASS. onto and tralized theSAN various that lt is architectures. impcttant Nlost ofyou us€ mixof theth¡ee will a to and for a¡d architecls beeasy managerscost by ihismir beplanned your to iustifv ploviding of plannincnotabout backup a comis while recovery disaster the of can panys chosen make task protecting data, slorage the alchitecture lt and cheaper easier materially th€ data and¡ecoveringenteDrise stolage jn (DAS) robust as stolage direct attached effoft lvilltake significant to make such 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SystemsArchltecttre Aspects of Securlty that on operation touches security a wide-ranging is Ensuring enterprise inte¡' to out As it area a business such. has grow ofextensive of aimost every team and management thearchitectule One between company's the actions archifirst of theissues has beonthetable is howto builda security that to 1s Si¡lce advantage seculity a companys competitive thatincreases tecture team architecture is the an enterDrise-wide endeavot inputof the entire the and a appfoach apply proper to fequired.is inpo¡tant adopt graduated lt spots theenlelplise. in levels theproper at secuÍity consists thefollowing: of cnterDrise secufity Effective policies . Effective, thought clearly seculity comnunicated well out, policies a com. Effective, by of these ¡mplernentation consistent pany thatis motiYatedprotect businesss security the to staff . A systems secuÍity considelatLons the thathas proper architecture level. built al every in rs to mattcrs discr.rss one enterprise sccurity ofthefiÍst When discussjng lof isaporopriatethat levelofprotection and $/hat needs bepfotected what to lllanfronl particular A useful of thumb beborrowed lr)ventory ca¡ item tule proper A into lerels B divides inventory management articles three agement provl' ¡ecuritl valuable extensile and are A items themost andC The level and Trade credit forthem. seclets, cadnumbers update are sions appropriate th¡t systems iusta fevol theitenls Nould Syslems are access financial to Archilecture anddelete considerations but to need be plotected, security be on anA Iist.B items 41

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group designing policies Assigning to theproper use¡s and security thatcompletely, restricts totally access only data resources to the and the AProclicol Guide group its is requires perform functionsthefirst of defense to line against lo Enlsfpriss Don to who attacks inside¡s t forget remove accountsusers have by the of Archllocluro leftthefifm

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on anolher fol effecarea For those enterprises stillrely passwords, that passat architecture is effective level tivesecufity Intenention thesystems policies. addition mandating use effective passwords, the of make word In to orwell-known such are sur€ noresources, asdatabases, leftwithd€fault that passvords place. passwords user thatareused applicatjons by in All and lDs form, to access systems resources should keptin encrypted notasplain be method ofauthentication textinthesource Passwordsthecheaoest code. are passwords assigned users, passwoÍds the be ifstrong are to andcan effective writedown theirpasswords afechanged a regular on basis, usefs and don't passwordthey if to one Users reasonablyexpected remember strong can be basis. a of use password at least daily that on a since multitude applications we In most envitonments, recommend arepasslvord-pfot€cted enterprise system logon name user thatenterprises standardizewindows on operatinc every othcr ¡s for and andpassword the standard authentlcation ¡equire This as applicatlon theWindows use authentlcationits authentication. can service bythe or mak¡ngcallto thewindows a security beviatheapplicat¡on ticket system appllcátlon accepting a Kerberos fromtheoperating ol have the malority enlerp¡ises a muhitude appliof Unfortunately,vast have As most usels that a name password. a r-.sult, and cations require user passwords passwords beused will times fifteen Some several a iive, even ten, cannot day, some willbeused couple a oftlmes yearoftenthecorporation a will seve¡alofthose, even standardizea slngle on usetname, theuser have so maintain written usemame and such most too.ln situation asthis, userswill a password The ls clairn is for cost,The lists. iust¡fication thissitualion always passwordall made that it \¡,ould too muchto replace the current cosl pfotectedpfogramswithonesthatcouldgetauthentication from thewindows the When with it is document operaling system. faced thisargument, usefullo passwords theproductivity by lost on and timeandmoney spent resetting job that need dotheir we to users arelocked of anappl¡cation they who oui per per you expect willdiscover intherange Sl0to $20 ernployee year costs of if that occur Those figures, coupled theknowledgethedamage could with of lists hands, r¡ightget youthe oneof the password fell into the wrong solution resources necessary to lnstitute single a sign"on can card and devices authentiDevices assmart readers biometlic such devices extremely allow süong using fingerprints retina and scans. These cate daily authentication methcds, aschanging thepassword or even such of passwotd afteftheyhave on right logged Thecostol changing user's the with is a¡d rquipping entire an enterprise such devices conside¡able.they lf onlygetyouintóthe operating system. lhe uscrhastcn p¡ssvo¡dprotected programs deal has withonce or sheis logged thedeljce he in. to you devrces with notbought much. Protecting A-level assets oneof these makes excellent sense. asingle and oi For maiority employees themaiority businesses. signthe of passwo¡d everycou' one onsolution theuserexpecled with to memolize stron€ pleof months adequate cost.effectilc solution is security themost and you vulne¡able what attacks exploit can where are and You need know to vulnerabilit¡es have runa security ¡¿leplan'ledo Ifyou not aud.t these syslems Arch¡l0cluro rhc ^ to consultants audrt enteprises *an, ro angrgu may ouiride so Large 29

entire firm. analternative, software As some packages effectively probe can yoursystem vulnerabi¡ities. might fo¡ You consider building a security up cadre individualsyour of in organization. would tasked knowine They be with and understandin€ cur¡ent alllhe hacke¡ aLtacks can mounted that be againsi systems ofyour and type withrunning security any auditing software thatyou purchase. might Finally, effective, tampefproof systems allow to detect audit will that vou anattack occurred willprovide withtheidentity theattacker has and you of Thisis where scrupulously removing expifed accounts important. user is lf Bob Smith left company hisuseraccount exists. account has the but still that can compromisedused anattackwith having clue towho be and in you no as perpetrated really it. Inany case cost implementingpatch thevulnerability the of the to has to bebalanced against se¡iousness threat theprobabÍlity the ofthe and that someone yourorganizátion have sophistication in would the necessary to carry such assault themost out an Lock important Ílrst. doors Inadvertent damageorcompromise to ofbusiness bywell-meanin€ data or rgnorant employees causes substantial business losses annually While this ofdamage ro mallcious type has component.results thesame the are as for a malicious attack. Inadve¡tent damage beprevented a variety can in of ways. Training firstandforemost. is When cofpofate new applications are bein€ brought online, is c¡ucial people willbeusjng it that who them are thoroughly trained. Effective providespositive Aftef appl¡train¡ng a ROl. an cation i¡ regula¡ is oper¿tion. tmportant expe tr is that enced oDeratorsbe given time resources the and to tra.randmentor operators. new Howeve¡. even best the programs not100 training percent are effective. also lt is importantio make thatpeople in theproper andthatthesecurity su¡e are foles parametefs ofthese are crafted people given least roles so that are the oppottunityto do damage without rest¡icting ability carry thei¡ their to out assigned f!nctions. trails Lrseful establishin€ what Audit are for exactly was damagedcompromised. thathas or Aftef been asce¡tained,therole it is of thebackups h¿ve applied this that been to data willallow to fecover that vou lror¡ sltuation the Hacker attacks high-profile that are events invariably become ite¡ns news when discovered.difficult accurately thesjze business lt is to oi losses iudge caused hacke¡ by attacks theInte¡net any ffom you ln case, have take to them se¡iously companies expect experience All can to hundreds low,level of "doorknob tattling attacks. as portscans against such run them. the in course a year thepositive thevast of On side. maiotity technical of hackef exploits wellknown themeasures are and necessary todefcai are them stanparts allcompanies' dard of Internet defense systems major The tesponse lhatha(ker atacks prompt you will is keepirg your all machrnes inside borh thefirewall in theDMZ pe¡cent to date secu¡jty and 100 up patches. on Any stratagem youcandevise stteamline applicationsecurity that to the of patches gtve youf wlrl company a slrateCic advanlage a comp¿ny over that A Prccllcol ouldg does allbyhand it or ienores problem the completely loEnlenrlse ihat the Arch¡lscluie Of the attacks canoccuff¡ornthe outside-fíom lnternetdenial-of-seMce attacks theleast (DOSI are common potentiallymost but the 30

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act¡/ities mustbe restored v/ithin h"r,, D;i.,;p;fi;;;;., 24 ¡nfrasttucture, and physical facilities iequirecl tf,"0.."p,",,.0,,i lo¡ otders themovement ccrmpleted and of vehicles ,nunrtuiiurfrorn ptants examples survival rng are of critic¿tl resources Canalia fo¡ . Misslon critical. Missio¡ critical resources fesources ¿fe ¿te that absolutely.rcquired continuednct forthe fu ion inc;i;;; i;;;;.. However, company livewithout the can these re;u,.", ;;;;;;;, weeks. . OtherThiscategory contajned the ¡esources couldbe all that destroyeda dlsaster were deemed ¡n but not to besurvival mis_ o¡ sion criticaL they lí were replaced, it woulcibe mo.t¡i", v..rr.ii", *ng".O,rheream arr¿ched a probabijity theresource thdt ,,,^.|YIll:r:n u¡available wourc become and cost protect Alltheassrmptrors a to it usJ rntheanalysis wefe p¡ase deta¡ledajlow i.di"dr.i, to the ,uJJ;;;;;: Ing DRp doa reality the to check thenumbers them. on given Docu,menting proceduresthat existing so others could o- lhefunc. ,. tate tio¡rng_of Canaxh key employees ¿ subst¿nttal oftheDRp was pa¡t Canaxt¿. irKe,many enterprises, neglected other had dorumentation long fora time. ihat

