An archipelago is a group or chain of islands clustered together in a sea or ocean.

A butte is a flatA bay is a body of An atoll is a ring (or topped rock or water that is partly partial ring) of coral hill formation that forms an island in enclosed by land (and is with steep sides. usually smaller than a an ocean or sea. gulf).




A channel is a body of water that connects two cave larger bodies of water A cave is a (like the English large hole in Channel). A channel is the ground or in the side of a also a part of a river or harbor that is deep hill or enough to let ships sail mountain. through.

A canyon is a deep valley with very steep sides - often carved from the Earth by a river.

A cape is a pointed piece of land that sticks out into a sea, ocean, lake, or river.

delta continent
The land mass on Earth is divided into continents. The seven current continents are Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America. A delta is a low, watery land formed at the mouth of a river. It is formed from the silt, sand and cove small rocks that flow A cove is small, downstream in the river horseshoe-shaped body and are deposited in the of water along the delta. A delta is often (but coast; the water is not always) shaped like a surrounded by land triangle (hence its name, formed of soft rock. delta, a Greek letter that is shaped like a triangle).

A cliff is a steep face of rock and soil.


A dune is a hill or a ridge The equator is an imaginary made of sand. Dunes are desert circle around the earth, A desert is a shaped by the wind, and halfway between the north change all the time. very dry area. and south poles.


An estuary is where a river meets the sea or ocean.

geomorphology fjord
A fjord is a long, narrow sea inlet that is bordered by steep cliffs. Geomorphology is the geyser glacier scientific field that A geyser is a natural A glacier is a investigates how landforms hot spring that slowly are formed on the Earth (and occasionally sprays moving river other planets). water and steam of ice. above the ground.

An island is a isthmus A hill is a piece of land An isthmus is a narrow strip A gulf is a part of the ocean raised area or that is of land connecting two (or sea) that is partly mound of surrounded by larger landmasses. An surrounded by land (it is land. water. isthmus has water on two usually larger than a bay). sides.




A lagoon is a lake shallow body of water that A lake is a large body of water is located surrounded by alongside a land on all sides. coast. Really huge lakes



Latitude is the angular Longitude is the angular distance north or south distance east or west from the from the equator to a north-south line that passes particular location. The through Greenwich, England, to equator has a latitude a particular location.

are often called seas.

Greenwich, England has a longitude of zero degrees. The of zero degrees. The farther east or west of North Pole has a Greenwich you are, the greater latitude of 90 degrees your longitude. Midway Islands North; the South Pole (in the Pacific Ocean) have a has a latitude of 90 longitude of 180 degrees (they degrees South. are on the opposite side of the globe from Greenwich).

A marsh is a type of mountain mesa freshwater, brackish A mountain is a very A mesa is a land water or saltwater tall high, natural wetland that is found formation with a flat place on Earth area on top and steep along rivers, pond, higher than a hill. walls - usually lakes and coasts. Marsh The tallest mountain occurring in dry plants grow up out of on Earth is Mt. areas. the water. Everest.

An ocean is a large body of salt water that surrounds a continent. Oceans cover more the twothirds of the Earth's surface

plain peninsula
A peninsula is a body of land that is surrounded by water on three sides. Plains are flat lands that have only small changes in elevation.

pond A plateau is a large, flat area of land that is A pond is a small body of water surrounded by higher than the land. A pond is smaller surrounding land. than a lake.


A prairie is a river wide, relatively A river is a large, flat area of land flowing body of that has grasses water that usually and only a few empties into a sea or trees. ocean.

sea A sound is a wide inlet A sea is a large body of of the sea or ocean that salty water that is often is parallel to the connected to an ocean. A coastline; it often sea may be partly or separates a coastline completely surrounded from a nearby island. by land.


A source is the beginning of a river.

A strait is a narrow body of water that connects two larger bodies of water.

A swamp is a type of freshwater wetland that has spongy, muddly land and a lot of water. Many trees and shrubs grow in swamps.

A tributary is a stream or river that flows into a larger river.

waterfall tundra
A tundra is a cold, treeless area; it is the coldest biome. When a river falls off steeply, there is a waterfall.


A volcano is a A wetland is an area of land that is often wet; valley mountainous vent in the the soil in wetlands are often low in oxygen. A valley is a low Earth's crust. When a Wetland plants are adapted to life in wet soil. place between volcano erupts, it spews There are many types of wetlands, including: mountains. out lava, ashes, and hot swamp, slough, fen, bog, marsh, moor, gases from deep inside muskeg, peatland, bottomland, delmarva, the Earth. mire, wet meadow, riparian, etc.


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