Parts of a split system air conditioning unit

The split system air conditioning unit has two separate components:  Condensing unit  Air handling unit. Air Handling Unit An air handler or air handling unit (often abbreviated to AHU), is an assemble device used to condition and circulate air as part of an air conditioning system. An air handler is usually a large metal box containing a blower motor, a blower wheel, an evaporator cooling coil, air filter, drain pan and the control panel. Air handlers usually are connected to a ductwork ventilation system that distributes the conditioned air through the building and returns it to the air handling unit. Sometimes the supply and return in the unit are directly to and from the conditioned space without a ductwork system.

Air handler components
        Type A evaporator coil. Direct drive fan blower motor. Centrifugal blower wheel Metering device. Front mount air filter. Blower fan motor run capacitor. Drain pan. The control panel.(220/24 volts transformer, blower motor contactor or fan realay)

Air filter Air filtration is almost always present in order to provide clean dust-free air to the building occupants, as part of the air treatment. Filtration is typically placed first in the AHU in order to keep all the downstream components clean. Typically filters provided in front of the panel are cheaper to replace and maintain, and thus protects the more expensive stuff “the unit”. The life of a filter may be assessed by monitoring the pressure drop through the filter medium at design air volume flow rate. Failure to replace a filter may eventually lead to its collapse, as the forces exerted upon it by the fan overcome its inherent strength, resulting in collapse and thus contamination of the air handler and downstream ductwork.

Blower wheel Air handlers typically employ a squirrel cage centrifugal fan blower driven by an AC induction electric motor to move the air. The blower may operate at a single speed, offer a variety of set speeds to allow a wide range of air flow rates.

Direct drive fan Blower motor. Is an AC induction electric motor with a permanent split capacitor. This type of motor suffers increased current magnitude and backward time shift as the motor comes up to speed, with torque pulsations at full speed. The solution is to keep the capacitor (impedance) small to minimize losses. The losses are less than for a shaded pole motor. This motor configuration works well up to 1/4 horsepower though, usually applied to smaller motors. The fan compartment can be further isolated by placing it on a spring suspension, which will mitigate the transfer of vibration through the surfaces.

Condensing Units
A condensing unit is the main component of central air conditioning system, and is the part that sits outside the home. The condenser unit is usually located outside the house on a concrete slab. Inside it is a compressor, coils, fan and electrical system. The condenser comes entirely pre-assembled and pre-charged with Freon.

Condensing unit components
           Hermetic compressor. Condensing fan motor. Fan motor blade. Condenser coil. Suction service valve. Liquid line service valve. Compressor and fan motor contactor. Compressor run capacitor. Fan motor run capacitor. Compressor Boost Hard Start Capacitor. Delay on break timer short cycle compressor protector. (0-10 minutes)

Ventilation Ductwork
Ductwork is not just a channel for moving air from the air conditioning unit to different rooms. The ductwork is designed and installed to make sure there is even airflow throughout the interior. This way all the air is not forced into the rooms closest to the unit while other rooms stay cold in winter and hot in summer. As ductwork moves away from the unit the open channel reduces in diameter. This produces a phenomenon known at the jet effect. Air has little pressure in larger ducts and flows slowly out of the vents. As the ductwork reduces in diameter the airflow accelerates. The ducts are designed to channel about the same volume of air to the rooms closest to the unit as to the rooms farthest away where the ductwork is smallest. Using this design results in every room being the desired temperature as opposed to fluctuations from room to room.