HTML 4.01 / XHTML 1.

0 Reference

HTML 4.01 / XHTML 1.0 Reference
Ordered Alphabetically
DTD: indicates in which XHTML 1.0 DTD the tag is allowed. S=Strict, T=Transitional, and F=Frameset Tag <!--...--> <!DOCTYPE> <a> <abbr> <acronym> <address> <applet> <area> <b> <base> <basefont> <bdo> <big> <blockquote> <body> <br> <button> <caption> <center> <cite> <code> <col> <colgroup> <dd> <del> <dir> <div> <dfn> <dl> <dt> <em> <fieldset> <font> <form> <frame> <frameset> <h1> to <h6> <head> <hr> <html> <i> <iframe> <img> <input> <ins> <isindex> <kbd> <label> <legend> <li> <link> <map> Description Defines a comment Defines the document type Defines an anchor Defines an abbreviation Defines an acronym Defines contact information for the author/owner of a document Deprecated. Defines an embedded applet Defines an area inside an image-map Defines bold text Defines a default address or a default target for all links on a page Deprecated. Defines a default font, color, or size for the text in a page Defines the text direction Defines big text Defines a long quotation Defines the document's body Defines a single line break Defines a push button Defines a table caption Deprecated. Defines centered text Defines a citation Defines computer code text Defines attribute values for one or more columns in a table Defines a group of columns in a table for formatting Defines a description of a term in a definition list Defines deleted text Deprecated. Defines a directory list Defines a section in a document Defines a definition term Defines a definition list Defines a term (an item) in a definition list Defines emphasized text Defines a border around elements in a form Deprecated. Defines font, color, and size for text Defines an HTML form for user input Defines a window (a frame) in a frameset Defines a set of frames Defines HTML headings Defines information about the document Defines a horizontal line Defines an HTML document Defines italic text Defines an inline frame Defines an image Defines an input control Defines inserted text Deprecated. Defines a searchable index related to a document Defines keyboard text Defines a label for an input element Defines a caption for a fieldset element Defines a list item Defines the relationship between a document and an external resource Defines an image-map DTD STF STF STF STF STF STF TF STF STF STF TF STF STF STF STF STF STF STF TF STF STF STF STF STF STF TF STF STF STF STF STF STF TF STF F F STF STF STF STF STF TF STF STF STF TF STF STF STF STF STF STF

<menu> <meta> <noframes> <noscript> <object> <ol> <optgroup> <option> <p> <param> <pre> <q> <s> <samp> <script> <select> <small> <span> <strike> <strong> <style> <sub> <sup> <table> <tbody> <td> <textarea> <tfoot> <th> <thead> <title> <tr> <tt> <u> <ul> <var> <xmp>

Deprecated. Defines a menu list Defines metadata about an HTML document Defines an alternate content for users that do not support frames Defines an alternate content for users that do not support client-side scripts Defines an embedded object Defines an ordered list Defines a group of related options in a select list Defines an option in a select list Defines a paragraph Defines a parameter for an object Defines preformatted text Defines a short quotation Deprecated. Defines strikethrough text Defines sample computer code Defines a client-side script Defines a select list (drop-down list) Defines small text Defines a section in a document Deprecated. Defines strikethrough text Defines strong text Defines style information for a document Defines subscripted text Defines superscripted text Defines a table Groups the body content in a table Defines a cell in a table Defines a multi-line text input control Groups the footer content in a table Defines a header cell in a table Groups the header content in a table Defines the title of a document Defines a row in a table Defines teletype text Deprecated. Defines underlined text Defines an unordered list Defines a variable part of a text Deprecated. Defines preformatted text

TF STF TF STF STF STF STF STF STF STF STF STF TF STF STF STF STF STF TF STF STF STF STF STF STF STF STF STF STF STF STF STF STF TF STF STF

Ordered by Function
DTD: indicates in which XHTML 1.0 DTD the tag is allowed. S=Strict, T=Transitional, and F=Frameset Start tag Basic Tags <!DOCTYPE> <html> <body> <h1> to <h6> <p> <br> <hr> <!--...--> Char Format <b> <font> <i> Defines bold text Deprecated. Defines text font, size, and color Defines italic text STF TF STF Defines the document type Defines an html document Defines the body element Defines header 1 to header 6 Defines a paragraph Inserts a single line break Defines a horizontal rule Defines a comment STF STF STF STF STF STF STF STF Purpose DTD

<em> <big> <strong> <small> <sup> <sub> <bdo> <u> Output <pre> <code> <tt> <kbd> <var> <dfn> <samp> <xmp> Blocks <acronym> <abbr> <address> <blockquote> <center> <q> <cite> <ins> <del> <s> <strike> Links <a> <link> Frames <frame> <frameset> <noframes> <iframe> Input <form> <input> <textarea> <button> <select> <optgroup> <option> <label> <fieldset> <legend>

Defines emphasized text Defines big text Defines strong text Defines small text Defines superscripted text Defines subscripted text Defines the direction of text display Deprecated. Defines underlined text

STF STF STF STF STF STF STF TF

Defines preformatted text Defines computer code text Defines teletype text Defines keyboard text Defines a variable Defines a definition term Defines sample computer code Deprecated. Defines preformatted text

