
.

\

=
Surge Function Sources (either Voltage or Current)
47
Heidler function (for convex front; short and long tail) [43]
The University of British Columbia
( )
( )
( ) t
t
t
/ t
n
n
e
/ t
/ t
k ) t ( v
+
=
1
1
1
Surge Function Sources (either Voltage or Current)
48
Short tail issue discussed by R. B. Standler in [42. p.87] :
Short tails (relative to front), such as 8/20 s current impulse for
surge arrester testing, cannot be represented with double
exponential function.
From my own tests, the shortest tail possible with the double
exponential function, using front time defined through 10 % and
90 % values, is 8/31 s, with
=  69 730
=  111 059
I
max
= 5.893 for a crest value of I
crest
= 1.0.
The shortest tail possible with the double exponential function, using
front time defined through 30 % and 90 % values, is 8/28 s.
The University of British Columbia
Surge Function Sources (either Voltage or Current)
49
Other improvements to lightning surge studies
The University of British Columbia
Mphase line models
*)
I prefer lossless highfrequency approximation, with
Tower models for surges
Models for insulator flashovers
Surge arrester models
*)
Metaloxide arresters without gaps nowadays
Cable models
*)
Transformer models
*)
_______________________________________________________
___
*) See IEEE PES Task Force on Data for Modeling System
Transients in: list of references (slide 102)
d
D
Z
r
h
Z
mutual surge self surge
ln 60 ,
2
ln 60 = =
Electricit de France used a surge generator in outdoor and indoor
substations to produce fast surges of the lightning type [39].
50
The University of British Columbia
Lightning Surges
51
Energization of a line terminated with transformer or shunt reactor
Example from M. Erche [1]:
This case is probably from American Electric Power Corp.
Caused by resonances between harmonics from transformer
saturation and line capacitance.
Example for Temporary Overvoltages
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Energization of a line terminated with transformer or shunt reactor
Overvoltages can last a long time.
Example for Temporary Overvoltages
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53
Energization of a line terminated with transformer or shunt reactor
Nonlinear inductances do not keep peak voltages down.
Part of the voltage around voltage zero is cut out, because of 90
phase shift between flux and voltage.
V
RMS
= f(I
RMS
) must be converted to flux linkage = f (current) (simplified
as 2slope nonlinearity here)
This cut out produces the harmonics.
Example for Temporary Overvoltages
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54
Interaction between mechanical resonances on turbinegenerator shaft
system and on electric network side
Occurs at frequencies below power frequency.
Most likely to occur on steam turbines, if a transmission line with series
capacitors is switched.
Unlikely to occur on hydro turbines because stiffer with higher
resonance frequencies.
Can also be caused by control modes in nearby HVDC terminal.
Examples for Subsynchronous Resonance
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Interaction between mechanical resonances on turbinegenerator shaft
system and on electric network side
Example from General Electric Co. [17].
Examples for Subsynchronous Resonance
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First IEEE benchmark model [18, 20].
Examples for Subsynchronous Resonance
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First IEEE benchmark model, torque between generator & exciter.
Examples for Subsynchronous Resonance
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58
Second IEEE
benchmark
model [19, 21].
Examples for Subsynchronous Resonance
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59
Second IEEE benchmark model, shaft between generator and low
pressure steam turbine.
Examples for Subsynchronous Resonance
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60
Frequencyscan for impedance seen from power plant
Helps to see whether potential for subsynchronous resonance exists.
Example
from [26]:
Measured: Short circuit was applied for a few cycles. Change in v, i
transformed from time domain to frequency domain, to obtain Z().
Examples for Subsynchronous Resonance
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61
When a singlelinetoground fault occurs on a transmission line, there
will be overvoltages on the unfaulted phases (typically 1.6 p.u.)
Frequency dependent line model is necessary, because there are large
zero sequence currents (I
zero
= I
pos
= I
neg
in fault current).
Example [8]:
Example for SingleLinetoGround Fault
on Transmission Lines
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62
When circuit breaker opens to remove the fault, a transient recovery
voltage appears across the contacts.
If rate of rise is too steep or amplitude is too high, circuit breaker may
restrike or reignite.
Important to include stray capacitances of transformers, busbars, etc.
Initial rate of rise used to be a problem in gasinsulated substations.
Example
from [13, 25].
Fault current:
Example for Transient Recovery Voltage
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63
For simulation, one can either simulate complete event (fault initiation,
fault clearing).
I prefer cancellation method, whereby a current is injected across
circuit breaker contacts that cancels the fault current.
Starts from zero initial conditions.
Network need only be represented to distance away where total
travel time > t
max
(no reflections coming back beyond that point).
Example for Transient Recovery Voltage
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Results for fault at 1.2 km from substation:
Solid line = field test; dotted line = simulation.
Example for Transient Recovery Voltage
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65
Initial rate of rise becomes worse if fault farther away from substation
(shortline fault
or kilometric fault).
Fault moved from
1.2 km to 8.0 km:
Fault current
decreases 13.7%.
Initial rate of rise
increases.
Example for Transient Recovery Voltage
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66
Can be studied as a steadystate case at power frequency (60 Hz or 50
Hz)
Best transmission line model is circuit.
For complicated transposition schemes, use one circuit for each
section.
Example from planning study at Bonneville Power Administration:
Example for Linear Resonance after Opening a
Transmission Line in Parallel with another Line
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67
Can be studied as a steadystate case at power frequency (60 Hz or 50
Hz)
Varying L of shunt reactor showed possibility of
resonance between coupling
capacitance and L.
L was changed somewhat to avoid
resonance at 60 Hz.
Resonance is more likely to occur at
harmonic frequencies in such cases.
Example for Linear Resonance after Opening a
Transmission Line in Parallel with another Line
rated current 132 A
rated inductance 6.09 H
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68
A similar case that actually happened on a 345 kV line that was close to
an energized 138 kV line is reported in [31] and [32].
A case of what might happen on a 765 kV line close to an energized
345 kV line is discussed in [33] for these situations:
No transpositions on both lines.
345 kV line transposed.
765 kV line transposed.
Both lines transposed.
Example for Linear Resonance after Opening a
Transmission Line in Parallel with another Line
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69
Three circuits in parallel are modelled as five ninephase circuits
Coupling is capacitive.
Steady
state
case.
Example 1 for Coupling between
Parallel Transmission Lines
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Example 1 for Coupling between
Parallel Transmission Lines
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71
A doublecircuit line is modelled as a cascade connection of twelve
sixphase circuits.
Coupling is inductive [23].
Steadystate case.
Example 2 for Coupling between
Parallel Transmission Lines
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72
Results from one of many tests.
Example 2 for Coupling between
Parallel Transmission Lines
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73
From B. C. Hydro and Power Authority [24]
Steadystate case.
