1. I-soft What should be done after writing test case?? -----------------------------------------------------------------------2.Covansys Testing 1. What is bidirectional traceability ???

and how it is implemented * When requirements can be traced by code and code can be traced by requirement * Done throughout the development process * To ensure that all the requirements are implemented in the system Agreed but the definition of Bi-directional Traceability is that both vertical and Horizontal traceability is maintained. Horizontal Traceability is the traceability of requirements across all the development phases Req-> Design->Module Spec>Unit Testing-> Module testing->Integration testing-> Systems testing Vertical traceability is the traceability of the requirements across modules or other requirements in the product. This may not apply to all project / products because this requirements was an outcome of having large projects such as the ones executed by NASA and US Military. ----------------------------------------------------------------------2. What is Automation Test frame work ? A Test Automation Framework is a set of assumptions, concepts and tools that provide support for automated software testing. The main advantage of such a framework is the low cost for maintenance. If there is change to any test case then only the test case file needs to be updated and the Driver Script and Startup script will remain the same. There's no need to update the scripts in case of changes to the application. Different Frame works Modularity-driven testing Data-driven testing Keyword-driven testing Model-based testing Hybrid testing -----------------------------------------------------------------------3. Define the components present in test strategy It is a company level document developed bye quality assurance manager or quality analyst category people. It defines testing approach to reach the standards. During

test strategy document preparation QA people concentrate on below factors: 1. scope and Objective 2. Budget control 3. Testing approach 4. Test deliverables 5. roles and responsibilities 6. communication and status reporting 7. automation tools (if needed) 8. testing measurements 9. risks and litigations 10. change configuration management 11. training plan ----------------------------------------------------------------------4. Define the components present in test plan Test Plan: Test plan is a document that describes the objectives,scope,approach,and focus of a s/w testing effort. ---------------------------------------------------------------------5. Define database testing ? Database Testing: Database Testing basically include in the following areas 1.Data Validity Testing. 2.Data Integrity Testing. 3.Performance Related Testing 4.Testing of Procedure,Triggers and Functions Severity: Severity actually bug impacted on functionality of an application. Priority: Priority means how it soon will be fixed example for low severity and high priority: In an application instead of 'Accenture' Axenture will be there this is a functional side bug. there is spelling mistake will be there, functionally it is a come under low severity and customer side it is come under high priority ----------------------------------------------------------------------6. What is the difference between QA and QC …. Quality Control = Processes used to test the Project Functionality Quality Assurance = Measures the quality of QC processes used to create a Quality Project. -----------------------------------------------------------------------7. What is the difference between V&V 8. What are different types of test case that u have written in your project.. 9. Have u written Test plan ?….

SQL 1. What is joins and define all the joins … 2. What is Foreign key ? 3. Write an SQL query if u want to select the data from one block which intern reflects in another block ? Unix 1. Which command is used to run an interface? 2. How will you see the hidden file ? Ls -a 3. What is the command used to set the date and timing's … 4. Some basic commands like copy, move,delete ? rm, 5. Which command used to the go back to the home directory …. 6. Which command used to view the the current directory PWD. 3. Virtusa Testing 1. Tell me about Yourself? 2. Testing process followed in your company … -----------------------------------------------------------------------3. Testing Methodology We begin the testing process by developing a comprehensive plan to test the general functionality and special features on a variety of platform combinations. Strict quality control procedures are used. The process verifies that the application meets the requirements specified in the system requirements document and is bug free. At the end of each testing day, the team prepares a summary of completed and failed tests. Our programmers address any identified issues, and the application is resubmitted to the testing team until every item is resolved. All changes and retesting are tracked through spreadsheets available to both the testing and programming teams. Applications are not allowed to launch until all identified problems are fixed. A report is prepared at the end of testing to show exactly what was tested and to list the final outcomes. Our software testing methodology is applied in four distinct phases: unit testing, system testing, integration testing, and acceptance testing -----------------------------------------------------------------------4. Where u maintains the Repositories? Test repository is the database for the test cases where we keep the previously run test cases. Its also called test suite. Need for maintaining is the reviewability, future

reference, Time saving example if a person working on a test case has left the company who will know that which test case was run for a particular scenario if it comes again in any other project. 5. What is CVS? CVS is version control system. It is used to handle the different versions being released for your product. 6. Bug Tool used? -----------------------------------------------------------------------7. How will you prepare traceability matrix if there is no Business Doc and Functional Doc? Actually traceability matrix was created for keeping track of Functional Requirement against each Business Requirement. each business requirement will have multiple functional requirement mentioning the features, process, outcome and so on. This is part of RUP standard. Traceability matrix is tracing your requirements to your test cases or any other documents. 8. How will you validate the functionality of the Test cases, if there is no business requirement document or user requirement document as such… 9. Testing process followed in your company? ----------------------------------------------------------------------10. Tell me about CMM LEVEL -4 …what are steps that to be followed to achieve the CMM-IV standards? CMM LEVEL 1: the company would not have any specific plan or procedure to carry out the project they will follow their own procedures CMM LEVEL2:the company would formulate some procedures to carry out a project but that also not well managed CMM LEVEL3: the company would go proper life cycle and they organize it from the start of the project till the completion CMM4: the company should have proper regulatory committee called quality assurance department to take care of the process life cycle to enhance the quality of the process CMM5: the company have proper life cycle ,QA team and there will be periodic suggestions and analysis will happen in order to keep the quality high -----------------------------------------------------------------------11. What is Back End testing? Back end Testing means database Testing.

Normally a software product/application uses GUI front end for easy user interaction. The Data entered in the front end will be stored in the back end database. The data base may be oracle,MSSQL Server,MY SQL,DB2...etc The data will be organized in the tables as record. Major aim of using database is to support the content of the page. so it is critical and very important to check back end or database. Back end Testing means ensuring that, If you enter data in the front end ,the data should be stored properly in the back end. If you call that stored record frown front end it should display properly. I think you have cleared with this .. ----------------------------------------------------------------------12. What is Unit Testing? 13. How will u write test cases for an given scenario…i.e. main page, login screen, transaction, Report Verification? Test Scenario Re Test Cases Or Test Scripts,and the Sequence In which they are To Be executed. 14. How will u write traceability matrix? 15. What is CVS and why it is used? 16. What will be specified in the Defect Report…? ----------------------------------------------------------------------17. What is Test summary Report…? it is the product outcome of the testing endeavor, this report should summarize all of the testing that was performed during testing phase. This is not the sole property of testing department. This report can be produced once test plan is completed, the tests like unit test, integration test, system test, security test and user acceptance test completed, and all associated test reports available -------------------------------------------------------------------18. What is Test Closure report…? i think the test closure document is nothing but the test summary report which we give after the whole testing is finished....it gives panoramic view of total test result it contains 1.Total number of test cases

2.Total number of bugs found 3.Number of bugs resolved(fixed) 4.Number of Bugs rejected 5.Total number of bugs differed......tec ----------------------------------------------------------------------19. Explain Defect life cycle… 20. What will be specified in the Test Case… 21. What are the Testing methodologies that u have followed in your project ? 22. What kind of testing that u have been involved in and explain about it…. 23. What is UAT Testing? 24. What is joins and what are the different types of joins in SQL and explain the same? 25. What is Foreign Key in SQL…? KLA Tencor 1. Bug life cycle? 2. Explain about the Project. …And draw the architecture of your project? 3. What are the different types of severity? 4. Defect tracking tools used? 5. what are the responsibilities of an tester? 6. Give some example how will you write the test cases if an scenario involves Login screen. Aztec ----------------------------------------------------------------------1. What are the different types of testing followed ….. unit testing,smoke,sanity,integration,w.b.t,B.B.t,Functional testing ,retesting,compatabilty,acceptance,Stress,load, -----------------------------------------------------------------------2. What are the different levels of testing used during testing the application? ----------------------------------------------------------------------4. What type of testing will be done in Installation testing or system testing? System testing will be done by Blackbox testers Blackbox testing will be done. testing will done in 3 types 1.Big ban approach 2.Top down approach 3.Bottom up approach the type of testing done in installation testing is static testing.i.e.we will just verify the documents and check whether we are able to install the product according to the guide lines given.so here we will be doing only verification.

the type of testing done in system testing is dynamic testing. here we will execute test cases. correct me if i am wrong. ----------------------------------------------------------------------5. What is meant by CMMI …what are different types of CMM Level? CMM more about software development .CMMI Software development and System engineering. Means CMMI also suits the mfg industry also. 6. Explain about the components involved in CMM-4 level 7. Explain about Performance testing ? ---------------------------------------------------------------------8. What is Traceability matrix and how it is done ? Hi, If you want to prepate Traceability matrix for web testing, first you need to identify Quality factors(i.e.reliability, correctness,completeness,integrity etc..)that are Important for your web based application(Non availability of these Quality factors becomes Potential risk of your application) and also Prepare Test requirements( test cases)to cover required quality factors. Mapping of these test cases to Quality factors to ensure Test coverage is said to be Traceability matrix. -----------------------------------------------------------------9. How can you differentiate Severity and Priority based on technical and business point of view. 10. What is the difference between Test life cycle and defect life cycle ? 11. How will u ensure that you have covered all the functionality while writing test cases if there is no functional spec and there is no KT about the application? Kinds of Testing WHAT KINDS OF TESTING SHOULD BE CONSIDERED? 1. Black box testing: not based on any knowledge of internal design or code. Tests are based on requirements and functionality 2. White box testing: based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application’s code. Tests are based on coverage of code statements, branches, paths, and conditions. 3. Unit testing: the most ‘micro’ scale of testing; to test particular functions or code modules. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers, as it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code. Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code; may require developing test driver modules or test harnesses. 4. Incremental integration testing: continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added; requires that various aspects of an applications functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed, or