STF STF STF STF STF STF STF

Defines an acronym Defines an abbreviation Defines an address element Defines a long quotation Deprecated. Defines centered text Defines a short quotation Defines a citation Defines inserted text Defines deleted text Deprecated. Defines strikethrough text Deprecated. Defines strikethrough text

STF STF STF STF TF STF STF STF STF TF TF

Defines an anchor Defines a resource reference

STF STF

Defines a sub window (a frame) Defines a set of frames Defines a noframe section Defines an inline sub window (frame)

F F TF TF

Defines a form Defines an input field Defines a text area Defines a push button Defines a selectable list Defines an option group Defines an item in a list box Defines a label for a form control Defines a fieldset Defines a title in a fieldset

STF STF STF STF STF STF STF STF STF STF

<isindex> Lists <ul> <ol> <li> <dir> <dl> <dt> <dd> <menu> Images <img> <map> <area> Tables <table> <caption> <th> <tr> <td> <thead> <tbody> <tfoot> <col> <colgroup> Styles <style> <div> <span> Meta Info <head> <title> <meta> <base> <basefont> Programming <script> <noscript> <applet> <object> <param>

Deprecated. Defines a single-line input field

TF

Defines an unordered list Defines an ordered list Defines a list item Deprecated. Defines a directory list Defines a definition list Defines a definition term Defines a definition description Deprecated. Defines a menu list

STF STF STF TF STF STF STF TF

Defines an image Defines an image map Defines an area inside an image map

STF STF STF

Defines a table Defines a table caption Defines a table header Defines a table row Defines a table cell Defines a table header Defines a table body Defines a table footer Defines attributes for table columns Defines groups of table columns

STF STF STF STF STF STF STF STF STF STF

Defines a style definition Defines a section in a document Defines a section in a document

STF STF STF

Defines information about the document Defines the document title Defines meta information Defines a base URL for all the links in a page Deprecated. Defines a base font

STF STF STF STF TF

Defines a script Defines a noscript section Deprecated. Defines an applet Defines an embedded object Defines a parameter for an object

STF STF TF STF STF

Core Attributes
Not valid in base, head, html, meta, param, script, style, and title elements. Attribute class Value classname Description Specifies a classname for an element

id style title

id style_definition text

Specifies a unique id for an element Specifies an inline style for an element Specifies extra information about an element

Language Attributes
Not valid in base, br, frame, frameset, hr, iframe, param, and script elements. Attribute dir lang xml:lang Value ltr rtl language_code language_code Description Specifies the text direction for the content in an element Specifies a language code for the content in an element. Language code reference Specifies a language code for the content in an element, in XHTML documents. Language code reference

Keyboard Attributes
Attribute accesskey tabindex Value character number Description Specifies a keyboard shortcut to access an element Specifies the tab order of an element

Standard Event Attributes
HTML 4 added the ability to let events trigger actions in a browser, like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an element. To learn more about programming events, please visit our JavaScript tutorial and our DHTML tutorial. Below is the standard event attributes that can be inserted into HTML / XHTML elements to define event actions.

<body> and <frameset> Events
The two attributes below can only be used in <body> or <frameset>: Attribute onload onunload Value script script Description Script to be run when a document loads Script to be run when a document unloads

Form Events
The attributes below can be used in form elements: Attribute onchange onsubmit onreset onselect onblur onfocus Value script script script script script script Description Script to be run when the element changes Script to be run when the form is submitted Script to be run when the form is reset Script to be run when the element is selected Script to be run when the element loses focus Script to be run when the element gets focus

Keyboard Events
Valid in all elements except base, bdo, br, frame, frameset, head, html, iframe, meta, param, script, style, and title. Attribute onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup Value script script script Description Script to be run when a key is pressed Script to be run when a key is pressed and released Script to be run when a key is released

Mouse Events
Valid in all elements except base, bdo, br, frame, frameset, head, html, iframe, meta, param, script, style, and title. Attribute onclick Value script Description Script to be run on a mouse click

ondblclick onmousedown onmousemove onmouseover onmouseout onmouseup

script script script script script script

Script to be run on a mouse double-click Script to be run when mouse button is pressed Script to be run when mouse pointer moves Script to be run when mouse pointer moves over an element Script to be run when mouse pointer moves out of an element Script to be run when mouse button is released

HTML Colors
The table below provides a list of the color names that are supported by all major browsers. Click on a color name (or a hex value) to view the color as the background-color along with different text colors: Color Name AliceBlue AntiqueWhite Aqua Aquamarine Azure Beige Bisque Black BlanchedAlmond Blue BlueViolet Brown BurlyWood CadetBlue Chartreuse Chocolate Coral CornflowerBlue Cornsilk Crimson Cyan DarkBlue DarkCyan DarkGoldenRod DarkGray DarkGreen DarkKhaki DarkMagenta DarkOliveGreen Darkorange DarkOrchid DarkRed DarkSalmon DarkSeaGreen DarkSlateBlue DarkSlateGray DarkTurquoise DarkViolet DeepPink DeepSkyBlue DimGray Color HEX #F0F8FF #FAEBD7 #00FFFF #7FFFD4 #F0FFFF #F5F5DC #FFE4C4 #000000 #FFEBCD #0000FF #8A2BE2 #A52A2A #DEB887 #5F9EA0 #7FFF00 #D2691E #FF7F50 #6495ED #FFF8DC #DC143C #00FFFF #00008B #008B8B #B8860B #A9A9A9 #006400 #BDB76B #8B008B #556B2F #FF8C00 #9932CC #8B0000 #E9967A #8FBC8F #483D8B #2F4F4F #00CED1 #9400D3 #FF1493 #00BFFF #696969 Color

