This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
A Roundtable with Sunil Agnani, Fernando Coronil, Gaurav Desai, Mamadou Diouf, Simon Gikandi, Susie Tharu, and Jennifer Wenzel Author(s): Sunil Agnani, Fernando Coronil, Gaurav Desai, Mamadou Diouf, Simon Gikandi, Jennifer Wenzel, Patricia Yaeger and Susie Tharu Source: PMLA, Vol. 122, No. 3 (May, 2007), pp. 633-651 Published by: Modern Language Association Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25501734 . Accessed: 12/04/2013 09:51
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp
JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact email@example.com.
Modern Language Association is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to PMLA.
This content downloaded from 126.96.36.199 on Fri, 12 Apr 2013 09:51:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
Editor's Column: The End of Postcolonial Theory? A Roundtable with Sunil Agnani, Fernando Coronil, Gaurav Desai, Mamadou Diouf, Simon Wenzel Gikandi, Susie Tharu, and Jennifer
THESTATUS IS OF POSTCOLONIAL STUDIESIN THEGEO WHAT
political present? In November 2006, Sidonie Smith and Wenzel organized a panel discussion at the Uni Jennifer versity ofMichigan to tackle this question and to honor Susie Tharu, an early member of the Subaltern Studies Group. Because sparks flew, because a controversial conversation emerged, I solicited posi tion papers from the panelists?Sunil Agnani, Fernando Coronil,
Gaurav Desai, Mamadou Diouf, Tharu, and Wenzel?and also from Simon Gikandi, asking them to investigate a range of topics, in as a paradigm; cluding the potential exhaustion of postcolonialism the importance of international, interdisciplinary conversations in and the considering histories of colonization and decolonization; absence of new paradigms for tackling fresh and continuing imperi alisms. As postcolonial studies seizes its status as a field, can it adapt its methods to the crises of failed states and new sovereignties? What are the field's contemporary achievements and challenges?
Wenzel Jennifer Postcolonial studies today: what is the relation between the state of the field and the state ofthe world? If,as Arif Dirlik quips, the "'post colonial' begin[s] ... when Third World intellectuals have arrived in FirstWorld academe," then perhaps it ends when every department
has hired a postcolonialist (52). In the past two decades, postcolonial studies has been consolidated as a subfield of English studies in the United States, with new hiring in positions variously defined as post
colonial, Biographical notes about the contribu world, anglophone, or non-Western literatures. This curric
tors appear on pages 650-51.
ular shift is, I think, irreversible, linked to broader challenges to the canon by women writers and United States writers of color. "British
? 2007 BY THE MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA 633
This content downloaded from 188.8.131.52 on Fri, 12 Apr 2013 09:51:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
"Coming to us from the dis demand frame on the apologia for terrorism. Barbara Christian once observed that at the literary theory decenters the subject very moment that subjectivity is claimed by women and people of color. we too optimis studies seems too simple?and tic?in the light of the infamous dismissal that. Rather. the politics of identity." Area Kurtz ism. declares.108. What's more startling than imperialism could not be more urgent. and changed inways makers in the dark about theMiddle East icy and Islam. the world has changed. between the end of the cold war and 9/11. Northern Ireland. After 9/11. He portrayed postcolonial studies as promoting an "extremist. racist logic of fighting tomaintain power over here. and elite migrancy?celebrations must be said. in his foreword to a new translation of Frantz Fanon's The Wretched of tances ofmidcentury decolonization.59 on Fri. and of the "reality-based community" by an un named Bush administration official in 2004: "We re an empire now.And while you're study ing that reality?judiciously. or beyond.107. colo nialism: European high imperialism's most resolution. In his testimony to an educa tion committee ofthe United States House Representatives. This empire is a post poststructuralist. it ends just when the informed critiques of for historically This content downloaded from 192. can the institutional consolidation derstood of postcolonial studies be un as a kind of peace dividend? The of negotiated settlements in South the bald assertion of United States empire as a fait accompli is the way in which it is in formed (however perversely) by Said's critique of orientalist knowledge production and its construction of reality. more is at stake than the ebb and flow of academic fashion. re "a decade-long debate on social equity tain despair in this regard: our critiques have proved inadequate to obstruct or reroute the over there imperialist." "anti-American" theory. in Suskind 51). facing criticism from right and left. and when we act.Does that bear directly on the concerns of the field. But this idea of a failure of postcolonial the post-9/11 return to an expan a Manichaean sionist. flows. often took Bhabha's work as a it point of departure. 12 Apr 2013 09:51:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . theorized by boosters like Empire?as theEarth. cultural ing that has focused perhaps too exclusively on the culture wars. wrested knowledge from United States pol the service of power and left Niall Ferguson rather than by critics like been embraced in recent Edward Said?has years by those who shape United States pol icy. other hand. But will "postcolonialism" endure as a frame work for interpreting this body ofwriting? Occurring. Kurtz blamed 9/11 on "Edward colonial the neoconservative Stanley Said's post studies after Oriental of intractable conflicts seemed on the verge of in postcolonial studies. foreign policy imply failure of postcolonial studies? I do feel a cer the politics of recognition" (xviii). If there is now a sense of exhaustion consolidation. postcolonial studies was caught politically flat-footed. and Israel-Palestine in the early 1990s lent some credence to the possibility of thinking after. at the height of its institutional prospect Africa. lamented. the demand that tired trends make way for the next big thing (ecocriticism? human rights?). even as globalization and its emer gent critiques raised troubling new (or not so new) questions about structural inequality and exploitation. This redis covery of the wretched of the earth seems to add Bhabha's voice to long-standing radical studies' depoliticiz of critiques postcolonial of celebrations hybrid identities. If the era of post colonial need create our own reality. thatwe have been distracted by the wrong politics. creating other new realities" (qtd. as itdid. Homi Bhabha.634 Editor's Column PMLA and American literature" will no longer suf fice to describe what English departments do. Fanon's for a fair redistribution of rights and resources" can. as you will?we'll act again. Bhabha argued in 2004. studies is over. postpostcolonial empire that is able to name the effects of its own naming.
