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deals with the world on behalf of it as a whole. Mutual confidence: Has promoted mutual confidence among its member states and their peoples and has built networks of friendship and cooperation among them. Regional peace and stability: Helped keep the region peaceful and stable through its norms for inter-state relations and habits of consultation and dialogue it fosters. Regional economic integration: Main institutional vehicle for integrating the regional economy. Hub and convener of the regionalization process in East Asia and beyond.
Regional Peace And Stability Overriding purpose: to ensure that disputes among its members do not develop into conflict and that the region was kept out of quarrels of the great powers. At the same time, the region would be open to friendship and cooperation with the rest of the world. 3 basic principles (in conducting relations among nations): Renunciation of the use of threat or force Peaceful settlement of disputes Non – interference in one another’s internal affairs Region was both blessed and burdened by great diversity which is although enriching, could easily upset the stability of the region or any country within it. SEA is a zone of peace, freedom, and neutrality (1971) 1976: Treaty of Amity & Cooperation in Southeast Asia First binding treaty In more than ASEAN’s 40 years of existence, no two ASEAN members have engaged in major violent conflict. December 1995: Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (March 1997) Reassurance that they will never acquire nuclear weapons or allow others to introduce them into region Provisions prohibiting dumping of nuclear waste on land or in the sea
and providers of development assistance Strategic reasons: in order to engage the major powers in political and security dialogue and in economic cooperation 1990s: ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) Dialogues and consultations on political and security issues among foreign ministers. and other participants These gatherings: . not only of the individual but also of the community Must be promoted in a balanced and integrated manner ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights ASEAN and the Rest of the World 1970s: ASEAN dialogue partners Engaged its partners as lucrative markets. rule of law. and cultural rights Right to development. senior defence Collective activities designed to build mutual confidence among participants and strengthen their capacity to cooperate in dealing with common security concerns Value for regional security and stability provided by the constant interaction among the leaders. search and rescue) Governance and Human Rights Not just good relations among states but also between state and people. Mutual reassurance among Southeast Asian states Contribution to the global nuclear non – proliferation regime 2007: Defence Minister’s Own Forum Confidence – building measure among ASEAN countries Vehicle for promotion of cooperation in non – conflict pursuits (such as disaster relief. foreign affairs officials. ministers. but also economic. and government and nation Modern means of communication -> solidarity among people November 2009: ASEAN Summit in Singapore ASEAN charter includes social justice. human rights and fundamental freedoms. social. sources of investments. good governance July 1993: ASEAN Foreign Ministers regular meeting Concept of human rights encompasses not only civil and political.
India. South Korea. a. Serve as vehicles for the leaders of the 3 Northeast Asian countries to discuss such issues among themselves in an informal setting East Asia Summit Australia. and gives consumers wider choices Would attract investments to the area and thus stimulate activity and generate jobs Requires removing obstacles to trade and investment within the region and making trade and investment easier and less costly 1992: Common Effective Preferential Tariff for the ASEAN Free Trade (AFTA) Calls for progressive reduction in tariffs on intra-ASEAN trade in defined stages within specific timeframes Provides for removal of non – tariff barriers to trade 1996: ASEAN Industrial Cooperation Scheme (AICO) Allows companies with operations in two or more ASEAN countries to trade products across national boundaries at the final AFTA tariff rate ASEAN countries have committed themselves to critical measures for achieving economic integration (broad agreements on measures) 1995: Updated 1983 code of conduct Harmonizing ASEAN customs methods (with respect to trade among ASEAN countries) ASEAN harmonized tariff nomenclatures A common understanding of the names and codes for products imported by ASEAN countries Single Window . stability. Offer opportunities for the discussion of vital political and security issues pertaining to the region and the times b. increase competition. raise productivity. balance. New Zealand Annual gatherings on the specific issues for cooperation Engages the most dynamic nations of the area with one another for the sake of security. and prosperity of the region Regional Economic Integration Creating a single market and production base Would make national economies of Southeast Asia more efficient. China. Japan.
(Continuing work on feasibility studies. Passenger air services have yet to be liberalized on a regionwide basis. and training) Route of ASEAN Highway: a view to upgrading. 1981: ASEAN Tourism Forum One of the world’s largest and most successful travel fairs. has been painstakingly slow. ASEAN improved a 2002 memorandum of understanding for liberalizing air – freight services among its member countries (although others have excluded major cities from its coverage). Where clearances for customs purposes can be obtained at one site Post – clearance audit In which customs releases imported goods and conducts inspections later (shortened process Application of customs rules remains inconsistent both among and within ASEAN countries 1997: Designated twenty products for standardization Coverage of product standardization remains quite limited Dec 1995: ASEAN Framework Agreement on Services To eliminate substantially restrictions to trade in services amongst Member States To liberalize that trade beyond their commitments under General Agreement on Trade in Services “with the aim to realizing a free trade area in services” Despite the advantages of liberalization of trade in certain services that some ASEAN countries have demonstrated. implementation of the ASEAN Framework Agreement on Services. standardizing. ASEAN has taken steps to make transport cheaper and easier within the region Small practical arrangements like the mutual recognition of driving licences and of certificates of inspection of commercial vehicles Scheme to link the railways of mainland Southeast Asia and China. which was signed as early as 1995. financing. and linking the highway systems of the ASEAN countries in one network (although the progress is slow) In 2007. .
