Nikki Jane C.

Jain

Date Performed: 01/28/13 Date Submitted: 02/06/13

Exercise 9 Triangle Test Introduction Taste, gustatory perception, or gestation is one of the five traditional senses. Taste is the sensation produced when a substance in the mouth reacts chemically with receptors of taste buds (www.kidshealth.org). Taste buds are able to differentiate between different tastes through detecting interactions with different molecules or ions (Silverthorn, 2002). Perception is the psychological interpretation of sensations determined by comparison with past experiences, e.g. the sour taste of lemons is the perception of the sensation received by the receptors (taste buds) from a chemical stimulus (citric acid) (Mason and Nottingham, 2002). In this exercise the food sample to be evaluated is cheese and the sensory evaluation applied is the triangle test. The triangle test is used to determine whether a perceptible difference exists between two samples. The difference can involve one or several sensory attributes, but no direction or magnitude of the difference is measured. The triangle test is an effective method to determine whether a change in ingredient, processing, packaging or storage has resulted in product differences. These situations may arise in product and process development, product matching, in quality control or as a preliminary test prior to quantitative descriptive testing. A triangle test can also be used for the selection and monitoring of panellists. With products that produce sensory fatigue, carryover effect or adaptation effects, the triangle test has limited application. Principle involving the triangle test includes three samples, two of which are identical, are presented simultaneously to each panellist for testing in a predetermined order. The panellist is told that two samples are identical and one is different (odd). The panellist is required to identify the different sample. The triangle test is a forced choice test (Mason and Nottingham, 2002). Respondents of this exercise are the fifteen FST 150 J-IL students. The objective of this exercise is to demonstrate to the students the principles, applications and set-up of a triangle test. Methodology Each of the 14 students was tasked to perform specific tasks in setting up the sensory test. The groups were assigned specific tasks in preparing the master sheets, score sheets, the table mark-up, sample containers and other materials needed for the sensory evaluation. Each in the class was given individual task of both being a server and the judge. For this sensory evaluation, appendix 3 of the FST 150 Manual was used as reference for the random combination of samples for triangle tests. The X and O represent the samples to be used in the test. X represents Kraft Eden™ cheese while O is for Magnolia Cheezee ™.

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Three digit random numbers was assigned to each sample as previously determined for each judge. If there is more than one set to be served the order of serving of each set of triangles per judge is randomized. Score sheets are then decoded into the master sheet. Correct decision is considered if the two samples that are identical are correctly identified by the judge or if the judge was able to identify the one sample which is odd. This decision is based on the instruction written of the score sheet. The total correct identifications are then determined and referred to appendix table 4 and replies of “no difference” do count as a valid response. Panelists were instructed to guess if the odd sample is not detectable. If the correct identifications are equal to or greater than the number of minimum correct identifications for a particular number of judges, then the samples are significantly different from each other. In the absence of such a table, Chisquare test can be used to determine whether or not the samples are significantly different from each other. The Chi-square formula is as follows: significance used is 0.05. Results and Discussion Table 1. Number of correct responses for each judge on Triangle test of (X) Kraft Eden™ cheese versus (O) Magnolia Cheezee ™. Judge Treatment Response 1 XOX √ 2 OXO √ 3 XXO X 4 OOX √ 5 XXO √ 6 OXX √ 7 OXO X 8 XOO √ 9 OXX √ 10 XOX √ 11 OOX √ 12 XXO √ 13 XXO √ 14 XOO X 15 OOX X Total 11 Seen on Table 1 is the tabulated correct response for triangle test, eleven out of fifteen judges or 73% correctly identified the odd samples served among the three samples. This shows that the eleven judges perceived the sensory difference between Kraft Eden™ cheese versus Magnolia Cheezee ™. and the level of

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Table 2. Statistical analysis data for Triangle Test. Number of correct responses 11

Number of incorrect responses 4 Chi-square value (calculated) 10.8

Chi-square value (tabulated)

3.841

Table 3. Correct judgements analysis data taken from appendix Table 4 for Triangle Test. Number of Judges 15

Probability level

0.05

Minimum correct response to establish significance 9 From appendix Table 4 from FST 150 manual

Correct responses for Exercise 9

11

As seen on Table 2 for Set 1 the calculated Chi-square value was 10.8 compared to the tabulated value of 3.841 (see Appendix for calculations). The null hypothesis for this exercise is that no significant difference exists between Kraft Eden™ cheese and Magnolia Cheezee ™. However the calculated value is greater than the tabulated value therefore the conclusion arrives at there is a significant difference between Kraft Eden™ cheese and Magnolia Cheezee ™ samples served. To further verify the findings of the Triangle test, (see Table 3) the data was analyzed using Appendix Table 4 of the FST 150 manual. The number of trials or judges was 15 and the probability level used was 0.05. The minimum number of correct judgements necessary to establish significance at 0.05 probability level for Triangle test is 9. Looking back at Table 1, the number of correct judgements is 11. Thus the findings of Triangle test using chi-square method agree with the findings using FST 150 manual Appendix Table 4 validation and the

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significance of the alternative hypothesis that there is a significant difference exists between Kraft Eden™ cheese and Magnolia Cheezee ™ is established.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the sensory evaluation conducted using Triangle test method there is a significant difference between Kraft Eden™ cheese and Magnolia Cheezee cheese™. But no specific sensory attribute of these two products was evaluated or the degree of difference cannot be answered by the Triangle Test method. It is concluded that the aforementioned respective brands do differ in sensory attribute as evaluated by the fifteen panelists and it is recommended that if interest is pinned on finding out the specific sensory attributes on which they differ methods such as TSS evaluation or ˚Brix can be used as well as other qualitative tests and quality scoring tests.

REFERENCES Mason, Richard and Stephen Nottingham (2002) FOOD 3007 and FOOD 7012 SENSORY EVALUATION MANUAL. Retrieved from www.scribd.com/doc/8940001/SensoryEvaluation-Manual- Date accessed: February 06, 2013 Silverthorn, M. (2002). Human Physiology: An integrated approach. 5th Edition. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Company. www.kidshealth.org Date accessed: February 06, 2013

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