A large zero sequence voltage was induced into a 138 kV line from
adjacent 500 kV lines.
It distorted the 2element revenue metering schemes of two large
industrial customers supplied from the 138 kV line.
The two customers were overcharged 3.5% for 15 years.
They received refunds of Can. $ 4 million.
The metering scheme was changed.
Example 3 for Coupling between
Parallel Transmission Lines
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74
Capacitor switching
Switching capacitances off
When switching a capacitor or unloaded transmission line off, the
capacitance remains charged up.
2.0 p.u. overvoltage
across contacts half a
cycle after opening.
Modern SF
6
circuit
breakers are less likely
to restrike than older
circuit breakers.
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75
Capacitor switching
Energization of capacitors
Voltage on capacitor cannot change instantaneously, because it is
determined by integral:
Equivalent circuit for EMTP
studies.
If voltage is originally zero, bus voltage collapses to zero temporarily
after switching on.
Creates voltage collapse on bus, as well as high inrush currents into
capacitor bank.
( ) ( )
}
+ =
t
du i
C
v t v
0
1
0
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Capacitor switching
Energization of capacitors
High dv/dt, v, and i may create
problems.
From Brunke and Schockelt [16]:
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Capacitor switching
Energization of capacitors
Reduction of transients with:
Closing (preinsertion) resistors.
Synchronous (controlled) closing, close to zero voltage across
contacts.
Currentlimiting reactors in series with capacitor.
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Capacitor switching
Effect remote from substation where capacitors are switched
In case shown here, it may have caused phasetophase insulation
failure 56 km away in a phaseshifting transformer [22].
Field test
and
simulation:
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79
Capacitor switching
Backto back switching of capacitors
Backtoback switching: one capacitor bank is energized, and another
capacitor bank next to it is switched on.
This is worst condition, as seen in previous case.
I analyzed a failure where an induction motor was switched on, close to
another running induction motor, in a pipeline pumping station.
Both had capacitors connected for power factor correction.
When second motor was switched on with vacuum contactor, the
contacts welded together, and contactor could no longer be opened.
After complicated modelling of induction motors, capacitors, etc., it
turned out to be so simple I could have solved it with a slide rule.
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Capacitor switching
Both induction motors were 5 m apart through a cable.
Both had a 600 kVar capacitor, rated 4.16 kV (linetoline), 83.3 A.
One energized capacitor discharged into the capacitor of the motor being
switched on, through whatever inductance is between them.
Creates a very high inrush current, which welded the contacts in this
case.
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81
Capacitor switching
Simulation:
A currentlimiting reactor would solve the problem.
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82
Capacitor switching
A more likely problem in such cases is overvoltages created by re
ignitions when opening the vacuum contactor.
This is caused by tendency of vacuum contactors or circuit breakers to
chop currents (see next slide).
Surge capacitor on load being switched helps to prevent reignition (not
an issue in my case).
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83
When an unloaded transformer is energized, high inrush currents
may occur that are higher than rated current.
Cause is the nonlinear magnetizing inductance, with its nonlinear
curve for flux = f(i).
Modern circuit breakers close with high speed. Closing at v = 0 is as
probable as closing at v = V
max
(slow contacts used to prestrike close to
V
max
).
Since flux is integral of voltage
we get 2 p.u. flux if we close
at v = 0, assuming the residual
flux (0) at t = 0 is zero.
Inrush Currents
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}
+ =
t
du v ) ( ) t (
0
0
84
Residual flux can make the inrush current higher or lower.
There may also be highfrequency overvoltages in energizing three
phase banks if the closing times are more than 5 ms apart. This may
have caused damages recently.
Inrush Currents
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85
The inrush current also depends on the tap position of the load tap changer,
and by positioning it conveniently, the inrush currents can be reduced.
If other transformers are already in operation close to the one being
energized, there is sympathetic interaction between them that influences
the inrush currents [35].
By monitoring the flux in the transformer, and by controlling the closing of the
circuit breaker contacts, it becomes possible to close at just the right
moment to reduce the inrush current to very small values similar to the
steadystate exciting current ([36], [37], [38]).
Inrush Currents
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86
Example from CIGRE Working Group [34]:
Inrush Currents
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87
Example from CIGRE Working Group [34]:
Inrush Currents
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88
Problem is current chopping in circuit breaker opening
Tendency to chop if current is small (because
of falling v(i) characteristic of arc, arc voltage
becomes high when current becomes low).
Small current is not the problem, but high derivative di/dt.
Can cause overvoltages
as .
Maximum overvoltage
factors when interrupting
magnetizing currrent of
high voltage transformers [1].
Interruption of Small Inductive Currents
dt
di
L
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89
Can also happen when switching off reactorloaded transformers.
Vacuum circuit breakers have tendency to chop even at higher currents.
For CIGR reports, see [27], [28], [29], [30].
Interruption of Small Inductive Currents
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90
Realtime simulators
Playback
A simple way to test protective relays is to play back
simulation results through amplifiers. There is no feedback
from relay that may cause other actions.
Realtime simulators
(not my expertise; J. R. Marti works on it in UBC).
Commercially available:
RTDS (Manitoba, Canada)
Hypersim (Quebec, Canada)
OPAL (Quebec, Canada)
etc.
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91
EMTPType Software
BPA EMTP. Bonneville Power Administration may use
ATP now.
UBC MicroTran. Owned by University of British
Columbia. Website: www.microtran.com.
DCG/EPRI EMTP. Was developed from BPA EMTP by
Development Coordination Group and EPRI. First
commercialized as EMTP96 by Hydro One in Toronto,
Canada, then as EMTPRV by Transnergie Technologies
(subsidiary of Hydro Quebec), and now by CEA
Technologies Inc. (www.emtp.com).
The University of British Columbia
92
EMTPType Software
ATP (Alternative Transients Program). Free, but requires
a license. EMTP developers cannot get it.
PSCAD and EMTDC from Manitoba HVDC Research
Centre (www.pscad.com).
DigSILENT from Germany (www.digsilent.de).
NETOMAC (Siemens).
SABER for power electronics.
SPICE, PSPICE for electronics.
Etc.
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93
The End
Thank you for your attention!
Any Questions?
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94
References
[1] K. Ragaller, editor, Surges in HighVoltage Networks. Plenum Press, New York, 1980,
p. 6397.
[2] K. Froehlich, C. Hoelzl, M. Stanek, A.C. Carvalho, W. Hofbauer, P. Hoegg, B.L. Avent,
D.F. Peelo, J.H. Sawada, Controlled closing on shunt reactor compensated
transmission lines  Part I: Closing control device development  Part II: Application of
closing control device for highspeed autoreclosing on BC Hydro 500 kV
transmission line, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 734746, April
1997.