Or. at losophy. The question that needs to be addressed is themeaning and function of the postcolonial a nonpejorative theory is. whose work has become ensconced as another authorized version of literary and cultural analysis? Ifpostcolonial theory has ended. It is a universally acknowledged into the institution of interpretation and. to recognize the place it has institutionally come to occupy. colonial institutions of interpretation and knowledge But here too I have my doubts. "We under subject in the narrative of European identity has anything to do with "other" geographies and their cultural traditions." Heidegger noted. Second. such as texts. In itsbe was haunted by the ginnings. of continuation." inwhich the German phi losopher. the end of art?have least in the Western tradition. raised the issue ofwhat it talk about the end of philosophy. in order for postcolonial theory tomake sense to other linguistic and literary traditions. R. Leavis in the age of decolonization. Most theoretical project. like all narratives of ofthe distinction between the task of reading texts that emerge in the crisis of postimpe narratives rial Europe and the task of accounting for the of decolonization in the nation states that emerged after decolonization. To be fair. it legacy ofthe men" who invented "great English literature. Our challenge here is to figure out what meant to and time. Their primary works are marked by a bifurcation of systems of knowledge production and systems of reading. mological theory and the condition of post the assumption that a theory de coloniality. an evacuation from the same edifice. it has to be transformed or disfigured. on one hand. This kind of talk famous reminds me ofMartin Heidegger's 1969 essay "The End of Philosophy and the Task of Thinking. reflecting on the question of being briefly on a few of those mistakes. a symptom of its decline and impotence? Or is this end the completion of a not claim to be other. the end of phi endings?the English. for post theory.107.59 on Fri. there is an apparent error in the infrastructure that has been developed for the reading of postcolonial cultural products.122. triggers an ambivalent response: it seems to designate. First. I want to comment and misunderstandings. Stories of end of history.108. on the other hand.3 Editor's Column 635 Simon Gikandi Lately there has been a lot of talk about the end of postcolonial theory. stand the end of something too easily in the as the lack negative sense as a mere stopping. there iswhat I will call an episte the confusion of error?namely. say about the end of philosophy the completion ofmetaphysics" (56). And that is not a bad thing. to account for the place ofthe "other" veloped postcolonial is based on a series of errors production.post critics themselves have rarely made this error. 12 Apr 2013 09:51:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . divided colonial between the narrative of the other in the Eu ropean narrative and the people who live in can the other places?the global South?who of us are aware what we means means. as authorized moments of closure and sublation. an arrival functioned. explanation: postcolonial theory emerged as a reaction against the institutionalization of English as the discipline of empire. postcolonial the presumed end or death of theory. as it now circulates in the fromWalter Raleigh in the first two decades ofthe twentieth century to F. Taken out of this local This content downloaded from 192. "In contrast. But there is a simpler fact that postcolonial theory doesn't make sense to literary and cultural scholars outside thing that has reached its end. mere this talk about the end of postcolonial theory Is the end of postcolonial theory a stopping. of course. what exactly ended. perhaps even as decline and impotence. to put it inmore modest terms. The An glocentrism of postcolonial theory has often been explained in terms ofthe imperial im perative that underwrites English as a disci pline or field of study. To talk about the end of any endings. in sense. and what was its task? For me.
despite these errors. This content downloaded from 192. it produced a lucid critique the that exposed ofWestern metaphysics and scandal of Eurocentric categories impe rial metanarratives. these critical studies turned culture. 1. as itwere. While frameworks as globalization a reflection on post theory and literature and as an epistemological project. this discussion of postcolo nial studies springs from a growing concern with the ever more clearly inadequate con nection between "the state ofthe field and the state ofthe world" such modernist (Wenzel. a criti cal lens through which to view the complic itybetween knowledge and power inmultiple domains. which must now be recognized as its horizon and expectations. No longer privileg studies became talism (1978). My exploration takes the form of three reflections that seek to illuminate a path connecting knowledge and theworld.Why? the world light postcolonial theory. neither partner of this coupling seems particularly relevant to the other. Second. the field of postcolonial studies. as fundamental became at once The post. and many abound. Fernando Coronil gurates thinking about the theory's history. and sexual orientation. In a strict sense. R. above). After book Orien path-breaking Edward that created these texts. for all its achievement Here and promise. just an with postcolonial theory point to its failure to account for the foundational literary texts of the colonial experience and the epistemology of decolonization or to engage with literatures produced failure of postcolonial to be the most in indigenous languages. his later novel Anthills of I explore this question from my as a Latin American working in the position United States in anthropology and history de partments. ing political economy. a postcolonial to an imperative for a critical project of the future: a rethinking of the relation between and imperialism. postcolonial theory becomes other branch of poststructuralism. simply failed towork once it landed on earth? In my view. throws limited on we now face. Just ar has studies field of when the postcolonial more rived and theworld has become openly sites of subjugation. in their intersections with A heavenly match is getting undone.107. Has something gone awry. ethnicity. Let coloniality me elaborate. postcolonial an indispensable reference for at least two historical accounting thatmay not rectify the errors I have recounted but will show why they emerged in the first place. there is the problem of literaryhis tory. Why? This question demands a pow erful accounting postcoloniality temological moment ofmeaning of the politics of time and and a recognition of the epis (1988) opens itself to all sorts of postcolonial readings. despite their limitations. As Marx observed in relation to the theory of labor. class.108. a category can become valid only when the conditions that created ithave unfolded historically. race. Narayan and Mulk Raj Anand resist the Savannah reading of Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart (1958) is impossible. it stimulated a plethora of studies that examined neglected dimensions of imperial domination and sub altern subject formation. past and present.of postcolonialism a temporal and an epistemic marker. I celebrate the end of postcolonial theory because it inau reasons. broadly understood as forms of representation.Postcolonial Said's studies as necessary.636 Editor's Column [ PMLA history.59 on Fri. It of the subal expanded our understanding tern by treating gender. or has this marriage between knowledge and the world. help us understand global transformations. First. Finally. theory in this regard interesting because it points I find the Third. It is another universally acknowledged fact thatmany of the critics who are unhappy imperial. 12 Apr 2013 09:51:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . like so many matches made in heaven. yet Salman Rushdie has made it the enabling condition of his great novels. its a coming into being in the world. K. into a center of analysis.
given the long examined region's lengthier history of postcolonial but neoimperial relations. we can perhaps look forward to alliances based on more mundane foundations. It ing challenged Western canons. 12 Apr 2013 09:51:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . asserting that he did "not be the ensembles of relations linking and human creations and the wholes. Perhaps we could then recognize that 9/11 names not only 2001 of theUnited States but also 1973 of Chile. Ifwe dream of a world where all can sleep without dread of we must strive to produce what waking up.59 on Fri. postcolonial cient. Said called nondominative those who undertake knowledge. this connection must If the aim of connecting knowledge and is to help make theworld more fit illuminate con focused on fragments of the colonial past. Latin America was never colonial because it was not colonized like India or Indonesia. parts conditions of their creation. we would be better prepared to place the post-9/11 resurgent imperialism in a larger imperial landscape. the field of studies is necessary but insuffi but creative departures to had long to that. As post studies became institutionalized in studies neglected other gies of postcolonial some scholars even argued that colonialisms. Earthly alliances. Let us hope that the arrival of this field signals not its end ward this urgent aim. a subject perialism of postcolonial in the Americas. independently of themundane conditions that made them possible. its limits became more evident for at least two reasons. One who lives in a house does not dream one who in the same way as lives under a bridge.3 Editor's Column 637 2. widely considered the piv otal figure of postcolonial studies' founding trinity (together with Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak and Homi Bhabha). 3. divorced himself from this field.Antholo ized Europe. Horizontal ex changes between sites of imperial domination would change the field of postcolonial studies not just by including new partners in its dis and colonial modernity. Postcolonial the ory would be obviated by the delegitimiza tion of a system organizing the international order. the field focused so exclusively on northern European colonialism political independence) and 1825 (continen tal Latin America's political independence) to 1947 (India's political independence) as land marks ofthe temporal shift from the colonial to the postcolonial (typically restricted now to 1947) would facilitate the study ofthe im empires. ituniversalized that it ended up look (mostly anglophone) at colonialism through provincial eyes. informed by various theoretical "turns" and "posts" fashionable in the 1980s. from the fifteenth century would offer a dif ferent understanding ofmodern colonialism adding cussion but also by transforming its terms and references. postcolonialism become a "misnomer" that did not sufficiently recognize imperialism. yet iterected itself academia. But instead of having to choose between the persistence of neocolonialism.12 2. Postcolonialism colonial as insufficient. Sunil Agnani What does itmean to talk about the end of postcolonial theory? Some ofmy colleagues have implied that such talk may have to do heavenly marriage and earthly divorce.107." For him. the field the world nections: for all. this field came to celebrate fragments disconnected from structures and cultural constructs seen as the postcolonial canon. It is telling that at the end of his life Said. 1804 (Haiti's nance This content downloaded from 192. one shown to be a mask for the domi of certain interests. While itprovincial itself. Although it claimed that itspost. Sec ond. A view of colonialism as starting with expectation among some progressives in theUnited States academy that empire would eventually come to an end. In the light of this deep imperial history. and "structures of dependency" (2). For this task. when Salvador Allende was overthrown by a United States-backed coup.addressed past and present. First. It was thus unable to examine postcolonial em pires as changing imperial formations.108.