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resoufce aM critrcalityof ¡esource toss, the ,*,,* ,.. r*¡ i.l*,.,._",, ' rnerneassumpflons theanalysis from phase aciuraci for hry.",,obe mainta¡ned. sysrems As and business ¡eeds cnange, DRp "¡.^-1^Oll :ll will have be revised. some the to In cases, Onpneeds the can q:.':,*s. canaxia made decision rno_" the ,o ,o *...u, l:ll^ 1:'::: ora(e assembly could obtained a uarietyol that " be from sorrrces as Ciia

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l:!l::,l:yld decades oocumentation aftela system builtw"rld b" r;;*;;".;;'" was enume¡ate ot tesls w.lt a set rrdr r.to{.t-e conrpany have 1ll,h.*to theDRp to "."..:tjl^O-*l confidence in Ru nntnE

hi*,9 b"reclified ofrhe rn part DRp ,.nv."r..lproJr.¡* as

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Werecommenditeralive an approach DRp to First thetopof thesur_ do vival critrcal all theway list through testing phase theexperience the Use gained thatpfocess make nextincrement focused effi, in to the more and cient. job T¡ying dotheentj¡e in onebigeffort cost time to risks and overruns thatcancause process beabandoned anythi¡g protected. the to before is There three afe important aspects emphasize systems to about architecturel COnCIUSiOn l. lt must align thebusiness oftheorganization. with €oals provide thestakeholders to perform func2. lt must what need their tions. isa two-way The This street a¡chitectuÍe should team take ¡esponsibility toestablish communicationsystems with architecture stakeholdersto understand issues. and their 3, Thesoftware hardware and infrastructurean entetp is a of se majof asset must manaCedprovide gteatest that be to the return onthat investment. The followi¡g should considered be assystems architecture ptactices: best l. Know business the processes thesystems that atchitecture is suppofting them Know inside out. and 2, Keep suppo¡t those of processes andforemost business fitst on youf agenda Know thebusjness andkeep busiwhat needs the ness aware your side of accomplishments. 3, Know componentsyoursystems the in architecture,the all mach¡nes, applications, connections,soon. network and 4. Instfument, system. is,install your That monitoring meas, and urement systems allow to findtheproblem that you areas and thebottlenecks 5. Attack cheap easy the and problems That build first will and help rnaintain credibility t¡ust thebusiness ofyour and with side company ó. Prioritize beproactiveyouarenotconstrained and lf to ptoduce immediate results identify ntost the inportant systems a¡chitec, tuÍeproblems attack and themfirst.even before become they problems Cood system rneasurements to being to arekey able problem inyour identify areas systerns atchitectu¡eto est¿b_ a¡d lirhthemost effective to dealwith me¿ns them 7. Know your all stakeholde¡s people The aspectsyour of systems ¿rchitecture least jr¡portant themachines a¡e at as as 8. Only asmuch buy security youneed. upontheidea as Cive of prioritize secu¡ity becoming invulnerable your issues A, B. into and lists C architectuÍe system a fa¡ilyofsystems one thc ofa or ha\ ol The software |' rnost significafit ¡mpacts thequality anorg¿nizaiion on of s entetp¡.sc architecture thedeslgn softwa¡e lvhi¡e of systems concentrates onsatisfying thefunctional requlremenls a system, design thesofrwarc for the oi archr_ tecture systems for concentrates the nonfunctional quality on or requircments syste.rns. quality fof These requifemenis concernstheenterprise aÍe at level. better organization The an specifies characterizes softvare and the architecture its systeins, better cancharacterjze manaee for the it and its enteDrise architecture. Byexpl¡citly defining sysiems the solt*ar. tec. arch tures, oreanization bebetter an w¡ll ableto reflect priorities tradethe and oflsthatareimportant theorganization software it builds to in the that The softwafe architectufea system of suppo¡ts most the c¡itical require_ for For if r¡ustbe accessible a . ments thesystern. example,a systetn from wireless device, if thebusiness fora system or rules change a daily on basis thenthese tequirements drastically thesoftware affect atchitecture the fo¡ system. is necessary anorganizátioncharacterize lt for to softwa¡e architectures thelevel qualities their and of that system s support lully to u¡derstand lheimplications ofthese systems theoverall on enterprise a¡chitecture Since book a focus a€ile this has on methodolo€ies intnort¡r)l it is to , d.s(uss relationship lhe between soft$are a¡chrlert.,rc,rl.LI¡Rrl, l. . -llr\.r. giesTherecent push software in development toward aglle methodologies such ext¡eme as (Xp) Programming {Bect lg99l, some in \vays counrels thc belief ¿nexplicit fo¡mal in and definitionsoftw¿re ol ¿rchrtectujp dutlc \,¿,tv methodoiogists thatsoftware asse desiCntheresult ire¡orrre is of reÍ¿ct'oringof a system deve¡opers a sufficiently by until workable design emerges Howevef,XPthese in iterative refactorings done a small, ate in easily unde¡_ standable conceptual framewotk thesysten for c¿llÉd (tstr,,r tl.e nr.l¿?¡fo, The system metaphor a simple is shared forhowthesystem story workslt consists thecore of concepts, patterns, external classes, and metaphors I E that

Software Architecture
Maps ¿ne|wage boldness. n' lú¿ (uptti l e ht,'ts Ihett Th.?U lr,UtÍ,ing p0ssi6k. mdft( seen ,To jenkins Timbuktu. Mark

A Proclicol Guid6 lo Enlen se Asarchitects with business toalig¡ team the side systems business with AÍchlleclure processes keep and them aligned business evolve, willget as needs they the 34 opportunity to develop in understanding skills thebusiness working and wrrh fina¡cial algo¡ithms calculations and

plays same the rolein thc shape system the beingbuilt.Thesystem metaphor software lt a development a system conceptual of as architecture. provides system vjsionfor the development the softwarc, it isthe goalthateach of and architec. stakeholder muststrivetoward. lo¡maldefinitionof the softwafe A metaphof, both playthesamerole ture is mofetechnical thanthe system but development. exte¡t to which The in providing centralconcept system a for of to a description the alchian organizalion needs provide formaltechnical it depends manyfactols. on Clearly, wouldnol becost" tectures its systems of for to architecture a smallnoncritical effective formallydefinelhe software to application, it wouldbe unacceptable nol forand depafimental softwa¡e telecommunicaarchitecture a highlyavailable of mallydelinelhe software need is and systemEach o¡ganization diffe¡ent hasa different tions software principle "lf youdont need it, software architecture. agile The of fo¡detailed architecture well as to all the other as then don t do it" appliesto softwaÍe partsof an organizationenterprise For s arch¡tecture. moreon agilemethods see 9, Architecture andarchitecture, Chapter AgileEnterpfise

deslgn dcclslons support deslrdsct of qualities thc systen a th¡t provide conshould s{pport besuccessfr.¡I. to The design decisicns a ceptual forsystem basig development, suppon. maintenance and Creating softwafe archltecture difficult is a endeavor, thesoftware and a¡chiof jobs project. or shemust TheRole tecthas ol themost one difficuh in a software He the have confidence all thestakeholde¡s. confidencebased a a Software of This is on proiects the respect the develope¡s track record successful of who Atchitect and of regard or herasa technical him leader architect beableto comThe must municate varied with constltuencies.or shemusthave He excellent design skills, technology andanunderstanding skills. of softuare enginee¡ing best practices. oÍ she politics He must abte ¡avigate be to through organizational to €ettheDroject correctly ont¡me. software done and The archiLect be must a leader,mentor, a courageous a and decision make. people great Atchitecture, life,is all about people. like the Creat deliver archi¡ecture,thereversekue. techniques and is The outlined this in chapter willgive archited great an some concepts tipsfordelivering architecture and great butthebest to trulydeliver wa!, architecture start is to withtrulygreat architects ln cartography, a single mapcannot lly characlerize fu a place. There many are kinds maps, ashighway of such maps, trailmaps, elevation maps WhyWeNeed bike and physical Soltware Each tiype explains describes and different aspects the same of place. Each is relevant a different or stakeholder family map to user The on Architecture vacation interestedhaving highway in itsglove is in a map compartment The cyclist needs bike map, a mountain the trall and the climber needs elevation map. addition,map In a do$n'thave bepelectly to accurate beuseful lf to given visitors WaltDisney a perfect scale of rid€s paths map and were to to world, would accurate somewhat it be and useful. How€ver, mapthatis the pretty pictures the actualiy handed at WaltDisney out World contains of interesting andthepaths notto scale. theDisney rides are World visitor For thismapis more interesting, though useful, it impans better and a understanding theiayout ol oftheparkthanca¡tographer's a mapwould same The holds in software lrue aichitecture. architecture is p¡esented the The that to end-user contains informat¡on is more less and interesting, focuses but on thécritical aspects thesystem theparticula¡ of that stakeholder community should understand. software The architecture is needed develooe¡s that bv can mo.e a cartographer's be like depiction thesoftware architecture. lvith of multiple outlining multiple maps the aspectsthesystem ñro¡e of in det¿il the of afchitecture to impart is an lust likemaps, purpose software u¡derstandingof thedesign thesystem thcre¡der. poi¡tofsofhrare of to The architectu¡e communlcate is to anidea. takes feader thesoitvate lt the into and explains imponant the concepts helps lt them understand important the aspects thesystem gives ol without and them feeling a system a for actually having see to inside it. Despite inventionsatellite we the of image¡y, are important. maps still picture Earth anylevel detail needThe piccan nowgetanexact of we of at tufes show rivers, oceans, moreaswellasthelayout Walt and ol Dis¡ey Sofwore Archileclurc World their ln exactine detail sl

Whatls authorsand fesearchers attempted defin the letm sollv'drc archil\lure. have lo e Software Following someof the mostnotable are definitionsl Architecture?
'"Ihe software is system the architectu¡e a prcgfam compüting of of compostructu¡e structures the system, o¡ of which comprise softwa¡e properties thosecomponents, the and visible nents, externally lhe of Len Paul rclationships among them;'Sah';i¡aft ñchil¿cluftPrdcli¿¿, Bass, ¡n and Kazman, Addison'Wesley, 1997 Clements, Rick

However, m¿ny No singlestandard definitionol software architectu¡e exists.

