Marja Kallasmaa (Tallinn, Estonia

)

Name Studies in Estonia
Although there are already two surveys beginning with the early days of Estonian onomastic studies (J. SIMM 1975, M. KALLASMAA 1995b), it seems proper not to miss the period here either.

1. First studies
1.1. The Learned Estonian Society The Baltic countries witnessed a considerable interest in place names in the first half of the 19th century. Before that a few lists of Estonian place names had been compiled and published by AUGUST WILHELM HUPEL in “Topographische Nachrichten I–III”, Riga 1774–1782. In 1841 the Learned Estonian Society invited pastors to put down place names and send them to the Society. The appeal was repeated in 1868, 1876 and 1879. The pastors remained passive, but in 1888 a list of Estonian estate and parsonage names was submitted by K. KÜGELGEN. At their meetings the Baltic-German historians belonging to the Society discussed the possible etymologies of some Estonian place names, also touching upon their origin. In 1907 W. SCHLÜTER suggested that a full inventory be compiled of the place names used in the territory inhabited by Estonians. Although the collections of the Learned Estonian Society are not significant, the Society served as a hotbed for two predecessors of the Estonian toponymy. Those were MIHKEL WESKE and JAKOB HURT. M. WESKE discussed the names on -vere (1877), J. HURT dealt with those on -st (1876) and their possible genesis. Their conclusions sound quite acceptable. According to HURT, the origin of the Estonian names on -ste lies in tribal names on -ne, which in place names appear in the genitive plural form. Toponymic studies proper did not, however, start in Estonia until the early 20th century. 1.2. Danish Taxation list For Northern Estonia we have lists of village names compiled by the monks who baptised Estonians during the 13th century Danish conquests. The Estonian place names reported in the so-called Liber Census Daniae (LCD) have constantly served material for research and discussion for both toponymists and historians ever since the Baltic Germans (G. M. KNÜPPFER,

C. PAUCKER, J. A. SCHIRREN. W. SCHLÜTER, Fr. G. V. BUNGE). The place names of LCD are also addressed in the first longer study of Estonian place names, produced by JAAN JÕGEVER in 1913: “Mis kõnelevad Liber Census Daniae (Daani hindamise raamatu) kohanimed Eesti rahva minevikust” (What can the place names in Liber Census Daniae [Danish Taxation List] tell us about the history of the Estonian people). The pastor and folklorist MATTIAS JOHANN EISEN discussed the same subject (the eloquence of LCD place names of the Estonian people’s history) in his book “Daani hindamise raamat. Liber Census Daniae” (Danish Taxation List. Liber Census Daniae) published in 1920, and the historian A. WESTRÉN-DOLL touched upon it in the issue 1921: “Die nordestnishe Siedlung” (North-Estonian settlement), as well as did some other authors. In 1933 a fundamental study called “Die Estlandliste der Liber Census Daniae” (The Estonian lists of Liber Census Daniae) was published. Its author PAUL JOHANSEN was the Head of Tallinn City Archives. For him place names served as basis for a whole historical hypothesis. But he also presents a phonetic analysis of the names, their alternative spellings as well as modern forms, and if possible, also their etymologies. As a result his book is rich enough in linguistic information to serve as a welcome handbook for every Estonian toponymist.

Name Studies in Estonia

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In addition, toponymy was one of the interests of the above-mentioned historian A. WESTRÉN-DOLL. His articles “Beiträge zur estnischen Ortsnamen- und Sprachforschung” (Contributions to Estonian toponymy and linguistics; 1921), WESTRÉN-DOLL 1922 on the place names on -vere, and “Grundwörter in estnishen Siedlungsnamen” (Base words in Estonian place names; 1927) on the base words of the Estonian place names lay the foundation to the studying of the non-initial components of those names. 1.3. The contribution of M. J. Eisen During the first period of Estonian independence (1918–1940) attention was paid mainly to some individual names. At the same time foundation was laid to place-name collection. The Academic Mother Tongue Society provided grants for students to collect place names all over the country. Their “harvest” makes up the kernel of the present-day collection of place names kept at the Dialect Archives of the Institute of the Estonian Language. M. J. EISEN collected a considerable number of place names, which, however, he could not thoroughly analyse himself. His collection is kept at the Estonian Literary Museum in Tartu. M. J. EISEN has offered some etymologies: Lalli (1917), Laiuse (1919), Põldsamaa (1921b), Pedja (1923), Pilkuse (1924a), Türi (1927), Uderna (1929), Norra (1931) etc., and reviewed a few types of names, like the Lapi-names (lapi ‘Lappish’): “Lapi Eestis” (Lapi in Estonia; 1913), Soome-names (soome ‘Finnish’): “Soome Eestis” (Soome in Estonia; 1914), Läti-names (läti ‘Latvian, Lettish’): “Läti jäljed Eestis” (Traces of Läti in Estonia; 1921a) in Estonia. The work was carried on by Paul Ariste (1969). M. J. EISEN has also studied some German names transferred to Estonia: “Saksamaalised kohanimed Eestis” (Place names transferred from Germany to Estonia; 1926, added to by PRANTS 1927), and even some such place names of Estonian origin that have survived in the German form, yet are not to be found in Estonian any more: “Eesti keeles kadunud, saksa keeles püsinud eestikeelsed kohanimed” (The Estonian place names disappeared from Estonian, but surviving in German; EISEN 1924b). Notably, from the 13th up to the early 20th century most of the upper class in Estonia was German-speaking. The German names they used for the local estates and townships were not in use among the Estonians. Those names could of course, be of a German origin, but it could also happen that they had absorbed an old Estonian name of the place (the name of a village replaced by the estate, or some other Estonian word). There was, for example, an estate at the parish of Püha on the Isle of Saaremaa, the German name of which, Sall, originates in the Estonian word salu ‘grove’. At the same time

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The Swedes in Estonia M. Julius Mägiste Place names have also inspired the great Estonian linguist JULIUS MÄGISTE to produce such articles as “Eesti kubjas. PAUL JOHANSEN has published a study on the Swedish settlement in Estonia with place names discussed as well: “Nordische Mission. the Ersan pando or the Mokshan panda ‘hill’ (1957a). Although some of the etymologies suggested by PAUL ARISTE have been called into question. 1. the foundation of Reval. sound’. Thereby he started a line of research. The two monographs by PER WIESELGREN. 1966b).4. PAUL ARISTE has found likely etymologies for a few opaque Estonian place names. Pandja. J. Mahtra (1957b) Cozzo (1960). A few names are of Estonian-Swedish origin. soome väylä ja Väinämöinen” (The Estonian väin ‘strait. though. and PAUL JOHANSEN. In his etymological article on the place names of the Reigi and Pühalepa parishes on the Isle of Hiiumaa PAUL ARISTE also deals with some Swedish place names pointing out the Estonian substratum in them (1938). however. Being a well-rounded linguist with an expert knowledge of many languages.5 Marja Kallasmaa there is an estate called Kaali in Estonian after its owner’s German family name Gahlen. while the other addresses Vormsi. 1. “Eesti väin ‘Sund.5. Revals Gründung und die Schwedensiedlung in Estland” (The Nordic mission. One of them discusses eastern Harjumaa together with Naissaar (later. HEINO GUSTAVSON [1978a] has added to the toponymy of the Isle of Naissaar in Northern Estonia). and “Viron paikannimistä Põlva ja 1200-luvun Walgatabalwe” (The Estonian place name Põlva and the 1200-years-old Walgatabalwe. 1970). Fin kupjas. 1966a). the principal points of the article have not lost their value. yet for him place names remained a side-line. Finnish väylä and Väinämöinen. the fourth biggest West-Estonian island. are exclusively dedicated to the Swedish settlement and Swedish place names in Estonia. 1951). Abroad. which was developed later by Professors PAUL ARISTE and PER WIESELGREN from Tartu University. both cognate and others. 1967). such as Pandivere. sm kupjas. “Über die ältesten Aufzeichnungen des Estnischen und Livischen” (On the earliest written records of Estonian and Livonian. which was inhabited by Swedes until World War II. cf. Meerenge’. Pandju. the Gubbesele of Henry of Livonia. like Ankergrund. Lätimaa Henriku Gubbesele” (The Estonian kubjas. EISEN introduced the subject of Swedish settlement and Swedish place names into Estonian onomastics (EISEN 1922) by presenting names on Rootsi (rootsi ‘Swedish’). In . and the Swedish settlement in Estonia.