her recent book on comparative literature. Lowith. one might arrange a broad array of responses among Paul de Man's affili ates. and the Critic refers to world in the sense of the effects of politics. she refers to the technique as bringing each critical groups that fall outside the circuits of capital while working in literary studies was bound these tensions has been not to depend on the so cial sciences as a way out ofthe potentially lim rial conditions of labor (close to the traditional analysis) and on subaltern to produce some difficulties. why nei self-descriptions. 2001.with a particular focus on would the worldliness of the text. response to a historical condition as much as a system of thought. which played a cen tral role in the tactics. It isworth asking. if field of postcolonial studies defunct. Her pronouncements have not been limited to comparative literature. deconstruction. and scholars associated with Said's and Spivak's ideas and also with decol onization in the post-World War II period? 11. pronouncing the postcolonial moribund in an age of globalization. themoments of doubt fetterson national sovereignty. Focusing on mate focus of a Marxian and the politics of reading. It ismore important to consider what kinds of projects were enabled by the varieties of ited purview of literature. a Postcolonial thought should be considered themost significant genealogy of postcolonial thought. To discuss the postcolonial was to rely on a notion of state sovereignty de rived from an earlier period inworld history. 12 Apr 2013 09:51:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Strauss). who span the spectrum from left to right (Marcuse. shows the uselessness of the field. she focuses on theway the humanities must "supplement" the social sciences and considers the reading of literature a training for the ethical (Death 27). the social. Arendt. and to textas a confluence of histor ical factors. it a be a mistake to consider it repeatable set of can also point to a source for the differences between her and Said?the incompleteness of Palestinian nationalism. the history of decolonization largely dem onstrated the failure of this independence with World War II of new global the emergence after hermeneutic principles applicable to all texts. while Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak turned to the global or even planetary and set out towrite a critique of postcolonial language to its "productive crisis" (Post-colonial Critic 111 and Outside 53). In fact.we can note that two pivotal figures never to describe accepted the rubric postcolonial range ofMartin Heidegger's students in an earlier generation.108. the Text." At the out set. Aware of this. foryears she has rejected a discussion of a field of postcolonial studies.However. Instead.107. There were always multiple strands pline. plus an immanent literaryhistory. One resolution of books. authors. Said's distinction in The World. Recalling that Spivak is one of his students provides an unusual genealogy and accounts for her shuttling between different emphases: feminism.638 Editor's Column f PMLA or rendered ir superseded by globalization relevant in the face of resurgent imperialism. and Marxism?a tension throughout between formal analysis Augmenting a view ofthe field by consider ing Spivak is also a way of pointing to the con trasting paths in this literary-critical corpus. their own writing: a contrapuntal method and secular criticism were Edward Said's preferred ther of them was particularly invested in the word. our focus should be on this visible fragmentation or opening of the field rather than on its end.59 on Fri. Understanding this will undercut the somehow the continuity or belief that implicit even expansion of structures akin to the age of high imperialism in the nineteenth-century classical empire after the events of September we pronounce the reason. to criticwith a view to the biographical formation of the one who reads. it isworth thinking about the period inwhich was formed in theUnited States academy? it the 1980s and 1990s?in the spirit of Fredric If the type of critical thinking thatwe as sociate with the term postcolonial has been Like the broad Jameson's "periodizing the 1960s. From Spivak's emphases and interests one This content downloaded from 192. issues are at the core of Death of a Disci These in this body of thought.
The debates and controversies around post Now" and keeps a steady gaze on America. split on and of colonialism the questions legacies culture. the bazaar. There is an obvious tension in the field?worth heightening rather than hid rary African condition (39-41). con space between public and private in his sideration of "garbage and modernity" (Habi ized as early postcolonial criticism and the ory. modernism considers that both postcolonialism and post fail to account for the contempo as a ing phenomena such as adda. globalization. and "posts. which in turn gave rise towhat became institutional an "otherWest" ing?between an interest in term. for example. African literature under scores issues of continuity. Australia.12 2. the Ghanaian writer Ama Ata Since then Africa has been under Aidoo the prophecy of the imminent decline of empire as such. The focusing closing section of that book is entitled "Orientalism critique of empire's existence: has violently and sarcastically delineated that orientation. ch. and ideological locations of participating scholars as well as by the scholars' qualifica tion to engage with politics and to speak with This content downloaded from 192. as did Said's regular pieces over the ten years colonial and globalization studies are strongly determined by the geographic.59 on Fri. the third phenomenon we are concerned with. postcolonial as a historical termwas extended to a type of criticism. not necessarily with justification. theCairo English-language weekly.3 Editor's Column 639 postindependence failures and the gradual in econ tegration of national elites in theworld the Indian is that omy experience. (Ashis Nandy's referring to a persistent. increasingly and optimism. 12 Apr 2013 09:51:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Its emptying may instead be a sign of a produc tive crisis from which the field (orwhatever it transmogrifies into) will benefit. Postcolonial theory is not premised on ions of Canada. A third strand looks for languages and practices that are rooted in the idiom of ver nacular of the early nationalist critiques. there are necessarily of Orientalism. imperialism. Dipesh Chakrabarty's work (Habi tations of Modernity and Provincializing Eu Mamadou Diouf rope) explores what falls out of the epistemic grid of understanding produced by European Enlightenment categories through examin My brief presentation first focuses on how African scholars are engaging with the con cepts postcoloniality. The fact that the extension of this term has failed helps illuminate the objects of their critique. underlying Said's thought.108. We overlook ofAlgiers in the the fact that founding texts like Orientalism never imperialism when ignored American on imperial dominance. resurgences. To conclude.107. not discontinuities." one world" it of powerfully complicit in themaintenance imperial rule and domination inAfrica (152)." Achille Mbembe said that postcoloniality was a concept War of relevant to theUnited States (after the to and the domin imperial Independence) the lesson from the French and British em pires seems to serve surprisingly well in the present (beyond the screening of The Battle White House). Tejumola Olaniyan. but it as an enduring or repeatable reading prac tice does not mean the term is bankrupt. imperial ism in its different disguises. In this context. Three decades after the 1978 publication I do not wish to reduce the thinking of Spivak or Said to a state or nation experience. and post modernity. Rather it is constituted as a response to or languages and disappear if looked at through external categories. has been ravaging Africa from at least the beginning ofthe Atlantic slave trade. 5). (1993-2003) he wrote forAl-Ahram. According to themain voices in the African debate. epistemologi cal. More than fif teen years ago. as opposed to the pessimism of postnationalism. and New Zealand but that when applied to "other parts of the was "a most pernicious fiction. critical element in Europe [48-49]) internally and a second strand of criticism growing out tations.
