Kestrel 3kW Voltage Limiter

Type 0704-3000-380 ID for Gridtie Applications

380Vdc Limiting
With Two Year Warranty

Installation and Maintenance Manual
To report errors, omissions or improvements please write to: kestrel.technical@eveready.co.za or kestrel.marketing@eveready.co.za

Document No. 0704M002

Revision Status 1,0

Date March 2009

Owners Notes General Notes:

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INDEX
1 Safety Warnings and Notes 1.1 2 Safety Symbols 4 5 6

Voltage Limiter Overview 2.1 Voltage Limiter Description 2.2 Identification and Markings 2.3 Applications and uses Unpacking the Voltage Limiter 3.1 Components Supplied 3.2 Components not Supplied 3.3 Unpacking Installation Instructions 4.1 Tools Required 4.2 Typical Installation Example 4.3 Mounting the Controller 4.4 Electrical Wiring 4.5 Commissioning Wire and Cable Sizing 5.1 Voltage Limiter Wiring 5.2 Lightning Protection 5.3 Wire Size Technical specification Trouble shooting Maintenance Warranty Conditions 8

3

7

4

5

13

6 7 8 9

15 17 17 18

Annexures Annexure 1: Declaration of Conformity Annexure 2: Kestrel Patented Voltage Limiter Annexure 3: Gridtie Inverters Annexure 4: Declaration of Conformity CE Annexure 5: Warranty Registration 18 19 20 21 22

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Disclaimer Kestrel Wind Turbines makes every effort to give accurate information in this manual and is in no way liable for any error or omission. The user of this manual assumes full responsibility and risk We appeal to your common sense to read and apply the safety notes. Consult professional engineers and take advice if you are unsure.

This product controls high voltages that can cause severe electrical shock or death. Do not tamper with the product. Always isolate the product before removing any cover. 1 Safety and Warning Notes
Accidents can easily occur and there are always dangers associated with any type of electrical equipment. Consult installation professionals if you are lack experience or confidence. Use good handling methods and avoid physical injury during installation and maintenance/repair procedures. Be responsible when using all tools whether manual or powered. Electrical Safety Read and adhere to the installation instructions for this product. Do not work on the system when the wind turbine is running or when lightning is possible. The wire size used for connections must be correct for the powers supplied. The smaller the wire diameter, the higher the wire losses and therefore the heat generated in the wire. Use correct wire sizes throughout the installation. In general, respect the system and use common sense. Consult a qualified electrician if you are unsure. Installation Hazards Be sure to read and adhere to the installation instructions for this product. Always work carefully and have an assistant wherever possible. Always re-check the work as you progress. Slack bolts, poor workmanship and loose electrical connections must be avoided. Operational Safety It is quite normal for the voltage limiter to become hot during certain operation modes. This is quite normal but be aware of high temperatures. System Checks are best carried out in calm weather

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conditions. Avoid any unnecessary maintenance or inspection during windy weather. Be aware that internal voltages can cause a shock.

1.1 Safety Symbols
The symbols shown are used throughout this manual to highlight safety points

General caution warning

Danger of hand injury

Danger of electrical shock

Hot surface

Work Instructions Asterisk denotes a special instruction or reminder.

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► Arrow head denotes an assembly/build instruction.

2 Voltage Limiter Overview 2.1 Voltage Limiter Description
IMPORTANT: This Voltage Limiter is solely to restrict the output voltage of a Kestrel Wind turbine. The product is not designed to charge battery systems. Sustainable/renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and hydro-generators are often connected to a gridtie inverter. Such inverters can enter operational modes that reduce the demand or disconnect the system from the generator. Any operational generator or alternator will exhibit high output voltages when no output is demanded. The Kestrel Type 0704 voltage limiter uses electronic means to restrict the incoming voltage to the inverter at a pre-designed value. The product uses linear technology causing no electrical disturbance during operation. This quality is paramount when powering any communication or computer equipment. The voltage limiter is passive and uses no energy whatsoever during normal operation. If for any reason the generator voltage rises, the limiter restricts this voltage rise to a maximum value. It achieves this limiting by simulating an electrical load on the generator. The product is housed in a steel enclosure for wall mounting. It is extremely reliable in operation and incorporates a failsafe design. Unit cooling is achieved by convection and assisting fans. 2.2 Identification and Markings The product rating plate is fitted on the outside of the enclosure. A typical example is shown below.