that test drivers be developed as needed; done by programmers or by testers. 6. Integration testing: testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly the ‘parts’ can be code modules, individual applications, client and server applications on a networked. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems. 7. Functional testing: black-box type testing geared to functional requirements of an application; testers should do this type of testing. This does not mean that the programmers should not check their code works before releasing it(which of course applies to any stage of testing). 8. System testing: black –box type testing that is based on overall requirements specifications; covers all combined parts of system. 9. End to end testing: similar to system testing; the ‘macro’ end of the test scale; involves testing of a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use, such as interacting with database, using network communications, or interacting with other hardware, applications, or systems if appropriate. 10. Sanity testing: typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort. For example, if the new software is crashing systems every 5minutes warrant further testing in item current state. 11. Regression testing: re-testing after fixes or modifications of the software or its environment. It can be difficult to determine how much re-testing is needed, especially near the end of the development cycle. Automated testing tools can be especially useful for this type of testing. 12. Acceptance testing: final testing based on specifications of the end-user or customer, or based on use by end users/customers over some limited period of time. 13. Load testing: testing an application under heavy loads, such as testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system’s response time degrades or fails. 14. Stress testing: term often used interchangeably with ‘load’ and ‘performance’ testing. Also used to describe such tests as system functional testing while under unusually heavy loads, heavy repletion of certain actions or inputs input of large numerical values, large complex queries to a database system, etc. 15. Performance testing: term often used interchangeable with ‘stress’ and ‘load’ testing. Ideally ‘performance’ testing (and another ‘type’ of testing) is defined in requirements documentation or QA or test plans. 16. Usability testing: testing for ‘user-friendlinesses’. Clearly this is subjective,and will depend on the targeted end-user or customer. User interviews, surveys, video recording of user sessions, and other techniques can be used programmers and testers are usually not appropriate as usability testers. 17. Install/uninstall testing: testing of full, partial, or upgrade install/uninstall processes. 18. Recovery testing: testing how well a system recovers from crashes, hardware failures or other catastrophic problems. 19. Security testing: testing how well system protects against unauthorized internal or external access, damage, etc, any require sophisticated testing techniques. 20. Compatibility testing: testing how well software performs in a particular hardware/software/operating/system/network/etc environment. 21. Exploratory testing: often taken to mean a creative, informal software test that is not

based on formal test plans of test cases; testers may be learning the software as they test it. 22. Ad-hoc testing: similar to exploratory testing, but often taken to mean that the testers have significant understanding of the software testing it. 23. User acceptance testing: determining if software is satisfactory to an end-user or customer. 24. Comparison testing: comparing software weakness and strengths to competing products. 25. Alpha testing: testing of an application when development is nearing completion; minor design changes may still be made as a result of such testing. Typically done by end-users or others, not by programmers or testers. 26. Beta testing: testing when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs and problems need to be found before final release. Typically done by endusers or others, not by programmers or testers. 27. Mutation testing: method for determining if a set of test data or test cases is useful, by deliberately introducing various code changes (‘bugs’) and retesting with the original test data/cases to determine if the ‘bugs’ are detected proper implementation requires large computational resources. Difference between client server testing and web server testing. Web systems are one type of client/server. The client is the browser, the server is whatever is on the back end (database, proxy, mirror, etc). This differs from so-called “traditional” client/server in a few ways but both systems are a type of client/server. There is a certain client that connects via some protocol with a server (or set of servers). Also understand that in a strict difference based on how the question is worded, “testing a Web server” specifically is simply testing the functionality and performance of the Web server itself. (For example, I might test if HTTP Keep-Alives are enabled and if that works. Or I might test if the logging feature is working. Or I might test certain filters, like ISAPI. Or I might test some general characteristics such as the load the server can take.) In the case of “client server testing”, as you have worded it, you might be doing the same general things to some other type of server, such as a database server. Also note that you can be testing the server directly, in some cases, and other times you can be testing it via the interaction of a client. You can also test connectivity in both. (Anytime you have a client and a server there has to be connectivity between them or the system would be less than useful so far as I can see.) In the Web you are looking at HTTP protocols and perhaps FTP depending upon your site and if your server is configured for FTP connections as well as general TCP/IP concerns. In a “traditional” client/server you may be looking at sockets, Telnet, NNTP, etc.

----------------------------------------------------------------------1. What is SQA Activities? a. Metric calculation b. Involved in Entire Software development process c. Monitoring and improving process d. Hence problems are found and dealt with it e. It's oriented to prevention 1.prepare an SQA plan for a project 2.participates in the developed of the project's software process description 3.Audit designated software work . 4.Ensure that deviation in software work 5.Records any non compliance and reports to senior management. ----------------------------------------------------------------------2. How can we perform testing without expected results? 3. Which of the following statements about regression testing are true? a. Regression Testing must consist of a fixed set of tests to create a baseline b. Regression Testing should be used to detect defects in new features c. Regression Testing can be run on every build d. Regression Testing should be targeted to areas of high risk and known code change e. Regression Testing, when automated, is highly effective in preventing defects ----------------------------------------------------------------------4. How do you conduct boundary analyst testing for “ok”pushbutton 1. Proper URL of Window is opening or not 2. user interface testing Yeah you are correct there is no boundary value analysis for "OK" button. but we can do Error Guessing approach like 1. Clicking the OK button more than once...twice thrice ten times check what happens 2. Use Tab & set focus the Ok Button, (If you cant use tab, ask DEV to code it such a way that he can write set focus on form load some sort like that) & a. click Enter button. b. Use Space button. 3. Try using Alt+"O" ----------------------------------------------------------------------5. What is an exit and entry criteria in a Test Plan ? 6. To whom you send test deliverables? Client/customer

----------------------------------------------------------------------7. What is configuration Management? The traditional software configuration management (SCM) process is looked upon as the best solution to handling changes in software projects ----------------------------------------------------------------------8. Who writes the Business requirements? What you do when you have the BRD? 9. What we normally check for in the Database Testing? 10. What is walk through and inspection? 11. What are the key elements for creating test plan? 12. How do you ensure the quality of the product? 13. What is the job of Quality assurance engineer? Difference between the testing & Quality Assurance job. 14. Can any one send information regarding manual testing. I know just how to use winrunner load runner tool with sample flight reservation application. can any one send me the information how to test web logic and web sphere. 15. What are the demerits of winrunner? 16. How you used white box and block box technologies in your application? 17. What is the role of QA in a project development? ----------------------------------------------------------------------18. How can u test the white page ? You can check whether the dimensions of the paper and quality of the paper is from the requirements document ---------------------------------------------------------------------19. How do you scope, organize, and execute a test project? 20. What is the role of QA in a company that produces software? 21. Describe to me when you would consider employing a failure mode and defect analysis? 22. In general, how do you see automation fitting into the overall process of testing? 23. How do you decide when you have ‘tested enough?’ 24. Describe to the basic elements you put in a defect report? ----------------------------------------------------------------------25. What is use case? What is the difference between test cases and use cases? Use cases are means of capturing functional specifications. Use case diagrams explains you how the business flow is. To be more specific it explains you the interaction between the actor and the system. 26. What is the importance of a requirements traceability in a product testing? 27. If the actual result doesn’t match with expected result in this situation what should we do? 28. Explain about Metrics and types of metrics like schedule variance , effort variance? 29. What is the difference between functional testing & black box testing? 30. What is heuristic checklist used in Unit Testing? 31. What is the difference between System Testing,Integration Testing & System Integration Testing? 32. How to calculate the estimate for test case design and review?

33. What is Requirements Traceability ? What is the purpose of it ? Explain types of traceability matrices ? 34. What are the contents of Risk management Plan? Have you ever prepared a Risk Management Plan ? 35. What metrics used to measure the size of the software? ----------------------------------------------------------------------1. What is diff. between CMMI and CMM levels? A: - CMM: - this is applicable only for software industry. KPAs -18 CMMI: - This is applicable for software, out sourcing and all other industries. KPA - 25 ----------------------------------------------------------------------2. What is the scalability testing? 1. Scalability is nothing but how many users that the application should handle 2. Scalability is nothing but maximum no of users that the system can handle 3. Scalability testing is a subtype of performance test where performance requirements for response time, throughput, and/or utilization are tested as load on the SUT is increased over time. 4. As a part of scalability testing we test the expandability of the application. In scalability we test 1.Applicaation scalability, 2.Performance scalability Application scalability: to test the possibility of implementing new features in the system or updating the existing features of the system. With the help of design doc we do this testing Performance scalability: To test how the s/w perform when it is subjected to varying loads to measure and to evaluate the Performance behavior and the ability for the s/w to continue to function properly under different workloads. –> To check the comfort level of an application in terms of user load. And user experience and system tolerance levels –> The point within an application that when subjected to increasing workload begin to degrade in terms of end user experience and system tolerance –> Response time Execution time System resource utilization Network delays ? stress testing ----------------------------------------------------------------------3. What is status of defect when you are performing regression testing? A:-Fixed Status ----------------------------------------------------------------------4. What is the first test in software testing process?

A) Monkey testing B) Unit Testing c) Static analysis d) None of the above A: - Unit testing is the first test in testing process, though it is done by developers after the completion of coding it is correct one. ----------------------------------------------------------------------4. When will the testing starts? a) Once the requirements are Complete b) In requirement phase? A: - Once the requirements are complete. This is Static testing. Here, u r supposed to read the documents (requirements) and it is quite a common issue in S/w industry that many requirements contradict with other requirements. These are also can be reported as bugs. However, they will be reviewed before reporting them as bugs (defects). ----------------------------------------------------------------------5. What is the part of QA and QC in refinement v model? A: — V model is a kind of SDLC. QC (Quality Control) team tests the developed product for quality. It deals only with product, both in static and dynamic testing. QA (Quality Assurance) team works on the process and manages for better quality in the process. It deals with (reviews) everything right from collecting requirements to delivery. ----------------------------------------------------------------------6. What are the bugs we cannot find in black box? A: — If there r any bugs in security settings of the pages or any other internal mistake made in coding cannot be found in black box testing. ----------------------------------------------------------------------7. What are Microsoft 6 rules? A: — As far as my knowledge these rules are used at user Interface test. These are also called Microsoft windows standards. They are . GUI objects are aligned in windows • All defined text is visible on a GUI object • Labels on GUI objects are capitalized • Each label includes an underlined letter (mnemonics) • Each window includes an OK button, a Cancel button, and a System menu ----------------------------------------------------------------------8. What are the steps to test any software through automation tools? A: — First, you need to segregate the test cases that can be automated. Then, prepare test data as per the requirements of those test cases. Write reusable functions which are used frequently in those test cases. Now, prepare the test scripts using those reusable functions and by applying loops and conditions where ever necessary. However, Automation framework that is followed in the organization