[3] CIGRE Working Group 13.07, Controlled switching of HVAC circuit breakers
Benefits and economic aspects, ELECTRA No. 217, pp. 3747, Dec. 2004.
[4] CIGRE Working Group 33.02, Guidelines for representation of network elements
when calculating transients. Technical Brochure CE/SC GT/WG 02, 1990.
[5] H. Singh and A. Abur, Multiport equivalencing of external systems for simulation of
switching transients, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 374382, Jan.
1995.
[6] F. Castellanos and J. Mart, Full frequencydependent phase domain transmission
line model, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., Vol. 12, pp. 13311339, Aug. 1997.
The University of British Columbia
95
References
[7] TingChung Yu and Jos R. Mart, A robust phasecoordinates frequency
dependent underground cable model (zCable) for the EMTP, IEEE Trans.
Power Delivery, Vol. 18, pp. 189194, Jan. 2003.
[8] J. R. Marti, Accurate Modelling of FrequencyDependent Transmission Lines in
Electromagnetic Transient Simulations, IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and
Systems, vol. PAS 101, No.1, pp. 147157, January 1982.
[9] T. Noda, N. Nagaoka and A. Ametani, Phase Domain Modeling of Frequency
Dependent Transmission Lines by Means of an ARMA Model, IEEE Trans. Power
Delivery, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 401411,January 1996.
[10] A. Morched, B. Gustavsen and M. Tartibi, A Universal Model for Accurate
Calculation of Electromagnetic Transients on overhead Lines and Underground
Cables, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 10321038, July 1999.
[11] B. Gustavsen, Validation of frequency dependent transmission line models, IEEE
Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 925933, April 2005.
[12] CIGR Working Group 13.05, The calculation of switching surges. Part I. A
comparison of transient network analyzer results, ELECTRA No. 19, pp. 6778,
Nov. 1971.
The University of British Columbia
96
References
[13] C.A.F. Cunha and H.W. Dommel, Computer Simulation of Field Tests on the 345
kV JaguaraTaquaril line, (in Portuguese), Paper BH/GSP/12, Presented at II
Seminario Nacional de Producao e Transmissao de Energia Eletrica in Belo
Horizonte, Brazil, 1973 (English translation by D.I. Cameron).
[14] A. B. Fernandes anad W. L. A. Neves, Phasedomain transmission line models
considering frequrencydependent transformation matrices, IEEE Trans. Power
Delivery, vol. 19, pp. 708  714, April 2004.
[15] A. B. Fernandes and W. L. A. Neves, Transmissioin line shunt conductance from
measurements, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 19, pp. 722  728, April 2004.
[16] J. H. Brunke and G. G. Schockelt, Synchronous energization of shunt capacitors
at 230 kV, presented at 1978 IEEE Power Engineering Society Winter Power
Meeting, New York, N. Y., Jan. 29 Febr. 3, 1978, paper no. A 78 1489.
[17] D. H. Baker, Synchronous machine modeling in EMTP, IEEE Course Text Digital
Simulation of Electrical Transient Phenomena, No. 81 EHO 1735PWR, IEEE
Service Center, Piscataway, N.J., 1980.
The University of British Columbia
97
References
[18] IEEE Task Force, "First benchmark model for computer simulation of
subsynchronous resonance", IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS96, pp. 1565
1572, Sept./Oct. 1977.
[19] IEEE Task Force, "Second benchmark model For computer simulation of
subsynchronous resonance", IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., Vol. PAS104, pp.
10571066, May 1985.
[20] Microtran Factsheet No. 1, Subsynchronous Resonance  Test Case 1, April 2003
(available on website www.microtran.com; click on Tech Spot).
[21] Microtran Factsheet No. 2, Subsynchronous Resonance  Test Case 2,
April 2003 (available on website www.microtran.com; click on Tech Spot).
[22] R. M. Hasibar, Examples of electromagnetic transients studies using the BPA
EMTP, Course Notes, EMTP Short Course, University of Wisconsin, Madison,
Wisconsin, 1987. Followup paper describing transformer failure: R. S. Bayless,
J. D. Selman, D. E. Truax, and W. E. Reid, Capacitor switching and transformer
transients, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, Vol. 3, pp. 349357, Jan. 1988.
[23] W. G. Peterson, R. M. Hasibar, and D. C. Gentemann, Grand Coulee Raver
500 kV double circuit line test July 1516, 1980, Div. of System Engineering,
Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR, U.S.A.
The University of British Columbia
98
References
[24] M. B. Hughes, Revenue metering error caused by induced voltage from adjacent
transmission lines, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, Vol. 7, pp. 741745, April 1992.
[25] H. W. Dommel, Case Studies for Electromagnetic Transients. Microtran Power
System Analysis Corp., Vancouver, Canada, Sept. 1993.
[26] M. B. Hughes, R. W. Leonard, and T. G. Martinich, Measurement of power system
subsynchronous driving point impedance and comparison with computer
simulations, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., Vol. PAS103, pp. 619 630, 1984.
[27]CIGRE Working Group 13.02, "Interruption of Small Inductive Currents, Chapters 1
and 2", ELECTRA No. 72, pp. 73103, CIGRE, Paris, Oct. 1980.
[28]CIGRE Working Group 13.02, "Interruption of Small Inductive Currents, Chapters 3,
Part A", ELECTRA No. 75, pp. 530, CIGRE, Paris, March 1981.
[29]CIGRE Working Group 13.02, "Interruption of Small Inductive Currents, Chapters 4,
Part A", ELECTRA No. 101, pp. 1339, CIGRE, Paris, July 1985.
[30]CIGRE Working Group 13.02, "Interruption of Small Inductive Currents, Chapters 4:
Reactor Switching: Part B: Limitation of Overvoltages and Testing", ELECTRA
No. 113, pp. 5174, CIGRE, Paris, July 1987.
The University of British Columbia
99
References
[31] M. J. Pickett, H. L. Manning, and H. N. Van Geem, Near resonant coupling on EHV
circuits: I Field investigations, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., Vol. PAS87, pp.
322325, Febr. 1968.
[32] M. H. Hesse and D. D. Wilson, Near resonant coupling on EHV circuits: II
Methods of analysis, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., Vol. PAS87, pp. 326334,
Febr. 1968.
[33] J. J. LaForest, K. W. Priest, A. Ramirez, and H. Nowak, Resonant voltages on
reactor compensated extrahighvoltage lines, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., Vol.
PAS91, pp. 25282536, Nov. 1972.
[34] B. Holmgrem, R.S. Jenkins, and J. Riubrugent, Transformer inrush current, CIGRE
Report 1203, 1968.
[35] H.S. Bronzeado, P.B. Brogan, and R. Yacamini, Harmonic analysis of transient
currents during sympathetic interaction, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, Vol. 11,
pp. 20512056, Nov. 1996.