''An is decisions about organization the architecturethesetofsignificant and o[ elements their of a soflware system, selection the st¡uctural the with interfaces which systen composed, by the is toeether theirbehavjor the asspecified the collaborations in among those elements composi lafger tionofthese structuraland behavioral elements progressively into subsystems. the architectu¡al that guides organizationand style this elements thei¡interfaces, collaboÉtions thei¡comand their and these position Tf¿ UML Mod¿1i,14 L.angu\qe C¡1¡d¿, Uw Booch,Jacobsen, Addison-wesley. Rumbaugh. ¡999 'software about the a!chitecturca setofconcepts design is and decisions to structure texture software mustbe made and ol that Ddor concurent significant engineering e¡'iable to effective satisfactio¡ architecturálly of functional quality rcquirements of erplicit and requireme¡ts implicit and the pfoductfamily, p¡oblemand the solutio¡domains SdÍl4r¡4 the AKhil¿ lor Prcdu(l uE Flu¡lits:Pr¡ndples Prd(liú¿, lnd N4ehdi lazayeli Aiexander FranL derLinden R¿n. van Addison-wesley, 2000 guide a These delinitions ¿ bit academic, a practical are and must include p¡actical for one. definition software of architecture the reasons having and woulda of have but L¡ountains résearch beendoneon the subject, whyexactly proiect With need todefinethe softwarerchitectu of thesystem is building? a re i! guidein mind.weoffe!ourdefinition software architecture, thispractical of consists The software architectu¡e system a collectionsystems ofa or ol and oftheimportant decisions thesoftware about stÍuctules the design These inteúctions between stfuctures cornDrise svstems those thát the

Guide A Proclicol loEnlerpise Archileclure

'Maps thecharacter hav€ ofbeiñg textual thatthey words iri have assowith c¡ated them, they that employa system ofsymbolswithin thehown syntax, theyfunctionform that asa (inscription), ofwriting and thatthey are discurslvely embedded broader úithin contextssoclal of actio¡ and "Text, power" lohnP¡ckles, Hermeneutics propagandá in and Maps, Trevor Barnes lames Dunca¡, W¡iti¡g and I. S. eds., Worly't D¡ro(s¿ d¡rd M¿Idphor Rqt¿t¿ñtaliok h the olt-í¡ds.ap¿, London: Routled€e, I93. 1992, Maps architecture describe and don't ¡eality. arerepresentations They of reality vithina chronological cultural and context. alsohave djstinct They a jn pefspectivetheplace describe.other on they wotds, reverse enginee¡ing a (UML) Unified Modeling Languace diagram thesource ol thesisfrom code temdoes create atchitectural not an model architectural commu, The model nicates important the design decisions were that made a particular at time and were that importanta particular ofpeople. group to The cartography metaphor wofks, except thefactthatafchitecture for is anupfront activity. canography, arecreated exjsting In maps places. for They aremeant describe to something hasaheady created. software that been In architecture.maps models the or depict software isyetto becreated. that The models embody important the design decisions have that b€en made about thesystem cteatin€ contfasting By and dilierent models software fulof that purpose, fill thesame intelligent decisions bemade can about which designs arebetter others. is thesecond than This pueose software of a¡chitecture

The Mlddle oí the Road Sowhatdoes thishave do withsoftware all to architectuie? Sofhvare architecture middle between design complete is the load no and design is lt a vlew thesystem of design shows thedesign that how satis¡i€s criiical the requirements system. ¡stheroleof thesoftware oí the lt afchitect design to thestructuresthesoftware thatthose of such critical lequirernents sat;_ are fied. is also goal thesoftüate lt the of architecturefacilitate developto lhe ment thesystem multiple of by teams parallel. addition, multiple in In if teams depaftments anorganization support maintain or withln wilj and the soft$,are, software the architecture al¡ow will parts thesyste¡n be those of to managed maintained and separately.most The important thatthesoftrole ware afchitecture is thatof an ofganizing has concept the system for The softwa¡e atchitect an ideahowthe system has should wo¡k.fhesoftwate architecture communicat¡on ¡dea other is the of that to system stakeholders sothateveryone understands thesystem andhowjt does what does it 1n practical tworules a sense, determine whether nota design or detail should included thesoftware be in architecture: l. The design detail must supportquality a requirement 2, The design detail must detract stakeholder noi lrom unclerstand. ingof thesoftware architectu¡e. ¡fthedesjgn does somehow detail not improve a quality on ¡equireme¡t of the system, should leftout.Forexample, architecr it be the mjght not choose dueto performance XML concerns. However system the mighi bene_ fit more from modiflabilityXML. the of without elicitation th; qualiry an of ¡equirementsthesystem, types decisions for these of might made be based on personal preference Instead quality of requirements. il a design Also, detail complex cannot describeda simple thatstakeholde¡s is and be in way can understand, it should beincluded thearchitecture. not in A design detaij thatisnotunderstandable a sign a bad isalso of design. Many people believe thesoftwaie that architecturemeant forclevelis only opers use an overall to as guide system for design construction. System and While The thismay thesoftware be architecture's primary purpose, syster¡ other stake_ Stakeholders holders use architectute basis guide can the asa to their activitieswell as The following some thesystem afe of stakeholders . Developers . Mana€e¡s . SoÍtware architects . Data adrninistrators . System customers . Operations . N,,larketing . Finance . End-userc
Sofly/ore Archileciuie

Ine lw0txtfemes
Softwafe development approaches between extremes. first vary two The method involves or noupfront little modelingdesign. is the.shanty or This town'method system of development in whjch fewdevelopers with, a code picture theifheads outa mental in about system arebuilding. the they Also, some manaCers believe if developers coding, afen't that aren't they working. project These nanagers believe thesooner also that developers codbegin ing, sooner will bedone. stems theincorrect thata the they This hom belief constant amount timeis involved thecoding thesystern mattet of in of no what process used. thislypeof environment, upfront is ln developers t don fullyunderstand requirements the system. the for Some these of environ, ments deliver decent software through heroics developers frequent by and rewrites, although approach repeatable,it isextremely this is not and risky. The other extreme softwa¡e in development is,ivory tower" softwa¡e archijn tecturc which design a team a single o¡ architect design system eve¡y a in detail, down th€class method The to and level afchitect a cleaf picture has in hiso¡ herhead about design thesystem hasnotjeftmany the of but ofthe impleme¡tation to thedevelopers beliel these details The in environments is that architects themost the a¡e experienced developetsand can thus design the possible best system staft finishNoo¡epeÍson sma rearn oosfrom to o¡ can sibly undeGtand therequitements, every all predict change ¡equirements in AProclicol Gu¡de and havee{pe¡tise technoloey theproject builtupon. inevery that is Developers lo Enlerplse these in envitonments suffef lowmorale also from because are they percejved Archlleclur€ somehow as infefiortothe designers ofthesystem isalso poorbecause Motale fnust the in 3S thedeveloperc implernent design a presc¡iptive withlittle no way or input thedesign thesystem into of

39

Cenefal rnanagement Subcontfactors Testing quality and assurance Uldesignels lnfrastructure adrninistrators Process administrators Documentation specialists Enterprise architects Data administfatots The softwafe architect elicit must input f¡om thesystem all stakeholders to tully understand tequtremenls architecture is imDortanl the forthe Thts because requirements builtftomtheperspective the are ofwhat systern the should However a¡chiteclure reflect thesvstem Derdo the must how wtLl form those functlons The system s customers thesystem beof high want quality. want to They thesystem bedelivered a tirnely to in mannet they And want to bedevel, it oped inexpensively as aspossible. js looking a vision thesystem is The development organi¿ation for fo¡ it going design develop wants know theafchitecture to to and lt to that is easv implement has lr hard deadlines it muslmeet, reusabilityimporthat so is tant. developersgoing beIooktng technologies architecThe ¿te to lot ir the ture they that cufrently understand Theywant architecture the to match their platforms, desired development libraries, f¡ameworks. need tools, and They to meet dates, thearchitecture ease development ly'ost so should their effort. ofall,they anarchjtecturethey participated want that have indeveloping and evolving throughout lifetime theproduct. the of The opefat¡ons wantsproduct issupportable maintaingroup a that and able. product notfail lt has meet The must to service agreements level that it can meet only productreliable. system down. group ifthe is lf the goes this is on thefÍontlines jt t¡fingto getit back When does theopefators up. fail, need findoutwhy thatthep¡oblems befixedTherefo¡e, svstem to so can the pÍovide should some t¡aceability system for transactionsthatwhat so went wrong betracked can downThe operations also theresponsibility group has forinstalling machines upgradin€ new and platformsa schedule software on It needs softwa¡e beflexible po¡table thatmoving to a new the to and so it macnrneonto new or a version theoperating oi systemfast easy is and The people lookinC anarchitectu¡ecan ma¡ketin€ a¡e fot that delive¡ the greatest number featurestheshortest of in amount timeAnarchitecture of thatis flexible can and integ¡ate oflthe.shelf packages wintheir will hearts. lnaddition, ptoduct a comme¡cial if thé is product, architecturebea the may pornt (ustomersconmercial key selling Sawy of products recognize wrll a architecture a badone. from AProclico¡ Guldo €ood lo Enlorprho End-users g¡eat need pefformance thesvstem. must from lt helD thenr Archltoctuf€ their done get quickly easily. system beusable. more and lobs The must The must with 4o intefaces bedesigned end-usef in mindand. tasks ideallv the