should strictly follow through out the process. ----------------------------------------------------------------------9. What is Defect removable efficiency? A: - The DRE is the percentage of defects that have been removed during an activity, computed with the equation below. The DRE can also be computed for each software development activity and plotted on a bar graph to show the relative defect removal efficiencies for each activity. Or, the DRE may be computed for a specific task or technique (e.g. design inspection, code walkthrough, unit test, 6 month operation, etc.) Number Defects Removed DRE = –—————————————————— * 100 Number Defects at Start of Process DRE=A/A+B = 0.8 A = Testing Team (Defects by testing team) B = customer ( ” ” customer ) If dre <=0.8 then good product otherwise not. ----------------------------------------------------------------------10. Example for bug not reproducible? A: — Difference in environment ----------------------------------------------------------------------11. During alpha testing why customer people r invited? A: — becaz alpha testing related to acceptance testing, so, accepting testing is done in front of client or customer for there acceptance ----------------------------------------------------------------------12. Difference between adhoc testing and error guessing? A: — Adhoc testing: without test data r any documents performing testing. Error Guessing: This is a Test data selection technique. The selection criterion is to pick values that seem likely to cause errors. ----------------------------------------------------------------------13. Diff between test plan and test strategy? A: — Test plan: After completion of SRS learning and business requirement gathering test management concentrate on test planning, this is done by Test lead, or Project lead. Test Strategy: Depends on corresponding testing policy quality analyst finalizes test Responsibility Matrix. This is dont by QA. But both r Documents. ----------------------------------------------------------------------14. What is “V-n-V” Model? Why is it called as “V”& why not “U”? Also tell at what Stage Testing should be best to stared? A: — It is called V coz it looks like V. the detailed V model is shown below.

SRS Acceptance testing \ / \ / HLD (High Level Design) System testing \ / \ / LLD (Low level Integration testing Design) / \ / \ Unit Testing \ / \ / Coding There is no such stage for which you wait to start testing. Testing starts as soon as SRS document is ready. You can raise defects that are present in the document. It’s called verification. 15. What is difference in between Operating System 2000 and OS XP? A; — Windows 2000 and Windows XP are essentially the same operating system (known internally as Windows NT 5.0 and Windows NT 5.1, respectively.) Here are some considerations if you’re trying to decide which version to use: Windows 2000 benefits: 1) Windows 2000 has lower system requirements, and has a simpler interface (no “Styles” to mess with). 2) Windows 2000 is slightly less expensive, and has no product activation. 3) Windows 2000 has been out for a while, and most of the common problems and security holes have been uncovered and fixed. 4) Third-party software and hardware products that aren’t yet XP-compatible may be compatible with Windows 2000; check the manufacturers of your devices and applications for XP support before you upgrade. Windows XP benefits: 1) Windows XP is somewhat faster than Windows 2000, assuming you have a fast processor and tons of memory (although it will run fine with a 300 MHz Pentium II and 128MB of RAM). 2) The new Windows XP interface is more cheerful and colorful than earlier versions, although the less- cartoon “Classic” interface can still be used if desired. 3 Windows XP has more bells and whistles, such as the Windows Movie Maker, built-in CD writer support, the Internet Connection Firewall, and Remote Desktop Connection. 4) Windows XP has better support for games and comes with more games than Windows 2000. 5) Manufacturers of existing hardware and software products are more likely to add Windows XP compatibility now than Windows 2000 compatibility. -----------------------------------------------------------------------

16. What is bug life cycle? A: — New: when tester reports a defect Open: when developer accepts that it is a bug or if the developer rejects the defect, then the status is turned into “Rejected” Fixed: when developer make changes to the code to rectify the bug… Closed/Reopen: when tester tests it again. If the expected result shown up, it is turned into “Closed” and if the problem resists again, it’s “Reopen ----------------------------------------------------------------------17. What is deferred status in defect life cycle? A: — Deferred status means the developer accepted the bus, but it is scheduled to rectify in the next build ----------------------------------------------------------------------18. What is smoke test? A; — Testing the application whether it’s performing its basic functionality properly or not, so that the test team can go ahead with the application ----------------------------------------------------------------------19. Do you use any automation tool for smoke testing? A: - Definitely can use. ----------------------------------------------------------------------20. What is Verification and validation? A: — Verification is static. No code is executed. Say, analysis of requirements etc. Validation is dynamic. Code is executed with scenarios present in test cases. 21. What is test plan and explain its contents? A: — Test plan is a document which contains the scope for testing the application and what to be tested, when to be tested and who to test. ----------------------------------------------------------------------22. Advantages of automation over manual testing? A: — Time, resource and Money ----------------------------------------------------------------------23. What is ADhoc testing? A: — AdHoc means doing something which is not planned. -----------------------------------------------------------------------24. What is mean by release notes? A: — It’s a document released along with the product which explains about the product. It also contains about the bugs that are in deferred status. ----------------------------------------------------------------------25. Scalability testing comes under in which tool? A: — Scalability testing comes under performance testing. Load testing, scalability testing both r same. ----------------------------------------------------------------------26. What is the difference between Bug and Defect? A: — Bug: Deviation from the expected result. Defect: Problem in algorithm leads to failure. A Mistake in code is called Error.

Due to Error in coding, test engineers are getting mismatches in application is called defect. If defect accepted by development team to solve is called Bug. ----------------------------------------------------------------------27. What is hot fix? A: — A hot fix is a single, cumulative package that includes one or more files that are used to address a problem in a software product. Typically, hot fixes are made to address a specific customer situation and may not be distributed outside the customer organization. Bug found at the customer place which has high priority. ----------------------------------------------------------------------28. What is the difference between functional test cases and compatability testcases? A: — There are no Test Cases for Compatibility Testing; in Compatibility Testing we are Testing an application in different Hardware and software. If it is wrong plz let me know. ----------------------------------------------------------------------29. What is Acid Testing?? A: — ACID Means: ACID testing is related to testing a transaction. A-Atomicity C-Consistent I-Isolation D-Durable Mostly this will be done database testing. ----------------------------------------------------------------------30. What is the main use of preparing a traceability matrix? A: — To Cross verify the prepared test cases and test scripts with user requirements. To monitor the changes, enhance occurred during the development of the project. Traceability matrix is prepared in order to cross check the test cases designed against each requirement, hence giving an opportunity to verify that all the requirements are covered in testing the application. ----------------------------------------------------------------------31. If we have no SRS, BRS but we have test cases does u execute the test cases blindly or do u follow any other process? A: — Test case would have detail steps of what the application is supposed to do. SO 1) Functionality of application is known. 2) In addition you can refer to Backend, I mean look into the Database. To gain more knowledge of the application

----------------------------------------------------------------------32. How to execute test case? A: — There are two ways: 1. Manual Runner Tool for manual execution and updating of test status. 2. Automated test case execution by specifying Host name and other automation pertaining details. -----------------------------------------------------------------------33. Difference between re testing and regression testing? A: — Retesting: – Re-execution of test cases on same application build with different input values is retesting. Regression Testing: Re-execution of test cases on modifies form of build is called regression testing… ----------------------------------------------------------------------34. What is the difference between bug log and defect tracking? A; — Bug log is a document which maintains the information of the bug where as bug tracking is the process. ----------------------------------------------------------------------35. Who will change the Bug Status as Differed? A: — Bug will be in open status while developer is working on it Fixed after developer completes his work if it is not fixed properly the tester puts it in reopen After fixing the bug properly it is in closed state. Developer ----------------------------------------------------------------------36. wht is smoke testing and user interface testing ? A: — ST: Smoke testing is non-exhaustive software testing, as pertaining that the most crucial functions of a program work, but not bothering with finer details. The term comes to software testing from a similarly basic type of hardware testing. UIT: I did a bit or R n D on this…. some says it’s nothing but Usability testing. Testing to determine the ease with which a user can learn to operate, input, and interpret outputs of a system or component. Smoke testing is nothing but to check whether basic functionality of the build is stable or not? I.e. if it possesses 70% of the functionality we say build is stable. User interface testing: We check all the fields whether they are existing or not as per the format we check spelling graphic font sizes everything in the window present or not|

----------------------------------------------------------------------37. what is bug, defect, issue, error? A: — Bug: — Bug is identified by the tester. Defect:– Whenever the project is received for the analysis phase ,may be some requirement miss to get or understand most of the time Defect itself come with the project (when it comes). Issue: — Client site error most of the time. Error: — When anything is happened wrong in the project from the development side i.e. called as the error, most of the time this knows by the developer. Bug: a fault or defect in a system or machine Defect: an imperfection in a device or machine; Issue: An issue is a major problem that will impede the progress of the project and cannot be resolved by the project manager and project team without outside help Error: Error is the deviation of a measurement, observation, or calculation from the truth ----------------------------------------------------------------------38. What is the diff b/w functional testing and integration testing? A: — functional testing is testing the whole functionality of the system or the application whether it is meeting the functional specifications Integration testing means testing the functionality of integrated module when two individual modules are integrated for this we use top-down approach and bottom up approach ----------------------------------------------------------------------39. what type of testing u perform in organization while u do System Testing, give clearly? A: — Functional testing User interface testing Usability testing Compatibility testing Model based testing Error exit testing User help testing Security testing Capacity testing Performance testing Sanity testing Regression testing Reliability testing Recovery testing