DodgerBlue FireBrick FloralWhite ForestGreen Fuchsia Gainsboro GhostWhite Gold GoldenRod Gray Green GreenYellow HoneyDew HotPink IndianRed Indigo Ivory Khaki Lavender LavenderBlush LawnGreen LemonChiffon LightBlue LightCoral LightCyan LightGoldenRodYellow LightGrey LightGreen LightPink LightSalmon LightSeaGreen LightSkyBlue LightSlateGray LightSteelBlue LightYellow Lime LimeGreen Linen Magenta Maroon MediumAquaMarine MediumBlue MediumOrchid MediumPurple MediumSeaGreen MediumSlateBlue MediumSpringGreen MediumTurquoise MediumVioletRed MidnightBlue MintCream MistyRose Moccasin

#1E90FF #B22222 #FFFAF0 #228B22 #FF00FF #DCDCDC #F8F8FF #FFD700 #DAA520 #808080 #008000 #ADFF2F #F0FFF0 #FF69B4 #CD5C5C #4B0082 #FFFFF0 #F0E68C #E6E6FA #FFF0F5 #7CFC00 #FFFACD #ADD8E6 #F08080 #E0FFFF #FAFAD2 #D3D3D3 #90EE90 #FFB6C1 #FFA07A #20B2AA #87CEFA #778899 #B0C4DE #FFFFE0 #00FF00 #32CD32 #FAF0E6 #FF00FF #800000 #66CDAA #0000CD #BA55D3 #9370D8 #3CB371 #7B68EE #00FA9A #48D1CC #C71585 #191970 #F5FFFA #FFE4E1 #FFE4B5

NavajoWhite Navy OldLace Olive OliveDrab Orange OrangeRed Orchid PaleGoldenRod PaleGreen PaleTurquoise PaleVioletRed PapayaWhip PeachPuff Peru Pink Plum PowderBlue Purple Red RosyBrown RoyalBlue SaddleBrown Salmon SandyBrown SeaGreen SeaShell Sienna Silver SkyBlue SlateBlue SlateGray Snow SpringGreen SteelBlue Tan Teal Thistle Tomato Turquoise Violet Wheat White WhiteSmoke Yellow YellowGreen

#FFDEAD #000080 #FDF5E6 #808000 #6B8E23 #FFA500 #FF4500 #DA70D6 #EEE8AA #98FB98 #AFEEEE #D87093 #FFEFD5 #FFDAB9 #CD853F #FFC0CB #DDA0DD #B0E0E6 #800080 #FF0000 #BC8F8F #4169E1 #8B4513 #FA8072 #F4A460 #2E8B57 #FFF5EE #A0522D #C0C0C0 #87CEEB #6A5ACD #708090 #FFFAFA #00FF7F #4682B4 #D2B48C #008080 #D8BFD8 #FF6347 #40E0D0 #EE82EE #F5DEB3 #FFFFFF #F5F5F5 #FFFF00 #9ACD32

Note: The names above are not a part of the W3C web standard. The W3C HTML and CSS standards have listed only 16 valid color names: aqua, black, blue, fuchsia, gray, green, lime, maroon, navy, olive, purple, red, silver, teal, white, and yellow. If you want valid HTML or CSS use the HEX values instead.

HTML Character Sets
To display an HTML page correctly, the browser must know what character-set to use.

The character-set for the early world wide web was ASCII. ASCII supports the numbers from 0-9, the uppercase and lowercase English alphabet, and some special characters. Since many countries use characters which are not a part of ASCII, the default character-set for modern browsers is ISO8859-1. If a web page uses a different character-set than ISO-8859-1, it should be specified in the <meta> tag.

ISO Character Sets
It is the International Standards Organization (ISO) that defines the standard character-sets for different alphabets/languages. The different character-sets being used around the world are listed below: Character set ISO-8859-1 ISO-8859-2 ISO-8859-3 ISO-8859-4 ISO-8859-5 ISO-8859-6 ISO-8859-7 ISO-8859-8 ISO-8859-9 ISO-8859-10 ISO-8859-15 Description Latin alphabet part 1 Latin alphabet part 2 Latin alphabet part 3 Latin alphabet part 4 Latin/Cyrillic part 5 Latin/Arabic part 6 Latin/Greek part 7 Latin/Hebrew part 8 Latin 5 part 9 Latin 6 Lappish, Nordic, Eskimo Latin 9 (aka Latin 0) Covers North America, Western Europe, Latin America, the Caribbean, Canada, Africa Eastern Europe SE Europe, Esperanto, miscellaneous others Scandinavia/Baltics (and others not in ISO-8859-1) The languages that are using a Cyrillic alphabet such as Bulgarian, Belarusian, Russian and Macedonian The languages that are using the Arabic alphabet The modern Greek language as well as mathematical symbols derived from the Greek The languages that are using the Hebrew alphabet The Turkish language. Same as ISO-8859-1 except Turkish characters replace Icelandic ones The Nordic languages Similar to ISO 8859-1 but replaces some less common symbols with the euro sign and some other missing characters The Japanese language The Japanese language The Korean language

ISO-2022-JP ISO-2022-JP-2 ISO-2022-KR

Latin/Japanese part 1 Latin/Japanese part 2 Latin/Korean part 1

The Unicode Standard
Because the character-sets listed above are limited in size, and are not compatible in multilingual environments, the Unicode Consortium developed the Unicode Standard. The Unicode Standard covers all the characters, punctuations, and symbols in the world. Unicode enables processing, storage and interchange of text data no matter what the platform, no matter what the program, no matter what the language.