system should cusiomizablethatend-use¡s choose they be so can hov/ wish to use it. Every stakeholder h¡sor hefperspectivewhat important the has is o¡ for systen do.lt is uptothearchilectto to mediate among these individual concerns. all stakeholders get everythinC wantall the time Not can they Sometimes, a requúenentcaneasily without be met detracting another from fequ¡Íement. Somet¡mes trade-offs to be made have among various ihe requirements. afethedecisions thearchitect facilitate These that must within theconsüaints theproiect places timeandmoney that sponsor on Ourfictitious automobile manufacturer was Cana(ia Iosing sales other to a manufacturels it relied because comDletelyitsdealer on nehvork sellits Creating to carsOther manufacturers Web aulo created sites alloN that custorncrs Software t{l customize order car and their online. other manufactute¡sthe Arch¡tecture: The auto ship cars f¡omtheirmanufacturing facilities difectly the customers to through AnExample local dealerships. resulted greater This in custotner service reduccd and th. p¡ocess hasslebuyingcar of a lrom dealership struggling thes¿les a and with Canaxia about years was two behind competitio¡ managerne¡t their The ofthe company decided fund proiect twelve has to a fo! r¡onths crealeWL'i) to ¡ siteañdrelated infrastructu¡e exceed capabilttyiheir that the of competition. Canaxia a malnframe has system orders, for inventory, financials and lts irtvento¡y order and system written the 1980s. systerl was in lhe lu¡ctions. butit is very expensile chanCe. f¡nancial to The was system purchased and custcmizedthelate1990s. infraskucture in Thc architects decided have th¡t lBlúlvlQseries beused integrate theenterpnse will to all syster¡s. stanThe dard Web fot development company Java J2EE. in the is and The atchitects theproiect o¡ faced difficult They a fealized the that iob. software architectufe is implemented beginning, at the middle. endot and proiect. every However, mofeemphasjs on it at the beginning much is of proiect. every Before architects the stafted. createdchecklist princrthey a of ples would they strive follow to while created architecture, they the l. The architecture bethin. should 2. The architectufe should approachable be 3, The a¡chitecture should readable be 4. The architecture beunderstandable should 5. The ¿rchitedure becredrble should ó. Thc a¡chitecture have bepelect does¡'t to 7. Don dobiguphont t design lfgivenachoicebet$ee¡ N¡kin{th(. perfect implementing model or it,implement it possibly withour 8. Dothesimplest thatcould pfecludthing work ing[uture requirements. 9. The architecture shared is a asset. 10, lnvolve allstakeholders butmaintain control I l. The architecture should small. team be 12.Rememberdifference the between and chicken a oie a Sollwafe Archileclufs ñ

1
ThePig theChicken and
o pig decide¿ open restoúrcnt. Onedoyono fom neotConox¡o, ondo chicken to o Ihep¡gtumed lhech¡cken osked 'Soúlhat Io ond hin, should collthis we rcstouanl?" 'HM Ihe ó,¡c*en rcpl¡e¿, obout tkn h' EWI lheptgthought o nonentondso¡d, donl think fot "t goo¿ thot's very o ¡deo. would You be inwluEd, I wovld connitted.' but fu Ihe Sdun (Schwoberol.2001 &velopnent eI meko¿ology th¡s osthecentrol uses s|ory ) thenetotd¡i¡nfu¡shing futween peaple orcp¡gs (oss¡gned ondthose those who wa*) who (¡nfercsted, notv@tking). otech¡ckens but Vy'hen cteatng saf¡worc otchrcdue, chikens Meckthepocess twowoys. chr',kens con ¡n I just up arcon theotch¡lectute pu shauU g¡ve ondopen rclouont.Assunng leon, o thot theorchiEcturc cons¡slsollpigs, leo¡n o{ nokesutethotke architedue addresses conthe .ens o[ thepigs the in orgon¡zot¡on. letke ch¡ckens ¡noneggorI' o on¡lñoke Don't sneok yaudes¡gn someth¡ng isn't t'ot that teov irnponont.

speci¡y the how the rüuircuenlt.lr addition, usecases known f!¡4i0Í¿l as k¡own "nonfunctional as are clauses will These modifying interaction occur presses entel enters amount, the t(s¿, requirements. example, lr5¿ "ljser For A nonfunctional is displays invoice" a functionalrequirement. the andsystem presses phrase, as"Userenters enter, amount, such requirement modifiesthis is The t seconds." "within,seconds"a and displays Involcewithln the system qual¡ty of lhe nonfunctionalor requirement system. the will how Thearchitect document the system accept amount must validating lequest, the inteface, by a described theusecase using user h for an in and storing data a database, generating invoice theuserThere ihe all must but is no architecture theusecase, thearchitectufe satisfy the for The oI quality lequi¡ements architecthe use cases, including nonfunctional enters data such of tureshould address pattern intefaction, as"User each o¡ is aresaved database, to a result anerror displayed." data but were At canaxia, requirements welldocumented, evennore the stage theproiect of in were importantly, repfesentatives involved every user o[thc provided input thearchitecturedcvelopmelrt syst.nr and iuto and daily

Thefollowing sections describe steps thearchitectsCanaxia the that at performed (Bass, to create architecture Clements, Ka¿man their and 1997).

or the Creating Selecting Architecture
requiregathering process a deliverssetof functional The requirements these At requilement Canaxia, identified each with ments withqualities had use stofies Each case a set cases usel or requlrements a setof use were The by that to of qualities needed be supported theusecase. a¡chitecture and all lequirem€¡ts qualineeded support these to thatcanaxia selected technolotechniques, were met ties. Some therequirements easily using of were gies, practices which developers architects familiar and with the and ll"ose part was the The dilljcult of selectinC architecture sattsfying qu¿lifiPs and that lisky unknown andtechnologies wefe using techniques the risks and the Toaddress reduce tcchnical in theproiect, architects qealed ltchitcclurc Thiswasthemainmilestone thedevelopin baJ¿lifl¿. ar' 1998) architecRumbaugh The Booch, ment thearchitecture of {lacobsson, portion thesystem.srnáll thread A of executable ture baselinethefústfully is to that was all layerc completed plove thesysof execution through system team the baseline, architecture be To an temcould built. create architecture wetc palagraphs These steps in described thefollowing folloved steps the lperlormed iteretive voÍking Iovard a¡cL ¿r wilh Inan manner theatchtte(ts lorlh. Íeqrlircrnents and the tecturc baseline s¡tisfied functional qu¡lity that syslcm S el ect U se C ases lL'I the flom asmallnumbetofcases therequirements sYStem use Select cf risky the technically aleas thes,Ystem These selectedaddress most are to 'lhissubset use [or use 5¡rrlii(t¡ll cases cr'¡f]plc. cases the¿¡ÍÍileúlür¡¡ll, is of fronl package printing documents thesysfor chose softwate Canaxia a new lp'lLre r'1 documenlstl" aÍch cases printing for tem. lncluded use lt the $.rq Sotlwore to baselinedemonstrate theinteface tlrenc$so[t\v¡r. to that l)¡rk¡cc ^rchilgcluro golng vorK. Io

The Business Case
Canaxia luckyi involved archileclure when cfeated was it the team it the business forthesystem. organizationsnotinvo¡ve architect case Many do an at project conception. architectute wasinvolved thestartof The leam from theproiect. business The customers needed understand relat¡ve to the costs of the various solutions were they contemplating. architectufe The team processes, undefstood current the technical environrnent thetools, and and personnel required implement various to presented thebusi, the oplions by ness community. business The customers tealized a great thal solution that is lateis sometimes than mediocre worse a quickly solution isdelivered that Onlythe architecture canevaluate various team the oDtions Drovide and input thetime into requiredcreate one. to each AtCana¡¡a, afchitect involved fro¡twith the was up auto dealefs, managementthecompany, at systern e¡d-users, thedevelopment The and team. business took consideration case into thetimeframe thetechnical and com.
l I l .xily in v( ) lvr { ir r ( ft' ¡ lin ft n Wcl)sltc ' ( jr l hc ¡¡¡l ontol )i l o büf;i ncss

UnderstandingRequirements the
Canaxia reali¿ed anarchitect that couldn't buildarchitectu¡ea svstem for that orshe he didn't understand requirements stakeholders provide The ofthe A Proclicol Gu¡de thearchitect a context which createdesien.use isa comwith from to a A case lo Enlsrprlse way capturing mon of a requitement. use The case desc¡ibes action some that Arch¡leclure system perform usecase the mqst A desctibes detail in every inpuvoutput pe¡fo¡ms a user another 42 interaction thesystem that with or These system are

4a

tdentlfy lmportant oüalltles Canaxia couldnot get lhe architecture requires trade.offs. Software possible Therefore, way. requirementthebest ¡n to every architecturesatisfy For were should suppo¡t prioritized. exam' that thequalities thearchitecture required ple, pelormance modifiability. decisions When valued over Canaxia quality what it was to between attributes, helpful understand quala kade-off were more in ity attdbutes desired thanothers thesystem.