Installation testing Maintenance testing Accessibility testing, including compliance with: Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 Section 508 Amendment to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) ----------------------------------------------------------------------40. What is the main use of preparing Traceability matrix and explain the real time usage? A: — A traceability matrix is created by associating requirements with the work products that satisfy them. Tests are associated with the requirements on which they are based and the product tested to meet the requirement. A traceability matrix is a report from the requirements database or repository. ----------------------------------------------------------------------41. How can u do the following 1) Usability testing 2) scalability Testing A:– UT: Testing the ease with which users can learn and use a product. ST: It’s a Web Testing defn.allows web site capability improvement. PT: Testing to determine whether the system/software meets the specified portability requirements. ----------------------------------------------------------------------42. What does u mean by Positive and Negative testing & what is the diff’s between them. Can anyone explain with an example? A: — Positive Testing: Testing the application functionality with valid inputs and verifying that output is correct Negative testing: Testing the application functionality with invalid inputs and verifying the output. Difference is nothing but how the application behaves when we enter some invalid inputs suppose if it accepts invalid input the application Functionality is wrong Positive test: testing aimed to show that s/w work i.e. with valid inputs. This is also called as “test to pass’ Negative testing: testing aimed at showing s/w doesn’t work. Which is also know as ‘test

to fail” BVA is the best example of -ve testing. ----------------------------------------------------------------------43. what is change request, how u use it? A: — Change Request is a attribute or part of Defect Life Cycle. Now when u as a tester finds a defect n report to ur DL…he in turn informs the Development Team. The DT says it’s not a defect it’s an extra implementation or says not part of req’ment. Its newscast has to pay. Here the status in ur defect report would be Change Request I think change request controlled by change request control board (CCB). If any changes required by client after we start the project, it has to come thru that CCB and they have to approve it. CCB got full rights to accept or reject based on the project schedule and cost. ----------------------------------------------------------------------44. What is risk analysis, what type of risk analysis u did in u r project? A: — Risk Analysis: A systematic use of available information to determine how often specified events and unspecified events may occur and the magnitude of their likely consequences OR procedure to identify threats & vulnerabilities, analyze them to ascertain the exposures, and highlight how the impact can be eliminated or reduced Types : 1.QUANTITATIVE RISK ANALYSIS 2.QUALITATIVE RISK ANALYSIS ----------------------------------------------------------------------45. What is API ? A:– Application program interface. ----------------------------------------------------------------------46. High severity, low priority bug? A: — A page is rarely accessed, or some activity is performed rarely but that thing outputs some important Data incorrectly, or corrupts the data, this will be a bug of H severity L priority ----------------------------------------------------------------------47. If project wants to release in 3months what type of Risk analysis u do in Test plan? A:– Use risk analysis to determine where testing should be focused. Since it’s rarely possible to test every possible aspect of an application, every possible combination of events, every dependency, or everything that could go wrong, risk analysis is appropriate to most software development projects. This requires judgment skills, common sense, and experience. (If warranted, formal methods are also available.) Considerations can include: • • • Which functionality is most important to the project’s intended purpose? Which functionality is most visible to the user? Which functionality has the largest safety impact?

• Which functionality has the largest financial impact on users? • Which aspects of the application are most important to the customer? • Which aspects of the application can be tested early in the development cycle? • Which parts of the code are most complex, and thus most subject to errors? • Which parts of the application were developed in rush or panic mode? • Which aspects of similar/related previous projects caused problems? • Which aspects of similar/related previous projects had large maintenance expenses? • Which parts of the requirements and design are unclear or poorly thought out? • What do the developers think are the highest-risk aspects of the application? • What kinds of problems would cause the worst publicity? • What kinds of problems would cause the most customer service complaints? • What kinds of tests could easily cover multiple functionality's? • Which tests will have the best high-risk-coverage to time-required ratio ----------------------------------------------------------------------48. Test cases for IE 6.0 ? A:– Test cases for IE 6.0 i.e Internet Explorer 6.0:— 1)First I go for the Installation side, means that – + is it working with all versions of Windows ,Netscape or other softwares in other words we can say that IE must check with all hardware and software parts. 2) Secondly go for the Text Part means that all the Text part appears in frequent and smooth manner. 3) Thirdly go for the Images Part means that all the Images appears in frequent and smooth manner. 4) URL must run in a better way. 5) Suppose Some other language used on it then URL take the Other Characters, Other than Normal Characters. 6)Is it working with Cookies frequently or not. 7) Is it Concerning with different script like JScript and VBScript. HTML Code work on that or not. 9) Troubleshooting works or not. 10) All the Tool bars are work with it or not. 11) If Page has Some Links, than how much is the Max and Min Limit for that. 12) Test for Installing Internet Explorer 6 with Norton Protected Recycle Bin enabled . 13) Is it working with the Uninstallation Process. 14) Last but not the least test for the Security System for the IE 6.0 ----------------------------------------------------------------------49. Where you involve in testing life cycle ,what type of test you perform ? A:– Generally test engineers involved from entire test life cycle i.e, test plan, test case preparation, execution, reporting. Generally system testing, regression testing, adhoc testing etc. ----------------------------------------------------------------------50. what is Testing environment in your company ,means hwo testing process start ? A:– testing process is going as follows quality assurance unit

quality assurance manager testlead test engineer ----------------------------------------------------------------------51. who prepares the use cases? A:– In Any company except the small company Business analyst prepares the use cases But in small company Business analyst prepares along with team lead ----------------------------------------------------------------------52. What methodologies have you used to develop test cases? A:– generally test engineers uses 4 types of methodologies 1. Boundary value analysis 2.Equivalence partition 3.Error guessing 4.cause effect graphing ----------------------------------------------------------------------53. Why we call it as a regression test nor retest? A:– If we test whether defect is closed or not i.e Retesting But here we are checking the impact also regression means repeated times ----------------------------------------------------------------------54. Is automated testing better than manual testing. If so, why? A:– Automated testing and manual testing have advantages as well as disadvantages Advantages: It increase the efficiency of testing process speed in process reliable Flexible disadvantage’s Tools should have compatibility with our development or deployment tools needs lot of time initially If the requirements are changing continuously Automation is not suitable Manual: If the requirements are changing continuously Manual is suitable Once the build is stable with manual testing then only we go 4 automation Disadvantages: It needs lot of time We can not do some type of testing manually E.g Performances ----------------------------------------------------------------------55. what is the exact difference between a product and a project.give an example ? A:– Project Developed for particular client requirements are defined by client Product developed for market Requirements are defined by company itself by conducting market survey Example Project: the shirt which we are interested stitching with tailor as per our specifications is project Product: Example is “Ready made Shirt” where the particular company will imagine particular measurements they made the product Mainframes is a product Product has many mo of versions but project has fewer versions i.e depends upon change request and enhancements

----------------------------------------------------------------------56. Define Brain Stromming and Cause Effect Graphing? With Eg? A:– BS: A learning technique involving open group discussion intended to expand the range of available ideas OR A meeting to generate creative ideas. At PEPSI Advertising, daily, weekly and bi-monthly brainstorming sessions are held by various work groups within the firm. Our monthly IPower brainstorming meeting is attended by the entire agency staff. OR Brainstorming is a highly structured process to help generate ideas. It is based on the principle that you cannot generate and evaluate ideas at the same time. To use brainstorming, you must first gain agreement from the group to try brainstorming for a fixed interval (eg six minutes). CEG : A testing technique that aids in selecting, in a systematic way, a high-yield set of test cases that logically relates causes to effects to produce test cases. It has a beneficial side effect in pointing out incompleteness and ambiguities in specifications. ----------------------------------------------------------------------57. Actually by using severity u should know which one u need to solve so what is the need of priority? A:– I guess severity reflects the seriousness of the bug where as priority refers to which bug should rectify first. of course if the severity is high the same case is with priority in normal. severity decided by the tester where as priority decided by developers. which one need to solve first knows through priority not with severity. how serious of the bug knows through severity. severity is nothing impact of that bug on the application. Priority is nothing but importance to resolve the bug yeah of course by looking severity we can judge but sometimes high severity bug doesn’t have high priority At the same time High priority bug don’t have high severity So we need both severity and priority ----------------------------------------------------------------------58. What do u do if the bug that u found is not accepted by the developer and he is saying its not reproducible. Note:The developer is in the on site location ? A:– once again we will check that condition with all reasons. then we will attach screen shots with strong reasons. then we will explain to the project manager and also explain to the client when they contact us Sometimes bug is not reproducible it is because of different environment suppose development team using other environment and you are using different environment at this situation there is chance of bug not reproducing. At this situation please check the environment in the base line documents that is functional documents if the environment

which we r using is correct we will raise it as defect We will take screen shots and sends them with test procedure also ----------------------------------------------------------------------59. what is the difference between three tier and two tier application? A:– Client server is a 2-tier application. In this, front end or client is connected to ‘Data base server’ through ‘Data Source Name’,front end is the monitoring level. Web based architecture is a 3-tier application. In this, browser is connected to web server through TCP/IP and web server is connected to Data base server,browser is the monitoring level. In general, Black box testers are concentrating on monitoring level of any type of application. All the client server applications are 2 tier architectures. Here in these architecture, all the “Business Logic” is stored in clients and “Data” is stored in Servers. So if user request anything, business logic will b performed at client, and the data is retrieved from Server(DB Server). Here the problem is, if any business logic changes, then we need to change the logic at each any every client. The best ex: is take a super market, i have branches in the city. At each branch i have clients, so business logic is stored in clients, but the actual data is store in servers.If assume i want to give some discount on some items, so i need to change the business logic. For this i need to goto each branch and need to change the business logic at each client. This the disadvantage of Client/Server architecture. So 3-tier architecture came into picture: Here Business Logic is stored in one Server, and all the clients are dumb terminals. If user requests anything the request first sent to server, the server will bring the data from DB Sever and send it to clients. This is the flow for 3-tier architecture. Assume for the above. Ex. if i want to give some discount, all my business logic is there in Server. So i need to change at one place, not at each client. This is the main advantage of 3-tier architecture. -------------------------------------------------------------------60. What is Impact analysis? How to do impact analysis in yr project? A: — Impact analysis means when we r doing regressing testing at that time we r checking that the bug fixes r working properly, and by fixing these bug other components are working as per their requirements r they got disturbed. 61. HOW TO TEST A WEBSITE BY MANUAL TESTING? A: — Web Testing During testing the websites the following scenarios should be considered. Functionality Performance Usability Server side interface Client side compatibility

Security Functionality: In testing the functionality of the web sites the following should be tested. Links Internal links External links Mail links Broken links Forms Field validation Functional chart Error message for wrong input Optional and mandatory fields Database Testing will be done on the database integrity. Cookies Testing will be done on the client system side, on the temporary internet files. Performance: Performance testing can be applied to understand the web site’s scalability, or to benchmark the performance in the environment of third party products such as servers and middle ware for potential purchase. Connection speed: Tested over various Networks like Dial up, ISDN etc Load What is the no. of users per time? Check for peak loads & how system behaves. Large amount of data accessed by user. Stress Continuous load Performance of memory, cpu, file handling etc. Usability : Usability testing is the process by which the human-computer interaction characteristics of a system are measured, and weaknesses are identified for correction. Usability can be defined as the degree to which a given piece of software assists the person sitting at the keyboard to accomplish a task, as opposed to becoming an additional impediment to such accomplishment. The broad goal of usable systems is often assessed using several Criteria: Ease of learning Navigation