arts and the public space. in Africa. and Stuart Hall's rejection of de terministic economism. a new territo developing literature is exploring ries such as the politics of knowledge produc tion. Ella Shohat's identifica tion of postcolonial studies' homogenizing of diverse cultures. the gendered geographies of literature. inUnited in the framework of human his to W. or postcolonial the abandonment institutions of interpretation as engagement the en In the context of globalization. postcolonial studies speaks English. 63). and racial formations. as well as with new approaches and African offers and empire. I refer to Anne McClintock's as a determining critique of colonialism marker of history.107." categories such as community (17). Africa is not powerfully fea studies in comparison tured in postcolonial territories with India and theCommonwealth of the former British Empire (Adesanmi). and Walter Mignolo according to scholars. B. sexuality. knowledge. come from scholars in institutions Western (United States and Canadian.most African scholars (while recognizing the contribution of postcolonial studies to a better understanding of social. authority about Africa. According the introduction of African studies States academia to the violence. political. ideas. to avoid the and postcolonial intellectual trap of postcolonial studies. chronologies. Both the resistance to Western epistemologies (connections and question essentialist of human Africanist cultural to studies. the epistemological processes?in intersections of subjectivity. DuBois. cultural and political domi nation. fields. studies literary and contestations) and the search for a nationalist but leftist "liberation project" offered a space of deployment for "dependency theories and vernacular Marxisms" Latin America. power. from the age location of the black continent of the discoveries colonial (V. including themost hostile ones. Y. Asia. The absence of an ethical in postcolonial theory is precisely insists on in explor Simon Gikandi the ing theory's key concepts. and institutions) emphasize concrete historical processes to pay attention (Korang).640 Editor's Column PMLA terventions. Against references to textuality. francophone schol ars and institutions are not especially active in the debate. cultural. and ideologies. imperialism scholars (historians. Mudimbe's This content downloaded from 192.108. boundaries. Mudimbe's in remains the crucial epistemolo library). The field's contentious relations with African initially associated with attempts to locate blackness in the intellectual and geographic space of Atlantic black civilization and reinstate modernity and cultures (the African studies could be explained by many factors. and construction of subjectivities and identi scene of Africa the central renaissance) tory and civilization. Intellectual Challenges 229-93 and Disciplinary and Interdisciplinary The Invention ofAf Encounters). The irony of the pres ent situation is that the greater number of in in the geog raphies of knowledge derived from European invention and representations. The conversation (Zeleza. and particular. locations. which became dominated by other ethical and political engagements. 12 Apr 2013 09:51:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . historical. The development of African studies was ties. in particular). and participation in the global humanities and social sciences (85.59 on Fri. Finally. and economic exploitation of colonial rules. Afrocen trism could be understood as an effort to re introduce the link. With a few exceptions. and epistemolog ical. He notes that most African scholars interpret the erasure dimension what ofmoral references from poststructuralist of "any serious its genealogies. Thus. not French. anthropologists) many opportunities to refine their toolboxes. governing the mise-en-sens I mise-en gies In Africa. discursive practices. Af rican scholars have been busy engaging with put an end to this solid link between black activism and African studies. con While revisiting critically many of the cerns that have animated African studies. E. and with colonial postcolonial gagement with the fundamental in particular value.
the sponsored panel at the annual convention but also by themore than three thousand de clared members interest and growth in the field. In its attention to the renewed valence of and threat to sovereignty in contemporary times. 12 Apr 2013 09:51:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . theworld can do no more than watch. This task becomes all themore difficult in a world that has seen. and moral and wider economies presence as well as theways inwhich Africa is featured on theworld stage. and the politics of recognition and redistribution. neoliberal world. without ever publicly admitting it.And as someone who was involved in work and continues to see. modes of cul narratives tural postcolonial isms. was not only a violation of international law but also a fundamental assault on the very nature of political sover eignty.12 2. a rigorous postcolonial critique would have to pay attention to the unevenness of political realities around discussion with members the world. economic exploitation. increasingly interconnected. marked not only by overflow audiences year after year at One of the challenges of postcolonial critique is to reassess the relevance of sovereignty in the contemporary world. having given up hope of any feasible alterna tiveworld order. would. themessage is clear: the insights of postcolonial studies are so much a part of the profession that they are here to stay. then even in the presence of the worst atrocities. and a very close critical reading of Paul Gilroy s Black Atlantic (1993) have played key roles in the transition from soon dissipate into an intellectual enterprise worthy of no more than historical curiosity. post-1989.107. and avoid the hard work of continually test ing our convictions and beliefs in the light of the changing world around us. genocides that are ei ther sanctioned by or ineffectively curbed by the state.3 Editor's Column 641 rica (1988). ing on this petition. with its passionate anticolonial history of struggle and its insistence on recognizing the workings of neocolonialism in newly in an in dependent nations. The simultaneous rise of a postcolonial orien utter hostility to critical engagement around issues of chronology (the colonial and the time frame). Gaurav Desai Last year. such atrocities can sovereignty movement or with activists in Puerto Rico would show. noted the tremendous issues of political to explore the African Ironically.59 on Fri. 9/11 and the reimagining ofthe world as us versus them led to the resurgence increasingly marked overtones. political sovereignty This content downloaded from 192. received the institutional recognition that we have we may become complacent sought. suggested a sure decline the field's radical orientation. based on the sovereign against falsified information. If sovereignty is supreme. the MLA's Discussion Group on in Literature and Culture Postcolonial Studies successfully petitioned the organization to be recognized as a full-fledged scholarly division. ethnicity. then. Kwame Anthony Appiah's InMy Fathers House (1992). and. Many thought that the radical edge of postcolonial studies. Iworry that because the insights are so well assimilated and we have only too easily be invoked as excuses forwar. And yet much of the subsequent war of rhetoric and action The Executive Council protest in theUnited States has focused not on this violation but on the consequences ofthe war?the lives lost. affiliated with the group. As any ofthe Hawaiian ereignty is to be jettisoned. If sov yet. that jumped on the neoliberal bandwagon. on particular performances. the resources squandered. ideology. The new lit focuses production. that was skeptical of what it saw as the parochialism of older national erature of modernity. as some ar gued in the case of Iraq. The colonial preemptive strike by nation of Iraq.108. in tation thatwas rather friendly to global flows and formations. Kofi Annan in an important article has suggested that this iswhere the claims of sovereignty clash with the need for outside intervention. To anyone skeptical about the future of postcolo nial studies.