[36] J. H. Brunke, and K. J. Frhlich, Elimination of transformer inrush currents by
controlled switching, Part I, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, Vol. 16, pp. 276280, April
2002.
The University of British Columbia
100
References
[37] J. H. Brunke, and K. J. Frhlich, Elimination of transformer inrush currents by
controlled switching, Part II, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, Vol. 16, pp. 281285, April
2002.
[38] E. Portales and A. Mercier, on behalf of CIGR Working Group A3.07, Controlled
switching of unloaded power transformers, ELECTRA No. 212, pp. 3947, Feb.
2004.
[39] M. Rioual, Measurements and computer simulation of fast transients through indoor
and outdoor substations, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, Vol. 5, pp. 117123, Jan.
1990.
[40] J.R. Marti and H.W. Dommel, "Line models for lightning studies," Trans. Engineering
and Operating Division, Canadian Electrical Association, Vol. 28, 1989, 15 pages.
[41] CIGR Working Group 33.01, Guide to Procedures for Estimating the Lightning
Performance of Transmission Lines. CIGR Techn. Brochure Ref. 63, Paris 1991.
[42] R. B. Standler, Protection of Electronic Circuits for Overvoltages. WileyInterscience,
New York, N.Y. 1989.
[43] F. Heidler, "Analytische Blitzstromfunktion zur LEMPBerechnung (analytical
lightning current function for LEMP calculations)", Paper No. 1.9, ICLP
Proceedings, Munich 1985.
The University of British Columbia
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General References
In addition to the specific references quoted before, advice for Electromagnetic
Transient Studies can also be found in the following publications:
IEEE Publications:
J. A. MartinezVelasco, editor, Computer Analysis of Electric Power System Transients.
IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, U.S.A., 1997. Collection of papers on 619 pages.
IEEE PES Special Publication, Modeling and Analysis of System Transients. IEEE
Catalog No. 99TP1330, IEEE Operations Center, Piscataway, NJ, U.S.A., 1998.
Put together by a Working Group chaired by A.J.F. Keri:
i Modeling and Analysis of System Transients Using Digital Programs  Introduction (A.J.F. Keri, A.M. Gole)
1. Digital Computation of Electromagnetic Transients in Power Systems: Current Status (J.A. MartinezVelasco)
2. Modeling Guidelines for Power Electronics in Electric Power Engineering Applications (K.K. Sen and L. Tang, H. W. Dommel, K.G. Fehrle,
A.M. Gole, E.W. Gunther, I. Hassan, R. Iravani, A.J.F. Keri, R. Lasseter, J.R. Marti, J.A. Martinez, M.F. McGranaghan, O.B. Nayak, C.
Nwankpa, P.F. Ribeiro)
3. Modeling Guidelines for Low Frequency Transients (R. Iravani, A.K.S. Chandhury, I.D. Hassan, J.A. Martinez, A.S. Morched, B.A. Mork, M.
Parniani, D. Shirmohammadi, R.A. Walling)
4. Modeling Guidelines for Switching Transients ( D.W. Durbak and A.M Gole, E.H. Camm, M. Marz, R.C. Degeneff, R.P. O'Leary,
R. Natarajan, J.A. MartinezVelasco, KaiChung Lee, A. Morched, R. Shanahan, E.R. Pratico, G.C. Thomann, B. Shperling, A.J.F. Keri,
D.A. Woodword, L. Rugeles, V. Rashkes, A. Sarshar)
5. Modeling Guidelines for Fast Front Transients (A.F. Imece, D.W. Durbak, H. Elahi, S. Kolluri, A. Lux, D. Mader, T.E. McDermott,
A. Morched, A.M. Moussa, R. Natarajan, L. Rugeles, E. Tarasiewicz)
6. Modeling Guidelines for Very Fast Transients in Gas Insulated Substations (J.A. Martinez and D. Povh, P. Chowdhuri, R. Iravani,
A.J.F. Keri)
7. Modeling and Analysis of Transient Performance of Protection SystemsUsing Digital Programs (A.K.S. Chaudhary and R.E. Wilson,
M.T. Glinkowski, M. Kezunovic, L. Kojovic, J.A. Martinez)
8. Bibliography on Modeling of System Transients Using Digital Programs (J.A. MartinezVelasco and T. E. Grebe)
The University of British Columbia
102
General References
IEEE Power Engineering Society, Tutorial on Electro magnetic Transient Program
Applications to Power System Protection. A. Tziouvaras, Course Coordinator. IEEE
Catalog No. 01TP150.
IEEE PES Task Force on Data for Modeling System Transients, Parameter
Determination for Modeling System Transients Part I: Overhead Lines; Part II:
Insulated Cables; Part III: Transformers; Part IV: Rotating Machines; Part V: Surge
Arresters; Part VI: Circuit Breakers; Part VII: Semiconductors, IEEE Trans. on
Power Systems, Vol. 20, pp. 20382094, July 2005.
Books (compiled with help from Dr. Luis Naredo):
H. H. Skilling, Transient Electric Currents. McGrawHill Book Company, Inc., 1937.
H. A. Peterson, Transients in Power Systems. Dover Publications, Inc., New York,
1966 (ISBN 0486616851).
R. Rdenberg, Electrical Shock Waves in Power Systems. Harvard University Press,
1968.
J. P. Bickford, N. Mullineux, and J. R. Reed. Computation of PowerSystem
Transients. IEE Monograph Series 18, Peter Peregrinus Ltd., London, UK, 1976.
The University of British Columbia
103
General References
W. D. Humpage, ZTransform Electromagnetic Transient Analysis in High Voltage
Networks. IEE Power Engineering Series 3, Peter Peregrinus Ltd., London, UK,
1982 (ISBN 0906048796).
A. Greenwood, Electrical Transients in Power Systems, 2nd edition. John Wiley & Sons,
1992.
P. Chowdhuri, Electromagnetic Transients in Power Systems. Research Studies Press
LTD, 1996; John Wiley and Sons, Inc. (ISBN 0 86380 180 3).
L. van der Sluis, Transients in Power Systems. John Wiley and Sons, LTD, 2001 (ISBN
0 471 48639 6).
N. Watson and J. Arrillaga, Power Systems Electromagnetic Transients Simulation. The
Institution of Electrical Engineers, United Kingdom, 2003.
L.C. Zanetta Jr., Transitrios Eletromagnticos em Sistemas de Potencia (in
Portuguese). Editora da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo  SP, Brazil, 2003.
Antonio E. A. Arajo and Washington L. A. Neves, Transitrios Eletromagnticos em
Sistemas de Energia (in Portuguese). Editora de Universidade Federal de Minas
Gerais, Brazil, 2005.