The Unicode Consortium
The Unicode Consortium develops the Unicode Standard. Their goal is to replace the existing character-sets with its standard Unicode Transformation Format (UTF). The Unicode Standard has become a success and is implemented in XML, Java, ECMAScript (JavaScript), LDAP, CORBA 3.0, WML, etc. The Unicode standard is also supported in many operating systems and all modern browsers. The Unicode Consortium cooperates with the leading standards development organizations, like ISO, W3C, and ECMA. Unicode can be implemented by different character-sets. The most commonly used encodings are UTF-8 and UTF-16: Character-set UTF-8 Description A character in UTF8 can be from 1 to 4 bytes long. UTF-8 can represent any character in the Unicode standard. UTF-8 is backwards compatible with ASCII. UTF-8 is the preferred encoding for e-mail and web pages 16-bit Unicode Transformation Format is a variable-length character encoding for Unicode, capable of encoding the entire Unicode repertoire. UTF-16 is used in major operating systems and environments, like Microsoft Windows 2000/XP/2003/Vista/CE and the Java and .NET byte code environments

UTF-16

Tip: The first 256 characters of Unicode character-sets correspond to the 256 characters of ISO-8859-1. Tip: All HTML 4 processors already support UTF-8, and all XHTML and XML processors support UTF-8 and UTF-16!

HTML ASCII Reference

The ASCII character-set is used to send information between computers on the Internet.

The ASCII Character Set
ASCII stands for the "American Standard Code for Information Interchange". It was designed in the early 60's, as a standard character-set for computers and hardware devices like teleprinters and tapedrives. ASCII is a 7-bit character set containing 128 characters. It contains the numbers from 0-9, the uppercase and lowercase English letters from A to Z, and some special characters. The character-sets used in modern computers, HTML, and Internet are all based on ASCII. The following table lists the 128 ASCII characters and their equivalent HTML entity codes.

ASCII Printable Characters
ASCII Character ! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I HTML Entity Code &#32; &#33; &#34; &#35; &#36; &#37; &#38; &#39; &#40; &#41; &#42; &#43; &#44; &#45; &#46; &#47; &#48; &#49; &#50; &#51; &#52; &#53; &#54; &#55; &#56; &#57; &#58; &#59; &#60; &#61; &#62; &#63; &#64; &#65; &#66; &#67; &#68; &#69; &#70; &#71; &#72; &#73; Description space exclamation mark quotation mark number sign dollar sign percent sign ampersand apostrophe left parenthesis right parenthesis asterisk plus sign comma hyphen period slash digit 0 digit 1 digit 2 digit 3 digit 4 digit 5 digit 6 digit 7 digit 8 digit 9 colon semicolon less-than equals-to greater-than question mark at sign uppercase A uppercase B uppercase C uppercase D uppercase E uppercase F uppercase G uppercase H uppercase I

J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z { | } ~

&#74; &#75; &#76; &#77; &#78; &#79; &#80; &#81; &#82; &#83; &#84; &#85; &#86; &#87; &#88; &#89; &#90; &#91; &#92; &#93; &#94; &#95; &#96; &#97; &#98; &#99; &#100; &#101; &#102; &#103; &#104; &#105; &#106; &#107; &#108; &#109; &#110; &#111; &#112; &#113; &#114; &#115; &#116; &#117; &#118; &#119; &#120; &#121; &#122; &#123; &#124; &#125; &#126;

uppercase J uppercase K uppercase L uppercase M uppercase N uppercase O uppercase P uppercase Q uppercase R uppercase S uppercase T uppercase U uppercase V uppercase W uppercase X uppercase Y uppercase Z left square bracket backslash right square bracket caret underscore grave accent lowercase a lowercase b lowercase c lowercase d lowercase e lowercase f lowercase g lowercase h lowercase i lowercase j lowercase k lowercase l lowercase m lowercase n lowercase o lowercase p lowercase q lowercase r lowercase s lowercase t lowercase u lowercase v lowercase w lowercase x lowercase y lowercase z left curly brace vertical bar right curly brace tilde

ASCII Device Control Characters
The ASCII device control characters were originally designed to control hardware devices. Control characters have nothing to do inside an HTML document. ASCII Character NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US DEL HTML Entity Code &#00; &#01; &#02; &#03; &#04; &#05; &#06; &#07; &#08; &#09; &#10; &#11; &#12; &#13; &#14; &#15; &#16; &#17; &#18; &#19; &#20; &#21; &#22; &#23; &#24; &#25; &#26; &#27; &#28; &#29; &#30; &#31; &#127; Description null character start of header start of text end of text end of transmission enquiry acknowledge bell (ring) backspace horizontal tab line feed vertical tab form feed carriage return shift out shift in data link escape device control 1 device control 2 device control 3 device control 4 negative acknowledge synchronize end transmission block cancel end of medium substitute escape file separator group separator record separator unit separator delete (rubout)

HTML ISO-8859-1 Reference
Modern browsers supports several character-sets:

• • •

ASCII character set Standard ISO character sets Mathematical symbols, Greek letters, and other symbols

ISO-8859-1
ISO-8859-1 is the default character set in most browsers. The first 128 characters of ISO-8859-1 is the original ASCII character-set (the numbers from 0-9, the uppercase and lowercase English alphabet, and some special characters).