even close to home. it is generally acknowledged as having rendered earlier forms of history writing unviable. To do so. 1. encompasses legal theory. or ofthe long period of time. second. In India?and from the other hand. My ism and postcoloniality today. who work primar ily in non-Western and ex-colonial locations. Yet I have serious problems with this categorization. which in itsmost exclusionary stance can lead to cially touch those. Generally academy side the Eur-Am matrix speaking. always already rec ognized and hailed as postcolonial. Ifpostcolonial studies is to continue to have a purchase on our have to articulate new ways of thinking about will have to over such challenges. I also work closely with Anveshi. is it reasonable to allow for a strictly regulated indigenous politics. albeit while refer ring to vastly different historical time frames? are only two of the most vexing issues that confront the study of colonial These iswith the School of affiliation inHyderabad Critical Humanities. and feminism. yet another political forcewhose valence and manifestations calibrated. the politics of Mamadou to the fruits of their own labor and across continents over Diouf's comments. On Susie Thaw Iwill try to lay out a couple of contradictions that cut fairly deep into the field of postcolo indigeneity and autochthony seem defensible can one reasonably deny the enough?how of rights indigenous peoples who have been colonized land? On seen mass need to be rethought and re the one hand. as new kinds of having opened up the past for new as and introduced and use. where both parties appeal to a politics of indigeneity. imaginations and our conscience. post colonial is both too diffuse and too narrow. itwill social medicine. literary theory. 12 Apr 2013 09:51:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . again. These are contradictions that concern all of us but espe nial studies. a nonuniversity research center that is invested are. Inmany such places. these may help us get a better grip on the sense of ending that several panelists note. to put for place it mildly. My current research in what is sometimes termed new political studies.107. or ofthe Indians? How. in a world that has migrations a Asians mass expulsions. sures will seriously jeopardize the innovation and energy thatmany of us have come to as sociate with postcolonial thought. it come two major obstacles: first. for example.642 Editor's Column PMLA is still a fraught issue formany constituen cies. whether in the thought police guise of "watchdog groups" that seek to de altern studies. Explored further. and ethnic strife. is thought of as critical or poststructuralist historiography. civil wars. inKerala with the School of Letters. I teach cultural studies. less apocalyptic tone into the humanities. This content downloaded from 192.59 on Fri. itwould ap in pear Senegal too?the feeling has been in some years that postcolonial.108. its own po litical orthodoxies. which have often dictated and limited the parameters of its thought. Submitting to either of these pres fame intellectuals whose politics they abhor or of legislatures that pressure universities to punish those whose speech may be occa sionally distasteful but should nevertheless the dangerous post-9/11 rise of a in this country. to invoke the formulation. In these contexts sub and more meaningful debates on the reality of our lives. The problem is that as a category. a related point of contention is indigeneity. All three represent recent attempts in India to create institutional spaces responsive to transdisciplinary work that promises fresh be protected under the principle of academic freedom. entry having themes and a more tentative. and contem porary visual culture. are we to read it in Fijian context the of that continued conflict between Israel and Palestine. are we to read the politics of How genocide? indigeneity in the context of Rwanda. But postcolonial ism's engagement with this body ofwork stays largely riveted to the speechless subaltern. likeme. the dalit assertion of the 1990s. in theWestern those of us who work on areas out Althusserian expelled by Amin inUganda. is not a useful category.
the new postcolonial in the lead. Yet quickly and impercep knowledge a in wholesale reversal. 12 Apr 2013 09:51:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . A survey of the proliferating genre on postcolonial of readers and handbooks studies indicates that Orientalism is univer sally acknowledged as a founding text. With the dismantling of area studies and the discrediting of Commonwealth litera ture. an exceptionally self-reflexivefield. not for descrip colonial formation as well as that of itsobjects of study.given its location and its concerns. Fur thermore. with anthropology concerned itselfwith a problematic designed ment non-West (let's not call it the Orient). an thropology. Orientalism?and Said could not have made the disclaimer this transition. who it speaks as or for. thing Its scholarship and theory are not World. or Commonwealth literature?and. Anthropology. fol lowing on that. ithad boomeranged. to or by location. Abandoning of Western responsibility power/ engaging to new niches inmainstream loop back to this issue after I have laid out the second contradiction. deepened being more theory-educated or -literate than many other specializations in the humanities. And.107. fresh from their own worlds and reluctant tomake accountability and rigor appears to have as sumed. to the old Orient itself.108. believe itwe must. the revolutionary scope of Said's critique had not only been con the tained. there is reasonable consensus that turn more Said's work and the postcolonial are because important generally they called to a account ethical continuing scholarly invest in colonial power and infused a sorely lacking conceptual rigor into the study ofthe knowledge in its entirety. After Marx we are persuaded between concepts should be designed as instruments to cut with (tools for change. In addition to studies.59 on Fri. dispersed their specializations gradually found themselves herded into a spe cial room waiting in themansion of the West accompanies and in fact precedes thewidely circulated account of postcolonial studies as with the of Third World arrival coinciding critics in the FirstWorld to unearth residual or continuing colonialism in the ex-colonies. is the bizarre transformation of Orientalism's thesis as it traveled into the postcolonial niche. The tough question is. scholars in those fields were repatriated tion) and after Foucault thatknowledge has al ways been an instrument of power. This is the untold story that ern academy. This content downloaded from 192. wander its corridors makes sense to them. the old area and gave additional charge to this ofthe critique disciplines and mainstream forms. restrictively attached to an isolated and I will colonialism.and so on. its subject is the Euro-American academy and the power/knowledge axis of that institution. 2. the odd form that the call for academy. In fact. however or interests. however. both worst hit and quickest to recover. such global radicalism may well be that nothing. postcolonial studies is. What is puzzling.3 Editor's Column 643 every theory encompasses or in matter in Third that the for India. At least half the pages in any reader discuss the field itself. Some research that followed initially?early subaltern studies.122. at the same time. mode.Postcolonial studies is exercised about its constituency. like its twin today. Viswanathan. has studies. Said became the tibly. Yet it is. wondering why so little And stronger?is being about the Orient. Given the heterogene ity and the unstable unity of hegemonic for mations. Mudimbe. definitive problematic: bound Postcolonial disciplines that were now dignified with the up-to-date and politically correct termpostcolonial studies. found new life theorizing its own correct politics and correct theory. it walks a knife's edge that brings us to the question of and the specific form that rigor seems theory to take in postcolonial studies. International graduate students. The untold story explains why these new figures. In less than a decade. But such large-scale political or conceptual correctness is not all. some of Spivak's less-cited essays?actually far from of debates that were protagonist/antagonist to restricted largely anthropology. On the contrary.
Color photograph. and so on. Yet living as I do in a place where these texts are still pored over and endlessly discussed not seem those who to appreciate their do by theoretical inadequacies. mations these texts achieve and set inmotion. Another example involves the history of colonialism. the deep-set difference between postcolonial studies and the new transdisciplinary work that I referred to earlier becomes clearer. better put. or literature in theUnited States can probably write with authority about the conceptual irregularities in Orientalism. However. pounce on a For example. it is the task of scholarship and theory to turn colonial history into history. let alone take them seriously.anthropology. One only has to apply the ready-made instruments of ready-made the ory to do that?so much so thatmany young people today find itunnecessary to read any of these texts.1 x 106. binary. which it locates everywhere. 12 Apr 2013 09:51:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . point to what has been leftout of a study. Bendinephupho. The late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and more so the imperial archive are the homing grounds forpostcolonial studies. postcolonial 4WtO This content downloaded from 192.644 Editor's Column | PMLA what and how is postcolonial studies cutting? And. and the politico-professional demands of the Western academy.7 cm). What is often overlooked is that the genealogi cal method was actually developed as a means of estrangement. It is their success?or. The field turns to history to probe the durability of colonial power. any graduate student of his tory. following on that. as a way of loosening the hold of an entrenched problematization and mak ing itvisible. (71. I find that the chal lenge is to understand the complex transfer critique the series Subaltern Studies. how does itproblema tize itsworld? When we ask these questions. In other words. Edward West. 28x42 in. given its long-distance interest in the Third World. the various diffi culties of investment in the actual intellectual and political tasks that confront specific Third World countries. the enigma of their success?rather than their theoretical or political incorrectness that draws me.59 on Fri.108.107.