Juan A. MartinezVelasco, Power System Transients: Parameter Determination. CRC
Press LLC; 1st edition (Oct 2 2009).
The University of British Columbia
104
General References
Antonio Gmez Expsito, Anlisis y operacin de sistemas de energa elctrica,
McGraw Hill, Madrid, Spain 2002.
Antonio GmezExpsito, Antonio J. Conejo, Claudio Caizares, Electric Energy
Systems Analysis and Operation. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 2009.
H. W. Dommel, EMTP Theory Book, 2nd edition. Microtran Power System Analysis
Corp., Vancouver, Canada, 1992, latest update January 2005 (there is probably an
ATP edition from what I delivered to Bonneville Power Administration in 1986).
J. C. Das, Transients in Electrical Systems; Analysis, Recognition, and Mitigation.
McGrawHill, New York, N. Y., U.S.A., 2010.
M. A. Ibrahim, Disturbance Analysis for Power Systems. IEEE Press and John Wiley &
Sons, Hoboken, N. J., USA, 2012. This 718page book contains many cases of
disturbances that were recorded on digital fault recorders.
The University of British Columbia
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
Douglas Mader
dmader@bellsouth.net
Insulation Coordination
Studies
IEEE PES Short Course
Electromagnetic Transients in Power System and Insulation
Coordination Studies
June 18, 2012
New Orleans, Louisiana
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
IEC Standard 600711 (2010)
3
rd
edition published 2006 (amended in 2010)
terms and concepts defined
standard withstand values defined (up to 1200 kV)
standard tests defined
IEEE Standards C62.82.1 (2010)
Insulation Coordination Process
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
IEC Standard 600712
published December 1996
application guide for 600711
IEEE Standard 1313.21999 (R2005)
Insulation Coordination Process
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
IMPORTANT TERMS
AND THEIR
RELATIONSHIPS
Selection of performance criterion leading to the coordination
factor is heart of problem
EMTPRV
Representative Overvoltage
Coordination Factor Performance Criteria
Coordination Withstand Voltage
Safety Factors
Required Withstand Voltage
Tables
Rated or Standard Insulation Level
STRENGTH
STRESS
IEC 600711
k
k
a
s
k
k
cd
cs
Insulation Coordination Process
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
The selection of the dielectric strength of equipment
in relation to the voltages which can appear on the
system for which equipment is intended, taking into
account the service environment and the
characteristics of available protective devices.
Insulation Coordination
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
U
m
 The highest voltage for equipment
Range I  U
m
< 245 kV
Range II  U
m
> 245 kV
System Characterization
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
For the purposes of insulation coordination,
overvoltages are divided into four classes:
Temporary Overvoltages (power frequency)
PhasetoEarth and PhasetoPhase
Longitudinal
Representative Overvoltage
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
Next,
SlowFront Overvoltages
PhasetoEarth and PhasetoPhase
Representative Overvoltage
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
And finally
FastFront Overvoltages
Combined Overvoltages
PhasetoPhase
Longitudinal in phase and outofphase
Representative Overvoltage
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
Representative Overvoltage
81\211.pre
Source IEC 600711
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
After discussing the various overvoltage stresses,
their origins, and typical values, we will explore
examples of overvoltage calculation and use a
model 230 kV system and computer simulation to
illustrate
Determining Overvoltage Stresses
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
Temporary Overvoltages (TOV)
Origins
Earth Faults (PhaseEarth)
Load Rejection
Ferroresonance
Harmonic resonance
Transformer Inrush
Machine SelfExcitation
Determining Overvoltage Stresses
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
Usually, especially for long distance transmission,
load rejection following loss of system synchronism
results in the highest temporary overvoltage.
Generally desirable to limit 1second value to 1.5 per
unit of rated rms voltage.
This is because the maximum TOV determines the
required rating of surge arresters. The switching and
lightning impulse protective level are determined in
turn by the arrester rating. These protective levels in
turn determine the insulation design and cost.
Can usually be achieved by an optimum mix of series
and shunt compensation including SVC in some
cases, and avoiding low harmonic order resonances
TOV Determines Insulation Design
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
A one minute duration power frequency overvoltage:
 a maximum value
 a set of peak values
 a complete statistical distribution
Representation of TOV
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
SlowFront Overvoltages (SFOV)
Origin
Line energization and reclosing
Faults and fault clearing
Load rejection
Switching of inductive and capacitive currents
Slow front lightning overvoltages (of minor importance)
Important particularly in range II
Determining Overvoltage Stresses
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
Surge Arrester Protection
 deterministic method
 truncation values if U
ps
> U
t
 U
ps
if U
ps
< U
t
No Surge Arresters
 deterministic method
 truncation values
 statistical method
Representation of SFOV
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
(no surge arrester limitation)
Usually characterized by a statistical (Weibull or
Gaussian) probability distribution of standard switching
impulses (250/2500 us) with the following parameters:
Statistical Representation of SFOV
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
Distribution Definition
U
e2
 overvoltage phasetoearth in per unit
having 2% probability of being exceeded
U
p2
 same as U
e2
but phasephase
S
e
 standard deviation of the distribution
phaseearth in per unit
S
p
 standard deviation of the distribution
phasephase in per unit
U
t
= U
50
+ 3S (truncation)(Weibull)
Statistical Representation of SFOV
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
Per Unit Base
2
3
U
m
phasetoearth peak
SFOV Studies
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
Fastfront Overvoltages (Lightning)
a) Begins with lightning current probability distribution
and front time probability distribution and a spacial
distribution of stroke termination points.
b) Because of separation effects, each piece of
equipment has a different representative
overvoltage which is a statistical quantity.
Determining Overvoltage Stresses
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
TOV
1
 1 second temporary overvoltage capability
 basis of application (ANSI)
 IEC uses 10 seconds
 gives one point on the "NoPriorEnergy"
curve
Selection of Surge Arresters
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
Determine TOV
1 (10)
 use computer simulation to determine TOV envelope
and arrester energy for such origins as
 load rejection
(model complete machine and controls)
 transformer inrush
 ferroresonance
 dynamic overvoltage associated with HVDC
 determine earth fault factor from X
1
X
0
R
0
Selection of Surge Arresters
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
Selection of Surge Arresters
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
Performance criteria, coordination factor, and the
selection of the Coordination Withstand Voltage
U
CW
= k
C
U
rp
k
cd
Deterministic
k
cs
Statistical
For temporary overvoltage (Power Frequency)
K
cd
= 1.0.
 main considerations are pollution and
extreme wind.