Know When You Are llappy wlth the Deslgn whethel notthe or how team to The architeciure tried establish to know warn' of good lt adopted follolving checklist early the was one. architeclure a (Abowd al 19961: et astray be when things might going ingsigns organization is l. Thearchitecture folcedto malchthe current someone because is a Sometimesgoodarchitecture changed can Alchitecture be polluted says, i st don'tdo th¿lhe¡e." We of the infrastructure olganiand because practices technical the for withthe alchitecture the proiect['4any zation don'tmesh to are ¡n times, complonises thearchitectute necessaryensure of integlity thearchi' consistency, theconceptual but enterprise as as should maintained much possible. be tecture (too components architectulal 2. There too manytop-level are a reacheslevel of lf the much complexity). numbef cornponents for too (usually than thearchitecture becornes complex mofe 2t). of and integrity roles lesponsibilities The it to have conceptual of consists too When system the must each component beclear. tend ofthc theresponsibilities component to manyconponents, into other. blend each proiects are Some of drives requirement therest thedesign. 3. One the goal that overriding in mind is sometimes buiitwitha s¡ngle proiect o! managet proipetfequjrementtheproiect sponsor of overiding a is builtaround single when ectafchitect. thesystem may other requirem€nt, fequirements notbeaddressed presented the by depends lhe alternatives on 4. Thearchiiecture is platform chosen thewrong the Sometimes platfcrm operating a that a For onefortheproiect. example,ploiect requires high for chosen if not might bepossibletheplatform level usability ol is terminal. display a 3270 theuser standard instead ofequallygood arc components used 5. Proprietary cool luted thelatest by are and ones. fuchitects developers often stanhave alternative that designs may or technologyinteresting proiects take should advanFor example, dard technologyavailable. when technology seNel of tageof the capabilities application oI schemes pelslstence load developerc creating balancing b€gin lt is that an Í¡ameworks, usually ¡ndication thefe a problem it is of¡¡;rl)dicrliorr capabilitics to the {ouldbebette! use standald the to software solve business dme server spend developing and features problem new rather creating technical tha¡ divi' from comes thehardware definition comDonent division 6. The without tegatd the for should designed be The sion. components thal physical to except recognlze a nel\orl' topology system. ofthe The components. compo' data is involved transmilting between in function ofthe o¡ businesstechnical map nents should toadiscrete take should components built.These that application is being Archileclufe Sofwore systems coriputing of featuresmode¡n scalability advantageofthe 45

Deslgn Archltécture the
the that able implenent use to designed architecture was an canaxia one for This adopting or mole that chosen thesystem. involved cases werc out and later st¡'les orc^iteclutal (described in this chapte0 fleshing those well' decided usethemost to detailed design. canaxia stytes a more into style architectural architectural style,the model-view-conttoller known il was wrth step when decisions making done thrs the canaxia it was knew to on Iess information which harder harder and because tancible becarne was rely available. Set Up a Developme[t Envllonnent that environment ¡ncluded: canaxia setupa development then . Serv€rs space servers application and on suchas file servers, and servers servers, database tools Modeling drawing and Whiteboards pictures whiteboards of Digital camera taking lo¡ web Proiect siteandfilesubfolder with they to Software which needed integrate (lDE) development environment Integrated (XUnit) fiamework Unittesting Version software control build Automated process l m p l e me ¡t th e D e s l g n This stafted implementing design. wasdoneby first the Canaxia fleshed the out for Writing tests the the implementing tests thedesign the when began implementingdesign, cont¡actsthemodules. canaxia in what will what t lmplementationprove was it leaÍned didanddidn work. of the understanding and a in theory thedesign willprovideconcrete iust when implementing it being Canaxia stopped architecture developed. Guide exhausted initial AProcllcol the improved when happened, this Canaxia designs the lo Enlonrlse design implemented of theafchitecture r¡oleitelain sevelal more and Archllocturo were with happy it tions untilthey

u

Ff¡r. t-l
arch ure Soltware itecl volatiliw thrcushour develop. asoftw;re proiecl ment gn

Soltwaf Archit€clure o Voliiility

tema¡d how arch the ¡tectu wou suppolthe¡r re ld needs. Therefore, archithe providedstotyboard a prototype describe This a lery tects a and to that. was effective means conveying aspects thearchitectu¡ethiscornof those of to munity. support The organization wanted know to maintain syslo how the tem, a discussionthesoftware so of desi€n using UML data and ¡¡odels was anappropriate means conveying information them of this to

Analyzing Evaluating Architecture and the
Throughout developm€nt system, the of thc Cana¡ia ca¡eful conwas to tinuously evaluate architecture sure it met needs the the to make that the of proiect.knew thearchitecture isn't lt thal really finished thep¡oecris untli delivered, perhaps even thesystem retifed used iterative and not untll an is lt process ofevaluating evolving architecture and the to improve asnecessary it process the througho'Jt system cycle. architecture thc life The evaluation in phases a p¡oiect done initlal of was th¡ough scenario-based te(llniqucs 1. evaluate software architecture, identified architecturally Canaxia signilithe cant scenariosthearchitecture for to support Some methodologies.as such provided context XP, these call ri¿¡ scenarjos rto¡ir5. These scenados a irom which quality the attributes thearchitecture be estimated the of could As ploiect developed, estimates the became measufements testcases and for quality verifying thedesired that attfibutes actually were suppoed bythe softwale was that being created. example, thea¡chitectu¡e cre' For when was ated, teanestimatedthe ofperformance thearchitecture the level ihat should support based thenUmber computations network on hopsOn.ethe oi and architecture baselinewas completed, estimates the became measurements of performance the setof scenarios were for that implemented. pedorlf the mance requifernent notmetorexceeded, architectu¡e fedesigned was the was to support requiremeni. the process, architecture evalu' At each stage thedevelopment of was lhe ated. later At stages theproiect, estimates very in some were p¡ecise becaLrse theywere based realworking on code. Howevet some thequality of att¡ibules were difficult measure were to and somewhat subiective. examDle. For it was easy use stopwatch measure performance t¡ansaction to a to the of a th¡ough system, the however estimating maintainability system the of the was much more difficult. maintainability The was estirnation based many o¡ criteria included technology was that the that used, whether notthesysor tem srfficiently was modulat how and much data used configuration were to pafticular configure system run-time,well many the at as as other criteria to thesystem was that built. was was Estimating even thesyste¡r bu¡Lt this after difficult stillsomewhat and subiective. Canaxia to ¡ely thearchitec' had o¡ tureteam's andexperience theorganization withsoftware skill within and designs deliver right of maintainability proiect to the level fo¡the Canaxia considered popula¡ forevaluating three nethodologies softvare architectures Kazman, Klein and 2002) lClements, (ATAMI l. Architecture Trade-off Analysis N¡ethod 2. Soft\rare A¡chitectufe Analysis Method lSAANIl 3. Active Revievs lnte¡mediate (ARID) for Desiens Sollworc Archileclur€

7. 'lhe design exception theemphasis theertensibilis driveni ison ityofthesystem rather onthecore than tequifementsthesysfo¡ tem.By"exception driven," do not mean we except¡on handling butrather thesystem that should bedesigned not exclusivelywith the requirements someday that might necessarymind. be in li should designed solve mo¡e be to the immediate requirements. Thearchitecture fin¡shed baseline team the architecture feltgood and "code about was it.lt careful notice to smells'duringthe ofthebasecreation line. These aspects code iustdjdn feel were ofthe that t When team right. the saw something in thatdidn'treally sneak belong required or extensive refactoringit had courage rip it outandsta¡t the to over Asshown Fi€ure thearchitecture in 2-1, isvolatile thea¡chitecture until period baseline iscomplete Duringthe oftime thearchitecture that baseline is wo*ed out,major design decisions change. will Du¡ing period, this the overall design p¡oven is When architectural the baseline complete, is the architecture thesystem for should settle down thatfulldevelopment so can bedone based thestable on baseline. architecture lf the isvolatile through" process, proiect likely outthedevelopment the will fail.

RepresentingCommunicating and theArchitecture
ThearchitectsCanaxia forthearchitecture effective. at knew to be it needed beeifectively to communicated thestakeholders svstem. to all ofthe After architecture hasnoolherpurpose to provide concepl all, really than a forth€system about bebuilt. architecture to The needed beclear to concise. andunde¡standable theimpo¡tant sothat concepts thearchitectu¡e within could implemented supported thestakeholdefs alchitects be and by The that AProclicrl Guide understood it wasthese important concepts ¡n many ways that deter" toEnlorprlsomined success failure theproiect every the or of at stage its lifecycle of &chlleclure Toeffectively comnunicate atchitecture various the to the stakeholders, created 4ó the team targeted material each for stakeholder conrmunitv Fot example. user the commun¡ty very vas inteiested Usability sys, in the ofthe

ti

Canaxia understood forcritical proiects require lafge that that a amount of rigorduring development process, the formal methods to formally help evaluate software the a¡chitecture systern. ATAM SAAI¡ ofa The and methods for evaluating software architectures comDrehensive. the ARID are while method meant inte¡mediate reviews ensure thearchitecis fo! design to that tureisontrack foughout project. th the purchasedthe Canaxia bookEralüalir4 Sollu,arc Neúil¿cturc Kazrnan, Klein and 2002) learn lclements, to about each method depth. theend, in ln Canaxia created own hocmethod evalits ad to uate softwarc the a¡chitecture was that pa¡tially based thethree on methods presentedthebook. in

nany lhe ontl thrcugh l¡{eoFle oddrcsses ot ond 2.0 UML nows coÍ¡¡}í/¡,ents @nneatols Itrese conce¡ns.