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2.3 Applications and Uses
The Kestrel Voltage Limiter Type 0704 is primarily intended for use with the Kestrel e400i 3kW wind turbine that has been installed with a grid connected system using an approved gridtie inverter such as the SMA WindyBoy 3000 or the Magnetek Aurora 3600. Each application may require specific additional electrical equipment. Consult the manuals supplied with this equipment. This product is designed to monitor voltages between 0 – 1000Vdc. The Kestrel e400i 3kW turbine delivers power between 200 – 300Vdc. The load being supplied is a gridtie inverter. If the load is lost for any reason, the voltage limiter restricts its output voltage to 380Vdc for all operation. The inverter must therefore be able to endure an input voltage of 380Vdc.

3 Unpacking the Voltage Limiter 3.1 Components Supplied
The following components are supplied. a) Voltage Limiter assembly b) Wall hanger c) Installation and maintenance manual

3.2 Components Not Supplied
The following components are necessary to complete an installation d) Electrical crimp terminals and cable e) Wall fixing screws or bolts f) 20mm cable glands

3.3 Unpacking
Open the packaging container and check for any transit damage. The parts contained are listed in section 3.1 and on the included packing slip. Lay out and identify the parts.

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4 Installation Instructions 4.1 Tools Required
The following hand tools are required for the voltage limiter installation. a) b) c) d) e) Small size electrical screwdriver Medium size electrical screwdriver Wire strippers for electrical connections Electrical crimping pliers Tape measure for positioning

4.2 Typical Installation Examples
A typical gridtie installation is shown below. The system comprises a Kestrel e300 wind turbine, voltage limiter and an alternative manufacture gridtie inverter. Note that other electrical equipment will be required to comply with local installation requirements. Consult the gridtie inverter manual for full installation procedures.

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4.3 Mounting the Voltage Limiter
The Kestrel voltage limiter Type 0704 is only suitable for indoor installation. The unit must be vertically mounted using the wall hanger supplied. ► Fix the wall hanger using secure fastening with suitable wall plugs or bolts. The wall fasteners must safely support a total mass of 60kg (132lbs). Verify that a minimum of 200mm (8”) space all around the unit for cooling. It is best not to mount anything above the voltage limiter. Allow maximum top clearance such that the limiter can easily ventilate

Do not place any objects on the top of the enclosure. The unit relies on the free passage of air through the heat sink for cooling. Note that the limiter uses cooling fans. Make sure that the bottom air entry is kept free. Unit cooling relies on the free passage of air through the cabinet.

► Check again that the wall hanger is secure to the fixing surface. Now raise the voltage limiter and clip the upper rear angle on to the wall hanger. Centre the limiter and fit the single bottom fixing screw through the limiter enclosure, screwing it fast into the wall hanger.

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4.4 Electrical Wiring
NOTE: The limiter controls high voltages and the internal components can cause a shock hazard. Be aware and consult a professional if you are in any way unsure. Observe the Polarity at all times. Only connect +VE RED cables to +VE RED terminals and -VE BLACK cables to VE BLACK terminals. Otherwise, equipment damage may result and any warranty will be invalidated.