The basic list . One of the reasons is the fact that the Estonian name collections have not been sufficiently studied yet. The book is based on the place-name collection of M. 2. 1981). less to Germany and Russia. as well as an Estonian-German name list. as the collections available deny any other approach. Despite the fact that not all his etymologies are reliable. The list was compiled by The Estonian Historical Archives to provide a handy source of reference to anybody interested either in the archive materials or in earlier German and Russian publications. MÄGISTE supports the guess that Walgatabalve could rather have been situated in the parish of Vastseliina. as only those estates were included that existed at the moment. J.1. *** For onomastic theory most Estonian linguists have hitherto been looking up to Finland and Sweden. The name has still remained a tricky one to localise. ENN ERNITS (1978) brings some arguments for Valga. This publication contains Estonian estate names as used in different languages. Estate names Good source material can be found in “Eesti ala mõisate nimestik” (List of estates situated on the Estonian territory. where a village and mill called Valge(n)palo still existed in the 16th–17th centuries. Most studies deal with individual names.Name Studies in Estonia 5 the last mentioned article J. As for general theory. the principles have been taken over from abroad rather than devised at home. or even to the whole parish. Until most recently the population of Estonian place names has been addressed as a homogeneous set. “Eesti ala mõisate nimestik” (List of estates on the Estonian territory) contains a basic list with the German names of the estates presented in alphabetical order and provided with some additional data on the estates. Monographs and articles addressing the whole Estonian territory The book “Etymologishe Untersuchung über estnishe Ortsnamen” (An etymological study of Estonian place names) by LAURI KETTUNEN (1955) has become a desktop manual for any student of Estonian toponymy. MÄGISTE argues against LAURI KETTUNEN’s opinion that the Walgatabalve occurring in the Heinrici Chronicon Lyvoniae could be associated with the parish and township name Põlva. The name lists of the directories were also incomplete (particularly as for dairy farms). or gave them with numerous orthographic mistakes. EISEN. The old directories previously used either missed the Estonian names of the estates. Beside Põlva it has been suggested to have once belonged to the town of Valga. 1 2. the book is a bulky source of relevant information.

Both the Baltic-German and Estonian scholars have disputed. the relations of family names with lands and farmyards. . GEA TROSKA supports her work by abundant maps. SIMM. After all. the relation of the . farm names have remained more in shadow. PALL has treated the names occurring in the 17 th–18thcentury sources as personal names. 1984). for example. following the example of Evald Blumfeldt’s approach to the historical names of Saaremaa. Nevertheless. the monograph has an ethnographic rather than linguistic bias. This view is in harmony with an earlier theory released by PAUL ALVRE. “Eesti mõisad” (Estonian estates. as a possibility at least. KALLASMAA prefers to regard them as farm names ever since the 17 th century. name types and name sets in villages. Estonian name. 1994).pere and -rahva components in the farm names. parish. has found the earliest information on farm names in the 17 thcentury materials. The concrete decision has depended on the researcher’s opinion as well as on the results of analysis. Unlike village names that attracted the historians’ attention in the 19th century.2. whereas M. GEA TROSKA dedicates separate chapters to the names of isolated households. The notes usually concern the year of estate foundation and name changes. Farm names The Estonian farm names have been discussed in the monograph “Talunimed läbi aegade” (Farm names throughout ages. the development of family names into farm names. 1995) by the ethnographer GEA TROSKA. The farm names have not been subjected to any linguistic analysis. and notes. country. Her conclusion reads that the development of family names into farm names was a lengthy process with regional differences. V.vere component now known in village names. if any. An onomastic student with a linguistic background will certainly welcome the book for its abundant background information as well as many an early mention of farm names found in archive records. GEA TROSKA argues that -pere belonged to the name of an older unit that could later develop into the . Two revised editions of the book have hitherto been published: “Eesti ala mõisate nimestik” (List of estates on the Estonian territory. while the oldest layer of farm names still accessible are names of isolated households. even some regional differences in the time of farm-name emergence should not be excluded.5 Marja Kallasmaa represents a table including the German name. The book is also valuable for its ability to inspire the reader to think more about the possible extralinguistic circumstances of name giving. J. whether the surnames preceding the first names in historical documents should be treated as place (farm) names or personal names. As for the -pere and -vere components. 2.

P. concerning mainly the place names of Järvamaa. V. Valdek Pall A real pathfinder in Estonian toponymy is VALDEK PALL who took up the regional trend once started by PAUL ARISTE (1938). V. Paadrema should be regarded as compound names the second component of which is -nurme (PALL 1969a). This . while Mäense and Peanse go together with such names as Sootaguse or Jõetaguse. the common features characterising the whole Estonian-speaking territory as well as the mutual relations between the toponyms of different areas. Considering the contemporary state of Estonian toponymy. Võiera belong to the names on -vere). Põhara. The material V. should be classified among compound names. requires a detailed analysis of individual names to enable the researcher to determine the type of the name (e. trying to identify and partly etymologise them. V. This. Valistre. ALVRE addresses them county by county. Historical names PAUL ALVRE in his article “Eesti ja liivi aines Henriku Liivimaa kroonikas.1. and to tell derivative suffixes from contracted words. “Not until we have concrete studies on place names of various regions can we delve into the general rules of the emergence and development of the Estonian place names.g. 1985) discusses the place names occurring in a wellknown 13th-century chronicle. The place names of the Estonian territory. 1967). Holstre. Oara. p. In addition. This is an area traversed by the present-day boundary between the Eastern and NorthEstonian Central dialects. 1960). He says. PALL has set a great value on the studying of place-name types and their areal distribution. Kohanimed” (Estonian and Livonian material in the Heinrici Chronicon Livoniae. Regional studies 3. A few articles have been written by MADIS NORVIK. Langerma.3. PALL chose to analyse comes from his native region of Northern Tartumaa. 5). Nedrema. to find out whether the name is a simple or compound one. the name typology and the methods of name collection (1962. III. in turn. 1963.. Kurese and Vääna (<*väγen + oja). their differences and the relative age of the toponymic differences of dialects and dialect groups” (PALL 1969a. After a couple of articles on the state of the art. Place names. 3 3. for example. summarising the earlier results and adding his own opinions. which occur in the Heinrici Chronicon Lyvoniae belong to the earliest written records of Estonian toponyms. PALL decided to start from regional studies the results of which could serve as source material for allEstonian generalisations.Name Studies in Estonia 5 2. PALL published an article “Liitsõnalistest kohanimedest põhisõnaga saar” (On compound place names with saar ‘isle’ as the base word.

000 file cards). nominal and genitive compounding. the basic inflection of place names etc. representing a place-name lexicon with the entries ordered alphabetically. anthroponymic and appellative equivalents. II (1977). The etymologies suggested by V. PALL has discussed the structure of place names (incl. The name list has been compiled mainly from the place-name files of the Institute of Language and Literature (now Institute of the Estonian Language) and the Mother Tongue Society (cca 27. PALL has also produced a two-volume monograph on the place names of Northern Tartumaa: I (1969a). f) earlier etymologies suggested. PALL addresses some aspects of formal place-name structure. and the texts of the Eastern dialect published in the series “Eesti murded” (Estonian dialects). e) comparative toponymic material from the same area as well as adjoining ones. attempting to clarify the origin of the names of water-bodies in the area. The first part gives thousands of etymologies. Although the author does not consider his treatise exhaustive. MOORA. in dialects also ‘a higher spot in the swamp or a marshy grassland’. His approach in the article “Veekogude nimedest endisel Põhja-Tartumaal” (On the names of waterbodies in the former territory of Northern Tartumaa. In numerous articles V. the monograph is based on extensive material. or ‘a grove in a swamp or a meadow’. 1961). g) author’s etymology. PALL reflect a brilliant knowledge of language history and careful consideration of every . Each name has been given an entry like in a dictionary. while names of natural objects are in the minority. As is typical of V. the article — being based on extensive data — has played a fundamental innovative role in the Estonian toponymy. In his article “Eesti kohanimede struktuurist” (On the structure of Estonian place names. c) location and short character of the object (if necessary). including Southern Tartumaa. the proportion of simple and compound names. he hardly ever confines himself exclusively to the material of Northern Tartumaa. compound. The work is part of a complex study including also “Peipsimaa etnilisest ajaloost” (On the ethnic history of the Peipsi region) by A. which add historical background and more weight to the conclusions. Viljandimaa. b) simplified pronunciation. Järvamaa. was object-based. simple. Doing that. PALL.5 Marja Kallasmaa was dedicated to a special kind of place names with the determinant saar ‘isle’. if necessary. which had previously approached place-name structure with traditional methods. finding examples to support his arguments from Western Estonia as well as from Virumaa and elsewhere. as well as suffixed ones). V. 1968a) V. by using archive records. Material of comparison has been drawn from various regions outside Northern Tartumaa. containing a) the literary form of the name. including archive records. Most of the names presented are farm names and village names. and Virumaa. altogether over 600 pp. d) earlier mention in historical documents.