Ensuring Conformance
Theafchitecture realized evenwith the bestarchitecture, team that development teams dont always implement architectu¡e an correctly. Usually. is thefault a poo¡ this of architecturepoor or communication of the architectufe to developers Inorder thearchitecture fo¡ to ¡¡attet, archi, the tectufe concept become in must executing jn a system. Canaxia, code At the architecture implemented was correctlythefinal in system. thedesired All qualities met thesystem delivered time undef system were and was on and budget ln addition, architects developers the and realized thearchitecture that is anongoing effort refinement, after proiect completed. in even the is The architects understood needed beinvolved only they to not during design and construction also but du¡ing maintenance system. of the

Arch¡t€ctu tionof howsoftware r€ architecture should represented difficult be is a one. Descdption Stakeholdersthe systern of needtargeted material speaks them that to above stakeholders understand atchitectute must the in [anguatesbecause, all else, o¡de!to implement co¡rectly. technical it Fo¡ stakeholdercthose or who and UMI undefstand soltwafe

At Canaxia at every and other company is developing that software, questhe

d€velopment, is the mostpopular U[4L ¡otation to describe design software the of systems. thesurface, apDearsbe On UML to well suited a notation describing as fot softwa¡e architectures has IJML a large of elements canbe used describe set that to software designs. The (RUP) represents v¡ewpoint U[,41 Rational unified Process best the that is adeq!ate representing for soltware atchitectures RUP an 'afchitectute.centric" thatpromotes use IJML is process the of lor depding softwarc aÍchitccture Howevet academics ouestioned have UML a means as ofdepicting (N,,ledvidovicTh!s software architecture 2002). is mostly because versionsUML notcontain early of did notations compofor nents connectots and asfirst,class elements consttucts imponant Othe¡ ate when describineaoftwale atchitecture, asports points interaction such or of with component roles points interaction a connectortJ¡\¡L a and ot of with ln I 5,components expected beconcrete, are to e)(ecutable software conthat AProclicol ouide sumesmachines a resources memory. and Although pads software some of lo Enlo0rise archrtecture a¡econcrete components, all architectural not components are Archilecture concrete soltware entitles They bean entire may system a federation or of 4S systerns need bedepicteda si¡gle that to as component prolidessinthat a ple function

somenolion is ln addiiion. connectoranarchltectural thatdescribes a to componentsoneor many a from thing providesconduit oneoI many that and the may The components. connector alsoadapt plotocol fomatol the a not Uf¡L I 5 does provide simito message onecomponentanothel from as get a this although could alound bydepictingconnector on€ la!concept, or a setof cooperating classes asa component. issues many in and 2.0 released lune2003 addresses ol these UML was to an can ln UML a inthelanguage. 2.0, component bedepicteduse interlace port and a A can andprovideport. port b€a complex thatprovides consumes with that can Each multiple interfaces. intelface bedesignated attribution and whether notit is a service has or of indicates visibilily theinlerface, the becor¡ing towald strides UML is making 2.0 capabilitynot. o¡ asynchronous alchitectules notation depictinC for thestandard notation for a oi the advantagebeing standard Using UMLhas distinct architec' softwa¡e to desi€n. is desirable useUMLfol describing lt software ol for versions UlL thispurposc To turebecauseis standard. useearlier it their to must description bewilling suspend archilecture readers theUML of by could componenl bedescribed a anafchiteclufal For disbelief. example, ¿ popular is apploachlo use Anothel in UIVL componenta UflLdiaglam this not does take to as ste¡eotyped This wolkaslong thereader class. will a entity is software andthatit desclibes mean thecomponentanactual that not conceptual component, a phys¡calone. description architecture several have ln addition, res€afchers created for elements allow thefist-class that a set languages have small of core that focus These representation of architecturalconcelns. languages on a precise to that architecture. algue theonlyway assess They of software descriotion is archibctureto precisely and ofthe thecompleteness correctness softwale suffer and These the architecture. methods languages irom describe softwale the are of and all that thefact there dozensthem, they have go¡lof precisiorl over und€¡standability. for notation documentinq is bottorñ is thatthere nostandard line The laIg'raiea mooe'rre w\en The critetia choosrng atchitecture key sollware the fúrther that own whether UML, ADL, youl notation-is it shorrld it is an or who il bythosc Ic¡<l 1lrI rrrorltlslrottl,l of thc understa¡rrling atchltectufe Lt goal used do.unle¡t ofthe accomplish p mary re€aldless notation tLi this plomotes th. an(l enforces, l¡edl,is architectute system ofa The soft$,are are attriLrutesthose Qual¡ty quality will ouality system suppon. attributes the that that of prope{ies andabove functionalitythesysiem mak(' Attr¡butes the over system perspective ¡ri' Thele one a thesystem good or a l¡adoneíroma techliical ¿nd atÍun-time thos. those are ofquality attributes, that measuled two types a¡chltecSince through inspection. thesoftvare be that only estimated can Archilecl!fe Soflwore il belore ,5Lurltrt F rl, design a syctem of is lureof a system a palt'al qualit! attribuies49 those to architect identify resDonsibilitv software of the thai an to important then and attempt design alchitecture thatafemost

treflects those attributes. quality.. The be concerned ate{Bass, with Clements. Kazman Klein20021: I. 8l{f.Q{n¡¡fJn-a measurement system of the response fora time functional tequitement. 2. Availability-the amount timethatthesvstem uDandrunof is ning. ü measuredthelength time'between ft by of iailures. as wellasby howquickly system ableto restart the is operations after failure. example,thesystem down oneday a Fot if was for outof thelasttwenty, availabilitythesystem thetwenty the of fof days l9/19+or95percent is I availability. quality This attribute is closely related reliability. morereliable system the to The a is, more available system be. the will 3. Reliability-the abilityof the system operate to overtime. Reliabil¡ty ismeasured mean-time-to-failure bythe ofthe svstem. 4. Functionality-the ofthesystem perfom task was ability to the it created do. to 5. Usability-how it is fortheuser understand operate easy to and thesystem. 6. Secufity-the abilityof the system resist to unauthorized attempts access system denial,olservice whjle to the and attacks stillprovidin€ seNices authorized to users 7. ModifiabilityJhe measurement easy is to change of how ¡t the system incorporate tequifements. two aspects to new The of modifiability cost time. system anobscute are and Ifa uses tech, nology requires that high.piced consultants, though may even it bequick change modifiability stillbelow. to its can 8. Portabi¡ity:-measu¡es the ease withwhich system be the can platforms. platfo¡m consist hardmoved different to The may of ware, operating system, applicatjon software, database seNer or seryet software. 9, Reusability-the to reuse abiliry podions thesystem other of in applications. Reusability in many comes forms. run-time The platform. source code libra¡ies, components, operations, and processes all candidates reuse other are fof in applications. 10,Integrability-the ol the'system integrate other ability to with systems integrabilitya system The of depends theextent on to which system open the uses integration standards how well and theAPI designed that is such other systems use compoca¡ the nents ofthe system built. being I l. Testability-how easily system be tested the can using human effort, automated testing tools, inspections, other and means ol AProc,llcol Guldo quality testing system Cood testabilitv related themoduis to lo Enlerp se ' Iarity thesystem thesystem composed of lf is of components Archlleclure with well-defined intefaces,testability its should eood be new can 12. ElhUiliv-how wellthe architecture handle requrlemay requirements fotmsNew in comes several ñÑs. Variabiliw time the systern At ot be planned unplanned development At new to extend perfoim functions easyto code souice mightbe that components pluggable allow might the run-t¡¡ne, system is attribute closely This on behaviol thefly. quality system modify modifiabilitY. to related ol a to ability 13. S-ubl9!¡úlllly-the ofthesvstem suppon subcet lhe it ic For tvstem inclementaldevelopment Gñrf,iieiui;e¿¡vt¡e todemonscme can that important asystem execute functionality lt is product development thepropduling iteratio¡s strate smali set a sm¿ll of ¿nd it tobuild execute that of system allours erty the is system the over andto addfeatures timeLIntil entire features on propeftythetimeor resourceslhe if is built This animpoftant ofthe itectu lf plojectalecutthesubsetability arch reishigha subproducllon it may set featules stillmake into ot thearcl"rte'turetÓ'omnru¡r' I4. Conceptqalintegnty-theabiliiyof wrr'et I Fled uisiou Ihesystem Broofs for caie ilearconcis¡ a tc is lnle6rily cenrrdl Conceptudl Ihan convinced evef ammole lmportant is alchitect lhemost a system quality. product Having a teachingsoltintegrity After conceptual step single toward to more labotatory than20timesl came insist ware engineeri¡g ano a choosemanage¡ foul tea lhatstudent msassmallas people that l99t) KentBeck atchitect(Biooks a separaie -helieves part oí the extleme are metaphors the most important is (Beck The methodology 1999). metaphor a powProgramming lor concepts a syscentral one ofproviding ot more eful means vlsion a 'haled and providescor¡mon a tem Themetaphol provides a The stakeholders. metaphor for vocabulary atlsystem of the When design the integrity conceptual to means enfolce Ihe of goes the system oulside bounds then'et¿phor' met¿phor otheNisethe must metaphors be added; ol change new must Ifanyofthesedesigndeci' direction in wrong is designgói¡g the righttheconceptual feeling the without concept made sion;are the will system be lost Sometimes syslem of integrity the o¡ as pattern such MVC Blackboa¡d is metaphoranafchilectural prop¿tterlq arch These lecturdl chaptel) later ldiscussed inthis who o¡ developels othels for metaphof system videa common thc they t However' don help stákchol(lthe unde¡standpatte¡ns ¿bout th¡ng one withthepattelns good who t familiaÍ aren ers describe is pattelns thesystem thatthey for alchiteclulal using on detail lhodownsidc in of the;tructuresthesoftwaremofe the willunderstand leferences' notall stakeholders (a¡ be or not 15. Build¿bilrty-whether thedrchilecture r' ason¿bly t hc andt im eavailablef or dcliver yof bui l tusi ngt hebudget , st af f qualrty is project. nuildability an often-overlooked att¡ibute for too are architects simply ar¡bitiorls a the Sometimes, best Archileclufe Solfwofe project given co¡straints team Dro¡ect to complete ;a
al

50

ls Agilitya Quality Aftribute?
Some orchlects thetem allleto desd¡be odlitedue. While use thei flujbtlryondoElry orc inpotohl kese'aodshovenony diñehs¡atÉ he orchitedurc ogile, ¡s ff daeshot neon thotf ¡seoiy chongep ¡t eosy ¡ntErcte kto ke enHpt¡se? ¡t ponoble, ls to it ls quest¡ons rcusoble, testobh? onswet olllhese lhe to ¡sptobobly'pt' Ag¡liryo cornposte is quoliq ¡ncludes al ke bose nony quol¡ty potto. thol oftt¡buteske levek noinloinobilitl, lt of b¡liv, testoüiy, kEgtoüliry high, orchibd.ue most onog¡le ond o@ the ¡s lkely one.