The higher part of ISO-8859-1 (codes from 160-255) contains the characters used in Western European countries and some commonly used special characters. Entities are used to implement reserved characters or to express characters that cannot easily be entered with the keyboard.

Reserved Characters in HTML
Some characters are reserved in HTML and XHTML. For example, you cannot use the greater than or less than signs within your text because the browser could mistake them for markup. HTML and XHTML processors must support the five special characters listed in the table below: Character " ' & < > Entity Number &#34; &#39; &#38; &#60; &#62; Entity Name &quot; &apos; (does not work in IE) &amp; &lt; &gt; Description quotation mark apostrophe ampersand less-than greater-than

Note: Entity names are case sensitive!

ISO 8859-1 Symbols
Character ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ © ª « ¬ ® ¯ ° ± ² ³ ´ µ ¶ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ × ÷ Entity Number &#160; &#161; &#162; &#163; &#164; &#165; &#166; &#167; &#168; &#169; &#170; &#171; &#172; &#173; &#174; &#175; &#176; &#177; &#178; &#179; &#180; &#181; &#182; &#183; &#184; &#185; &#186; &#187; &#188; &#189; &#190; &#191; &#215; &#247; Entity Name &nbsp; &iexcl; &cent; &pound; &curren; &yen; &brvbar; &sect; &uml; &copy; &ordf; &laquo; &not; &shy; &reg; &macr; &deg; &plusmn; &sup2; &sup3; &acute; &micro; &para; &middot; &cedil; &sup1; &ordm; &raquo; &frac14; &frac12; &frac34; &iquest; &times; &divide; Description non-breaking space inverted exclamation mark cent pound currency yen broken vertical bar section spacing diaeresis copyright feminine ordinal indicator angle quotation mark (left) negation soft hyphen registered trademark spacing macron degree plus-or-minus superscript 2 superscript 3 spacing acute micro paragraph middle dot spacing cedilla superscript 1 masculine ordinal indicator angle quotation mark (right) fraction 1/4 fraction 1/2 fraction 3/4 inverted question mark multiplication division

ISO 8859-1 Characters

Character

Entity Number

Entity Name

Description

À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð Ñ Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à á â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ

&#192; &#193; &#194; &#195; &#196; &#197; &#198; &#199; &#200; &#201; &#202; &#203; &#204; &#205; &#206; &#207; &#208; &#209; &#210; &#211; &#212; &#213; &#214; &#216; &#217; &#218; &#219; &#220; &#221; &#222; &#223; &#224; &#225; &#226; &#227; &#228; &#229; &#230; &#231; &#232; &#233; &#234; &#235; &#236; &#237; &#238; &#239; &#240; &#241; &#242; &#243; &#244; &#245;

&Agrave; &Aacute; &Acirc; &Atilde; &Auml; &Aring; &AElig; &Ccedil; &Egrave; &Eacute; &Ecirc; &Euml; &Igrave; &Iacute; &Icirc; &Iuml; &ETH; &Ntilde; &Ograve; &Oacute; &Ocirc; &Otilde; &Ouml; &Oslash; &Ugrave; &Uacute; &Ucirc; &Uuml; &Yacute; &THORN; &szlig; &agrave; &aacute; &acirc; &atilde; &auml; &aring; &aelig; &ccedil; &egrave; &eacute; &ecirc; &euml; &igrave; &iacute; &icirc; &iuml; &eth; &ntilde; &ograve; &oacute; &ocirc; &otilde;

capital a, grave accent capital a, acute accent capital a, circumflex accent capital a, tilde capital a, umlaut mark capital a, ring capital ae capital c, cedilla capital e, grave accent capital e, acute accent capital e, circumflex accent capital e, umlaut mark capital i, grave accent capital i, acute accent capital i, circumflex accent capital i, umlaut mark capital eth, Icelandic capital n, tilde capital o, grave accent capital o, acute accent capital o, circumflex accent capital o, tilde capital o, umlaut mark capital o, slash capital u, grave accent capital u, acute accent capital u, circumflex accent capital u, umlaut mark capital y, acute accent capital THORN, Icelandic small sharp s, German small a, grave accent small a, acute accent small a, circumflex accent small a, tilde small a, umlaut mark small a, ring small ae small c, cedilla small e, grave accent small e, acute accent small e, circumflex accent small e, umlaut mark small i, grave accent small i, acute accent small i, circumflex accent small i, umlaut mark small eth, Icelandic small n, tilde small o, grave accent small o, acute accent small o, circumflex accent small o, tilde

ö ø ù ú û ü ý þ ÿ

&#246; &#248; &#249; &#250; &#251; &#252; &#253; &#254; &#255;

&ouml; &oslash; &ugrave; &uacute; &ucirc; &uuml; &yacute; &thorn; &yuml;

small o, umlaut mark small o, slash small u, grave accent small u, acute accent small u, circumflex accent small u, umlaut mark small y, acute accent small thorn, Icelandic small y, umlaut mark

HTML Symbol Entities Reference
HTML Symbol Entities
This entity reference includes mathematical symbols, Greek characters, various arrows, technical symbols and shapes. Note: Entity names are case sensitive.