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CONSULT SECTION 5 FOR WIRE SIZE RECOMMENDATIONS The voltage limiter is provided with two pairs of +VE and -VE clearly marked terminals for "TURBINE" and "OUTPUT" at the bottom right of the cabinet. The TURBINE BRAKE switch is designated “S1” and the OUTPUT CIRCUIT BREAKER is designated “Q1”. The turbine brake switch stops the turbine by creating an electrical short on the turbine input. When operated, this prevents high turbine open circuit voltages being developed. The wind turbine must not be rotating during this installation. If turbine access is not possible, short both turbine power wires together. Observe the Polarity at all times. Only connect +VE RED cables to +VE RED terminals and -VE BLACK cables to -VE BLACK terminals. ► PLEASE FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS BELOW ! a) Arrange the wires from the turbine and the output cables ready for connection. b) Check that the turbine wires are shorted. Check that the output wires are isolated from the charge controller or gridtie inverter. c) Check that the limiter OUTPUT CIRCUIT BREAKER (Q1) is switched OFF and that the TURBINE BRAKE SWITCH (S1) is switched ON. d) Connect the output wires to the limiter output terminals +VE and – VE observing polarity. e) Connect an electrical earth wire to the marked earth screw terminal provided. f) Separate the turbine wires and connect the turbine negative wire to the limiter turbine negative terminal. g) Finally connect the turbine positive wire to the controller turbine positive terminal.

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h) Check that the turbine brake switch “S1” is ON and that the output circuit breaker “Q1” is off. (There is no reaction) i) Complete the external wiring to the gridtie inverter. Follow the manufacturers instructions for this work. After all wiring is complete and secure, check that no foreign materials are inside the cabinet. Re-install the front cover.

4.5 Commissioning
The turbine brake switch should be on and the output C/B should be off after the installation. The front cover has been replaced.

► Switch the brake switch off. The turbine will now activate depending on the wind speed. Verify that the turbine is rotating. ► Now Switch the output C/B on. The gridtie inverter will then start to initialise. Verify that power is being supplied to the utility by the inverter. The voltage limiter fans will operate when voltage limiting is taking place. Otherwise, there is nothing to observe when the limiter is functioning. The instructions are reversed for de-commissioning. First isolate the additional equipment, switch the limiter output breaker off and then operate the turbine brake switch. A disconnected turbine should always be shorted.

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5 Wire and Cable Sizes 5.1 Voltage Limiter Wiring
Observe the Polarity at all times. Only connect +VE RED cables to +VE RED terminals and -VE BLACK cables to -VE BLACK terminals. Otherwise, equipment damage may result and any warranty will be invalidated. The installation must comply with local code requirements for electrical installation. The following suggestions are made as a guideline. If you are in doubt, consult a qualified electrician. Good wire connections are absolutely essential to avoid poor power delivery and high temperatures at the connection. All electrical systems lose energy through cables resistance. The enclosure must be directly earthed. Use the installed cable access holes at the bottom right of the cabinet. Do not create an alternative cable entry point. Fit proper electrical glands. 5.2 Lightning protection Proper grounding is essential to protect the system from induced voltages and static. The installation must comply with local requirements for electrical installations. Ensure that the generator is electrically connected to the mounting structure and that the structure is earthed. This is usually done by burying a 2 to 3m (6’ – 10’) length of water pipe (Steel or copper) horizontally, 800mm (2,5’) below the ground surface. A good connection is made between the middle of the pipe and the structure. An improved method is to bury a cross of pipe, which requires a "X" shape to be excavated. The connection is made in the centre of the cross.

Adhere to the earthing/grounding instructions for the chosen inverter. Consult the inverter manual.

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5.3 Cable and Wire Size
The cable wire size from the wind turbine to the voltage limiter depends on the distance between them. Refer to the wind turbine manual for this wire size. The voltage limiter and the gridtie inverter are installed together. 2,5 square milimetres wire will give a wire loss of less than 1% over a distance of up to 30m (100’) between the voltage limiter and the inverter. The wire size from the turbine will almost certainly be larger than 2,5sq mm, so left over wire can be used to connect the voltage limiter and the inverter. Wire lengths account for a double cable run (both +ve and –ve together) being given in metric metres (m) and imperial feet (‘). Wire cross sectional area is given in metric square millimetres (sq mm) and American Wire Gauge AWG.