Subjective user satisfaction General appearance Server side interface: In web testing the server side interface should be tested. This is done by Verify that communication is done properly. Compatibility of server with software, hardware, network and database should be tested. The client side compatibility is also tested in various platforms, using various browsers etc. Security: The primary reason for testing the security of an web is to identify potential vulnerabilities and subsequently repair them. The following types of testing are described in this section: Network Scanning Vulnerability Scanning Password Cracking Log Review Integrity Checkers Virus Detection Performance Testing Performance testing is a rigorous usability evaluation of a working system under realistic conditions to identify usability problems and to compare measures such as success rate, task time and user satisfaction with requirements. The goal of performance testing is not to find bugs, but to eliminate bottlenecks and establish a baseline for future regression testing. To conduct performance testing is to engage in a carefully controlled process of measurement and analysis. Ideally, the software under test is already stable enough so that this process can proceed smoothly. A clearly defined set of expectations is essential for meaningful performance testing. For example, for a Web application, you need to know at least two things: expected load in terms of concurrent users or HTTP connections acceptable response time Load testing: Load testing is usually defined as the process of exercising the system under test by feeding it the largest tasks it can operate with. Load testing is sometimes called volume testing, or longevity/endurance testing Examples of volume testing: testing a word processor by editing a very large document testing a printer by sending it a very large job testing a mail server with thousands of users mailboxes Examples of longevity/endurance testing: testing a client-server application by running the client in a loop against the server over

an extended period of time Goals of load testing: Expose bugs that do not surface in cursory testing, such as memory management bugs, memory leaks, buffer overflows, etc. Ensure that the application meets the performance baseline established during Performance testing. This is done by running regression tests against the application at a specified maximum load. Although performance testing and load testing can seen similar, their goals are different. On one hand, performance testing uses load testing techniques and tools for measurement and benchmarking purposes and uses various load levels whereas load testing operates at a predefined load level, the highest load that the system can accept while still functioning properly. Stress testing: Stress testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity. This is designed to test the software with abnormal situations. Stress testing attempts to find the limits at which the system will fail through abnormal quantity or frequency of inputs. Stress testing tries to break the system under test by overwhelming its resources or by taking resources away from it (in which case it is sometimes called negative testing). The main purpose behind this madness is to make sure that the system fails and recovers gracefully — this quality is known as recoverability. Stress testing does not break the system but instead it allows observing how the system reacts to failure. Stress testing observes for the following. Does it save its state or does it crash suddenly? Does it just hang and freeze or does it fail gracefully? Is it able to recover from the last good state on restart? Etc. Compatability Testing A Testing to ensure compatibility of an application or Web site with different browsers, OS and hardware platforms. Different versions, configurations, display resolutions, and Internet connect speeds all can impact the behavior of the product and introduce costly and embarrassing bugs. We test for compatibility using real test environments. That is testing how will the system performs in the particular software, hardware or network environment. Compatibility testing can be performed manually or can be driven by an automated functional or reg The purpose of compatibility testing is to reveal issues related to the product& interaction session test suite.with other software as well as hardware. The product compatibility is evaluated by first identifying the hardware/software/browser components that the product is designed to support. Then a hardware/software/browser matrix is designed that indicates the configurations on which the product will be tested. Then, with input from the client, a testing script is designed that will be sufficient to evaluate compatibility between the product and the hardware/software/browser matrix. Finally, the script is executed against the matrix,and any anomalies are investigated to determine exactly where the incompatibility lies.

Some typical compatibility tests include testing your application: On various client hardware configurations Using different memory sizes and hard drive space On various Operating Systems In different network environments With different printers and peripherals (i.e. zip drives, USBs, etc.) ----------------------------------------------------------------------62. which comes first test strategy or test plan? A:– Test strategy comes first ans this is the high level document…. and approach for the testing starts from test strategy and then based on this the test lead prepares the test plan…. ----------------------------------------------------------------------63. what is the difference between web based application and client server application as a testers point of view? A:– According to Tester’s Point of view—— 1) Web Base Application (WBA)is a 3 tier application ;Browser,Back end and Server. Client server Application(CSA) is a 2 tier Application ;Front End ,Back end . 2) In the WBA tester test for the Script error like java script error VB script error etc, that shown at the page. In the CSA tester does not test for any script error. 3) Because in the WBA once changes perform reflect at every machine so tester has less work for test. Whereas in the CSA every time application need to be instal hence ,it maybe possible that some machine has some problem for that Hardware testing as well as software testing is needed. ----------------------------------------------------------------------63. What is the significance of doing Regression testing? A:– To check for the bug fixes. And this fix should not disturb other functionality To Ensure the newly added functionality or existing modified functionality or developer fixed bug arises any new bug or affecting any other side effect. this is called regression test and ensure already PASSED TEST CASES would not arise any new bug. ----------------------------------------------------------------------64. What are the diff ways to check a date field in a website? A:– There are different ways like :– 1) you can check the field width for minimum and maximum. 2) If that field only take the Numeric Value then check it’ll only take Numeric no other type. 3) If it takes the date or time then check for other. 4) Same way like Numeric you can check it for the Character,Alpha Numeric aand all. 5) And the most Important if you click and hit the enter key then some time pag e may give the error of javascript, that is the big fault on the page . 6) Check the field for the Null value .. ETC………………… The date field we can check in different ways Possitive testing: first we enter the date in given format

Negative Testing: We enter the date in invalid format suppose if we enter date like 30/02/2006 it should display some error message and also we use to check the numeric or text --------------------------------------------------------------------65. What kind of testing to be done in client server application and web application? Explain Web Testing During testing the websites the following scenarios should be considered. Functionality Performance Usability Server side interface Client side compatibility Security Functionality: In testing the functionality of the web sites the following should be tested. Links Internal links External links Mail links Broken links Forms Field validation Functional chart Error message for wrong input Optional and mandatory fields Database Testing will be done on the database integrity. Cookies Testing will be done on the client system side, on the temporary internet files. Performance: Performance testing can be applied to understand the web site’s scalability, or to benchmark the performance in the environment of third party products such as servers and middleware for potential purchase. Connection speed: Tested over various Networks like Dial up, ISDN etc Load What is the no. of users per time? Check for peak loads & how system behaves.

Large amount of data accessed by user. Stress Continuous load Performance of memory, cpu, file handling etc. Usability : Usability testing is the process by which the human-computer interaction characteristics of a system are measured, and weaknesses are identified for correction. Usability can be defined as the degree to which a given piece of software assists the person sitting at the keyboard to accomplish a task, as opposed to becoming an additional impediment to such accomplishment. The broad goal of usable systems is often assessed using several criteria: Ease of learning Navigation Subjective user satisfaction General appearance Server side interface: In web testing the server side interface should be tested. This is done by Verify that communication is done properly. Compatibility of server with software, hardware, network and database should be tested. The client side compatibility is also tested in various platforms, using various browsers etc. Security: The primary reason for testing the security of an web is to identify potential vulnerabilities and subsequently repair them. The following types of testing are described in this section: Network Scanning Vulnerability Scanning Password Cracking Log Review Integrity Checkers Virus Detection Performance Testing Performance testing is a rigorous usability evaluation of a working system under realistic conditions to identify usability problems and to compare measures such as success rate, task time and user satisfaction with requirements. The goal of performance testing is not to find bugs, but to eliminate bottlenecks and establish a baseline for future regression testing. To conduct performance testing is to engage in a carefully controlled process of

measurement and analysis. Ideally, the software under test is already stable enough so that this process can proceed smoothly. A clearly defined set of expectations is essential for meaningful performance testing. For example, for a Web application, you need to know at least two things: expected load in terms of concurrent users or HTTP connections acceptable response time Load testing: Load testing is usually defined as the process of exercising the system under test by feeding it the largest tasks it can operate with. Load testing is sometimes called volume testing, or longevity/endurance testing Examples of volume testing: Testing a word processor by editing a very large document testing a printer by sending it a very large job testing a mail server with thousands of users mailboxes Examples of longevity/endurance testing: Testing a client-server application by running the client in a loop against the server over an extended period of time Goals of load testing: Expose bugs that do not surface in cursory testing, such as memory management bugs, memory leaks, buffer overflows, etc. ensure that the application meets the performance baseline established during Performance testing. This is done by running regression tests against the application at a specified maximum load. Although performance testing and load testing can seen similar, their goals are different. On one hand, performance testing uses load testing techniques and tools for measurement and benchmarking purposes and uses various load levels whereas load testing operates at a predefined load level, the highest load that the system can accept while still functioning properly. Stress testing: Stress testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity. This is designed to test the software with abnormal situations. Stress testing attempts to find the limits at which the system will fail through abnormal quantity or frequency of inputs. Stress testing tries to break the system under test by overwhelming its resources or by taking resources away from it (in which case it is sometimes called negative testing). The main purpose behind this madness is to make sure that the system fails and recovers gracefully — this quality is known as recoverability.Stress testing does not break the

system but instead it allows observing how the system reacts to failure. Stress testing observes for the following. Does it save its state or does it crash suddenly? Does it just hang and freeze or does it fail gracefully? Is it able to recover from the last good state on restart? Etc. Compatability Testing A Testing to ensure compatibility of an application or Web site with different browsers, OS and hardware platforms. Different versions, configurations, display resolutions, and Internet connect speeds all can impact the behavior of the product and introduce costly and embarrassing bugs. We test for compatibility using real test environments. That is testing how will the system performs in the particular software, hardware or network environment. Compatibility testing can be performed manually or can be driven by an automated functional or reg The purpose of compatibility testing is to reveal issues related to the products interaction session test suite.with other software as well as hardware. The product compatibility is evaluated by first identifying the hardware/software/browser components that the product is designed to support. Then a hardware/software/browser matrix is designed that indicates the configurations on which the product will be tested. Then, with input from the client, a testing script is designed that will be sufficient to evaluate compatibility between the product and the hardware/software/browser matrix. Finally, the script is executed against the matrix, and any anomalies are investigated to determine exactly where the incompatibility lies. Some typical compatibility tests include testing your application: On various client hardware configurations Using different memory sizes and hard drive space On various Operating Systems In different network environments With different printers and peripherals (i.e. zip drives, USBs, etc.) --------------------------------------------------------------------66. After insert the record in front-end, How will u check the back end by manually? Please explain? Back end Checking is what we call DATABASE TESTING have to know the queries very well. With out queries we will not able to test data base testing. But as a tester we will responsible for test and see the data whether it is stored in back end or not. We don’t have permission to do any thing. So what I am coming to tell means “select * from condition” queries is enough for testing the back end. ----------------------------------------------------------------------67. Do write a separate test case for Regression Testing? If it is Yes, Explain How to write the Test case?