Kõssimaa. ?-kõnnu > -ku: Adraku. -Jüri > -ri: Ennuri. ?-oja > -a: Ruupa. especially by irregular contractions. The vere-names with two-syllable first components ending in a vowel are classified phonetically into groups with a long or short first syllable.and s-words. Rapla. -valla: Jägala. -Jaagu > -ku: Peebuku. -küla: Uugla. e. -Juhani > -ni: Vahini. or the way 5 . g. He has served toponymic research with abundant names linguistically elaborated. V. in which -ste can be associated with the genitive plural form of the so-called ne. the occurrence of toponymic formants and suffixes in the names (a considerable part of the paragraph. He identifies the first components ending in . Jaaneri. Kuremaa. Their first components enable the author to classify at least part of them.vere. analytic part provides a survey of the phonetic aspect of the place names: Chapter I deals with the toponymic developments caused by phonetic laws as well as irregular changes. Venneni. A separate discussion is given to the vere-names with the attributive component on *i. Matseri. The latter subject includes a larger treatment of the names on . result of the activity. Part one of the monograph is supplied with a German summary. Chapter Three on Principles of Name-Giving is divided into two parts. The determinants and their areal distribution are compared to the dialect word underlying the name component and its areal distribution. -ma(a) > -võhma: Kassema.Name Studies in Estonia 5 aspect. The determinants are grouped semantically either according to similar notions or objects. Attribute-wise. V. -la > locative suffix -la: Karula. again. -vilja: Vetla etc. V. activity. his name. PALL divides place names into two genetic groups: a) names motivated by the characteristic features of the object. Chapter Two is dedicated to place-name structure. -aseme > -(a)sme: Kodasme. -Jaani > -ni: Mõisani. the basic inflection of place names. He has also repeatedly emphasised how important it is to analyse place names linguistically before using them to support any argument. deals with vere-names). The second. -mäe > -ma(a): Annamaa. -Mardi > -di: Arudi. as these are the constituents indicating what places have been considered worth giving a name to.st (~ -s > -st) with place names ending in -ste. -Reinu > -ri: Pikari. -jala: Sadala. Another group of names ending in -vere have their first component ending in -k. The conclusions are based on the abundant archive material presented in Part One. Determinants are very important to study. In connection with formal structural aspects he discusses the relations of simple and compound names. one of them dealing with determinants and the other with attributes. discussed earlier by PAUL ARISTE and PAUL ALVRE. PALL has released a few models of the development of toponymic formants and certain name parts that are homogeneous with suffixes. Tiirika. PALL addresses the nominal and genitive compounding of name constituents. and b) names motivated by the settler. which should be a personal-name suffix.

some Russian loans in the toponyms of Northern Tartumaa: “Vene elemente Põhja-Tartumaa toponüümikas” (Some Russian elements occurring in the toponyms of Northern Tartumaa. PALL lies in different layers and groups of names. particularly on the toponyms of Northern Tartumaa. PALL points out that their areal distributions differ depending on the position of the constituent in the name. “Kohanimede struktuurist ja uurimisest” (On the structure and research of place names. As for the comparative approach to appellatives and name constituents. Attention is also paid to the attribute-determinant relations and the fact that some determinants require certain attributes. 1966). 1970a). V. it sums up the whole toponymic research done in Estonia hitherto and its conclusions apply to a much wider area than the title may suggest. 1968b). 1965). but also on the whole Estonian territory. In general. “Maastikuesemete nimed ja nimetused” (Names and appellatives of lanscape objects. Separate articles have been dedicated to the names on -vere: “Märkmeid vere-lõpuliste kohanimede käsitlemise kohta” (Some notes on the treatment of place names ending . 1968a). “Eesti kohanimede struktuurist” (On the structure of Estonian place names. the study follows the diachronic principle. 1991). V. PALL’s articles “Maahanmuuton jälkiä Pohjois-Tartumaan paikannimissä” . “Die geographischen Termini in der estnishen Mikrotoponymie” (Geographical terms in Estonian microtoponymy. The motivating attributes are discussed in semantic groups based on the underlying appellatives.5 Marja Kallasmaa the object is used. however. areal distribution of place names: “Muutamien virolaisten paikannimityyppien levinnäisyydestä” (On the areal distribution of some Estonian place name types. 1970b). PALL. The relations of settlement history and toponymy are also discussed in V. PALL has also published numerous articles on special problems. Another interest of V. 1992). 1972). emphasises the necessity to study the names of most common natural objects. V. particularly those that seem somewhat special or mysterious for whatever reason. but the chapter devoted to areal distribution comprises some place names that are considered in their modern form only.vere. Part Two of the monograph carries a comprehensive summary in Russian and German. Although the study is regionally bound. and in the alternation and areal distribution of the names. The relations of place-name components and appellatives have been discussed in the articles “Looduslike objektide nimedest” (On names of natural objects. Most of the Estonian place name studies are concentrated on settlement names. “Toponüümide leviku vaatlusi” (An areal view of the distribution of certain toponyms. touching — in passing — upon linguistic name models and providing some statistics.

1970c).g.. and defends the author’s earlier statements on the names ending in .) V. as well as in the abovementioned treatise on the Russian element in the place names of Northern Tartumaa. läti. V. the relation of . As for a possible extralinguistic name-model. Kunda. Raigastvere. containing such constituents as Viru. poola ‘Polish’). V. Vaidavere) was published in 1963.vere. PAUL ALVRE in his survey has reached the conclusion that the element may 7 . He also observes place names deriving from such ethnonyms as are connected with migration (vadja ‘Votic’. represents the author’s linguistic model of place names K1 + K2 (+K3). Vaidavere” (Place names Imukvere. and place names of Russian origin. (The singular East-Estonian location of Northern Tartumaa has placed it in a unique position as far as name loans are concerned. raises the problem of an extralinguistic name model. The names on -vere has constituted a problem ever since the beginning of Estonian toponymy. Narva.rahva component at the end of farm names). PALL also considers it possible that some place names have travelled from one place to another with internal migration. where K is a declinable word.ste and -si in place names. V. In his opinion. soome ‘Finnish’. the older layers of linguistic loans from the Baltic. Germanic. 1976b). PALL’s interest in them began early: his article “Imukvere. 1997) is based on his own articles of the recent years. PALL points out that considering the present-day level of Estonian toponymy the material for studying settlement history is relatively scarce. and the so-called plurale tantum used in Southern Estonia. V. Raigastvere. and *Ugala. Saaremaa. PALL considers the preparatory work done still insufficient. lätlane ‘Latvian’. and Tartu. in which place names are searched for traces of the onetime Finnish immigration. The study deals with plural forms occurring in place names. and “Asustusajaloo ja toponüümika seostest” (On the relations between settlement history and toponymy. which besides recapitulating the material of the articles presents some new ideas. and the farm names Kabala. the . The names in question are toponyms inferring to another place of origin.Name Studies in Estonia 5 (Traces of immigration in the place names of Northern Tartumaa. rootsi ‘Swedish’. Part Two of the monograph also contains a chapter on settlement history. Place names ending in this component frequently occur in northern Viljandimaa and northern Tartumaa. and Slavic languages could well have included some name loans. He also points out the necessity to interpret the areal distribution of some stems used in place names in the light of settlement history. PALL’s third monograph on place names “L’em’tn’e” (Names. yet its semantic character does not explain its specific use in the place names (e. Harju. This may be the case if a household word occurs only in the toponyms of a certain region.

