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The efficiency of production depends on how well the various machines; production facilities and employee’s amenities are located in a factory. Only the properly laid out factory can ensure the smooth and rapid movement of material, from the raw material stage to the end product stage. Factory layout encompasses new layout as well as improvement in the existing layout.An ideal factory layout should provide the optimum relationship among the output, floor area and manufacturing process. An efficent factory layout is one that aims at achieving various objectives like efficient utilization of available floor space, minimizes cost, allows flexibility of operation, provides for employees convenience, improves productivity etc.The entrepreneurs must possess the expertise to lay down a proper layout for new or existing plants. It differs from one factory to another. But basic principles to be followed are more or less same. From the point of view of factory layout, we can classify small business into three catagories i.e.(a) manufacturing units (b) trades (c) services establishments. Designing of layout is different in all above three categories e.g. manufacturing unit may follow one of product,process and fixed position or combined layout,as the case may be. Traders might go either for self-service or full service or special layouts whereas service establisments such as motels, hotels, and restaurants must give due attention to customer convenience, quality of service, efficiency in delivering the service etc. While deciding for layout for factory or unit or store, a small entrepreneur has to consider the factors like the nature of the product, production process,size factory building, human needs etc
Efficiency, amenity, enccompasses, utilization, trader
A factory layout can be defined as follows; Factory layout refers to the arrangement of physical facilities such as machinery, equipment, furniture etc. with in the factory building in such a manner so as to have quickest flow of material at the lowest cost and with the least amount of the finished product. According to Ringgs, ”the overall objective of factory layout is to design a physical arrangement that most economically meets the required output-quantity and quality”. According to J.L.Zundi, ”Factory layout ideally involves alloction of space and arrangement of equipment in such a manner that overall operating costs are minimized”.
Factory layout is an important decision as it represents
It differs from plant to plant. Factory layout for small scale business is closely linked with the factory building and built up area.long-term commitment. An ideal factory layout should provide the optimum relationship among output. It is also important because it affects the flow of material and processes. ESSENTIALS An efficient factory layout is one that can be instrumental in achieving the following objectives. minimizes material handling. TYPES OF LAYOUT An discussed so for the factory layout facilitates the arrangement of machines. makes economic use of the building. factory layout may be of four types: . a) Proper and efficient utilization of available floor space b) To esure that work proceeds from one point to another point without any delay c) Provide enough production capacity d) Reduce material handling cost e) Reduce hazards to personnel f) Utilise labor efficiently g) Increase employee morale h) Reduce accidents i) Provide for volume and product flexibility j) Provide ease of supervision and control 2 k) Provide for employee safety and health l) Allow ease of maintenance m) Allow high machine or equipment utilization n) Improve productivity 4. comfort at work. from location to location and from industry to industry. and allows flexibility of operations. As far as small business is concerned. But the basic principles govering factory layout are more and less more. and provides for employee’s convenience safety. equipment and other physical facilities in a planned manner within the factory premises. time and cost. Manufacturing units In case of manufacturing units. 3.It facilitates the production process. An entrepreneur must possess an expertise to lay down a proper layout for new or existing plants. it requires a smaller area or space and can be located in any kind of building as long as the space is available and it is convenient. use of space and expansion possibilities etc. maximum exposure to natural light and ventilation.1. we can classify small business or unit into three categories: 1) Manufacturing units 2) Traders 3) Service Establishment 4. easy production flow. promotes effective utilization of manpower. From the point of view of factory layout . labour efficiency. supervision and control. floor area and manufacturing process.
Therefore matereals are fed into the first machine and fineshed goods travel automatically from machine to machine. Therefore the machines are installed in the plants. testing packing must be included in the line. bamboos are fed into the machine at one end and paper comes out at the other end.e.2. milling department welding department.1. Fixed Position or Location Layout: .1. The grouping of machines according to the process has to be done keeping in wind the following principles: a) The distance between departments should be as short as possible for avoiding long distance movement of materials b) The departments should be in sequence of operations c) The arrangement should be convenient for inspection and supervision. machines performing casting operations be grouped in the casting department. b) There should no points where one line crossed another line. The grouping of machines should be done keeping in mind the following general principles: a) All the machine tools or other items of equipments must be placed at the point demanded by sequence of operations.3.1. e. in a paper mill. Product or line layout: Under this. which follow the process layout. c) Materials may be fed where they are required for assembly but not necessarily at one point. Process layout: In this type of layout machines of similar type are arranged together at one place. the emphasis is on general purpose machines. The work has to be allocated to each department in such a way that no machines are chosen to do as many different job as possible i.1. heating department and painting department etc. machines and equipments are arranged in one line depending upon the sequence of operation required for the product . The process or functional layout is followed from historical period. Under this. 4. the output of one machine becoming input of the next. 4. Hence. The raw material moves very fast from one workstation to other station with a minimum work in progress storage and material handling.1) Product or line layout 2) Process or functional layout 3) Fixed position or location layout 4) Combined or line layout 4. machines are grouped in one sequence. Machines performing drilling operations are arranged in the drilling department. d) All the operations including assembly.g. E.g. such layouts typically have drilling department. It evolved from the handicraft method of production. The materials move form one workstation to another sequentially without any backtracking or deviation.