Well we are not going to right separate test cases for regression testing. We execute the same test cases on newly modified build which ever failed in previous. OR We are not going to write new test cases. We will select the some of the test cases from test case document, and execute the test cases to check for the bug fixes. Here we selecting the test cases such way that, all the basic functionality test cases, and affected bug test cases. ----------------------------------------------------------------------68. How to do the performance testing manually? Does u have a test case for that? We can test it manually but we don’t get accurate result. We don’t have separate test cases exactly we will do it with tool i.e. Load runner, Act, Web load. ----------------------------------------------------------------------69. What is the difference between Functional testing and Functionality testing? Functional Testing: The portion of security testing in which the advertised features of a system are tested for correct operation. OR Quality assurance that a web site performs properly. All aspects of the user interface, navigation between pages and off-site, multilingual navigation, etc. are tested. Testing is required in all the current browsers and on the major operating systems and platforms. OR Functional testing is nothing but whether the given function is working or not as per the specifications Ex: field validation, Navigation etc. Functionality Testing is nothing but to check whether our application is equal to customer requirements or not Here we will do lot more tests Ex: Inter system Testing Error handling testing ----------------------------------------------------------------------70. What is Middleware? Can anybody explain me? In the computer industry, middleware is a general term for any programming that serves to “glue together” or mediate between two separate and often already existing programs. A common application of middleware is to allow programs written for access to a particular database to access other databases. The systematic tying together of disparate

applications, often through the use of middleware, is known as enterprise application integration. Or Software that mediates between an applications program and a network. It manages the interaction between disparate applications across the heterogeneous computing platforms. The Object Request Broker (ORB), software that manages communication between objects, is an example of a middleware program 71. Suppose u and your team member is there.your team member (friend) has raised one bug..u don’t no about application as well as that functionality of that application.your TL give the task u have to give the Severity & Priority..how can u give the Severity & Priority? I am using Adhoc testing for this type of bugs depends upon past experience i am try to execute the testcase and write the severity and priority of that big. ----------------------------------------------------------------------72. what is JOINTS & REGISTRY in SQL? Joints : Using SQL Joints, you can retrieve data more than one table or view using the keys etc to define an inequality condition Registry : A Windows repository that stores configuration information for a computer. For all the terms on SQL … Plz Visit http://www.utexas.edu/its/unix/reference/oracle docs/v92/B105 01_01/win.920/a95490/glossary.htm ---------------------------------------------------------------------73. suppose u have raised one bug.u have posted to that concerned developer..he can’t accept that is a bug.what will u do in the next stage? If the developer won’t accept our sent bug, then we show it to our team leader or we can show it to our superior person. so he/she will go and discuss with developer or else they will conduct one meeting on that. or Sometimes bug not reproducible in Dev Environment at that situation dev doesn’t accept we will give him screen shots.If still debate occurs we raise the issue in bug triage meeting ----------------------------------------------------------------------74. Role of Software Test Engineer in Software Company? The role of a software test engineer in company is to find the defect. He/She should have “test-to-break” attitude. He/She has to test the application taking the customer into mind.

He should work hard for quality. ----------------------------------------------------------------------75. Suppose you testing Calculator application and you got problems like 1/1=2, 2/2=1, 3/3=6, 4/4=1, 5/5=10. Now how will you describe the bug title as well as give the bug description? Bug title : Calculation Errors Description: Unable to do the calculations of this application. like the output is giving an undefined/Unstructured format. Here the examples : 1/1=2……… Severity : Critical Priority: High/Medium(depends on your Requirement to solve) Bug Title:calculator_functionality_Division Description:Division function is not working properly when the values are(both) same and even. 76. Explain equivalence partitioning with an example? When We have an requirement which has a large class of data split the large class into its subsets For Ex: Sal 10000-45000 Here this is the large class of data equivalence partitioning –>take inputs from the below sub classes such as less than 10000 (invalid) between 10000 and 45000 (valid) greater than 45000 (invalid) Instead of choosing values from the large set of information split the inputs into both valid & negative inputs that becomes a subset. this technique is equivalence partitioning ----------------------------------------------------------------------77. Explain traceability matrix with an example? Traceability matrix is table which maps each requirement to its functionality in FDS, its internal design in IDS, its code and its test cases. Format is <!– /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-styleparent:”"; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; fontsize:12.0pt; font-family:”Times New Roman”; mso-fareast-font-family:”Times New Roman”;} pre {margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; fontsize:10.0pt; font-family:”Courier New”; mso-fareast-font-family:”Times New Roman”;} @page Section1 {size:8.5in 11.0in; margin:1.0in 1.25in 1.0in 1.25in; mso-headermargin:.5in; mso-footer-margin:.5in; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1

{page:Section1;} –> Requirement--Functionality--Internal design--coding--T.c's R1 P3 in FDS P6 in IDS P4 T13,T14 -– – – – -– – – – ----------------------------------------------------------------------78. What is the difference between Integration Testing and System Testing? Integration testing will do the completion of unit or module level Testing. System testing is nothing but the application meets the Required specifications or not Or In integration testing individual components are combined with other components to make sure the necessary communications, links and data sharing occur properly. It is not system testing because the components are not implemented in the operating environment. System testing begins one the modules are integrated enough to perform tests in whole system environment. System testing can occur in parallel with integration test, especially with the top-down method. ----------------------------------------------------------------------79. How Could u Present Test Strategy for the Product Testing? Test strategy means that it is a document prepared by quality analyst/project manager. it specifies how to approach to testing team depends upon requirement gatherings, risks involved in our company and customer requirements ----------------------------------------------------------------------80. You may undergone many projects. Do all the projects match up with customer’s expectations? Any project never matches with 100% requirements. We consider only when it reaches to certain exten 81. On what basis you are fixing up the time for project completion? Test strategy; Based on the test strategy and testing Approach ----------------------------------------------------------------------82. How u r breaking down the project among team members? It can be depend on these following cases—1) Number of modules 2) Number of team members 3) Complexity of the Project 4) Time Duration of the project 5) Team member’s experience etc…… ----------------------------------------------------------------------83. Usually customers won’t give all the requirements. How will u manage & collect all the necessary information? Sometimes customer may not produce all the requirements. At this situation Business analyst and project manager will use their experience which they handles this type of projects otherwise we will go through some reference sites where we will observe the functionality and they will prepare use cases and requirements.

(or) I am agree with the above answer. If we really face such a problem then it is better to get information from development team so that we can know the exact info Or else use Ad-hoc testing for the required job. ----------------------------------------------------------------------84. what are the Qualities needed by a software tester? A software tester must have intent of showing the product is not working as specified. Software tester have the basic attitude of showing the presence of errors. He must have perspective of customers i.e he has to use the system as he is the client of the system. He has to strive for the quality. Or Software Tester must has these qualities— 1)He/she must observe the problem from both the side say user and programmer. 2)Must has good under standing with other team members . 3)Able to understand programmers view. 4)Once start testing, do not put it remain. 5)First test requirements of the user. 6)Before start testing first analysis the project like ; technology using in project, all the flow etc…… ----------------------------------------------------------------------85. Did you write test cases of design phase? Yes We can write test cases at the design phase At the time of designing we should be ready with test cases. ----------------------------------------------------------------------86. In Testing 10 cases you found 20 bugs then how will you know which bug is for which test case? Each Bug Will Have a Unique Bug-ID which would be related to that particular Test Case. We also make use of the Matrix to keep track of bugs and test cases. ----------------------------------------------------------------------87. what is the path for test director,where the test cases are stored ? c:\TDcomdir\TD_projectname\tests\test no Usually test cases are stored in Test Plan in Test director ----------------------------------------------------------------------88. what is mean by test suite? Test suit is “set of test cases” Group of test cases is nothing but functional(+ve & -ve) and GUI 89. What is the diff. b/w Baseline and Traceability matrix? Baseline : The point at which some deliverable produced during the software engineering process is put under formal change control. Traceability : Is used to check if some of the test cases are left out or not in Manual and automated testing. Baseline is nothing but a software specification or functionality that is reviewed or accepted for development. Once the functionality is baseline, we can start developing of the functionality.