and Tebrova. Lädina. to his previous place of living. The reason for the difference of opinion lies in that P. (A similar conclusion was reached by V. The studies of J. His etymologically inclined study of the settlement toponymy of the Võnnu parish has been published only partly (1975a). 1992). PAUL ARISTE suggested a third option of -vere < *vēri ‘deciduous forest’ (1963). The historian A. SIMM have yielded numerous articles. 1970) and “Piirissaare nimed” (Names usage in Piirissaar. verge’ or pere ‘family. 1965. VASSAR (1966) has criticised the Johansen-based hypothesis advanced by V. Jaak Simm The regional approach was also pursued by JAAK SIMM. 1971b) J. This started a discussion where P. Ostrova. PALL [1970a]. In “Märkmeid endise Satseri valla külanimedest” (Notes on the village names of the former volost of Satseri. ALVRE — on the basis of some 13 th-century records — considers it possible that in those times the vere-names could have occurred in the nominative form (1985. 1973). in which V. Meža. More than one of his articles deal with microtoponyms: “Mõningaid märkmeid Setumaa mikrotoponüümidest” (Some notes on the microtoponys of Setumaa. . Selsar. offering a new etymology on the Finnish vierre ‘burnt-over clearing for cultivation’ that might correspond to the Estonian veere > -vere (1986. Piirissaar. P. Recently. That one meets effective criticism in the “L’em’tn’e” book. In his article “Slaavi geograafilised terminid Setumaa kohanimedena” (Slavic geographical terms as place names in Setumaa. Even the Russian name of the peasant need not serve as an absolute criterion of his ethnic origin. Selise. Peresnika. 1971a) he points out that the note Russ(e) or Reusz following a peasant’s name need not always indicate his ethnic origin. SIMM 1972c. Porka. PALL. 3. ALVRE’s sympathy towards the pere-etymology (1963. household’ (1963). Selisje. 1966b). Solsar. 1986. PALL proves that the Estonian genitive particle -vere could by no means originate in the Finnish nominal vierre. PALL’s Weske–Johansen-based veereetymology (1965. while studying the place names of Northern Tartumaa). Several articles address the earlier village names of the former Satseri volost (1970). Lobotka. Intensive immigration from Russia to the Isle of Piirissaar did not begin until the 18 th century after all. Borka. ALVRE has given up his former conviction. according to which the villages with verenames were smaller than the rest. 1966) was confronted by V. instead. SIMM addresses the following place names of Setumaa: Korski. and Klitsaar. Selisja.2. 1992) — a belief that VALDEK PALL refuses to subscribe to. referring. J.5 Marja Kallasmaa have derived either from veer ‘brink. SIMM discusses such names as Ž elutško.

SIMM wrote a more generalising treatise “Veel pääks-. SIMM has produced numerous surveys and popular writings. peeks-names. peeksnimedest” (More on pääks-. 1963) on the variants of the name component pääks(es) and the Estonian meanings of the appellative. d) full translation. or nickname. Accordingly. c) dropping of the final component. 1972b. J. 1975c) presents a brief history of toponymic studies in Estonia. 1978b) and “Die von Personennamen abgeleiteten Gutsnamen im ehemaligen Kreise Järvamaa” (Person-based estate names from the former district Järvamaa. “Nimeteaduse põhimõisteid” (Some basic terms of name studies. SIMM deal with more general problems: “Zur Geschichte der estnischen Ortsnamenforschung” (On the history of Estonian place name studies. J. A separate discussion is given to the translation of Otepää and Vastseliina. Some articles by J. 1972a). b) partial translation. the earliest record available to the author. and the Russian element in the settlement names of the Võnnu parish (1971). the Estonian place names could have been treated in any of the following ways: a) full citation. SIMM has been an article published by ADA AMBUS in 1960. 1980). SIMM has published on the farm names of the Võnnu parish and the microtoponyms of Setumaa.Name Studies in Estonia 5 the alternation and decay of the settlement names of the Võnnu parish (1971c). Altogether A. 1976) introduces onomastic terminology. AMBUS calls the reader’s attention to some Old-Russian historical records.3. particularly on South-Estonian place names. In the article “Lõuna-eesti kohanimesid Pihkva kroonikais” (South-Estonian place names in the Pskov Chronicles. in which she has discovered four different approaches to Estonian place names. 1960) A. and the period when the estate belonged to the person whose name it now bears. 3. Another source of inspiration to J. the Slavic and Russian element in the toponyms of Setumaa (1971b. 1974). SIMM (1973) provides a few additions to the article. AMBUS has addressed 27 place names. Both articles follow a similar pattern consisting of name entries that provide the estate name in Modern Estonian and in German. J. In addition. location of the estate (village and parish). Inspired by LEO TIIK’s article “Ühest kohanimest loodusteaduslikus aspektis” (On a place name in the natural-historical level. J. surname. The entries have been classified according to whether the name is still in use or not. Also. In several appeals he has encouraged the Estonian people to collect toponymy and personal names. Heino Gustavson HEINO GUSTAVSON has written two articles on the estate names based on personal names: “Die von Personennamen abgeleiteten Gutsnamen im ehemaligen Kreise Harjumaa” (Personal-name based estate names from the former district of Harjumaa. 9 . whether the estate name has been derived from a Christian name.

discusses a great number of estate names. Germ. Est. 1968b). less so semantically. > High Germ. Est..6 Marja Kallasmaa and what is its German equivalent. that have reached High German via Russian have retained something of their Russianised form. In a short article “Namenkundliche Miszellen aus dem 17. UUSTALU observes that the Estonian place names that arrived in High German via Low German have often changed phonetically. many places were given German names that were used in parallel with the Estonian ones right into the 20th century. 3. . K. defended in 1972).” (Some onomastic miscellanies from the 17 th century.. though. Those Estonian names.g. occurring in the Livonian History by Johann Renner. Ümera [river]. High Germ. Conclusions are presented in a separate paragraph at the end of each entry. most of which were possessor’s names. however. > Russ. The other route lies over Russian: either Est. which was dedicated mainly to estate names. > Russ. Koidu Uustalu and Southern Estonia After the Knights of the Sword had conquered Estonia in the 13 th century. It should be pointed out. began to spread in Germany in the 12th–13th centuries. Sonneburg). High Germ. Low Germ. UUSTALU takes another look at the Estonian place names taken over into German. Such names. and “Niederdeutsche Ortsnamen und Gewässernamen in Johann Renners Livländischen Historien” (Low German place names and hydronyms. The German-based place names of southern Estonia have been discussed in the partly published dissertation by KOIDU UUSTALU “Lõuna-Eesti saksakeelne toponüümia” (German-language toponyms in Southern Estonia. “Eesti laene endisaegsete saksakeelsete kohanimede seas” (Estonian loans among the former German-based place names.g. or Est. Jh. Stating that many Estonian place names have travelled into High German via Middle Low German that was used in the Baltic area up to the 16 th–17th centuries (e. In the late 1960s and early 1970s she published several articles on that subject. Jaama. Karksi. (e. > Low Germ. 1970). The German translation loans of Estonian estate names are addressed in her articles “Übersetzte Güternamen in der deutschsprachigen Toponymie Südestlands” (Translated estate names among the German-based toponyms used in Southern Estonia. Ümer ah. 1978) K. Karkus. when family names were introduced there. that the author’s conclusions are based on rather little material. 1968a). Est. “Mõisate ja mõisnike nimedest lähtunud kohanimesid Lõuna-Eestis” (Place names based on the names of estates and landlords. Est. 1975). indicating to whom the estate belonged. as used in Southern Estonia. > High. High Germ. Jama)..4. Maasi. The last mentioned article deals with place names occurring in a LowGerman chronicle of the 16th century.

As L. 1978c). Emmaste. The same region remained in the centre of his interest even later in many articles that most of the earlier 1 . 1982). Part of it has been published in the form of articles in which the determinants and final constituents of the microtoponyms are compared with appellatives (1978a. “Perekonnanimesid Hiiumaalt” (Some family names from Hiiumaa. 1977). Marja Kallasmaa and Western Estonia The unpublished thesis by MARJA KALLASMAA (defended 1981. L. and “Kohanimesid Hiiumaalt. which certainly has not spared the names from distortion. “Mehenimesid Hiiumaalt” (Some male names of Hiiumaa. 3. Tiik (1970). dwelling on name translation and folk etymology. LEO TIIK has confined his name studies to the western Estonian islands. Автореферат диссертации на соискание ученой степени кандидата наук. abstract Структура Эстонской микротопонимии [на материале западного диалекта]. helping to etymologise the place names of the islands and Western Estonia. His series of articles on the personal and place names of Hiiumaa and Saaremaa has served an important landmark for later name studies (1963). 1979) K. in which family names entail some toponymic information. Emmaste” (Some place names from Hiiumaa. “Hiiumaa Leiger” (Leiger of Hiiumaa.Name Studies in Estonia 6 In the article “Transpositionsphänomene und intersprachliche Interferenz in der deutschsprachigen Toponymie Estlands” (Transpositional phenomena and linguistic interference as manifested in the German-based toponymy of Estonia. 1969). 1976a). 1970) in which the author addresses 47 village names of the Emmaste parish (coinciding with the Agabe or Sõru administrative district mentioned in records since the 16th century). “Nimesid Saaremaalt XVI ja XVII sajandist” (Some names from the 16th–17th sentury Saaremaa. place names included. “Saaremaa kontakte mehenimede alal” (Some contacts of Saaremaa as revealwd in the field of male names. The author has also surveyed the use of the term mikrotoponüüm in the contemporary Soviet and Estonian onomasiological literature (1978b). “Isikunimede mugandid Saaremaal XVI ja XVII sajandil” (Adaptations of male names from 16 th–17 century. UUSTALU addresses problems connected with the fact that the names occurring in the 12 th–16th-century Low-German records. Тарту 1981) deals with the structure of the microtoponyms used in the Western dialect of the Estonian language. Leo Tiik.5. have been transposed into High German later. The article discusses the lexico-semantic transposition of Estonian place names from Estonian into Low German as well as High German. 1969). TIIK’s favourite subject was the settlement history of the Estonian second largest island Hiiumaa (see TIIK 1966). TIIK was one of the best specialists on archives. 1976b). his articles carry a lot of historical and archive material. Enn Koit.