Coordination Withstand Voltage
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
For Equipment protected by surge arresters
use deterministic or conventional method
select arrester rating by temporary overvoltage
for slow front overvoltages
 by EMTPRV studies, determine protective level
U
ps
at equipment
U
CW
for SFOV with Surge
Arrester Limitation
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
For Slow Front Overvoltages
If U
ps
< 0.7 U
e2
k
cd
= 1.1 for phaseearth
or if U
ps
< 0.5 U
e2
k
cd
= 1.1 phasephase
If 0.7 < U
ps
/ U
e2
1.2 use graph (p  e)
If 0.5 < U
ps
/ U
e2
0.9 use graph (p  p)
This adjustment to k
cd
takes into account the skewing of
the probability distribution due to the control by the
arrester.
Note also that where the degree of limitation of U
e2
by
arresters is large, the limited values of U
p2
can approach
2xU
ps
.
U
CW
for SFOV with Surge
Arrester Limitation
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
K
CD
for SFOV Limited by SA
81\211.pre
Source IEC 600712
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pre
Application of Weibull Distribution to "m"
Insulations
P
m
= 1  (1  P)
m
yielding P
m
(X) = 1  0.5
and
Z
m
= Z/m
1/5
and
U
50m
= U
50
 4(Z  Z
m
) = U
50
 4Z (1  1/m
1/5
)
m 1 +
X
4
5
SelfRestoring Insulation
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
SelfRestoring Insulation
81\211.pre
Source IEC 600712
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
Example:  100 insulators
 For each, U
50
= 1600 kV
Z = 100 kV
Then:  Z
m
=100 / (100)
1/5
= 39.8 kV
and  U
50m
= U
50
 4 (Z  Z
m
) = 1600  4 x (100  39.8)
= 1359.2 kV
P(u)% 50 16 10 2 1 0.1 0
U (kV) 1600 1500 1475 1400 1370 1310 1200
Um(kV) 1359 1319 1308 1280 1268 1244 1200
SelfRestoring Insulation
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
i.e. No Surge Arrester Protection
applies in particular to slowfront overvoltages
Usually consists of selfrestoring insulation
k
C
determined by a riskoffailure calculation
Computer calculation (laborious)
R = f(U) P(U) dU
U
t
U
504z
SFOV U
CW
for Unprotected Equipment
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
SFOV U
CW
for Unprotected Equipment
81\211.pre
Source IEC 600712
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
Simplified by relating riskoffailure to the ratio of the voltages
corresponding to two reference probabilities.
the statistical withstand voltage
U
90
= U
50
 1.3Z
the 2% overvoltage U
2
K
CS
= U
90
/U
2
statistical coordination factor
Choice of K
CS
is the key performance criteria.
Simplified Statistical Method for SFOV
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
Source IEC 600712
Simplified Statistical Method for SFOV
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
Example 100 insulators
Let U
e2
1200 kV S
e
= 100kV
For one insulator
U
90
(10% F.O. prob.) = 1475 kV
K
CS
= 1475 = 1.23
1200
R = 10
5
For 100 insulators
U
90
= 1308 kV
K
CS
= 1308 = 1.09
1200
R = 10
3
Simplified Statistical Method for SFOV
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
Fast Front Overvoltages
For fastfront overvoltages k
cd
= 1.0 and the
protective level at the equipment takes into
account separation effects, which can be quite
large at higher values of U
m
U
CW
for FFOV with Surge Arrester Limitation
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
For simple arrangements of equipment with closeby
arresters and terminal capacitance less than a few
hundred picofarads, we would expect the protective
level at the equipment to approach:
U
cw
= U
p
+ 2ST
U
p
= arrester lightning impulse protective level
S = steepness in kV/s
T = equivalent time in microseconds
=
c = light speed in m/s (~ 300)
+ a + a +
1 2
c
U
CW
with Surge Arrester Limitation
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
Source IEC 600712
Effect of Separation Distance
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
Correction and safety factors are applied to
obtain the Required Withstand Voltage
Altitude Correction (IEC 72123 (1990))
Applied to external (atmosphereexposed)
insulation
k
a
= b
m
b = e
(H/8150)
H = altitude in meters
}
k =
a e
H
8150
m
Safety and Correction Factors
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
For switchingimpulse required withstand:
m is determined from the figure as a function of
U
CW
and the insulation configuration
Exponent m for
Altitude Correction Factor
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
Exponent m for
Altitude Correction Factor
81\211.pre
Source IEC 600712
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
For lightning impulse required withstand and short
duration powerfrequency withstand voltages of air gaps:
m = 1
For polluted insulator continuous power frequency
withstand:
m = 0.5  0.8 (standard units  fog units)
Exponent m for
Altitude Correction Factor
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
If k
a
>1.05 the required withstand voltage of
external insulation can be greater than that for the
internal.
Example transformer winding versus bushings
Either:
 over design the internal insulation
 external insulation separately tested on a
dummy
 air clearances equal to or greater than tables
A1  A3.
Mixed Insulation at High Altitudes
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
Safety Factors
aging
unknowns
tolerances  assembly, quality control, installation
test dispersion
External Insulation k
S
= 1.05
Internal Insulation k
S
= 1.15
Then U
RW
= k
a
k
S
U
CW
* may be up to 1.2 or more for GIS in Range II
Required Withstand Voltage
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
In range I, we specify and test
shortduration power frequency withstand
lightning impulse withstand
In range I, we must convert the required switching
impulse withstand voltage into an equivalent short
duration powerfrequency withstand voltage or
lightning impulse withstand voltage.
Table 2 of IEC 600712 Section 5.2 provides
conversion factors.
Conversion of U
RW
to
Standard Test Voltages
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
Conversion of U
RW
to
Standard Test Voltages
81\211.pre
Source IEC 600712
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
In range II, we specify
switching impulse withstand voltage phaseearth and
phasephase
lightning impulse withstand voltage
We must convert the required power frequency
withstand voltages phaseearth and phasephase to
an equivalent switching impulse withstand voltage.
Table 3 of IEC 600712 Section 5.2 provides
conversion factors.
Conversion of U
RW
to
Standard Test Voltages
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
Conversion of U
RW
to
Standard Test Voltages
81\211.pre
Source IEC 600712
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
Select a set of standard insulation values closest to
each of the values of U
RW
for the various
overvoltage classifications.
Where possible, design the insulation to
correspond to a Standard Insulation Level which is
defined as a set of rated insulation levels related as
a group to U
m
and corresponding to one line in the
IEC tables.