Where as a Traceability Matrix lists all the functionality or features and the test cases for each feature. By using the traceability matrix we can measure, when to stop testing of the project or application. Generally Traceability Matrix contains: 1. UseCaseID(Functionality/Feature). 2. Description of the Feature. 3. Priority for the Feature. 4. TestCaseIDs for this Feature. (Once if the mapped testcases for each Feature meets Success criteria, then we can stop testing of the project) 5. In which phase is the Feature (Unit,Component,Integration,System) ----------------------------------------------------------------------90. what methodologies you are following? Methodologies are considered in 2 accounts. 1) There are a few methodologies like : v-model,spiral (most common), waterfall, hybrid, prototype, etc depends on the company. 2) Depends on the clients and the requirements. No. 2 is def related to no 1 Methodology means the way we are following while writing test cases . there are different ways like… 1. Functional Test cases 2. Equivalence Partitioning Test cases 3. Boundary value analysis 4. Cause Effect Graphing and Decision table 91. Can u test a website or a web application manually without using any automation tool? As per my idea we can test a web application manually without using automation but its time consuming and might have error so to make our task easy and error free we use automatons tool like Qtp. As for as Manual is concerned we can test Usability, Functionality, Security testing but whereas performance is concerned we can’t do it manually accurate 92. What tools are used in Manual testing for bug tracking and reporting? For bug tracking and reporting there are many tools like Rational clear quest. PVCS Bugzilla

93. At what stage in the SDLC testing should be started? Testing Starts from the starting sate of SDLC that is requirement stage where we prepare SRS Or URS DOC. 94. What is mean by designing the application and coding the application? Designing and Testing are two different phases in a software development process(SDLC). 1. Information Gathering 2. Analysis 3. Designing– 4. Coding 5. Testing– 6. Implementation and Maintenance. If u want answer in Testing terms means STLC, designing test includes preparing Test Strategy, Test Plan and Test Case documents, and testing means executing the test cases and generating Test Reports. Designing the application as per the requirements Designing the application is nothing but deriving the functional flow , alternative flow,How many modules that we are handling, data flow etc Two types of designs are there HLD: In this designing team will prepare functional architecture i.e Functional flow LLD: In this designing team will divide the total application into modules and they will derive logic for each module Coding:writing the course code as per the LLD to meet customer requirements 95. what is mean by client and server? 96. I. A code inspection is held for new code. II. A code inspection is held for reused code. III. A code inspection is held after the first compilation. IV. A code inspection is held after the first error-free compilation. Which of the statements above are true of code inspections? 1. I and IV 2. I, II, and IV 3. I, II, and III 4. II and IV 5. II and III? 1. I and IV

96. What is the best way to choose automation tool? We use automation only for version wised projects, means if the project comes up with different versions. Once we write the scripts for one version, we can use these scripts with multiple versions with minor changes. So the main advantage of automation is: 1. Saves the time. 2. Saves money. 97. What is the point of reference by which something can be measured? 1. Benchmark 2. Baseline 3. Metric 4. Measure 5. Indicator Baseline 98. what is Concurrency Testing? Multi-user testing geared towards determining the effects of accessing the same application code, module or database records. Identifies and measures the level of locking, deadlocking and use of single-threaded code and locking semaphores. 99. When does metrics validation occur? 1. Throughout the life cycle 2. During the test 3. After the test 4. During requirements definition 5. After the final software release Justify your answer with simple explanation.? Throughout the life cycle - TO identify the lag & overcome 100. The scenario is “while reviewing requirement docs(SRS)if u find or feel any requirement is not meeting the client’s requirements” whom do you report?and what is your action? When the System Requirement Specification does not meet the clients requirements, it should be intimated to the PL (who prepares the SRS and should be documented in the Test log & analysis of data which should be discussed in the Management Review Meeting. The action is the SRS should undergo a revision thereby updating SRS to match with CRS 101. How to choose a test automation tool? We have to choose depends upon the application complexity & delivery time. ----------------------------------------------------------------------102. Did u come across STUBS and DRIVERS? How did u use these in u r project ? Stub : A piece of code that simulates the activity of missing components. Driver : A piece of code that passes test cases to another piece of code. i will give a gen example….suppose u have 3 modules…A B C…A n B r 100% comp…. and C is only 50% comp….u r under pressure to comp in a time frame…what u do is u know to build the mod C u need at least 15 days…so u build a dummy mod C which will take 1/2 days…This is STUB now once all the mod A B and C(dummy) r ready..u integrate them to see how it works..This is a DRIVER

----------------------------------------------------------------------103. How to determine if a test environment is appropriate? Difference between client server testing and web server testing. Web systems are one type of client/server. The client is the browser, the server is whatever is on the back end (database, proxy, mirror, etc). This differs from so-called “traditional” client/server in a few ways but both systems are a type of client/server. There is a certain client that connects via some protocol with a server (or set of servers). Also understand that in a strict difference based on how the question is worded, “testing a Web server” specifically is simply testing the functionality and performance of the Web server itself. (For example, I might test if HTTP Keep-Alives are enabled and if that works. Or I might test if the logging feature is working. Or I might test certain filters, like ISAPI. Or I might test some general characteristics such as the load the server can take.) In the case of “client server testing”, as you have worded it, you might be doing the same general things to some other type of server, such as a database server. Also note that you can be testing the server directly, in some cases, and other times you can be testing it via the interaction of a client. You can also test connectivity in both. (Anytime you have a client and a server there has to be connectivity between them or the system would be less than useful so far as I can see.) In the Web you are looking at HTTP protocols and perhaps FTP depending upon your site and if your server is configured for FTP connections as well as general TCP/IP concerns. In a “traditional” client/server you may be looking at sockets, Telnet, NNTP, etc. Share This (11 votes, average: 4.64 out of 5) Loading ... Interview Questions for E-learning Testers » | 0 Comments 1) What is SCORM? 2) What is Sec 508? 3) Have u done any portal testing? 4) DO u have any idea about LMS or LCMS? 5) Have u done any compliance testing 6) Have u done any compatibility testing? 7) What are the critical issues found while testing the projects in your organization? Tell me about the testing procedures used by u in your organization? 9) How do you test a flash file? 10) Have u find any difference while testing a flash file and Html file? 11) What types of testing do u aware of?

12) While doing the compatibility testing have u found any critical issues? 13) While doing the compliance testing has u noticed any critical/ abnormal issues? 14) What is the procedure u use while doing the Regression testing in your projects? 15) Have u done any performance or stress testing in your testing? If yes have u used any automation techniques in that or not? 16) Have u aware of any bug tracking tools for defect tracking? 17) Tell me about the testing scenario’s used in project? 18) Have u written any test cases/test plan? If yes can u tell me one or two instances in that? 19) Have u aware of any Usability and Acceptance testing? 20) Is ur testing is conventional or non-conventional? 21) Have u done any other lang’s courses testing? If yes have u faced in any critical situations? 22) What are things to be more concentrated while testing same projects on different environments? 23) What are AICC standards? Share This (9 votes, average: 3.22 out of 5) Loading ... Software Testing Interview Questions Part 6 » | 1 Comment 60. What is Impact analysis? How to do impact analysis in yr project? A: — Impact analysis means when we r doing regressing testing at that time we r checking that the bug fixes r working properly, and by fixing these bug other components are working as per their requirements r they got disturbed. 61. HOW TO TEST A WEBSITE BY MANUAL TESTING? A: — Web Testing During testing the websites the following scenarios should be considered. Functionality Performance Usability Server side interface Client side compatibility Security Functionality: In testing the functionality of the web sites the following should be tested.

Links Internal links External links Mail links Broken links Forms Field validation Functional chart Error message for wrong input Optional and mandatory fields Database Testing will be done on the database integrity. Cookies Testing will be done on the client system side, on the temporary internet files. Performance: Performance testing can be applied to understand the web site’s scalability, or to benchmark the performance in the environment of third party products such as servers and middle ware for potential purchase. Connection speed: Tested over various Networks like Dial up, ISDN etc Load What is the no. of users per time? Check for peak loads & how system behaves. Large amount of data accessed by user. Stress Continuous load Performance of memory, cpu, file handling etc. Usability : Usability testing is the process by which the human-computer interaction characteristics of a system are measured, and weaknesses are identified for correction. Usability can be defined as the degree to which a given piece of software assists the person sitting at the keyboard to accomplish a task, as opposed to becoming an additional impediment to such accomplishment. The broad goal of usable systems is often assessed using several Criteria: Ease of learning Navigation Subjective user satisfaction General appearance Server side interface: In web testing the server side interface should be tested.

This is done by Verify that communication is done properly. Compatibility of server with software, hardware, network and database should be tested. The client side compatibility is also tested in various platforms, using various browsers etc. Security: The primary reason for testing the security of an web is to identify potential vulnerabilities and subsequently repair them. The following types of testing are described in this section: Network Scanning Vulnerability Scanning Password Cracking Log Review Integrity Checkers Virus Detection Performance Testing Performance testing is a rigorous usability evaluation of a working system under realistic conditions to identify usability problems and to compare measures such as success rate, task time and user satisfaction with requirements. The goal of performance testing is not to find bugs, but to eliminate bottlenecks and establish a baseline for future regression testing. To conduct performance testing is to engage in a carefully controlled process of measurement and analysis. Ideally, the software under test is already stable enough so that this process can proceed smoothly. A clearly defined set of expectations is essential for meaningful performance testing. For example, for a Web application, you need to know at least two things: expected load in terms of concurrent users or HTTP connections acceptable response time Load testing: Load testing is usually defined as the process of exercising the system under test by feeding it the largest tasks it can operate with. Load testing is sometimes called volume testing, or longevity/endurance testing Examples of volume testing: testing a word processor by editing a very large document testing a printer by sending it a very large job testing a mail server with thousands of users mailboxes Examples of longevity/endurance testing: testing a client-server application by running the client in a loop against the server over an extended period of time Goals of load testing: Expose bugs that do not surface in cursory testing, such as memory management bugs, memory leaks, buffer overflows, etc. Ensure that the application meets the performance

baseline established during Performance testing. This is done by running regression tests against the application at a specified maximum load. Although performance testing and load testing can seen similar, their goals are different. On one hand, performance testing uses load testing techniques and tools for measurement and benchmarking purposes and uses various load levels whereas load testing operates at a predefined load level, the highest load that the system can accept while still functioning properly. Stress testing: Stress testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity. This is designed to test the software with abnormal situations. Stress testing attempts to find the limits at which the system will fail through abnormal quantity or frequency of inputs. Stress testing tries to break the system under test by overwhelming its resources or by taking resources away from it (in which case it is sometimes called negative testing). The main purpose behind this madness is to make sure that the system fails and recovers gracefully — this quality is known as recoverability. Stress testing does not break the system but instead it allows observing how the system reacts to failure. Stress testing observes for the following. Does it save its state or does it crash suddenly? Does it just hang and freeze or does it fail gracefully? Is it able to recover from the last good state on restart? Etc. Compatability Testing A Testing to ensure compatibility of an application or Web site with different browsers, OS and hardware platforms. Different versions, configurations, display resolutions, and Internet connect speeds all can impact the behavior of the product and introduce costly and embarrassing bugs. We test for compatibility using real test environments. That is testing how will the system performs in the particular software, hardware or network environment. Compatibility testing can be performed manually or can be driven by an automated functional or reg The purpose of compatibility testing is to reveal issues related to the product& interaction session test suite.with other software as well as hardware. The product compatibility is evaluated by first identifying the hardware/software/browser components that the product is designed to support. Then a hardware/software/browser matrix is designed that indicates the configurations on which the product will be tested. Then, with input from the client, a testing script is designed that will be sufficient to evaluate compatibility between the product and the hardware/software/browser matrix. Finally, the script is executed against the matrix,and any anomalies are investigated to determine exactly where the incompatibility lies. Some typical compatibility tests include testing your application: On various client hardware configurations Using different memory sizes and hard drive space On various Operating Systems In different network environments