Vol. jalg : jala ‘foot’). L. “Salu ja selg Saaremaa liitsõnalistes kohanimedes” (Salu and selg in the copound place names of Saaremaa. 1970. 1966). II (2000a) has been produced by MARJA KALLASMAA. Ösel and Ojamaa. The book “Saaremaa kohanimed”. 1968). comparative material from other regions. 1999) has been written by V. Ösel ja Ojamaa” (Place names Saaremaa. brings a list of references to earlier studies of Estonian toponymy. PALL that. PALL who demonstrates that Ojamaa. derives from the appellative åj (Pl. Vol. Every place name making a headword of “Saaremaa kohanimed”. I is followed by its pronunciation in a simplified transcription (if necessary). I (Place names of the Isle of Saaremaa. as most of them are primary names in the present-day Saaremaa. A short contribution to the subject “Saaremaa. Relying on archival data. His conclusions are based on his extensive self-made files on the villages. Secondary names have been carefully selected to present . PALL. A longer study “Saaremaa kohanimed”. except if the latter is well known. I is an interim result of the ongoing regional studies of Estonian place names. TIIK has shown convincingly that Estonian village and farm names may well contain traces of old Germanic personal names. “Saaremaa kohanimed”. Vol. Vol. the study contains more microtoponyms. 1996). Later on the author was specifically interested in the Emmaste parish. Unlike the above-mentioned volume by V. 1962). I by V. “Saaremaa jala-liitelistest kohanimedest” (On Saaremaa place names with -jala as suffix. farms. households. archive dates (if available). The work is modeled after “Põhja-Tartumaa kohanimed” (Place names of Northen Tartumaa ). landlords etc. åjar) that means ‘island’ in the Gotland dialect. “Mõningaid Saaremaa kohanimesid” (Some place names of Saaremaa. the villages (in a few cases just parishes) where the name occurs. yet was able to publish but a few articles: “Valjala kohanimesid” (Some place names of Valjala. Vol. which is the name used by the Saaremaa people to refer to Gotland. or a phonetically closesounding appellative or personal name that the toponym may be related with. 1995).129 full and reference entries. as well as the most likely equivalent(s) among common or personal names. estates. in its turn. notably in his work entitled “Emmaste talust kuni Emmaste kihelkonnani” (From Emmaste farm to Emmaste parish.6 Marja Kallasmaa Estonian farm names derive from personal names. Vol. I (528 pp) includes 11. ENN KOIT started a systematic study of the place names occurring the Isle of Saaremaa.

The other association. Chapter Three deals with place-name constituents under two headings: “Determinandid ja järelkomponendid” (Determinative and non-initial constituents) and “Atribuudid” (Attributes). is characterised by most small objects being named after village or farm.) gives the phonetic changes that might have affected the place names introduced in the first chapter. A place-name association can be defined as the whole set of names used within a village. The second part of the chapter concentrates on the plural forms in Saaremaa toponymy. The latter part is structured analogously to the respective chapter in V. a-. PALL’s monograph. and iplurals in place names are analysed. agricultural ones. The second chapter is about place-name systems and structure. one of which deals with phonology and other with the rest of the changes. when the landholdings were consolidated. Consequently. as in Saaremaa folketymological modifications often depart from personal names of LowGerman/Friesian origin. II (222 pp. the difference between the place names of Saaremaa and those of the mainland lies not in the structure of an individual name (attribute + determinative). Vol. plus perhaps a couple of names for natural objects. In this study. especially those differing from the literary Estonian standard. farms and a great number of natural objects. and the substitution of parts of the toponyms. the irregular shortening of the non-initial components. particularly flourishing today. The occurrence of the de-. The other and more recent kind consists mainly of a village name and farm names. e-. The first and older of the two kinds of associations is made up of names for the village.Name Studies in Estonia 6 only those names that have a component of linguistic interest. first and foremost. esp. In connection with attributes the so-called problem of German personal names in Estonian toponyms has been raised once again. which is the longest list of names completely familiar to an ideal inhabitant of that village. The first association found in Saaremaa still reflects the strip-farming system used until the mid-19th century. Two place-name associations are hypothesised to exist in Estonian. names collected from Saaremaa are compared to Finnish toponyms of Germanic origin as well as to Germanic 3 . but in the type of name association. “Saaremaa kohanimed”. including. This chapter is divided into two parts.

1998) has been published by REELIKA KIKKAS. 1995a. Hitherto he has written on corpus planning and published toponymic material: her articles “ (S)orava(lõ) paiganimmist” (On the place names (S)orava(lõ).000 name cards. 1991. 1987. 3.6 Marja Kallasmaa personal names. 1986. 1990a. SIMM is confined to just one parish of Southern Tartumaa). There is still no comparable study. for example. 1988a. M. Later.6. the names of other peoples in Estonian place names (1997. 1989. M. KALLASMAA has discussed the role of folk etymology in the history of Estonian place names (1998a. Now that we have two extensive studies. on Southern Estonia (the thesis by J. 1998b). 1999) suggest corrections into some official place names. 1996). A short contribution called “Võrumaa kohanimekujudest” (On the shapes of Võrumaa place names. Based on the author’s diploma thesis “Rõuge kihelkona Krabi valla kohanimed” (Place names of Krabi volost in Rõugr parish). Part One reflects the material of abundant records from the Estonian Historical Archives. Hence the dire necessity for more regional studies. 1990b. 1992. 1988b. . we can see that the toponymic populations of different Estonian regions differ more than has hitherto been believed. with a more or less similar methodological basis. For this study M. Evar Saar and Southern Estonia After JAAK SIMM’s untimely departure the South-Estonian place names have attracted the interest of EVAR SAAR. 1995c. the article “Laiast ilmast lainatuq võrdlõvaq kotussõnimeq Võrumaal” (Borrowed from the wide world: comparative place names occuring in Võrumaa. 1998) and “Eksitavaid kohanimesid uuel Setomaa kaardil” (Some misleading place names occuring in the new map of Setomaa. EVAR SAAR is compiler of the data base of the place names from the parishes Räpina and Vastseliina in Southern Estonia. the publication discusses the literary and the dialectal elements in the place names of Võrumaa. 1978b. 1999a). KALLASMAA has analysed 40. KALLASMAA has also published numerous articles on the place names of Western Estonia and Saaremaa (1978a. Their gist has been recapitulated in the above-mentioned monograph. 1985. and the reflections of farmer identity in Estonian place names (2000b). the Piur(u)-names in Saaremaa and Finland (1999b). 2000) points out comparative place names (microtoponyms) borrowed to Võrumaa from some other parts of the world. covering different (eastern and western) parts of Estonia.

-vere and Paul Alvre As a sideline. 5 . L. 1986) P. ALVRE argues for his own pere-etymology. The same year as VALDEK PALL he began studying the vere-names. PÕLDMÄE: < ochros ‘ochre. VASSAR: Otsrävälä (1939). 1965) and “Tehkem vahet olulise ja ebaolulise vahel” (Let us make a difference between the relevant and the irrelevant. J. P. ALVRE has touched upon that issue earlier. Briefly. ALVRE’s article “Kuidas on tekkinud vere-lõpulised kohanimed” (What is the origin of place names ending -vere. 4. hypothesising that Perm < põrm ‘earth’. ALVRE suggests that the name component -vere derives from the word pere. ALVRE 1984) addresses a toponym that occurs only once in historical records. he launches a new etymology of . In the articles “Veelgi vere-lõpuliste kohanimede käsitlemisest” (Even more on the treatment of place names ending -vere. which is the German name for the parish of Kullamaa. yet has inspired several earlier speculations: P. toponymy has long been pursued by PAUL ALVRE. In “Kohanimede -vere loodusobjekti tähistajana” (The -vere component of place names as the signifier of a natural object. In his article “Kas põranda ja põrmu kaudu Permi?” (To Perm via põrand ‘floor’ and põrm ‘dust’?. The years 1965–1966 bring along a dispute with V. He has addressed both individual names as well as place name types. 1963) provides a survey of the research history of those names and their earlier etymologies.1. 1981) P. yet those seem less probable than the version supported by MERI and PÕLDMÄE. P. as the latter is based on rebu ‘yolk’ referring to yellow colour that. The article “Veel kohanimest Ocrielae” (More on the place name Ocrielae. ALVRE (2000a) regards Goldenbeck. however. reported earlier in this paper.and the genitive ending -n was still in use.le.Name Studies in Estonia 6 4. Publications on individual names or name types Writings discussing just one or a few names are extremely numerous. PAUL ALVRE proposes two Estonian-based etymologies. bog ore’ (1983). as an Estonian-based toponym bearing traces of the times when the Estonian -lδ. would translate into medieval Latin as ‘ochre’ (1976). even if we leave out newspaper articles. The vierre etymology has been exposed to international discussion since the Finnish publication of ALVRE (1992). ALVRE gives a thorough analysis of the semantics of the words põrand ‘floor’ and põrm ‘dust’ in the Finnic languages. P. P. which are often based on fantasy or opinions without any scientific ground. P.vere: < vierre. in turn.had not yet been assimilated into . MERI considers Ocrielae a translation equivalent of Rävälä. JOHANSEN: personal name < Oteri (1933). too (2000b). PALL. 1986). A.