which are meant to provide financial liquidity to countries with balance-of-payments problems and thus discourage speculation on their currencies. or political. However. Exploration of the possible ways of coordinating currency exchange rates in the region in order to reduce the volatility of currency movements. With the assistance of the Asian Development Bank. Asian Bond Market Initiative which seeks to invest in East Asia the enormous savings accumulated by the regional economies. and Korea)with the three basic components of East Asian financial cooperation: Chiang Mai Initiative (has three parts): a. towards a “single market and production base”. Brings together every year over a thousand hotel and airline representatives. c. technical. ASEAN has made some progress on the road to regional economic integration. the business community does not consider them as fast enough. travel agencies. . b. Network of bilateral currency swap and repurchase arrangements. November 2002: ASEAN leaders signed a comprehensive tourism agreement which commits the member states to: Facilitate travel within and into ASEAN Improve transport services. and travel writers. tour operators. research and training in support of the operation of the other two. with the view to reducing the chances of being surprised by financial crises in the future. The obstacles to faster ASEAN economic integration are economic. Periodic surveillance and review of the regional economy and of the national economies of the participating countries. including the liberalization of air sevices Protect the environment and cultural heritage Prevent the exploitation of human beings in the name of tourism Encourage the employment of ASEAN nationals in one another’s tourism facilities ASEAN cooperation is largely carried out within the ASEAN Plus Three framework (together with China. Japan.
Some governments find it difficult to undertake the necessary improvements in the investment climate. Almost 70 percent felt that it benefited them personally - - Cooperating For Common Purposes . Nearly 90 percent believed that membership in ASEAN was good for their countries c. has been going on in ASEAN almost from the beginning Takes place primarily in ASEAN jamborees and youth camps. or funds for certain measures to integrate the regional economy. Some countries fear that their industries cannot withstand the increased competition from others in the region. and contests Promoted by the Japanese-sponsored Friendship Programme for the 21st century and Ship for Southeast Asian Youth Japan.000 university undergraduates in all ten ASEAN member countries revealed a surprising level of awareness of ASEAN: a. Others are reluctant or unwilling to carry out the required administrative reforms. Some countries lack the expertise. as in customs. including among the youth. Singapore. formerly Tiger Cup. quizzes. Cultivating A Sense Of Regional Community The pressing need to develop “culture of compliance” with economic commitments: Overcoming mutual suspicion to cultivate mutual trust Requires a deeper sense of regional community and identity Stronger identification of the country and its leadership’s interests with the progress of the region A long term and comprehensive endeavor that has to be pursued on a number of fronts – simultaneously and In coordination Regional networking. and some other ASEAN countries provide scholarships for ASEAN students The ASEAN awareness of young people has to be intensified ASEAN Football Championship. equipment. where ASEAN football players gather once every two years A recent survey of over 2. Over 75 percent felt that they were “citizens of ASEAN” b.
- - - - - - - A sense of community is fostered by and manifested in the capacity and willingness of the ASEAN countries to cooperate in dealing with the transnational problems that they all confront. education. The questions of . such as: Plans of some ASEAN countries to harness nuclear power for the generation of electricity whereas the process produces materials that could be diverted to weapons purposes. combined forces of nature and human greed make the detection and prevention of fires and the mitigation of their damage extremely difficult in political terms Haze recurs annually in varying degrees of severity Setting up an ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity Launching a programme for water resource management Initiating a project to restore degraded forests and ecosystems Adopting a set of marine water quality criteria Much else needs to be done to deepen ASEAN cooperation in tackling common regional problems for two reasons: These are problems that can be handled on a regional scale Cooperating on them strengthens the sense of community and regional identity among the governments and peoples of Southeast Asia A strengthened sense of community is. political cohesion and stability. and regional economic integration ASEAN faces more challenges in the near future. in turn. rubber or other plantations or spontaneously ignited in times of dry weather Haze damages the health. and economies of people in several countries in the region However. necessary for regional security. One such problem is the speed with which communicable diseases can spread ASEAN cooperation succeeded in quickly halting the 2003 SARS epidemic Dealing with international terrorism Arrests of hundreds of actual or potential terrorists were made Brought to bear on other forms of transnational crime Transnational crime. particularly trafficking of illicit drugs Less success in preventing haze that periodically occurs from peat and forest fires deliberately lit to clear land for oil palm. livelihoods.
and food. The sky-high price of crude oil contributed to the rapidly rising costs of fertilizer and energy. ASEAN Charter November 2007: The ASEAN leaders adopted the ASEAN Charter to help the Association become more effective in meeting tomorrow’s challenges. a staple food for all ASEAN countries. Formal agreements that officially bind its members: Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Agreement on the Common Effective Preferential Tariff for the ASEAN Transboundary Haze Pollution ASEAN has operated largely by oido: playing music by ear rather than by following a score. The new Charter: Codifies ASEAN’s objectives and principles (including norms of behavior not only for inter-state relations but also for the relationship between the state and its citizens Expresses the intention to set up an ASEAN human rights body Calls for significant agreements to contain dispute-settlement clauses. on the other hand. The International Rice Research Institute has called the world’s attention to the short supply of rice. The Charter went into effect in December 2008.- reprocessing of nuclear material and the disposal of nuclear waste need to be collectively addressed. There is also the continuing threat of avian influenza pandemic A Japanese-funded stockpile of vaccines and protective equipment is located in Singapore But the question Is whether ASEAN cooperation in dealing with the avian influenza will be as effective as the Association’s collective action on SARS. such as economic agreements Would strengthen and restructure regional institutions. empowering the Secretary-General to monitor and report to the leaders the status of member-states’ compliance with agreements - - . has to be regionally addressed. The management of scarce water resources. water. Threat of shortages – of energy.
will help ensure that the Charter is used effectively and well.- The Charter as a tool for member states to use. to help develop a sense of community and regional identity among the government and peoples of Southeast Asia and at the same time. .