Wire Size between the 0704 380V Voltage limiter and the Inverter (15A maximum current)

Wire Size Table for Kestrel Voltage Limiter 3kW 250Vdc 13A
One Way Distance 20m (66ft) 40m (130ft) 1% Power loss 4.0mm² (11) 10mm² (7) 2% Power loss 2.5mm² (13) 4.0mm² (11) 3% Power loss 1.5mm² (15) 2.5mm² (13)

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6 Technical Specification
General: Linear controlled voltage limiter to telecommunication specification with 3kW capability for the overvoltage protection of suitable series connected gridtie inverters. Product Identification Maximum Power Input voltage and variation Efficiency Input frequency Input power factor Output Voltage Factory set (no user adjustment) Output voltage ripple Output voltage regulation User control LED Indication Cooling Maximum Ambient IP Rating Indoor Installation only IP31 673Wx584Hx368D 0704-3000-380 ID 3000W (0-1kVdc) >99% at full load N/A dc input N/A dc input 0 - 380Vdc Max. N/A +0% - 10%

Turbine brake and output isolate/circuit breaker None Natural Convection with fan assist 45deg C

Cabinet Dimensions (wall mounting) Cabinet finish

Electroplated, passivated and painted. 60kg unpacked

Product mass Limiter and wall hanger Certification

Complies with EMC requirements CIS22 Class B

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7 Troubleshooting
THE KESTREL TYPE 0704 VOLTAGE LIMITER MAY BE SERIOUSLY DAMAGED FROM POLARITY REVERSAL. (wrong connection of +ve and –ve wiring). LIMITER DEGRADATION CAN OCCUR FROM IMPROPER INSTALLATION CAUSING OVERHEATING. IF FOR ANY REASON THE WIND TURBINE IS DISCONNECTED, SHORT THE GENERATOR OUTPUT WIRES. THIS WILL LOAD THE GENERATOR AND MINIMISE ROTATION.

Q The cooling fans never switch on. A The turbine brake switch is ON. The fans are automatic and only operate when voltage limiting occurs. Q The Output circuit breaker trips. A There is a fault on the output cables. The output cables are reversed. Q The limiter is always working at a high temperature. A The unit is diverting energy. The output circuit breaker has tripped. The inverter has failed. The mains utility has failed. The inverter is wrongly programmed. Internal limiter components have failed. Q Will I damage the limiter if I disconnect the inverter? A No, the limiter will continue to control with nothing connected to the output. It may however become quite hot as it has to divert all the energy from the wind turbine.

8 Maintenance
NOTE: The limiter controls high voltages and the internal components can cause a shock hazard. Be aware and consult a professional if you are in any way unsure.

The Kestrel Type 0704 voltage limiter is designed for continuous operation on 100% duty cycle and requires no regular part replacement. Keep the unit clean and ensure that no foreign objects reduce the airflow through the bottom inlet grill or the top front outlet. Clean the case only with a soft damp cloth. Do not use any form of solvent. This product controls and limits voltages that can cause a shock. Always take extreme care when the cover is removed. In the unlikely event of failure, the unit should be returned to the dealer or direct to the factory for repairs.

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9 Warranty

Kestrel Two Year Limited Warranty
1.0 General Terms and Conditions
1.1) The user must complete and return the Warranty Form within one month from the date of installation or within three months after receipt of the Kestrel product. 1.2) All requested information in the Warranty Form including site location, tower details, equipment serial numbers and pictures must be provided. 1.3) The product under warranty must be in normal use for which it is intended. 1.4) The product must be installed and commissioned in accordance with the instructions provided in the product manual. 1.5) The product installation must be inspected by a registered Kestrel dealer either prior to or during final commissioning. 1.6) Kestrel retains the right to have any remedial work required during the warranty period to be completed by any agent, dealer, re-seller or other appointment by Kestrel. 1.7) Written notice of any defect must be delivered to an authorized Dealer or to the Kestrel factory within fifteen days of the failure date. 1.8) The remaining warranty period at any time is transferable. 1.9) Kestrel reserves the right to change or update this warranty at any time.

2.0 What the Warranty Covers
2.1) Kestrel warrants that the product complies to standard specification upon delivery and for a period of 24 months after the Warranty Form registration. 2.2) Any product failure traceable to defective design, material, component or sub-assembly. 2.3) During the warranty period, Kestrel will at its sole discretion repair, replace or refund the purchase price of defective components or sub-assemblies. 2.4) Repaired or replaced product may be new, upgraded, re-manufactured or refurbished at the sole discretion of Kestrel. 2.5) Kestrel will provide return shipping to customers within South Africa or to the nearest port of entry for customers outside South Africa.

