UNIT I: TEXT 1: Software and Hardware PART I A computer system consists of hardware and software components.

Hardware is the physical equipment such as the case, floppy disk drives, keyboards, monitors, cables, speakers, and printers. The term software describes the programs that are used to operate the computer system. Computer software, also called programs, instructs the computer on how to operate. These operations may include identifying, accessing, and processing information. Essentially, a program is a sequence of instructions that describe how data will be processed. Programs vary widely depending on the type of information that will be accessed or generated. For example, instructions for balancing a check book are very different from instructions for simulating a virtual reality world on the Internet. The two types of software are operating systems and applications. PART II Application software accepts input from the user and then manipulates it to achieve a result. This result is the output. Applications are programs designed to perform a specific function for the user or for another application program. Examples of applications include word processors, database programs, spreadsheets, Web browsers, Web development tools, and graphic design tools. Computer applications are detailed later in this module. An operating system (OS) is a program that manages all the other programs in a computer. It also provides the operating environment for applications that are used to access resources on the computer. Operating systems perform basic tasks like recognizing input from the keyboard or mouse, sending output to the video screen or printer, keeping track of files on the drives, and controlling peripherals such as printers and modems. The Disk Operating System (DOS), Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows NT, Linux, Mac OS X, DEC VMS, and IBM OS/400 are all examples of operating systems. Operating systems work for specific types of computers. For example, the Windows operating system is designed for an IBM-compatible personal computer (PC). The Mac OS only works with Macintosh computers. PC and Macintosh are called platforms. A platform is the computer system on which different programs can be used. Questions: • • • What is an OS? Use your own words. What do OS’s do? What is a platform? Give more examples

UNIT 1 - TEXT I: SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE. ACTIVITY I ANSWER TRUE (T) OR (FALSE) ABOUT THE TEXT. 1. ______ Software is the set of programs which operates the computer system. 2. ______ A program identifies information and identifies hardware components too 3. ______ Programs are always similar when data are processed. 4. ______ An application software manipulates input from the user to get a result 5. ______ OS (operating system) manages all the basic programs in a computer ACTIVITY II COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES 1.- A computer system consists of ____________ and ____________ components. 2.- Computer software, also called _______________, instructs the computer on how to _____________. 3.- A program is a __________________________ that describe how data will be _______________. 4.- The two types of software are ______________________ and _________________ . 5.A __________________ is the computer system on which different _________________ can be used.

ACTIVITY II: Match the items on the right with the items on the left. 1. Components of a computer 2. Physical equipment 3. A program 4. Spreadsheet and word processors. 5. Computer software. 6. Applications. 7. Windows NT, Linux, Mac OS X, 8. Input is to keyboard 9. Operating systems and applications 10. PC and Macintosh ___ Programs to do specific functions. ___Synonym for computer software. ___ A keyboard, a mouse. ___Hardware and software. ___ They are platforms. ___Types of software. ___Examples of applications ___ it tells the computer how to operate. ___Operating systems. ___as output is to screen.