and so on were formed. past and present.My own impulse is to broaden the purview retrospectively to the Eu ropean Enlightenment. This perspective would enable us to con nect fragments towholes.) Susie Tharu's observation on the status has observed. the field's temporal and spa Expanding tial referents entails also conceptual categories.59 on Fri. Itmay not have been unusual studies. death. past and present.107. who indeed addressed United States imperialism. As perspective. we must of Simon Bolivar by the date 1825 recalls the support Haiti gave him alongside the request that he free the slaves of South America. since this is the period inwhich many ofthe questions of sovereignty. I believe that our ability tomake these connections will also enable us tomake better connections between the fields of post colonial studies (plural) and the imperial states ofthe world.12 2. The evocation historicize Peter Hulme it and recognize its limitations. And yet it is essential to realize the term's role (in the 1980s and 1990s) in transforming English departments in the United States and chang ingwhat was considered legitimate to discuss in them. our dis Fernando Coronil: Wen cussion has helped illuminate Jennifer zel's core question: how are we to respond to the inadequate connection between the field of postcolonial studies and the state of the world? Gaurav Desai's and Simon Gikandi's suggestions that the arrival of postcolonial studies in academia marks its end.108. This is a necessary part of broad ening the anglophone focus (and chronology) of postcolonial thought. the point of bringing Africa into a discussion (as Mamadou Diouf that has of the term postcolonial?its ness?outside Euro-America lack of useful is valid. transforming Itmakes the post. The fundamental question is the relevance of postcolonial studies as a critical body of can problematize the world that knowledge and cut into it. rights. deconstruction to construction.of its too Anglocentric disciplines and from countries outside North America and Europe. with respect to the examination particularly of imperial formations. we can evaluate itgenerously as a heterogeneous and productive field. people who would have gone elsewhere. From another though. some of its fundamental figures may deny they are part of it. as Sunil Agnani notes.There ismuch to be gained in defining Haitian during the decolonization debates ofthe twen tieth century. even Said. or rebirthmake clear that its fate as an academic field is an interesting but secondary question. We may find ituseful to approach postco lonial studies through a double register. maybe another story can begin. But should it return to embrace its Said ian history. 12 Apr 2013 09:51:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . For me. the epistemic and tempo postcolonialism ral marker of a more powerful perspective. to grand (non-Eurocentric) mininarratives narratives. we cannot overlook by postcolonial how itopened (some) departments to a range of faculty members and students from other This content downloaded from 192. confined it to a narrow temporal and spatial frame.3 Editor's Column 645 studies ispoorly positioned and ill equipped for the complexity of the task. Sunil Agnani: Fernando Coronil makes a point that I agree with and would like to ex pand: his call to join 1804 and 1825 to 1947 as keymoments in rethinking the category ofthe Commentary In my view. In thinking about what was enabled and Latin America been and I argue here) is not just to add more par ticipants in this dialogue but also tomodify its terms (see also Coronil). where race already tested the universalism of such terms. the discursive to thematerial. From one perspective. al postcolonial.as Susie Tharu demands. (Some were posed directly in the eighteenth century by the participants in the revolution. questions that returned in an inflected and contested form this field broadly and recognizing the role it has played in sharpening the critique of colo nialism.
" Mamadou Diouf's description ofAfrican stud ies' "transition from utter hostility to critical for (and write about. (dis)connections among How the does groups.646 Editor's Column PMLA 1990s to have colleagues Sri Lanka. India. My problem is studies is concerned more that postcolonial than with of Europe colonized societies. How can what Si with years only make more clear what is at stake. of English But to find them in a department literature (and usually working on topics that related to or reflected this other the focus to space) was new and broadened (or those as fascism contin in the 1980s and the field has begun tomove beyond the neces sary but insufficient critiques of anticolonial nationalism (Chat terjee) or postcolonial studies as epistemologi these cally and institutionally Eurocentric: as a "derivative discourse" alternative genealogies of anti-imperialism and postcolonialism emphasize South-South an extraordinary degree. and artists in colonized sites rather than a line implications for everyday life? To my mind. I hear in this conversa Wenzel: Jennifer an tion assessment of the accomplishments read as an obituary for the term postcolonial. Africa. because most of us don't master languages or Arabic or Geez (Ethio perial sites and globalizing moments. what is the place of distinction. say. Recurrent in the conversation is an urge to make connections. it is important thatwe not lose sight of the persistent critique that this do differences among particular imperial for mations make?say. or even from New Zealand. at least for the African cases I know. spatiality. Did the Frankfurt school connections among activists. reflecting on its of influence from Europe to its colonies." Since most of our comments sociated with it) fail because ued its rise even as those scholars produced several studies analyzing it. Bush's Iwould Iraq? Diouf: like to discuss In our differentiation. and indeed a desire to find in it resources for con temporary critiques of empire "in dark times. But my question is this: in this desire to Mamadou's connect. or in articulation of con tinuing imperial domination inAfrica or the global South. and individuals. or between Frederick Lugard's Nigeria Mamadou and George W. and deploy ments of imperialism and colonial rule and how we account and limitations of postcolonial studies. Malaysia. discourse (with its focus on the problematic of colonialism) leftas its legacy today. South Pakistan. and collaboration with (Desai) the colo nial library?are missing or not taken into account adequately.107. between Nigeria under colonialism and today. African This content downloaded from 192. economics. United States political discourse and the bru talities ofUnited States foreign policy in recent to expansion of Europe?relate process?the are more de which histories. and to Fernando Coronil's to catalog of connections Imight add "Africa an expanded his theAmericas and Asia"?as torical and geographic frame that allows us to consider how the slave trade (as well as other trades) shaped relations between different im Indeed. accommodation to. locally specific termined and framed in the context ofthe en counter? How do we place these histories and their languages and structures into the global design of imperialism and colonial rule? His tories ofthe revision of local libraries?their appropriation of (Mudimbe). general the expansion mon Gikandi calls "the postcolonial thing" in order better to "cut into be reimagined theworld" as we find itnow? The crudities of engagement" with postcolonial studies offers an example of this desire. and Taiwan in a department of anthropology.59 on Fri. what remains important in this example is the persistence of a sharp critique in (as Han nah Arendt put it) "dark times. with out losing sight of the realities of oppres sion) struggles and the multiple narratives generated by such processes. intellectuals.108. 12 Apr 2013 09:51:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . thinking some ofthe points my colleagues made about issues of temporality. and historicization? our and what difference teaching.