filth’. L. containing numerous quotations of earlier records of place names. TARVEL 1978) is dedicated to four names supposed to be of Estonian origin: i. responds by correcting more than one erroneous interpretation. i silu (?Saaremaa.6 4. runo (?Ruhnu). dead soil. and KAPLINSKI (1976). among else. The onomatologist JAAK SIMM surmises in his article of 1979 that Mõrtsuk(as) ‘murderer’ could have been a surname given to a farmer for a concrete murder committed in the 8th century. More on individual names Marja Kallasmaa The name Lyndanise that occurs in the Livonian Chronicles and is usually considered an old name of Tallinn has inspired numerous articles. He recognises both the Estonian-based explanation Lindanise < Lindanase < *Litnanasen ‘place of town’ suggested by Enn Roos and certain Germanic etymologies as likely. and also Lit. suggesting that the järv-component of Järvamaa is a Baltic loan-word *jarva that used to mean ‘sea’ (cf. more likely Salo in Finland). A few etymologies bounding on the fantastic have been launched by the historians LENNART MERI and VELLO LÕUGAS. while the first component could be either linde Sw/Dan ‘shelter’. The latter find support by KÜLLIKE KAPLINSKI (1976) who argues that Lyndanise is a compound name the final component of which is nise ~ nase Sw/LGerm ‘cape’. TIIK. ENN TARVEL and HERBERT LIGI have kept to more realistic grounds. E. J. heavy. TARVEL treads on the linguistic ground. ‘marshy ground’. The article “Ühest toponüümist ja veidi ka toponüümikast” (On a toponym and a little on toponymy as well. uirlanti (Virumaa). or Sw ‘lime-tree’. which are names of larger regions (1978a. discussed earlier by several local researchers. Lat. Prussian iuriay ‘sea’. considering the type and structure of the la-final settlement name Lihula. 1980) by the historian HERBERT LIGI deals with the name of Lake Mõrtsuka. TIIK (1976b). jūra ‘sea’. In his article “Järvamaa alguloost” (On the origin of Järvamaa. In a short note “Lihulinn ja Lihula” (Lihulinn and Lihula) E. 1978b. SIMM believes that the . KALLASMAA (1999c) has indicated that the liga: lea etymology is not likely. estlatum (Eesti). 1997). jaura ‘wet. 1979) E. jura ‘sea’. In her response “Veel Lihulast ja Lihulinnast” (More on Lihula and Lihulinn) M. relying on his extensive experience. TARVEL (1999) derives both names Lihula and Lihulinn from the appellative liga: lea ‘dirt. The article “Eesti toponüüme Skandinaavia ruunikirjades” (Some Estonian toponyms occurring in Scandinavian runic writings.2. SIMM just recapitulates earlier treatments. The article is descriptive. Lit. The period in question has yielded SIMM (1975b). addressed the names Viru and Alutaguse. LÕUGAS has. TARVEL believes that the word was loaned into Estonian in the 3 rd millennium BC during the advance of the boat-axe culture. marshy soil with an admixture of mud and clay’. J. V.

of interest for an onomasiologist as all his arguments are based on irrefutable logic. whose main activities are translation and language planning. 1980) concentrating on whether the ethnonym aestii used by Tacitus stood for Balts or Finno-Ugrians. His discussion of Kastre (OINAS 1979. Yet. while the most recent writings belonging to KARL INNO (1981. but sometimes there are orthographic mistakes in the place names. 1980) is a response to the article “Kastre pole vene nimi” (Kastre is not a Russian name) by EDGAR SAKS (1978). Before him the subject had been dealt with by several authors. has written an article “Eesti ja Eestimaa” (Eesti and Eestimaa. LIGI criticises L. In his treatment of Kalev (Kolõvan) (OINAS 1993) he deals with Kolõvan as a hero of Russian legends. without adding anything new. 1984). A few place names he has also touched upon in his article “Eesti keele vanimatest perioodidest” (On the earliest periods of the Estonian language. which is based on extensive historical material. and his name in the Finnic languages and Russian place names. URMAS SUTROP (1996) has addressed colour terms in Estonian place names found in Census Liber Daniae. 1996) discussing the use of the names Eesti and Eestimaa from the historical.(öst-. effectively th 7 . UNO LIIVAKU. however. MERI’s attempt to base the historical formation of the name of Lake Kaali (a well-known meteor crater) as well as the family name Gahlen on the Estonian language. being written for enlightening purposes. H. ‘east’). political and language planning aspects. est-. 1983). 1999). proves that Mõrtsuka was used as a village name as early as in the late 17 th century. the article mainly refers to the results of other authors. the author touches upon some other Estonian place names found in Scandinavian sources. LIGI. The historian and journalist RAIVO PALMARU has written an article “Eesti vanimais kirjalikes allikais” (Eesti in the earliest written records. LIGI’s articles and historical monographs are. FELIX OINAS has published a couple of writings on individual names.Name Studies in Estonia 6 name became a village name in the early 19 century. PALMARU also supports the opinion that both eesti and aesti derive from the Germanic stem ost. indeed. 1984). which greatly reduces the value of the study from a linguist’s point of view. ENDEL JAANUS has discussed the toponyms Suislepa and Lapetukme (1976. R. H. In his article “Kaali katastroof ja Püha kihelkonna kohanimed” (The Kaali catastrophe and the place names of Püha. but this should happen as seldom as possible. and associates its emergence with the war between Poland and Sweden in the first quarter of the 16th century. The same applies to the toponymic attempts of other historians. In addition. H. He concludes that Eesti is indeed one of the names that may take -maa as the final constituent for stylistic reasons.

defended in 1958). There is also an index of earlier — Estonian as well as foreign — names of renamed streets and squares. Those are. artisans and the sites of their workshops. if any. 1987) deals with the streets of the second largest Estonian . explaining who were the persons whose names were given to the streets of Tallinn. 1977) by A. KIVI is the unpublished dissertation “Vana Tallinn. A historico-geographical treatise on the emergence and development of the city. as those provide some hold-on concerning the original landscape. buildings. 1957) and “Vanast Tallinnast ja tema liiklusteedest” (Old Tallinn and its transport routes. Urban place names It is only natural that people should get interested in collecting street and other urban names. indeed. Tartu AILI RAENDI in her “Isikunimelised tänavad Tartus” (Tartu streets named after persons. 5. of interest for a student of Tallinn street names. with a short historical survey of the street. Tallinn The monograph “Tallinna tänavad” (The streets of Tallinn. bodies of water. institutions. The book also includes an introductory article on street names and their studying. the origin and derivation of the name. 1972) by ALEKSANDER KIVI is a reference book of 204 pages. Some popular publications have also been produced by ENN LUMET. “Isikunimelised tänavad Tallinnas” (Tallinn streets named after persons. and what were their relations to the city. One of the sources used by A. This makes 71 streets altogether. Ajaloolis-geograafiline käsitelu linna tekkimisest ja kujunemisest” (Old Tallinn. 1959). KIVI is a popular reference book of 128 pp. Its introduction surveys the emergence and growth of Tallinn and the development of its street system. 5..2. Streets named after persons are introduced in alphabetical order and provided. The names of all streets and squares in Tallinn at that time are presented in alphabetical order and provided with commentaries on the location of the street or square.1. historic and political figures. its earlier names and the reasons behind renaming(s). AARE MÄEMETS. TIIK had published only a few issues: “Keskaegsest mereliiklusest Balti merel ja Soome lahel” (On the medieval sea transport on the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Finland. and the earlier names. of which L.6 Marja Kallasmaa criticised by AGO KÜNNAP (1999). 5. TIIT PETERSOO. and TARMO TIMM. The book is wound up by streets bearing the names of mythological and literary figures. beside the information on the person. HARALD REBANE. the time of the emergence or assignment of the name.