3.0 What the Warranty Does Not Cover
3.1) Any Costs incurred due to the site removal and re-installation of any defective product. 3.2) Any shipping costs for product delivery to Kestrel or any appointed Dealer or alternative repair facility. 3.3) Any equipment not manufactured by Kestrel 3.4) Product that has undergone modification or tampering. 3.5) Damage or loss caused by wind speeds in excess of 60m/s (134mph) 3.6) Any form of abuse, misuse or vandalism 3.7) Damage resulting from windstorm, lightning, hail, fire or any other insurable loss under standard and extended coverage policies generally available for endorsement to the wind system consumer. 3.8) Tower or support structure failures including any foundations. 3.9) All acts of God including tornadoes and all other cyclonic windstorms. 3.10) Damage due to voltage irregularities including lightning and utility system failures. 3.11) Damage due to impact by flying objects or debris. 3.12) Failures caused by not servicing and maintaining the product in accordance with the instructions supplied by Kestrel 3.13) Components that in the opinion of the manufacturer have been subject to overload, mechanical abuse, improper installation, use with any unsuitable power source, or any other non-warranty condition. 3.14) Any damage to the product during shipping. 3.15) There is no obligation to implement any future product design changes or improvements on previously manufactured product.

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Annexure 1: Declaration of Conformity

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Annexure 2: Kestrel Patented Voltage Limiter Kestrel Voltage Limiter Type: 0704-3000-380 ID Sustainable/renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and hydro-generators produce uncontrolled electrical energy. Gridtie inverters cannot endure any ovevoltage on their input. The Kestrel Type 0704 Voltage Limiter ensures that the turbine is capped to a maximum voltage of 380Vdc at all times. This voltage is well within the maximum sustainable input voltage of many gridtie inverters. The Kestrel Type 0704 voltage limiter uses electronic means to control the incoming voltage. The product uses mature technology causing no electrical disturbance during operation. Power from the wind turbine is delivered through the product to the gridtie inverter. The limiter monitors the turbine voltage and supplies power to the gridtie inverter. The inverter then processes (inverts) the incoming dc power into outgoing ac power. Any excess energy is converted to heat in the voltage limiter. The unit is highly efficient and allows the wind turbine to supply grid power over the full range of incident wind speeds. Since the voltage limiter is external to the generator, it can be sited close to the gridtie inverter. The product is housed in a steel enclosure for wall mounting and includes a turbine brake switch and an output circuit breaker. It is extremely reliable in operation and incorporates a failsafe design. Unit cooling is achieved by natural convection and fan assist. Contact your Kestrel dealer for more information. Additional components may be required to comply with certain local electrical codes. Consult your dealer.

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Annexure 3: Gridtie Inverters Kestrel does not manufacture gridtie inverters. The inverter that is installed must be suitable for connection to a wind turbine. The main requirements for a suitable inverter are given below.

Continuous power rating Input dc voltage range (minimum) Input dc current rating Control algorithm

3kW 0 – 400Vdc 0 – 15Adc Voltage/Power

Your Kestrel dealer or the factory can comment the characteristic of any control algorithm. No input rectifier is necessary. The Kestrel e400i turbine and the voltage limiter both output dc current. Images are for illustration only. No product endorsment by Kestrel or any gridtie inverter manufacturer is implied. Consult your dealer for recommendations on inverters.

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Annexure 4: Warranty Registration

Please complete and return this warranty sheet within three months after the product delivery date or within one month following the commissioning date. Kestrel will be pleased to receive images of your installation!

Name of Product: _________________________________ Product Serial Number _________________________________ Delivery Date____________or Commissioning Date___________
Name and Address of Owner ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

Telephone: _________________________________________ Email: _________________________________________

Installation / Site Address (GPS co-ordinates are appreciated) _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

Send to: Kestrel Wind Turbines, P.O. Box 3191, North End Port Elizabeth, 6056, Eastern Cape, South Africa Or email to: kestrel.marketing@eveready.co.za

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