Math Symbols Supported by HTML
Character ∀ ∂ ∃ ∅ ∇ ∈ ∉ ∋ ∏ ∑ − ∗ √ ∝ ∞ ∠ ∧ ∨ ∩ ∪ ∫ ∴ ∼ ≅ ≈ ≠ ≡ ≤ ≥ ⊂ ⊃ ⊄ ⊆ ⊇ Entity Number &#8704; &#8706; &#8707; &#8709; &#8711; &#8712; &#8713; &#8715; &#8719; &#8721; &#8722; &#8727; &#8730; &#8733; &#8734; &#8736; &#8743; &#8744; &#8745; &#8746; &#8747; &#8756; &#8764; &#8773; &#8776; &#8800; &#8801; &#8804; &#8805; &#8834; &#8835; &#8836; &#8838; &#8839; Entity Name &forall; &part; &exists; &empty; &nabla; &isin; &notin; &ni; &prod; &sum; &minus; &lowast; &radic; &prop; &infin; &ang; &and; &or; &cap; &cup; &int; &there4; &sim; &cong; &asymp; &ne; &equiv; &le; &ge; &sub; &sup; &nsub; &sube; &supe; Description for all part exists empty nabla isin notin ni prod sum minus lowast square root proportional to infinity angle and or cap cup integral therefore simular to approximately equal almost equal not equal equivalent less or equal greater or equal subset of superset of not subset of subset or equal superset or equal

⊕ ⊗ ⊥ ⋅

&#8853; &#8855; &#8869; &#8901;

&oplus; &otimes; &perp; &sdot;

circled plus cirled times perpendicular dot operator

Greek Letters Supported by HTML
Character Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο π ρ ς σ Entity Number &#913; &#914; &#915; &#916; &#917; &#918; &#919; &#920; &#921; &#922; &#923; &#924; &#925; &#926; &#927; &#928; &#929; undefined &#931; &#932; &#933; &#934; &#935; &#936; &#937; &#945; &#946; &#947; &#948; &#949; &#950; &#951; &#952; &#953; &#954; &#955; &#956; &#957; &#958; &#959; &#960; &#961; &#962; &#963; &Sigma; &Tau; &Upsilon; &Phi; &Chi; &Psi; &Omega; &alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta; &eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu; &xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho; &sigmaf; &sigma; Entity Name &Alpha; &Beta; &Gamma; &Delta; &Epsilon; &Zeta; &Eta; &Theta; &Iota; &Kappa; &Lambda; &Mu; &Nu; &Xi; &Omicron; &Pi; &Rho; Description Alpha Beta Gamma Delta Epsilon Zeta Eta Theta Iota Kappa Lambda Mu Nu Xi Omicron Pi Rho Sigmaf Sigma Tau Upsilon Phi Chi Psi Omega alpha beta gamma delta epsilon zeta eta theta iota kappa lambda mu nu xi omicron pi rho sigmaf sigma

τ υ φ χ ψ ω ϑ ϒ ϖ

&#964; &#965; &#966; &#967; &#968; &#969; &#977; &#978; &#982;

&tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega; &thetasym; &upsih; &piv;

tau upsilon phi chi psi omega theta symbol upsilon symbol pi symbol

Other Entities Supported by HTML
Character Œ œ Š š Ÿ ƒ ˆ ˜       ‌ ‍ Entity Number &#338; &#339; &#352; &#353; &#376; &#402; &#710; &#732; &#8194; &#8195; &#8201; &#8204; &#8205; &#8206; &#8207; – — ‘ ’ ‚ “ ” „ † ‡ • … ‰ ′ ″ ‹ › ‾ € ™ ← ↑ → ↓ &#8211; &#8212; &#8216; &#8217; &#8218; &#8220; &#8221; &#8222; &#8224; &#8225; &#8226; &#8230; &#8240; &#8242; &#8243; &#8249; &#8250; &#8254; &#8364; &#8482; &#8592; &#8593; &#8594; &#8595; Entity Name &OElig; &oelig; &Scaron; &scaron; &Yuml; &fnof; &circ; &tilde; &ensp; &emsp; &thinsp; &zwnj; &zwj; &lrm; &rlm; &ndash; &mdash; &lsquo; &rsquo; &sbquo; &ldquo; &rdquo; &bdquo; &dagger; &Dagger; &bull; &hellip; &permil; &prime; &Prime; &lsaquo; &rsaquo; &oline; &euro; &trade; &larr; &uarr; &rarr; &darr; Description capital ligature OE small ligature oe capital S with caron small S with caron capital Y with diaeres f with hook modifier letter circumflex accent small tilde en space em space thin space zero width non-joiner zero width joiner left-to-right mark right-to-left mark en dash em dash left single quotation mark right single quotation mark single low-9 quotation mark left double quotation mark right double quotation mark double low-9 quotation mark dagger double dagger bullet horizontal ellipsis per mille minutes seconds single left angle quotation single right angle quotation overline euro trademark left arrow up arrow right arrow down arrow