Grocery Stores and department time and allow customers to select merchandise for stores. in practice. attractive colours. 4. the power house. manufacturing. Equipment labour and components are moved to that location. the water treatment plant etc. This type of layout is not relevant for small scale entrepreneur. air conditioning. are arranged on a functional basis. Thus. Generally a combination of the product and process layout or other combinaion are found. 1)Self service or modified self service layout 2) Full service layout 3) Special layuots The self-service layouts. Traders When two outlets carry almost same merchandise. the major product being produced is fixed at one location. In soap. cuts down on sales clerk’s time and allow customers to select merchandise for themselves. The customer is always impressed by service. good ventilation.In this type of layout. Hence. e. the manufacturing of glycerin.2. customers usually buy in the one that is more appealing to them. but ancillary services such as heating. the machinery manufacturing soap is arranged on the product line principle. the layout is essential for handling merchandise. efficiency and quality.e. customers are attracted and kept by good layout i.4. There are three kinds of layouts in retail operations today. In most of industries. 4. All of these things mean customer convenience. All facilities are brought and arranged around one work center. The use of color and lighting is very important to direct attention to interior .1. while the assembly areas often employ the product layout. Thus. good lighting.g. for industries involving the fabrication of parts and assembly. in manufacturing concerns where several products are produced in repeated numbers with no likelihood of continuous production. only a product layout or process layout process or fixed location layout does not exist. In those stores. necessities or convenience goods should be placed at the rear of the store. customer appeal and greater business volume. Customers should be led through the store in a way that will expose them to as much display area as possible. plant. modern design and arrangement and even music. fabrication tends to employ the process layout.g. Combined layout: Certain manufacturing units may require all three processes namely intermittent process the continuous process and the representative process combined 3 process. combined layout is followed. which is arranged as per the space available and the type and magnitude of goods to be sold keeping in mind the convenience of customers. e.
good quality shoes. All operations are not self-service. b) Nature of product: Product layout is suitable for uniform products whereas process layout is more appropriate for custom-made products. e. which saves rent. 5. In today’s environment. e. restaurants. toilets and other employee facilities. and drive-in soft drink store are all examples of business requiring special design.3. product layout is better. These full service layouts provide area and equipment necessary in such cases. soft ice cream store. furniture and appliances are all examples of products that require time and personel attention to be sold. efficiency in delivering services and pleasing office ambience. jewelry.displays and to make the most of the stores layouts. c) Production process: In assembly line industries. e. luggage and accessories. quality of service.g. f) Human needs: Adequate arrangement should be made for cloakroom. hotels. In job order or intermittent manufacturing on the other hand. Services centers and establisment Services establisments such as motels. which allows client quick and convenient access to the facilities offered by a service establisment. Apparel. must be kept in mind. dust control. time and labour. hardware. if any. office machines. lockers. humidity control etc. air conditioning. proper provision should be made for disposal of effluents. good retail layout should be the one.g.g. must give due attention to client convenience. While designing the special requirments. drinking water. d) Type of machinery: General purpose machines are often arranged as per process layout while special purpose machines are arranged according to product layout. TV repair shop. e) Repairs and maintenance: Machines should be so arranged that adequate space is avaible between them for movement of equipment and people required for repairing the machines. FACTORS INFLUENCING LAYOUT While deciding his factory or unit or establishment or store. Certain specialty enterprises sell to fewer numbers of customers or higher priced product. the clients look for ease in approaching different departments of a service organization and hence the layout should be designed in a fashion. Thus. a small-scale businessman should keep the following factors in mind: a) Factory building: The nature and size of the building determines the floor space available for layout. sporting goods. washroom. Some layouts depend strictly on the type of special store to be set up. process layout is desirable. . fashion items. 4.
Revision in plant layout may become necessary on account of the following reasons: a) Increase in the output of the existing product b) Introduction of a new product and diversification c) Technological advancements in machinery. . DYNAMICS OF PLANT LAYOUT Plant layout is a dynamic rather than a static concept meaning thereby if once done if is not permanent in nature rather improvement or revision in the existing plant layout must be made by keeping a track with development of new machines or equipment. 6. It should ensure free and efficient flow of men and materials. improvements in manufacturing process. noise. light. the layout should be conducive to health and safety of employees. processes. changes in materials handling devices etc. d) Deficiencies in the layout unnoticed by the layout engineer in the beginning. Future expansion and diversification may also be considered while planing factory layout. But any revision in layout must be made only when the savings resulting from revision exceed the costs involved in such revision. product design. ventilation and other aspects should be duly considered.g. material. fuel etc. Adequate safety arrangement should also be made. e. Thus.4 g) Plant environment: Heat. paint shops and plating section should be located be in another hall so that dangerous fumes can be removed through proper ventilation etc.
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