Rated/Standard Insulation Level
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
Source IEC 600711
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
Source IEC 600711
1
Douglas Mader
dmader@bellsouth.net
Study Examples Using EMTP
Electromagnetic Transients in Power System and Insulation
Coordination Studies
June 18, 2012
New Orleans, Louisiana
2
\211.pr
EMTP Models for Circuit Breakers
Ideal Switch
Acts as an ideal Switch:
Impedance = 0 before current zero
Impedance = after current zero
Assumes  Prospective currents and voltages are
unaffected by the interruption process
itself
Has primary use in breaker specification and
overvoltage studies
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
3
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EMTP Models for Circuit Breakers
Simple time controlled
Closes at t t
close
Opens at t t
open
and current < I
margin
or at the next
zero crossing if I
margin
= 0
Heuristic (Statistical and Systematic)
Models the externallyobserved circuit breaker
operation  pole spread, restrike, reignition, prestrike
Useful for overvoltage studies (statistical overvoltage
distribution)
Interrupts also as an ideal switch
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
4
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Ideal Switch Random/Systematic
By combining the statistical distribution of overvoltages
with the statistical properties of breakdown strength of
insulation, it becomes possible to determine a risk of
flashover or insulation failure
Let Pd (U) be the known probability of flashover for a
known overvoltage U. and let p(U) be the probability of
occurrence of an overvoltage of magnitude U. The overall
risk of failure is then:
R = Pd(U) p(U) dU

Circuit Breakers and
Switches
5
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Point on Wave delay
T
offset
= 1./f ((1X) Dmin + X Dmax)
360.
X is a random uniformly distributed number between 0 and 1
Dmin and Dmax are the min. and max. angles
respectively of a window in a sinusoidal waveform of
frequency f
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
6
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Typical Parameter Values and Practical Advice
Typical Pole Spans 610 ms (3.55.5 for newer spring
hydraulic mechanisms
Standard Deviation 11.67 ms (.6.8 ms)
Mean Closing Time 1620 ms
Higher statistical overvoltages associated with larger pole
span
Make sure minimum absolute close time after random
calculation is > 0.0
Typically 200 shots used
If you have a fast machine use more for better accuracy
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
7
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Typical Parameter Values and Practical Advice
Select the ideal switch output tab option to get the
actual switching times of the worst case and rerun it
to observe the waveshape
For point on wave use uniform law
Use Gaussian law for closing times at 3 std dev
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
8
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Preinsertion Resistors in Breakers
Common method of reducing line switching or capacitor
switching overvoltages
Typical Insertion Time 710 ms
Must be no less than twice the line travel time
Simulated by an independent statistical auxiliary contact
in series with the resistor and a statistical main shorting
contact dependent on the auxiliary contact with mean
closing time 710 ms. The standard deviation of the
auxilliary contact is typically half that of the main contact.
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
9
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Preinsertion Resistors
A. Auxilliary Contact
B. Main Contact
R. Resistor
R A
B
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
10
\211.pr
Test System for Lab Exercises
x"=.0546
200
4
11kV 222MVA
10%
5
50MVA
0.9PF
220 kV
16km
7
145km
1
61MVAC
193km
24km
220kV
12 13
200MVA
9.1%
220kV
66kV
2
10
9.1%
400MVA
0.9PF
500MVA
50MVAC
11kV 9.1%
100MVA
11kV
220kV
290km
290km
230kV SYSTEM
GENERAL FEATURES
220kV
200
MVA
0.9PF
50MVA
9.1%
50
97km
220kV
9.1%
500MVA
500
11kV
6
8
11
X"=.08744
180
DRAFT\DJM\PAKGEN.PRE
200MVA
x"=.02186
x"=.1421
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
200
10%
200 MVA
11
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Example
Set up a statistical three phase switch to leave a
trapped charge on line 12 by opening and another
to reclose the line against trapped charge. (Make a
subcircuit). Obtain the overvoltage distribution at the
BUS2 end.
Add a preinsertion resistor to the reclosing breaker
and repeat.
Capacitor Switching
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
12
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Transient Recovery Voltage
Breakers rated in terms of magnitude and rate of rise
ANSI and IEC standards have now been harmonized
with IEC 62271100, but studies for older ANSI
breakers need to respect the applicable edition of
C37
Indoor and Outdoor breakers distinguished
Prospective TRV envelope is best simulated by
EMTP ideal switch
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
13
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Transient Recovery Voltage
IEC Rating method is also divided into two groups at Um=100
kV, the same as ANSI.
The 2parameter test characteristic applies to Class S1 and S2
breakers rated at or below 100 kV and the parameter values are
obtained from Tables 1 and 2 of 62271100:
Uc = is a function of Um
t
3
is function of Um
t
3
= T
2
/1.138
td,t',u' allow for the
effect of bus/breaker
capacitance
Uc
U'
0
td t' t3
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
14
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Transient recovery Voltage
Above 100 kV, the 4parameter test characteristic applies and
parameters are obtained from Tables 3, 4, and 5 of 62271100:
U1 = 0.8 Uc
t1 is function of Um
t2 = 3t1
Uc
U'
0
td t' t1
U1
t2
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
15
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Simple Circuit for Overdamped TRV
300 mH 100 km
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
~
E cos t
16
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Simple Circuit for Underdamped TRV
With With Short Line Fault
3 mH 1 km
~
E cos t
.25 uF
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
17
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Transient Recovery Voltage
Important for Initial rate of rise to represent the bus
side capacitances. Distributed parameter lines may
be necessary for extensive buswork
Breaker capability curve can be generated in Controls
and plotted against the actual TRV
Entergy actual example
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
81\211.pre
Lightning Overvoltages
Three causes  all associated with overhead lines
1. Backflashover
2. Direct Strokes to Phase (shielding failure)
3. Induced (nearby strokes to ground)
Direct strokes to station are usually ignored because
perfect shielding via masts or wires is assumed.
Studies focus primarily on line performance
(backflashover and shielding failure events) and
arrester application
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 18
81\211.pre
Backflashover
Above typically about 50 kA strokes to towers or
overhead ground wires can produce voltages on the
tower high enough to cause flashover of the line
insulation.
Steep wavefront surge imposed on the affected phase
conductor which is attenuated in steepness and
magnitude through propagation by earth resistance and
corona
Reflections from adjacent towers and the footing act to
limit the overvoltage peak as does coupling to phase
conductors.
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 19
81\211.pre
Shielding Failure
Occur when a flash misses the shield wires or tower
and terminates directly on a phase conductor.
Prospective overvoltage at stricken point is:
V
60
= instantaneous power frequency voltage
Z
s
= conductor surge impedance
Most involve strokes of a few kA but can involve
subsequent strokes of greater magnitude (<80 kA)
and steepness than first stroke but with shorter tail
V = + V
60
(t)
I Z
2
s
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 20
81\211.pre
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 21
81\211.pre
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 22
81\211.pre
Shielding Failure
IEEE 12431997 (R2008)
S = 10I
.65
(m, kA) (Love)
I = 0.029S
1.54
(kA, m)
= 0.36 + .168 In (43  [h
G
+ h
)]/2)
(h
G
+ h
) /2 < 40 m
= .55S h > 40 m
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 23
Important Parameters (CIGRE)
l
I
 Initial Crest Current
l
F
 Final Crest Current
T
h
 Tail Duration
t
d30
= T
30
/.6 = Rise time from 30% of peak to 90% of peak of l
I
S
m
= maximum steepness (at crest of l
I
)
All parameters are generally approximated by lognormal
distributions
Lightning stroke has a concave wavefront
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 24
PEAK
I
I
I
90
I
F
I
10
I
30
I[ka]
ITrig
Tan 10
TANG
(S
m)
T[us]
T
30
T
10
Definition of front parameters for a
lightning current impulse of negative
polarity
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 25
CIGRE Distribution for Key Parameters
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 26
81\211.pre
Modeling Guidelines
Stroke Modelling
Modelled generally as an ideal current source.