$!iriJ-

ola what is the impact failure? ideñtified? failures and archardwate softwale How failure? afteta system be Howquictlymustthesystem opeGtio¡al of overin c¿se a failure? cantak€ that systems Arethelefedl¡ndant replicated? have functions been that Howdo youknow all cdtical the up to How done? longdoesit take back andiestore system? Arebackups houlsof operation? what arethe e¡peded pe! up-time month? what is theexpected ls system? thisacceptable? is Howavailable thecurrent

(on\^',q\: \ ¿.4\. Reliability.
faihre? or ofa what is the impact softwa¡e hardwarc reliabilitv? impact will bádpelotmance on system thebusiness? of whatis theimpact anunreliable

It is important thesystem enteFrise for and to architecture designeF understand desired the that oualities thesvstems e)úibit. doso.the must To

ofthe databecompromised? Cantheintegrity

quality architects enióiiácupi.iirii i';!áiil;iüí6ftf; áÉsired shoutd .r
providesway ensuring completeattr¡butes possible.checklist as A a of the ness thespecif¡cat¡on. of Following some thequestjons askin order are of to quality to fullycharacterize desired the attributes a system for [Clements, Kazman, Kle¡n and 2002r Mccovefn, Stevens, Mathew Tyagi, and 2003):

Fünctionality
"Dóes sntemmeet thefun.ticnal by specified theJsels? requirements all the requireme¡ts? to andadapt unanticipated respond Howwellcanthesystem

Ulability
undetsta¡dable? ls the userintedace with ofpcople disabiliUes? the to adaptablesuppod needs tstheintedace usable the for find Dothedevelopers thetoolsprovided creating system andunde|standable?

Perlorm¿nce
what is theexpected ¡esponse foreach case? time use Whatis theave.age/ma)dmin e,(pected response time? Whatresources beine are used LAN, )? etc {CPU, Whatis theresource consumption? policy? Whatis theresource a¡bik¿tio¡ What theexpecled is numbe¡ ofconcuÍent sessio¡s? Afethere pafticularly computations occur any long when certain that a state is t¡ue? processes AreseNer single multith¡eaded? o¡ ls the¡e sufficre¡t network bandwidlh all nodes thenetworl? to on multiple threads processes Arethere or accessing a shaled resource? Hov is access managed? Will badperfcírmance dramatically usability? alfect ls the response synchronousasynchrcnous? time or

5€!.u.rlty
is Howcritical thesystern? failure? ofa what is theepectedimpact seculity identified? lailu¡es How¿Iesecudty impact? vas in failu¡es thepastwhat lhere any been security have lfthere vulnembilities? anY AletheY known issues? in tralned security been usels Have breach a to in te¿m place handle security añd a Arethere process a tespo¡se

Modifiability/vatiabilitY
to be Howoftenwilla change required thesyslenr? in adding futulelersio¡sof the do what nev functionality youanticipate system? platlorn? ofthe ¡ev handle releases execution willyou How

AProcllcol Guide loEnlsrprise Afci¡l€ctur€ 52

Whatis theexpected batch cycle time? Howmuch peÍormance based thetimeof day, can vary on week. monthor system load: What theexpected is ofsystem load? €rowth

Archileclurc Sollwore

53

Doanycompone¡ts access thelmplementation have to details ofglobal variables? Doyouuseindirection mechanisms aspublish/subscribe? such Howdo youhandle changes message in formats? wefedesign compromises to eñhance made pefomance? intedaces cha¡ge a result change a piece Howmany must as ofa ln oi fuñctionality? Does soltware metadatato conf¡gure using the use itself declarations rcther thancode? Cantheuser inteface change indepe¡de¡tly logi. components? of What changes result fromadding ¡ew datainputsource? a preparcd move ls thesystem to frcma single processor a multjprocessor to platform? much it cost? execution How will Howlongdoesit take deploy change? to a Whois expected make change? to the

Testabil¡iv
prccesses, t€dniques place test Are iher€ tools, and in language to classes, componcnts, selv¡ces? and Arcthere hooLs thef¡amewo*sperform tests? in to unit Can automated tools used test system? testing be to the Can system ina debugger? the run

s.s!*!¡!!lig
lsthesystem modular? Arethe¡e many dependencies betveen modules? Does change cnemodule a in rcquirc change othe¡modules? a in

Conceptual InteSlity,
questions Dopeoole understand alchitecture? there many the Are too basic being asked? ls there centr¿l a metaphor thesystem? so,hownrany? lor lf Was architecturalstyle Howma¡y? an used? Were contndictory decisions made abouithearchitecture? Donewrequirements i¡to the a¡chitecturc fit easily. do newfeatu¡es or requirecodesmells"? Ifthe software stans "stink,theconceptual to lntegrity pfobably has bee¡lost.

Portab¡litv Do benefits pfoptietary outweighdrawbacts? the platform ofa the
Can e¡peñse the ofcreating sepatation be lustifled? a layer At whatlevel portability provided? theapplication, should system be At application seNer, operatin€ system, hardware or level?

Reusability
ls thissystem stanofa new product the line? Willothefsystems builtthatmo¡e less be or match characteristics the of thesystem under const.uction? whatcomponents bereused lf so, will in those systems? What existing cot¡ponents avajlable reuse? are for Areihercexisting fÍameworlG other oa code assets canbe reusedt that will othe¡ applications thetechnical ¡euse infrastructure is c¡eated that for thjsappljcatio¡? tsthere existing technical infrastructu¡e thisapplication use? that can what¿re asrocráted risks. benefits the cosls. ¿nd ofbuildi¡g reusable co|l1ponc|l1\r

Buildability
Areenough time,money, rcsources and available buildanarchitecture to
h:.él i ñF 2nd r hF ñr ^ i . . t t

lsthearchitectufecomplex? too parallel lsthe architecture modulaf development? sufficiently to promote Are therc many too technical flsks? is This bynomeans exhaust¡veof questionsask an list to about architecproiect, are questionsaskabout ture design. €very ora On there specific to the domain thatproject organization.example, o¡ganl¿aticrrl ol and For if an questions uses messaging middlewale,-th€re of very is a list specific about howthatmiddleware is used whethe¡ notthf archiiecturc system and or uscs cffcclivcly cotrcctly. otB¡ni¡¡lr(nr,ll rn-h('1r!. it and lf lllc fi,I¡t\(,,r1. h.ili lorcreating components services, is a listofquestrors the and thefe abc.ul design componentor thatuses framervork questions ofa seryice The that that project lt is important thear.hitectirrc must asked each be vary. on that learr u¡derstand intricaciesthe organi¿ations the thr of domain a¡chitecl re that supports and,especially, obstacles rnaybe encountereJ it, the that sothatlhey beavoided il a design is ¡war.¡i tht',l¡t¡ils can Only te¡m o[ particular in ofgani¿ationit pfope¡ly can detign slslen] runs llr.¡i Soltvofe a th,rt Archileclur€ .; organizatio¡
c5

Integrability
APfoclicolGuldo l0 tnlefpftO Afcnfecrufe ?{ Arethetechnologies to communicate othersystems used with based on standards? interlaces Arethecomf,onent cñnsrslenl underst¿ndablel and ls there process p'¿ce \e.sion ¡ tr lo compone¡t Interfaces)

Nonfunctional Requirements and Attributes Quality
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Architecture 4+ l View iVodel Software of
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th¡l + model desc¡ibessce¡arios thearchitecthe The I inthe4+I view requirements The represent important the ture meant satisfy scenalios is to th,rt The th¡t chos€n af|'thosc ¡rc must that system satisfy scenarios ate the lrequently cxe' the they eithel mosl importantsolve to because ale themost out pose that be risk or some technical or unknolvn ntust plolel) cuted they Archileclure Sollwofe on are The four bythearchilecture baseline. other vietvs centerL'.i thesetol for ofthe scenarios are thaf chosen thecreation arahttectufe

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Applied Softvvare Architecture Viewpoints
The I view 4+ model onlyon€ several is of suggest forthe ions viewpoints . thatshould included software be in archltecture Nord, .H9Jr¡giSte¡, andSon¡ (1999)_propose a different of viewpoin$. set ConceptualArchlt€cture Vlew The conceptualarchitecture similarto view is thlhglqO,L,v,iew ¿+t in the view.model. However, co¡ceptual the architecture ü moieconceptual viil andbroader scope. tatesintoaccount ¡n lt existing software hardware and integration issues vrew closely to.the This rs tied appl¡cation domain, The runcoona ot thesystem mapped architectural ty is to elements called colraplüalJoüpo¡?filr. conceptual These components not mapped are directly to hardware, they mapped a function thesystem but are to that performs. íhis view provides overviewthesoftware an of architecture.It fjrstplace ¡sjhe that people goto find how system what is supposeddo,The will out the does lt io concerns addressed conceptual include following inthe view the l. How does system the fulfillthe requ¡rements? 2. How thecommercial afe off,the-shelf (COTS) comoonentsbe to integrated. how rhey and do inte¡act a function¿l with {at level) therest thesystem? of 3. How domain-specific are hardware and/of software incorporatecl into system? the 4.. How functionality is partitioned p¡oduct into releases? thepfoduct, how it support and will generat¡ons? future How product supported? are lines ó. Ho[,cantheimpact changes thetequitements of in domain be minimi¿ed?