↔ ↵ ⌈ ⌉ ⌊ ⌋ ◊ ♠ ♣ ♥ ♦

&#8596; &#8629; &#8968; &#8969; &#8970; &#8971; &#9674; &#9824; &#9827; &#9829; &#9830;

&harr; &crarr; &lceil; &rceil; &lfloor; &rfloor; &loz; &spades; &clubs; &hearts; &diams;

left right arrow carriage return arrow left ceiling right ceiling left floor right floor lozenge spade club heart diamond

HTML URL Encoding Reference
URL encoding converts characters into a format that can be safely transmitted over the Internet.

URL - Universal Resource Locator
Web browsers request pages from web servers by using a URL. The URL is the address of a web page like: http://www.w3schools.com.

URL Encoding
URLs can only be sent over the Internet using the ASCII character-set. Since URLs often contains characters outside the ASCII set, the URL has to be converted. URL encoding converts the URL into a valid ASCII format. URL encoding replaces unsafe ASCII characters with "%" followed by two hexadecimal digits corresponding to the character values in the ISO-8859-1 character-set. URLs cannot contain spaces. URL encoding normally replaces a space with a + sign.

URL Encoding Functions
In JavaScript, PHP, and ASP there are functions that can be used to URL encode a string. In JavaScript you can use the encodeURI() function. PHP has the rawurlencode() function and ASP has the Server.URLEncode() function. Click the "URL Encode" button to see how the JavaScript function encodes the text. Note: The JavaScript function encodes space as %20.

URL Encoding Reference
ASCII Character space ! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , . / 0 1 URL-encoding %20 %21 %22 %23 %24 %25 %26 %27 %28 %29 %2A %2B %2C %2D %2E %2F %30 %31

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a b c d e f

%32 %33 %34 %35 %36 %37 %38 %39 %3A %3B %3C %3D %3E %3F %40 %41 %42 %43 %44 %45 %46 %47 %48 %49 %4A %4B %4C %4D %4E %4F %50 %51 %52 %53 %54 %55 %56 %57 %58 %59 %5A %5B %5C %5D %5E %5F %60 %61 %62 %63 %64 %65 %66

g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z { | } ~ € ‚ ƒ „ … † ‡ ˆ ‰ Š ‹ Œ Ž

%67 %68 %69 %6A %6B %6C %6D %6E %6F %70 %71 %72 %73 %74 %75 %76 %77 %78 %79 %7A %7B %7C %7D %7E %7F %80 %81 %82 %83 %84 %85 %86 %87 %88 %89 %8A %8B %8C %8D %8E %8F %90

‘ ’ “ ” • – — ˜ ™ š ›

%91 %92 %93 %94 %95 %96 %97 %98 %99 %9A %9B

œ ž Ÿ ¡ ¢ £ ¥ | § ¨ © ª « ¬ ¯ ® ¯ ° ± ² ³ ´ µ ¶ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð

%9C %9D %9E %9F %A0 %A1 %A2 %A3 %A4 %A5 %A6 %A7 %A8 %A9 %AA %AB %AC %AD %AE %AF %B0 %B1 %B2 %B3 %B4 %B5 %B6 %B7 %B8 %B9 %BA %BB %BC %BD %BE %BF %C0 %C1 %C2 %C3 %C4 %C5 %C6 %C7 %C8 %C9 %CA %CB %CC %CD %CE %CF %D0

Ñ Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à á â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú û ü ý þ ÿ

%D1 %D2 %D3 %D4 %D5 %D6 %D7 %D8 %D9 %DA %DB %DC %DD %DE %DF %E0 %E1 %E2 %E3 %E4 %E5 %E6 %E7 %E8 %E9 %EA %EB %EC %ED %EE %EF %F0 %F1 %F2 %F3 %F4 %F5 %F6 %F7 %F8 %F9 %FA %FB %FC %FD %FE %FF

URL Encoding Reference
The ASCII device control characters %00-%1f were originally designed to control hardware devices. Control characters have nothing to do inside a URL. ASCII Character Description URL-encoding

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US

null character start of header start of text end of text end of transmission enquiry acknowledge bell (ring) backspace horizontal tab line feed vertical tab form feed carriage return shift out shift in data link escape device control 1 device control 2 device control 3 device control 4 negative acknowledge synchronize end transmission block cancel end of medium substitute escape file separator group separator record separator unit separator

%00 %01 %02 %03 %04 %05 %06 %07 %08 %09 %0A %0B %0C %0D %0E %0F %10 %11 %12 %13 %14 %15 %16 %17 %18 %19 %1A %1B %1C %1D %1E %1F

HTML Language Code Reference
ISO Language Codes
The HTML lang attribute can be used to declare the language of a Web page or a portion of a Web page. This is meant to assist search engines and browsers. According to the W3C recommendation you should declare the primary language for each Web page with the lang attribute inside the <html> tag, like this:

<html lang="en"> ... </html>
In XHTML, the language is declared inside the <html> tag as follows:

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en" xml:lang="en"> ... </html>