It remains. 1999) on Tartu street names up to 1940. too. Uno Hermann (Elva). 5. There are 10 names found in the town council records 1547–1555. mythological and first names are left out. Lembit Eelmäe (Tartu). The oldest plan of Tartu revealing the network and names of the streets dates from the year 1636 and the oldest street list has survived since 1582. supplemented by M. The Chapter on the streets of the old part of the town deals with the streets within the town wall.3. Kalev Jaago (Haapsalu). Marja Kallasmaa (Kärdla). Literary. RAID is more interested in the evolution of the street network and the location of the historical streets than in street names as such. Small attitudes The restitution of Estonian independence brought along a lively discussion on street names as the carriers and perpetuators of the Soviet ideology. and the names occurring on the earliest survived city plans (17 th cent. A short survey has been given of the condition of the town in the 18th century and the development of new quarters. KIVI’s book just mentioned. as well as those mentioned in the Audit Book by B. their relations with Tartu. Olev Jõgi (Kuressaare). The historian NIINA RAID has published a monograph “Tartu tänavad aastani 1940” (The streets of Tartu to 1940. and their services to the town. Aleksander Kivi (Tallinn). Arnold Kask (Tartu). Wybers in 1582–1658. The index of Tartu street names. or whether those forms have been in use as well. She has also published articles on the street names of Tartu. attempting to determine their location in modern terms as well as their earlier names. Papers carry notes on the names of streets and other urban objects. Richard Blomerius (Tartu). The previous name of the street may be mentioned. as the medieval city plans have not survived. Viktor Korravits (Tartu). Petersburg suburb across the bank of the river Emajõgi). This triggered a restoration of street names. Silvia Ehrenbusch (Tallinn). Odette Kirs (Rakvere). This leaves us with 42 streets on 84 pp. listing streets named after prominent figures in alphabetical order. but not the whole history and development. 9 . written by such authors as Helve Anton (Otepää). Ivar Kostabi (Tartu). Jaan Ersto (Valga). The bulk of the book is structured analogously to A. incl. She points out that the toponymic history of Tartu has been in a relatively neglected state. Boris Kivi (Kuressaare). In general.).Name Studies in Estonia 6 town Tartu. 2nd quarter (Riia suburb along the Riga Road) and 3rd quarter (St. however. Eimre contains more names than the text part of the book. one on the streets of the historical centre from the 16th century right into this day (1985). The author has concentrated on the life and deeds of the persons. particularly the so-called 1st quarter (an extension of the old town). though. N. unclear whether the Estonian names are just the author’s translations of foreign originals.

).eki. especially stimulated by the possibility of publishing Estonianmade maps in the vernacular. and developing the Name Law was HENN SAARI and now is PEETER PÄLL. but some concrete information. 1988): 1) old names should be preserved. Under the Soviet rule. 4) in bigger settlements thematic series of names have proved justified. who has. Aster Muinaste (Pärnu).htm). an all-Estonian list of settlements “Üleriikline asumite nimestik” (All-Estonian settlement list) was published. 3) the history of the region should be considered. Tiia Pauska (Kärdla). P. esp. Heino Mägi (Otepää). in the standardisation and orthography of place names. made the current street names of Tallinn available by the Internet (http://www. Olev Prints (Tartu). Hilja Treuberg (Pärnu). the focus has shifted to name legislation and planning. attention is concentrated on the drawing of precise maps and on providing them with correctly spelt names. PÄLL has also published the principles of urban naming: “Nimevaliku põhimõtteid” (Principles of name selection. Leo Tiik (Tallinn). from even using such maps. Most of those publications just argue for the restoration or changing of the street names of this or that town. Estonian toponymic studies were dominated by a diachronic regional approach. Engaged in consultation on practical naming (of streets etc. Helju Vals (Tartu). Pelle Lall & Ott Sandrak (Tallinn). Enriko Talvistu (Tartu). 2) a name should reflect the characteristics of the place.7 Marja Kallasmaa Päivu Laipaik (Tõrva). the Estonians were prevented from mapping their own territory and. Previously. Henn Saari (Tallinn). The number of Estonian place names on Soviet maps was limited by special prescriptions. 5. Ene Paaver (Tartu). Hillar Palamets (Tartu). Jaak Simm (Tallinn). for the sake of secrecy. They did not have to start from scratch. The year 1977 saw the publication of a list of the townships and villages of the Estonian SSR “Eesti NSV alevike ja külade nimekiri” (List of the townships and villages of the Estonian SSR). In 1923. Now. Aili Miks (Otepää). Marko Mihkelson (Valga).4. which was followed in 1978 . which prevented the names from being represented in their correct form. Juhan Teder (Viljandi). Juhani Püttsepp (Mustvee). by the way. Now. Ain Tähiste (Kärdla). in connection with the re-emergence of an independent Estonian state. The few names that were allowed to appear on maps were written in the Cyrillic alphabet. Peeter Päll The names of the streets of Tallinn and even some other towns have been studied by PEETER PÄLL. however. on the history of names used in small towns was thus saved from the verge of oblivion. Heino Sikk (Võru).ee/knab/tallinn1. Tõnis Padu (Haapsalu).

revised and rendered computer-readable by PEETER PÄLL. and 5) name etymology. the problem has been addressed by V. the list is available at the computers of the Institute of the Estonian Language. The final result was envisaged as a maximally comprehensive list of settlement names and. c) elaboration of concrete cases on the basis of b). their etymology and class. 4) name structure. SIMM and edited by M. KALLASMAA. by all means. V. Standardisation should rely on the local dialect form of the place names. while the selection and linguistic surveillance of the names were given in charge of the Toponymy Group at the Institute of Language and Literature). Now. who argues that place names should be standardised typewise. to some extent. PALL (1971. The principle was to prefer names with a historical tradition while out of practical extralinguistic reasons it was attempted to avoid similar names. The next (unpublished) list of settlement names was compiled by J. KASK (1974) has surveyed the early period of place-name planning. V. the other place names fixed in a shape at least as normative as the words in the Orthographic Dictionary. JAAK SIMM (1976) also discusses name problems in the framework of village merging in the 1970s (4000 villages were to be made out of 7000. now outdated. . 3) tradition of the name usage. A. b) fixation of general principles of standardisation. in connection with the regulating of settlement names in Soviet Estonia. V. PALL sets forth the general principles to standardise the Estonian place names. Standardisation is an issue first raised by REIN KULL in 1958. SIMM (1976). Most of the earlier sources deal with individual names and their orthography. In his article of 1971.Name Studies in Estonia 7 by “Administrative division of the territory of the Estonian SSR and the rural settlements / Eesti NSV territooriumi administratiivne jaotus ja maaasulad”. as well as the literary tradition and. According to those. one should take into consideration 1) the local dialect form of the name. 1 6. The spelling rules for Estonian place names were fixed in 1932. 1976a) and J. 2) unity of the literary language. He has also attempted to find phonological as well as morphological equivalents to enable such transposition. plus the spelling of Estonian compounds. PALL emphasises that the use of place names should be unified so as to become free of variants. Name planning Name orthography has been an issue of controversy for long. Later. At that. PALL considers inevitable that a dialectal name should be adapted to the literary standard. PALL formulates the tasks facing the systematic standardisation of the Estonian place names at that moment: a) additional collection of material. In his article on place-name spelling (1976a) V.

7 Marja Kallasmaa The attempt. Byelo-Russian. The basic principle of the book was the unity of national and international spelling of names. The introduction is informative of those parts of theoretical onomastics that should form the basis for name spelling. exonyms and names of objects associated with several languages. The spelling of foreign names has been a traditional point of controversy in Estonia. The central problem was how should names of non-Latin origin be handled with the least deformation caused. Russian. using his own terms. and adaptive spelling on the other hand. as well as the Bulgarian and Serbo-Croatian (ERELT 1977). 1983). edited by TIIU ERELT and HENN SAARI. 1965). The book was meant to introduce the reader to various national stock of names directly. and Russian (NURM 1959. PALL (1969b). In 1993 Nimekirjutusraamat (Name Spelling Book) was published. Tartu. their norm and correctibility (the ideal of correctness should be sought nowhere else but in the original form of the name).e. only the re-writing tables are. Ukrainian. containing a short survey of different alphabets. without any Russian mediation. i. The discussion has concerned names of Latin (ABEN 1954). Reval.g. the primacy of writing in names. caused massive local discontent leading to the restoration of village names upon the restoration of Estonian independence. The introduction “Kirjutaja eelmärkus 1992” (An author’s preliminary 1992) is by H. In addition. the former rules of Russian-Estonian . T. ERELT (1976) has considered the Estonian spelling of Russian. Dorpat). Jurjev. who concentrated on the name planning aspect. translation of names is also dealt with.. transliteration and transscription. The so-called pure theory of names has been one of the many interests of HENN SAARI. the natural or deliberate adaptation of foreign names to the Estonian language. SAARI (1993). Tallinn. that have since been adopted into Estonian onomastic texts. There is a short mention of writing and speech as the two aspects of language. It is pointed out that in Estonian re-written names are not subject to standardisation. Revel. A longer part of the text deals with the name (mostly proper name) situation in the Soviet Union in general and the triple or even quadruple (Estonian. Suggested are some validity terms of orthographic recommendations. and Armenian names. on the one hand. first introduced by V. the Turko-tataric and Tadjik ones (ERELT 1978. At the name planning seminar held in 1988 he gave a preliminary formulation of his principles of name planning. the linguistic identity of names.. however. the shortcomings of holding on to the original spelling. A special section is dedicated to the rewriting of names. Greek (NURM 1958). German) place name variants used on the territories of the Estonian and Livonian Guberniyas (e. a discussion of parallel names. the introduction contains recommendations for the spelling of international names and loan names.