ExecutlonVlew view Theexecution of software architecture shows holvmodules are the entrof the.syste0r view This shows run.time thel¡ardware Tgp.!e-d-grtlo and tieS theirattributes how ánd and these entities assigned machines are to processor lt usage, usage, network and usage networks.shows memory the expectat¡ons. vjs{.ihg}yr Th ishardware systems between üeflowof confrol questions thrsvrew thal gxgcule-the software the system of that Some

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l. How recovery, reconand does system itspe ormance, the meet liguration requirements? 2, How resoürce balanced? is usage in 3. How concuffency, are replication, distribution and handled the system? platform 4, Hov canthe ¡mpact changes the run-time be of i¡ rninimized? Code Vle$ view The code shows thesource andconfiguration organhow code are package i¿ed p¿ckages, into including It also how dependencies. shows the po(ions thesystem built executable of aie from source ¡nd.onl¡f]' the c,.de quesiions, This answefs lollowing uration view the t. How thebu¡lds are donc? long thejtake? How do 2. How versions releases afe and managed? whattools needed support development configu¿nd are to the ration management environments? 4. How integration testing are and supported?

), How thesystem doe; incorporate portions generations ofpriot of

APrcclicol culde lo Enlerprise Archileclure 5S

Sollwore Archileclure 5

your How important¡ttodefine architecture one ¡s using ofthese standard is: views presenied to give here sets vlews? answer notat all.These of The are youanidea thekinds quest¡ons need beanswered youdefine of of that to when yoursoftware architecture.

1999) to get book proiect every keep but and organlzalion forthe kindsofthingsto inmind, every is to The way sound software architectures have are different. best to develop architecls developers. whounderstand intriand the thebest software People processes. pol¡tics of and ofyour or€anization who and cacies thetechnology, of concepts will can apply some thefundamental outlined thischapter sucin possible forcapin the software architectures. method Ifthe ceed cfeating best is completely ad-hoc loosely or based theabove on tur¡ng architecture the methods, is fine Again, most that the important is thattheimportant issue get questions answered thateveryone what a¡swers what and knows the aie. is format style is notimportant theparticular of oftheanswers

wrll who with systems Anyone is familiar IJNIX PiDesn¡d filters. pattern pipe¿ndfrltelp¿ttern The rlffirl¡]iTrc¡iieaulal programs /iicalled from allows system beassembled small a to The are an and l¿r5. filterhas input anoutput. filters assembled A filtef the data from p¡evious intoa chain which filter in each gets processes data, passes data thenext the to the and in thechain. is and The example a pipe iiltersystem of filterin thechain. best semantic analysyntax The analysis, analysis. a compilef. lexical occur code and sis,intermediate generation, optimization in a pipe filter chain. style and layels the of is djfferent 4. l14yers,layeled A system onein lvhich Each function thesystem layer oi take ofa system care specific that a of architectural is a packagesoftware has style in a Iayered with well-known dependencies interface a few and well-defined within lunction one layers layer Each implements technicai other layer For a data theapplication. example, access is respo¡s¡ble lor a datab¿sc means accessine forencapsulating thetechnical gc the access access requestsa database thlough data to Aildata The access has responsibil' layet the layer that foI databasc. data itorn layers mechanism upst¡ea¡I lll the acccss ityof hiding data ln layels may adiacent layer a a closed system,layer onlyaccess irl may an'/ system, layers access othellayer the an openlayer not the to they system, iust ones which aleadiacent patterns used provideconcepa popular to architectural are Many other archi' An can one for architectule application use or more iualbasis so[tware usi¡g can pattems itsdevelopment Different subsystemsbebuilt in tectuíal can patterns. themethods compone¡t interactlon follov for Also, different could implementations components of the while internal the onepattern pattern use diffe¡ent a people use undeland patterns meant software to are fol Architectural N,IVC the study pattern undelstandconcept o¡pipes the and stand. must One betweenarchian in life. difierence lilters little nobasis Ieal The have o¡ and rs metaphofundel' pattern a system metapholthat system is a and tectural a people alike.For example. and customers by standable soltware pattern In publish'subscribe isalso system a metaphora publish-subscribe publjsherá bo.lk provides data a nervspaper or like a publisher the system. toplc to publisher article Each newspape¡ or bookrelates a particular i¡ artiale When ntagazine ora book a tova!ious topics consumers subscribe buy comes which suscribers interested out they theboolor nl¡g¡¿]¡f are ¿rc metaphots nolalw¡!s As can syste¡¡ artiale you im¡gine, l'lllc Nl¡R¡ilrr. \ lt magazine,iusl not ¿rliclcs hi¡lhenl,ld tothe subsctibers subscribe entire them to books, purchase they don't ln consumels subscribe azine addition, "The llke is syster¡desi€ned a metaphor usually outwith starts A system conre products concepts sofhvare in developmeft llom and Many Following a lewexamples: are metaphors . Library . Sta.k
Afchileclure Sollwore

I Architectura and system The is a metaphor? answernotmuch. architectural (Bass An style pattern Styles, et al.1997) anarchitectural (Buschmann 199ó) e5senand et al. are A system melapho¡.iÉ€imilar.but.no¡e.conceptu¿l than Patternt and tiallysynonymous. patlern anar,chitecture or anarchitecturAl_style,relates to a realandit mqre Metaphors
wo¡ld style concept to a software than engineedng concept afchitectural An pattern similar a design pattern thatthey andanarchitectural are to in both a describesolution a problem a particular to in context. onlydilference T¡e pattern, is thegranularitywhich describe solution. a design at they the ln the is fine and of solution relatively grained is depicted thelevel language at pattern solution coafser grained is In the is a¡d classes.an architectural or modules their and described level at the ofsubsystems and relationships pattern Each or withinan aÍchitectural collabo¡ations. subsystem module patterns. language consistsmany of classes are that desig¡ed design using Every system needs central, a organizing concept The conceptual integrity thesystem of depends how on stfong organizing concept for is this thesystem whatis an organizing So concept? Some examples architecof (Buschmann 199ó) tu¡alstyles patte¡ns and et al. include following, the pattern l. Model-View-Controllerarchitecture TheI\¡VC {MVC) style architectural i5a popular organizrng co¡cept systerns. for model ¡ep¡esents The the data forthe system, view the rep¡esents afc lheway dala p¡esentcdthc!ser, thecontrollcr the to and handles logic thesystem the for publish-subscribe pattern 2. PubliSh-subscibe. The architecture is publishes on a bus a system whicha publisher in data Subscribels subsc¡ibe to portions data a¡e ofthe that published when bypublishers thebus. on They fegister various for topics a message appears thebusthatmatches topic which on the in a sub,scribef isinterested.bus the notifies subscriber sub. The the can read scribe¡ then themessaÉe thebus. ÍÍom

pallem What thedifference is between architectural anarchitectural an style,

AProcl¡col Gu¡de loE orplse Archilecluro

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Directory window Scheduler Dispatcher have many metaphors. the metaphors to make but can A system have jts For rnteglily. example within system maintain conceptual the to sense wouldit have windows a desktoo contains has thal windows. Microsoft to windows mea¡t move to on better forwindows beplaced a wall?Are been of multiple metaphors, aspects the some By on around thewall? combining with and must metaphorc be forgotten othermustbe emphasized. time, jtselfcanbecome metaphor. no longer we thinkaboutthe a the system to relating an relating a physical to desktop a window or desktop windows in FoI can metaphofsthemselves. example, Products become actualwindow. desktop. is inteface likethewindows sysLem say theuser could that a new

Service-0riented Architecture

ConclusionIlgJSJLlg.0egf what important thedesig4.and about commu¡icates captures is architecture
architecture ¡s on the cgtrcgpt$ tl-o.-s.-e- to the.stakeholders proieclEnterprlse of the alchitectures sys' ways product thecombined a of softwafe in many Therefore.i9jmpQrta¡t. 8etthearchitecture it te temsin theorganization. readable, approachable, the should rightTobecredible, architecture bethin, and baseline with focus thearchitecture on andund-erstandable.anintense as of architectureit is being analysis thesoftware a quality attribute,based will the of it that buih. is likely thearchitecturesuit needs theploiect. product product ljnes lines. Software 4, ln Chapter welookat software p¡oi' great itectu multiple to leverage arch reacross willallowan organization great Using architecture a productand have ilar racteristics. ectsthat sim cha great il, can to lineapproach delivering anorganization achieve enterprise architeciure.

software *henit comeE.rq.cre4lingsoltvlerg.aqhitectl¡te

(SOA) architecture is anarchrtectural th¿tform¿lly style |(\erv¡ce-Oriented which that can sewices, arethefunctionality a system provrde. Dseparates whlch that Th¡s f¡om service consumers, aresystems need functionality. that conlfa¿I, couis by known a r¿¡r¡¿¿ as separationaccomplisheda mechanism pled for and to witha mechanism providers publish to conkacts consumers the that the that than locate coniracts provide service theydesireRather lvith aspects invokof coupling consumer theseruice temsoftechnical the in ingtheservice, separates contract theccmponent implethe from or SOA inwhich mentation ofthatcontract. seDaratio¡ This oroduces a.chitecture a¡ the ofthe and that thecoup!ing between consumer service themodules prothe is loose reconfi€ured. duce work extremely andeasily preceding Syst€ms Architecture, discussed we integrati¡g ln a chapter, in legacy clienvserver and applications encapsul¿ting functionality by their and that inteÍface. is iustthefirst That step in obiects publishing obiect's integrating Thi5 exploles next functionality thÉpilcess. chapter the step, intoanSOA. with web are SOA should beequated websewices services a real' not irnplementations have been c¡eated that ization SOA, SOA of bui canaird webservices have rrothingdowith to benefit the modern to enterDrise Drovldes lt an SOA beof enormous can of ¡ew [or C¡eatints ¡ppl¡.¡- Eenefits an ncw imporlanl avenue integration of appli.ations s0A of tions under SOA an offersslgnificant a increase qualitjesavailabilin the maintainability, reliabilitythose lo¡ apFrlications Fot ity, interopefability, and inlo ope¡atLng costs as the translates lo$/er theenterpfisea whole, SOA quality, greater corporat. agility lolver development higher costs and

AProclicol Gulde lo Enloryrise Ar¡hilecluie 61

63

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