ISO 639-1 Language Codes
ISO 639-1 defines abbreviations for languages. In HTML and XHTML they can be used in the lang and xml:lang attributes. Language ISO Code

Abkhazian Afar Afrikaans Albanian Amharic Arabic Armenian Assamese Aymara Azerbaijani Bashkir Basque Bengali (Bangla) Bhutani Bihari Bislama Breton Bulgarian Burmese Byelorussian (Belarusian) Cambodian Catalan Cherokee Chewa Chinese (Simplified) Chinese (Traditional) Corsican Croatian Czech Danish Divehi Dutch Edo English Esperanto Estonian Faeroese Farsi Fiji Finnish Flemish French Frisian Fulfulde Galician Gaelic (Scottish) Gaelic (Manx) Georgian German Greek Greenlandic Guarani Gujarati

ab aa af sq am ar hy as ay az ba eu bn dz bh bi br bg my be km ca

zh zh co hr cs da nl en eo et fo fa fj fi fr fy gl gd gv ka de el kl gn gu

Hausa Hawaiian Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Ibibio Icelandic Igbo Indonesian Interlingua Interlingue Inuktitut Inupiak Irish Italian Japanese Javanese Kannada Kanuri Kashmiri Kazakh Kinyarwanda (Ruanda) Kirghiz Kirundi (Rundi) Konkani Korean Kurdish Laothian Latin Latvian (Lettish) Limburgish ( Limburger) Lingala Lithuanian Macedonian Malagasy Malay Malayalam Maltese Maori Marathi Moldavian Mongolian Nauru Nepali Norwegian Occitan Oriya Oromo (Afan, Galla) Papiamentu Pashto (Pushto) Polish Portuguese

ha he, iw hi hu is id, in ia ie iu ik ga it ja jv kn ks kk rw ky rn ko ku lo la lv li ln lt mk mg ms ml mt mi mr mo mn na ne no oc or om ps pl pt

Punjabi Quechua Rhaeto-Romance Romanian Russian Sami (Lappish) Samoan Sangro Sanskrit Serbian Serbo-Croatian Sesotho Setswana Shona Sindhi Sinhalese Siswati Slovak Slovenian Somali Spanish Sundanese Swahili (Kiswahili) Swedish Syriac Tagalog Tajik Tamazight Tamil Tatar Telugu Thai Tibetan Tigrinya Tonga Tsonga Turkish Turkmen Twi Uighur Ukrainian Urdu Uzbek Venda Vietnamese Volapük Welsh Wolof Xhosa Yi Yiddish Yoruba Zulu

pa qu rm ro ru sm sg sa sr sh st tn sn sd si ss sk sl so es su sw sv tl tg ta tt te th bo ti to ts tr tk tw ug uk ur uz vi vo cy wo xh yi, ji yo zu

HTTP Status Messages
When a browser requests a service from a web server, an error might occur. This is a list of HTTP status messages that might be returned: 1xx: Information Message: 100 Continue 101 Switching Protocols 2xx: Successful Message: 200 OK 201 Created 202 Accepted 203 Non-authoritative Information 204 No Content 205 Reset Content 206 Partial Content 3xx: Redirection Message: 300 Multiple Choices 301 Moved Permanently 302 Found 303 See Other 304 Not Modified 305 Use Proxy 306 Unused 307 Temporary Redirect 4xx: Client Error Message: 400 Bad Request 401 Unauthorized 402 Payment Required 403 Forbidden 404 Not Found 405 Method Not Allowed 406 Not Acceptable 407 Proxy Authentication Required 408 Request Timeout 409 Conflict 410 Gone 411 Length Required 412 Precondition Failed 413 Request Entity Too Large Description: The server did not understand the request The requested page needs a username and a password You can not use this code yet Access is forbidden to the requested page The server can not find the requested page The method specified in the request is not allowed The server can only generate a response that is not accepted by the client You must authenticate with a proxy server before this request can be served The request took longer than the server was prepared to wait The request could not be completed because of a conflict The requested page is no longer available The "Content-Length" is not defined. The server will not accept the request without it The precondition given in the request evaluated to false by the server The server will not accept the request, because the request entity is too large This code was used in a previous version. It is no longer used, but the code is reserved The requested page has moved temporarily to a new url Description: A link list. The user can select a link and go to that location. Maximum five addresses The requested page has moved to a new url The requested page has moved temporarily to a new url The requested page can be found under a different url Description: The request is OK The request is complete, and a new resource is created The request is accepted for processing, but the processing is not complete Description: Only a part of the request has been received by the server, but as long as it has not been rejected, the client should continue with the request The server switches protocol

414 Request-url Too Long

The server will not accept the request, because the url is too long. Occurs when you convert a "post" request to a "get" request with a long query information The server will not accept the request, because the media type is not supported

415 Unsupported Media Type 416 417 Expectation Failed 5xx: Server Error Message: 500 Internal Server Error 501 Not Implemented 502 Bad Gateway 503 Service Unavailable 504 Gateway Timeout 505 HTTP Version Not Supported

Description: The request was not completed. The server met an unexpected condition The request was not completed. The server did not support the functionality required The request was not completed. The server received an invalid response from the upstream server The request was not completed. The server is temporarily overloading or down The gateway has timed out The server does not support the "http protocol" version