or ignoring colonial modes of knowledge? connections. anglo phone.108. this approach allows us to find unexpected alliances and disjunctures between texts. entails Engaging with this disconnect a need to reconfigure the chronological and spatial framework that locates Europe at the heart of the postcolonial studies enterprise (as Sunil and Fernando argue) as well as to revise the categories attached to the colonial and studies and the postcolonial condition itself. exclusively? Do languages of resistance escape the logics of domination and hegemony? My Wenzel's. This is how I understand Fernando Coronil's invita tion to come up with a catalog of connections that may address the disconnect between post Gaurav Desai: Simon Gikandi and Susie colonial studies and the state of theworld. indigeneity) in the narrative of the colonial encounter? Is this not the best way to critique Euro-American postings (representations of the "other")? libraries intersect. and arts expressed through them?and constituting them in return?in order to engage with the question of textuality.59 on Fri.Si mon suggests that the development ofthe field was a direct response to and critique ofthe dis ciplinary priorities of English literary studies. The issues: Who postcolonial owns the colonial library? How are postcolo To make nial libraries connecting. following ques tions: Do colonial languages reflect power and better understand room as a representative sampling of texts that are concerned with the study of colonialism and postcoloniality. address the political economies and discourses of colonial rule. distanc ing. This content downloaded from 192. by his own admission. with When the lo intersecting to the colonial addressed to the indigenous people ofHawaii.e.107. as students come studies. subverting. These observa about Western Tharu both suggest that it is important to dis tinguish between the project of postcolonial time frames.historical moments. Some of the expense of African languages and Ara bic. traditions. not because I think that greater coverage and a desire for compre hensiveness will give us a panoptic view of the subject. response and to Susie Tharu's. while Susie suggests thatwe often forget that Said's Orientalism was. I take seriously Fernando Coro nil's and Mamadou Diouf's admonitions about the scarcity of Latin America and Africa in the For me. Or the day thatwe discuss Frederick Lugard's idea ofthe "dual mandate" inAfrica and stu dents hear echoes of Lugardian rhetoric in the various justifications for thewar in Iraq. it also raises the pedagogical question ofwhat we might want to introduce in the class tions raise the question ofthe historical param eters ofthe field and how its story is best told. But what happens ifwe introduce indigenous textuality (i. and lusophone areas. surrounding that text in the to termswith the fact that the concern with co always riveting. Rather. and think ers that bring to lifeour task as critics. The African conti nent is still divided into francophone. for instance. And I find compel ling the argument for a wider historical frame Jennifer cen Gaurav comments ters on the issue of languages and cultures.3 Editor's Column 647 pian Christian liturgical language). Desai's postcolonial studies canon. We tend to overlook the knowledge and epistemologies that run parallel necessarily cal and colonial to account library. it is easy for the recourse to postcolonial sor (since I am their primary point of contact with the material) but something that theirown lonialism and postcoloniality is not just some private obsession of their South Asian profes elected officials seem to have given thought to. and the colonial at determined languages are historically and a greater attention to vernacular and other nonanglophone traditions. condi postcolonial we to the need consider tions. not it. 12 Apr 2013 09:51:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Non-Latin writing systems carried local West African aesthetic and cultural creativity themost exciting moments inmy classes hap pen when. I introduce theApology Bill passed by theUnited States Congress and The discussion classroom is before and during colonial rule. structures of power/knowledge and not about the "Orient" itself.12 2.. historical and social imaginaries.
or approaches (emigrant?) Third World to interpret the im ploded Second. and to turn the time of colonialism into our past. ithelped me not only see what I had not seen before but also see in ways I had never seen. and literatures. Simon reminds us of the error of over expansiveness. Gaurav. as Simon Gikandi earlier suggested. much like the positivist history it abhors. Susie's observation Jennifer Wenzel: is both too that "as a category. Susie. Our dialogue?so and such thought with ably guided by Patsy ful contributions by Sunil. past present. invested in the durability and the continuing presence of the Susie Tharu: Fernando's desideratum of a world more fit for all seems crucial as we ponder what to do now. torical reality obscures the intellectual effort towrite histories ofAfrica?as against that of even tomedieval protonational formations. The key questions may well be. about the ethics of a knowl edge formation. colonialism. and consequently also itspolitics.108. and Jennifer?reminds me The institutional histories traced in these statements help us understand how we got here. his as a critic. because for the discrepancy between the precision of Simon's distinctions (Things Fall Apart. spotted every of any deter tinuity (as Foucault does for theWest). We need to read this effortas a knowledge project. From cant for Said's Orientalism to the work of the Subal tern Studies historians. This field opened my mind. The vision it made had persisting blinders?unfortunately thicker rather than thinner by its success? that obscure connections among worldwide and struggles. postcolonial it accounts frustrating. can you explain the differences between history and postcolo nial history that you broached earlier? make The point I was trying to is that postcolonial history is. This content downloaded from 192. no. Anthills. would it to expand on differences between and strategic knowledge. The field's critique of Eurocen trism and historicism has not sufficiently examined its own historical and theoretical is helpful. It changed my vision. Patricia Yaeger: Susie.107. by considering their con claim Europe (recall Dipesh Chakrabarty's that all history is the history of Europe). having been evacuated minate historical content. The temporal task of an engaged histo the project is one as much of riography?and towrest the present. Mama Fernando Coronil: dou.648 Editor's Column PMLA Susie Tharu: A question remains open. the reports studies emerged of the death of postcolonial at the same time that itwas where. studies has been signifi ofwhy postcolonial me. yes) and Fernando's sug diffuse and too narrow" made possible has provincialism. languages. 12 Apr 2013 09:51:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Fernando of the geographic exclusion of entire empires. theory as of politics?is to excise our time from this past. and that of Spivak and the planetary ethical edge work she prescribes? Is there a structural difference between Said's temological inflections of the post-: after. as well as in the lateral drift in postcolonial ac counts of post-Soviet eastern Europe. Simon. But our dialogue has also reminded me studies of why I have found postcolonial past. Not surprisingly. empires. Sunil Agnani's plea for an acknowledgment ofmultiplicity and differences in postcolonial studies iswell be possible Said's partisan worldliness gestion thatwe extend our notion of the post colonial moment backward to 1804. which adapt the explanatory rubric for the emergent Additional examples of diffusion are evi dent in the backward creep in postcolonial to the early modern period. histories.59 on Fri. the form of its accountability. not beyond. up Africanists' discomfort with "posts" as the old problem of textuality versus concrete his present and futurewe and Spivak's laboring I? In response toMamadou Diouf: Setting The crafting of such a problematic will neces sarily involve a critique of Eur-Am postings and an interest in repossessing discontinui ties?for example. In that spirit. Both interven tions are based on historical rather than epis taken.
I think the dif ferences in emphasis call attention to three will help that iswhat we are paid to do. I don't the by think the issue is simply the absence ofAfrica or Latin America from the debate. But whether from the vantage point of postcolonial studies or not. What postcolonial theory is and what work itdoes depend on one's disciplinary for and Fernando I find nothing in the de Simon Gikandi: bate so far to disagree with. where the histo ries. in the end what matters is to keep developing the intellec cri tual project this field helped advance?its tique of dominative knowledge and itspursuit ofworlds that are more plural and more just.107. (71. we have to profess because 3.59 on Fri.3 Editor's Column 649 yond its limits. 2. but it we over if the question. Postcolonial theory is inflected heavily sites of knowledge production. 12 Apr 2013 09:51:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . genealogies. Color photograph. how do all these pause Edward West. This is the great debates appear to the objects of analysis?the so-called postcolonial subjects? PatriciaYaeger 1 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H This content downloaded from 192. 28x42 in.We need mation. From different perspectives.108. Ngawe. our dialogue reflects our appreciative evaluation of post colonial studies but also our desire to push be lesson I learned from talking and listening to my old colleagues atMichigan.1x106. Mamadou things that need to be stressed: 1. and politics of postcoloni ality are focused differently.122. come from history and anthropology.7 cm). The ab sence frommost of our reflections of scholars who work in the global South (like Susie) has made postcolonial theory (like all theory) a provincial American concern hiding behind themask of universalism. some humility in our pro nouncements! Yes.