With different printers and peripherals (i.e. zip drives, USBs, etc.) ----------------------------------------------------------------------62. which comes first test strategy or test plan? A:– Test strategy comes first ans this is the high level document…. and approach for the testing starts from test strategy and then based on this the test lead prepares the test plan…. ----------------------------------------------------------------------63. what is the difference between web based application and client server application as a testers point of view? A:– According to Tester’s Point of view—— 1) Web Base Application (WBA)is a 3 tier application ;Browser,Back end and Server. Client server Application(CSA) is a 2 tier Application ;Front End ,Back end . 2) In the WBA tester test for the Script error like java script error VB script error etc, that shown at the page. In the CSA tester does not test for any script error. 3) Because in the WBA once changes perform reflect at every machine so tester has less work for test. Whereas in the CSA every time application need to be instal hence ,it maybe possible that some machine has some problem for that Hardware testing as well as software testing is needed. ----------------------------------------------------------------------63. What is the significance of doing Regression testing? A:– To check for the bug fixes. And this fix should not disturb other functionality To Ensure the newly added functionality or existing modified functionality or developer fixed bug arises any new bug or affecting any other side effect. this is called regression test and ensure already PASSED TEST CASES would not arise any new bug. ----------------------------------------------------------------------64. What are the diff ways to check a date field in a website? A:– There are different ways like :– 1) you can check the field width for minimum and maximum. 2) If that field only take the Numeric Value then check it’ll only take Numeric no other type. 3) If it takes the date or time then check for other. 4) Same way like Numeric you can check it for the Character,Alpha Numeric aand all. 5) And the most Important if you click and hit the enter key then some time pag e may give the error of javascript, that is the big fault on the page . 6) Check the field for the Null value .. ETC………………… The date field we can check in different ways Possitive testing: first we enter the date in given format Negative Testing: We enter the date in invalid format suppose if we enter date like 30/02/2006 it should display some error message and also we use to check the numeric or text Share This (10 votes, average: 4 out of 5) Loading ... Software Testing Interview Questions Part 5 »

| 0 Comments ----------------------------------------------------------------------46. High severity, low priority bug? A: — A page is rarely accessed, or some activity is performed rarely but that thing outputs some important Data incorrectly, or corrupts the data, this will be a bug of H severity L priority ----------------------------------------------------------------------47. If project wants to release in 3months what type of Risk analysis u do in Test plan? A:– Use risk analysis to determine where testing should be focused. Since it’s rarely possible to test every possible aspect of an application, every possible combination of events, every dependency, or everything that could go wrong, risk analysis is appropriate to most software development projects. This requires judgment skills, common sense, and experience. (If warranted, formal methods are also available.) Considerations can include: • Which functionality is most important to the project’s intended purpose? • Which functionality is most visible to the user? • Which functionality has the largest safety impact? • Which functionality has the largest financial impact on users? • Which aspects of the application are most important to the customer? • Which aspects of the application can be tested early in the development cycle? • Which parts of the code are most complex, and thus most subject to errors? • Which parts of the application were developed in rush or panic mode? • Which aspects of similar/related previous projects caused problems? • Which aspects of similar/related previous projects had large maintenance expenses? • Which parts of the requirements and design are unclear or poorly thought out? • What do the developers think are the highest-risk aspects of the application? • What kinds of problems would cause the worst publicity? • What kinds of problems would cause the most customer service complaints? • What kinds of tests could easily cover multiple functionalities? • Which tests will have the best high-risk-coverage to time-required ratio ----------------------------------------------------------------------48. Test cases for IE 6.0 ? A:– Test cases for IE 6.0 i.e Internet Explorer 6.0:— 1)First I go for the Installation side, means that – + is it working with all versions of Windows ,Netscape or other softwares in other words we can say that IE must check with all hardware and software parts. 2) Secondly go for the Text Part means that all the Text part appears in frequent and smooth manner. 3) Thirdly go for the Images Part means that all the Images appears in frequent and smooth manner. 4) URL must run in a better way. 5) Suppose Some other language used on it then URL take the Other Characters, Other than Normal Characters. 6)Is it working with Cookies frequently or not. 7) Is it Concerning with different script like JScript and VBScript. HTML Code work on that or not.

9) Troubleshooting works or not. 10) All the Tool bars are work with it or not. 11) If Page has Some Links, than how much is the Max and Min Limit for that. 12) Test for Installing Internet Explorer 6 with Norton Protected Recycle Bin enabled . 13) Is it working with the Uninstallation Process. 14) Last but not the least test for the Security System for the IE 6.0 ----------------------------------------------------------------------49. Where you involve in testing life cycle ,what type of test you perform ? A:– Generally test engineers involved from entire test life cycle i.e, test plan, test case preparation, execution, reporting. Generally system testing, regression testing, adhoc testing etc. ----------------------------------------------------------------------50. what is Testing environment in your company ,means hwo testing process start ? A:– testing process is going as follows quality assurance unit quality assurance manager testlead test engineer ----------------------------------------------------------------------51. who prepares the use cases? A:– In Any company except the small company Business analyst prepares the use cases But in small company Business analyst prepares along with team lead ----------------------------------------------------------------------52. What methodologies have you used to develop test cases? A:– generally test engineers uses 4 types of methodologies 1. Boundary value analysis 2.Equivalence partition 3.Error guessing 4.cause effect graphing ----------------------------------------------------------------------53. Why we call it as a regression test nor retest? A:– If we test whether defect is closed or not i.e Retesting But here we are checking the impact also regression means repeated times ----------------------------------------------------------------------54. Is automated testing better than manual testing. If so, why? A:– Automated testing and manual testing have advantages as well as disadvantages Advantages: It increase the efficiency of testing process speed in process reliable Flexible disadvantage’s Tools should have compatibility with our development or deployment tools needs lot of time initially If the requirements are changing continuously Automation is not suitable Manual: If the requirements are changing continuously Manual is suitable Once the build is stable with manual testing then only we go 4 automation Disadvantages:

It needs lot of time We can not do some type of testing manually E.g Performances ----------------------------------------------------------------------55. what is the exact difference between a product and a project.give an example ? A:– Project Developed for particular client requirements are defined by client Product developed for market Requirements are defined by company itself by conducting market survey Example Project: the shirt which we are interested stitching with tailor as per our specifications is project Product: Example is “Ready made Shirt” where the particular company will imagine particular measurements they made the product Mainframes is a product Product has many mo of versions but project has fewer versions i.e depends upon change request and enhancements ----------------------------------------------------------------------56. Define Brain Stromming and Cause Effect Graphing? With Eg? A:– BS: A learning technique involving open group discussion intended to expand the range of available ideas OR A meeting to generate creative ideas. At PEPSI Advertising, daily, weekly and bi-monthly brainstorming sessions are held by various work groups within the firm. Our monthly IPower brainstorming meeting is attended by the entire agency staff. OR Brainstorming is a highly structured process to help generate ideas. It is based on the principle that you cannot generate and evaluate ideas at the same time. To use brainstorming, you must first gain agreement from the group to try brainstorming for a fixed interval (eg six minutes). CEG : A testing technique that aids in selecting, in a systematic way, a high-yield set of test cases that logically relates causes to effects to produce test cases. It has a beneficial side effect in pointing out incompleteness and ambiguities in specifications. ----------------------------------------------------------------------57. Actually by using severity u should know which one u need to solve so what is the need of priority? A:– I guess severity reflects the seriousness of the bug where as priority refers to which bug should rectify first. of course if the severity is high the same case is with priority in normal. severity decided by the tester where as priority decided by developers. which one need to solve first knows through priority not with severity. how serious of the bug knows through severity.

severity is nothing impact of that bug on the application. Priority is nothing but importance to resolve the bug yeah of course by looking severity we can judge but sometimes high severity bug doesn’t have high priority At the same time High priority bug don’t have high severity So we need both severity and priority ----------------------------------------------------------------------58. What do u do if the bug that u found is not accepted by the developer and he is saying its not reproducible. Note:The developer is in the on site location ? A:– once again we will check that condition with all reasons. then we will attach screen shots with strong reasons. then we will explain to the project manager and also explain to the client when they contact us Sometimes bug is not reproducible it is because of different environment suppose development team using other environment and you are using different environment at this situation there is chance of bug not reproducing. At this situation please check the environment in the base line documents that is functional documents if the environment which we r using is correct we will raise it as defect We will take screen shots and sends them with test procedure also ----------------------------------------------------------------------59. what is the difference between three tier and two tier application? A:– Client server is a 2-tier application. In this, front end or client is connected to ‘Data base server’ through ‘Data Source Name’,front end is the monitoring level. Web based architecture is a 3-tier application. In this, browser is connected to web server through TCP/IP and web server is connected to Data base server,browser is the monitoring level. In general, Black box testers are concentrating on monitoring level of any type of application. All the client server applications are 2 tier architectures. Here in these architecture, all the “Business Logic” is stored in clients and “Data” is stored in Servers. So if user request anything, business logic will b performed at client, and the data is retrieved from Server(DB Server). Here the problem is, if any business logic changes, then we need to change the logic at each any every client. The best ex: is take a super market, i have branches in the city. At each branch i have clients, so business logic is stored in clients, but the actual data is store in servers.If assume i want to give some discount on some items, so i need to change the business logic. For this i need to goto each branch and need to change the business logic at each client. This the disadvantage of Client/Server architecture. So 3-tier architecture came into picture: Here Business Logic is stored in one Server, and all the clients are dumb terminals. If user requests anything the request first sent to server, the server will bring the data from DB Sever and send it to clients. This is the flow for 3-tier architecture.

Assume for the above. Ex. if i want to give some discount, all my business logic is there in Server. So i need to change at one place, not at each client. This is the main advantage of 3-tier architecture.