P. and other people interested. PÄLL’s most recent specialty is name planning and the digitalisation of name collections. with their equivalent names in Estonian. The list includes all independent states and their separate parts. At the present moment. The bulk of the book consists of the Estonian spelling rules of Russian. Georgian. Turkmen. Ukrainian. French. That introductory text by HENN SAARI is an essential manifesto of name spelling principles. and the local language. PÄLL is involved in the preparation of the “Eesti kohanimeandmebaas” (Estonian Place Name Database. Kazakh. Finnish. Armenian. The basic names are provided with notes on pronunciation. Some of its lists have been made available in the Internet (http://www. P. Those 3 . PEETER PÄLL has a long experience of name planning. Russian. Every country’s name is presented in its short form (popular name) as well as in its full form (official name). It lists over 4200 entries on non-Estonian places. and the official languages of each country concerned.000 name variants. Together with historical names the book includes about 16. His bulkiest works hitherto published deal with the spelling of foreign names. Russian. plus the ISO symbols and the names of major administrative units. colonies etc. and place names that are relatively more frequently used in Estonian. The structure of the book and the notes to the names serve the sole purpose of providing linguistic information. and Georgian first. participated by many linguists. His articles on name planning are numerous (PÄLL 1987. English. Byelo-Russian. KNAB). The other voluminous book by PEETER PÄLL is called “Maailma kohanimed / Place Names of the World” (1999). concerning urban names in the particular.eki. A short survey of other transcriptions is provided. The book “Maailma maade nimed / Names of the Countries of the World” (1994) is a standard presentation of the spelling of the names of all countries and their capitals. as well as lists of those Ukrainian. 1998). French. as well as the equivalents of the names used in English. Kirghiz. and Uzbek names. The database is designed to comprise the whole stock of Estonian place names. The publication of the book was preceded by a years long discussion on name spelling in the press. In 1988 he organised a seminar on the treatment of urban names. 1993a. Byelo-Russian. family. original forms and geographic references. German. Tadjik.Name Studies in Estonia 7 transcription are criticised. He has also addressed exonyms in his article “Eestikeelsed naabrusnimed / Exonyms on Neighbouring Territories” (1986). 1993b. There is also an index of foreign place names and a summary of the principles of name spelling. Azerbaijani. cultural representatives.ee/knab/).

the Mother Tongue Society at the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR. Institute of the Estonian Language. The List of Names of Estonian Lakes and Rivers has also been finished. participation in legislative initiatives concerning names. The database has been introduced in the article “Principles of Computer-Aided Namebank in Estonia” (PÄLL 1990). PÄLL has published articles on name planning encompassing the Baltic States as well as discussing the global aspect. 1992 now meets regularly thanks to P. pp. place names started to be collected systematically by the Academic Estonian Mother Tongue Society. storing the data on various name categories and consultation on the use and orthography of various names. In: Ajaloo-Keeleteaduskonna töid. Place name collections With the help of correspondents. etc. At present the collection contains about half a million file cards and is kept at the Department of Dialectology. for example. In 1922. In 1940. the work was continued by the successor of the organization. There are no special periodicals in Estonia dealing with onomastic studies. A group for toponymic studies is active at the Institute of the Estonian Language (Tallinn 10119 Roosikrantsi 6). the nearest future includes the development of the onomastic database. Tallinn. TRÜ toimetised. . as well as FRIEDRICH KUHLBARS. as well as the street names of Tallinn. 7. Those collections (from the 19th century) are kept at the Estonian Literary Museum in Tartu. For PEETER PÄLL.7 Marja Kallasmaa include. Eesti Riiklik Kirjastus. 167–195. KARL (1954) Ladina tähestikuga keeltest pärinevate võõrpärisnimede transkribeerimisest eesti keeles. References ABEN. the administrative units of Estonia and their abbreviations. Vihik 35. checking place names on maps and preparatory work for national standardization of these names. “Linguistica Uralica” and “Akadeemia”. The Baltic Division that was founded at the UN Conference on Name Planning held in New York. as well as by the Annals of the Mother Tongue Society (Emakeele Seltsi Aastaraamat). MATTHIAS JOHANN EISEN. PÄLL’s initiative. Articles on the subject are received by the journals “Keel ja Kirjandus”. managed to collect a considerable number of place names. As a UN expert on place names P.

292–296. MATTHIAS JOHANN (1913) Lapi kohanimed. 386–389. 351–356. Liber census Daniae. MATTHIAS JOHANN (1914) Soome Eestis. 97–100. Kohanimed. 147– 155. In: KjK 1. 72–79. Tallinn. EISEN. 58–61. In: EKirj. PAUL (1985) Eesti ja liivi keeleaines Henriku Liivimaa kroonikas (III). In: Ekirj. PAUL (1992) Viron vere-loppuisten paikannimien ratkaisu — suomen kielessä. In: EKirj... PAUL (1986) Kohanimede -vere loodusobjekti tähistajana. латышский. p. 92. In: KjK 1963/4. 18–28. ARISTE. PAUL (1965) Veelgi vere-lõpuliste kohanimede käsitlemisest.. EISEN. MATTHIAS JOHANN (1918–1919) Laiuse. 44–46. EISEN. MATTHIAS JOHANN (1920) Daani hindamise raamat. 103 pp. In: KjK 1985/1. In: EKirj. PAUL (1963) Kuidas on tekkinud vere-lõpulised kohanimed. pp. Eesti Riiklik Kirjastus. ALVRE. pp.. In: EKirj. ALVRE. pp. 163–165. pp. 20–23. Латвия’ в топонимике Эстонии. PAUL (1960) Cozzo. pp. PAUL (1966) Tehkem vahet olulise ja ebaolulise vahel. pp. ARISTE. ARISTE. PAUL (1938) Ortnamnen i Pühalepa och Reigi socknar på Dagö. PAUL (2000b) Uurimus Kullamaa käsikirjast. Vol. In: KjK 1960/12. In: EKirj. 47–48. In: KjK 1984/1. ARISTE. Akadeemilise Rootsi-Eesti Seltsi väljaanne. PAUL (1957a) Pandivere. pp. Lund. pp. ALVRE. 32–36. pp. In: ENSV TA Toimetised. pp. pp. In: Svio-Estonica. 172– 173. In: EKirj. 479–481. MATTHIAS JOHANN (1917) Lalli. In: KjK 1965/6. PAUL (1984) Veel kord kohanimest Ocrielae. pp. pp. ADA (1960) Lõuna-eesti kohanimesid Pihkva kroonikais. EISEN. 216. pp.. In: Eesti Loodus 1986/6. pp. In: KjK 1966/1. pp. EISEN. pp. Lisa Rootsi mälestustele. PAUL (2000a) Kuidas mõista Kullamaa saksakeelset nime Goldenbeck? In: KjK 3. 130–133. pp. 474–475. PAUL (1957b) Kohanimest Mahtra. MATTHIAS JOHANN (1922) Rootsi mälestused Eestis. ALVRE. ARISTE. In: Vir. ALVRE. 5. 1985/2. EISEN. Pandja ja Pandju.. ALVRE. EISEN. MATTHIAS JOHANN (1921b) Põldsamaa... pp. 33–37. In: KjK 1960/8. ALVRE. pp. PAUL (1969) Läti ’латвийский. Tallinn. Ühiskonnateadused 6/2. 101–103. 5 . ARISTE. ALVRE. pp. pp. 26–29. 96–105. 219–224. Varrak. PAUL (1963) Veelgi vere-lõpulistest kohanimedest. In: KjK 1963/8. pp. In: ESA 3. In: Baltistica 5/1. EISEN. In: EKirj. AMBUS. 5–57.Name Studies in Estonia 7 ALVRE. MATTHIAS JOHANN (1921a) Läti jäljed Eestis. pp. 736–743.

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