" in the Department and Interdisciplinary Encounters 443-66. Ron. orMeaningful Studies. and introd. -. Stanley. Postcoloniality." "Notes on the Postcolonial. "Two Concepts 1999: 49-50. Dakar: Codesria. and Global Decolonization. Ed.59 on Fri. Fredric. Routledge. New York: Routledge. DuBois.S. 2003.and African Studies. Ama Ata. B. The Intimate Enemy: Loss and Recovery Delhi: Oxford UP. ed. Ed. "The End of Philosophy and the Task of Thinking. House sentatives. Coronil.house. 1-14. Gayatri Chakravorty. theWake P. and the Postcolonial: of Infliction. Loomba. and History of Literature U ofMinnesota P. 1968. Habitations Modernity: Essays in of of Subaltern Studies. of Nandy. 1996. York: Arnold. Olaniyan." Times. 27 Dec. Postcolonial ity. Disciplinary ary Encounters." Trenton: Bhat court. Kofi." 36. 2004: 44+." Arena To Journal 21 (2004): 19 June 2003. The Ideologies of Theory: Essays. Annan. Chicago: U of Chicago Europe: Postcolonial Provincializing Thought and Historical Difference. 1990. Postcolonialism. Death York: Columbia UP. Trans. New Barbara. Princeton: Princeton UP. 2. Spivak. "Africa and the American in 1997. 1983. Studies." Critical Fictions. By Frantz Fanon. Joan Stambaugh. "La teoria postcolonial y la representation Casa de las Americas de la cultura en las Americas. Rich ard Philcox.650 Editor's Column PMLA Works Cited Adesanmi. 2002. Relocating and Ato the Critic. Walter. in the Teaching Machine. E. U. Arendt. Self under Colonialism." Research inAfrican Literatures 32 (2001): 1-18." Presence Africaine Boulder: Westview. The Post-colonial Critic: Interviews. Heidegger. Disciplinary Kurtz. Theo Goldberg Blackwell. Africa World. Cambridge: Cambridge Dirlik. Paul Tiyambe. Jameson. Arif. Neil Lazarus." zine 17 Oct. Homi in Dark "The Geopolitics of Knowledge and the Mignolo. Chicago: U of Chicago P. Vol. at the Limit. Simon. ies 14 (1988): 67-79. the Princeton Society of Fellows until 2005 and assistant professor versity of Michigan. a Praxis "Africa. ligentsia. "The Race forTheory." Committee on Education of Repre and the Workforce. Cambridge: Contemporary Ed. Oxford: The World. Ed." Feminist Stud Postcolonial Studies Thought and the Colonial Discourse." Skies. 12 Apr 2013 09:51:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . India. 1994. 2005.107. Testimony be fore the Subcommittee on Select Education. Said. Vol. 39-60. Peter Hulme. Ann Arbor. Mariani." On Time and Being. Peter.gov/ed of Self-Writing. "Without a Doubt.htm>." Theory: A Reader. Kwaku Challenge? Contributors SUNIL AGNANI "Enlightenment Denis Diderot is completing Universalism a book manuscript and Colonial entitled He was at is currently Knowledge: Larbi. Stuart. P. the Text. 242-60. and Harvard Shohat. Mbembe. New York: Rout 1993. -. "Foreword: The Chakrabarty. 1988. Francis Barker. 322-34. Postcolonial UP. Trans. "Latin American The Cambridge Compan ion toPostcolonial Ed." Zeleza. of Sovereignty. "African Modes 1 (2000): 4-19. Ed. Anne. 2002. New York: Grove. and Margaret Iversen. Sarah Harasym. Trenton: Africa World. Ella. Men K. Study ofAfrica.202 (1996): 3-8." _workforce/hearings/108th/sed/titlevi61903/kurtz. Martin." Pius. "That Capricious Topic: Gender Politics. London: The Post-colonial Thinking Common and Lidia -. The Intellectual Challenges. Tejumola. ledge. 1971 49." Postmodernism. Mongia. Theory Minneapolis: Korang. Committee on Education and the Workforce. tacharya. World: Partha. New a of Discipline. Nationalist A Derivative P.'" Colonial Discourse I Postcolonial Theory. Ashis. Manchester: Manchester UP. Outside Negro Intel 5 (1955-56): 34-51. Aidoo. and African Studies. Fernando. Zeleza. 'the Post-colonial'? Question: Ed. "The Angel of Progress: Pitfalls of the Term 'Postcolonialism. 2000. Iain Chambers 1996. -. Zine Mugabane. David Suvir Kaul. Literary 221-40.108. Strategies. New York Times Maga and Interdisciplin 2006. 1986. 1 of The Gikandi. 18 Sept. The Postcolonial Aura: Third World Criticism theAge of Global Capitalism. Hall. Colonial Difference. Suskind. 1991. New Economist York: Har Fanon. 1983. 1770-1800. W. 2004. ward 173-96.233-66. Literatures and Moral Consider ations. vii-xlii. 1 of Rethinking Africa's Globalization. Achille. Dipesh. FERNANDO CORONIL teaches ogy departments of English at the Uni in the history and anthropol and directs the Latin American and Carib This content downloaded from 192. Bhabha. "Theories. "Postmodernity. Quayson. UP. Dialogues. Seattle: Bay. "Useless Provocation The 'Posts' versus African and Edmund Burke. "When Was Horizons. 1993. Vol. -. P. 2003. "A Conversation and Ania Ed.2002. Hulme. "Statement of Stanley Kurtz. Codesria McClintock. Edward W. Bulletin 2006 <http://www. Chatterjee. U of Minneapolis: with Neeldari Minnesota Christian. Wretched Framing of the Earth. 55-73. Divided Curti." South Atlantic Quarterly 101 (2002): 57-96. Hannah.
Maps of Englishness: Writing Identity in the Culture of Colonialism (Columbia UP. is assistant in India and the other docu literature and politics University." which fo Millenarian is finishing a book manuscript lives of Anti-colonial cuses on the literary and cultural afterlives of the 1856-57 Xhosa cattle killing in southern Africa. 2002). He isa coeditor of The Cambridge His Literature (2004) and the editor Slavery and the Culture of Encyclopedia of African Literature (Routledge. Postcolonial Studies. a contributor.12 2. 12 Apr 2013 09:51:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . professor of English at Princeton Univer sity. Ann Arbor. 2000). Ker on two projects. African and South Asian Ann Arbor. Momar-Coumba (Karthala. including Writ Literature (Cornell of Cultural Poetics. GAURAV DESAI is chair of the Department of English at Tu African entitled "Crude Matters.59 on Fri. She is at work. to La construction de I'Etat au Senegal and the author of Histoire du Senegal: Le JENNIFER WENZEL professor of English at the taught theory and University of Michigan. MAMADOU DIOUF Columbia to Colonialism: Library (Duke UP.3 Editor's Column 651 bean Program at the University of Michigan. with Donal Cruise O'Brien and Diop. one in leads the Institute of African Studies at a critique of social medicine menting South India in the 1990s. he is the the State and the Communities author of Historians and Histories. which was a Choice Outstanding toryof African and Caribbean representations demic Title for 2004. she previously literatures appear at Stonehill College. He isworking on a book manuscript about the making and d'etat against Hugo Chavez. Cultural Critique. Her articles on postcolonial islamo-wolof et ses peripheries (Maisonneuve. She entitled "Bulletproof: After Movements. 2003). inAlif: Journal among other volumes. He is completing of Taste. This content downloaded from 192. 2003). and Ngugi wa Thiong'o Aca (Cambridge UP. Author of Subject Self-Fashioning and the Colonial coeditor of Postcolonialisms: and Criticism (Rutgers UP. the resurgence of dalit Basheer Chair "The Aura of Blackness: lane University. and Africa. modele (SEPHIS. A historian of West Africa. and Research inAfrican Literatures. 2001) and he is at work on a manu between India An Anthology of Cultural Theory script on literary and cultural connections Gandhi University. collaboratively.108. is the author of many books and articles postcolonial ing in Limbo: Modernism and Caribbean in the fields of studies and the black Atlantic. 1992). 2005). Modern Fiction Studies." of the 2003 coup UP. What For? African Histo riography between CSSSC. 2001)." SUSIE THARU holds the Vaikom Mohammed in the School of Letters at Mahatma ala. 1996). SIMON GIKANDI.107.