Stroke Surge Impedance is an inverse function of
peak current (up to ~35  40kA)
Z
st
= 6897 158.45I
F
(Mazur & Ruhnke 2001)
(3000 ohms at 25 kA)
Double exponential type models inadequate.
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 27
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Modeling Guidelines
Stroke Modelling
Simulation of concave wavefront is important for
lightning protection.
Peak current amplitude
Maximum steepness at 90% of current peak.
Average steepness between 30% and 90% of
current peak.
Tail is important
Tail duration (energy).
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Modeling and Analysis
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Concave Front
l = At + Bt
n
where t = time in s
n = 1 + 2(S
N
1) (2 + 1/S
N
)
S
N
= S
m
t
f
/ l
t
f
= front time
= t
d30
A = 0.9 n  S
m
1
n  1
l
t
n
B = [S
m
t
n
 0.9 l ]
1
t
n
n
(n1)
t
n
= 0.6 t
f
3S
N
2
/(1 + S
N
2
)
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Modeling and Analysis
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Tail
l = l
1
e
(ttn)/t1
 l
2
e
(ttn)/t2
t
h
= time to half value
t
1
= (t
h
 t
n
)/ ln 2
t
2
= 0.1 l / S
m
l
1
= t
1
t
2
t
1
t
2
S
m
+ 0.9 l
t
2
l
2
= t
1
t
2
t
1
t
2
S
m
+ 0.9 l
t
1
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Approximations
IEEE (5 kA < l < 200 kA)
= 0.30
= 0.20
Ramp function front at S
m
to l
peak
Ramp function tail from I
peak
through t
h
Adequate for studies and can easily be used in hand
calculations
P =
P =
1 +
l
31
2.6
1
l
1 +
S
24
4
1
S
log S
log I
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For steel towers model tower as a distributed single
phase lossless line with surge impedance: (Chisholm
1985)
(based on surge impedance of conical sections)
r
1
= Tower Top Radius (m)
r
2
= Tower Midsection Radius (m)
r
3
= Tower Base Radius (m)
h
1
= Height from Base to Midsection (m)
h
2
= Height from Midsection to Top (m)
( ) ( )
1
tan
1
2
R
avg
h
1
+ h
2
Z
avg
= 60 In cot
where
R
avg
=
r
1
h
2
+ r
2
(h
1
+ h
2
) + r
3
h
1
h
1
+ h
2
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Modeling and Analysis
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Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Tower Surge Impedance
Propagation velocity in towers can vary from 70%
of light speed in broad crosssection lattice steel
towers with many cross arms to just under lighjt
speed in tall towers with narrow cross section
Surge impedance of guy wires should be evaluated
separately and placed in parallel
Surge impedance of a vertical wire of length h/2 is
about 10% more than that of a horizontal wire at
h/2
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Earth Electrode Model
Model the footing resistance and transient response
R
o
= low current earth resistance ()
g = geometric sum of length + width + depth (m)
= resistivity of earth (m)
A = total surface area of electrode (m
2
)
R = ln (11.838g
2
/A) (Chisholm 2001)
o
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
2 g
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Earth Electrode Model
Add a contact resistance correction term
For concrete piers use the area of the concrete in
the previous equation and the contact resistance
based on the resistivity of concrete (70250 ohm
meters)
L = total length of all the wires in the grid
R
c
= (Chisholm 2001)
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
L
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Line Insulators
Represent by flashover in parallel with capacitance
Capacitance for suspension units ~ 80 pF/unit
Simulate flashover characteristic by built in leader
development, equal area integration models or
Volttime curve models built using controls
CIGRE volttime curve:
V = 400 + d (kV)
d = gap in metres
0.2 s < t < 16 s
710
t .75
[ ]
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Line Insulators
Leader Development Model:
t
c
= time to breakdown = t
i
+ t
s
+ t
l
t
i
= corona inception time (assumed=0)
t
s
= streamer propagation time
1/t
s
= 1.25(E/E
50
)0.95 (1/usec)
E = max gradient in gap before breakdown (kV/m)
E
50
= average gradient at CFO
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Line Insulators
Leader Development Model:
For t
l
dL/dt = K V(t)(V(t)/(gL)  E
o
) (kV,m)
V(t) = voltage across the gap in kV
L = leader length in m
g = gap length in m
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Line Insulators
Leader Development Model:
Gap Config. Polarity K(m
2
/kV
2
sec) E
o
(kV/m)
Air Gaps,Post + 0.8 600
Insulators  1.0 670
Cap and Pin + 1.2 520
Insulators  1.3 600
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Line Insulators
Integration Model (d < 2m):
DE =
to
t
(U
AB
(t)  U
o
)
k
dt U
AB
> U
o
When the area reaches DE, at t=t
f
, flashover is
initiated
Voltage U
o
corresponds approximately to the voltage
defining the dielectric withstand of an air gap subjected
to a conventional lightning impulse of +ve polarity
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Modeling and Analysis
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Corona Attenuation and Distortion
Important for proper calculation of lightning
overvoltages coming into a station from an overhead
line
Complex phenomena  difficult to simulate accurately
over a wide range of line physical parameters
Affects mainly the wavefront by introducing a time
delay to the peak and a reduction in the steepness
which become more pronounced with increasing
propagation distance
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Corona Attenuation and Distortion
Few laboratory measurements available to provide
data (Maruvada, et al IEEE 1977)  cage data only
Most models start with the assumption of a cylinder
surrounding the conductor in corona. The cylinder
represents the boundary of the ionization (space
charge, attachment and recombination processes)
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Corona Attenuation and Distortion
The corona onset or inception voltage is constant for a
given conductor configuration, however time lags
associated with the electron avalanche process can
delay the onset for faster wavefronts such as lightning
The total capacitance within the region of ionization
increases dynamically as a result of particle
redistribution
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Modeling and Analysis
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Modeling and Analysis
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Corona Attenuation and Distortion
Time domain models must be distributed at discrete
intervals between short (50 m or less) sections of
distributed line.
Can be costly in terms of computer resources (time
and memory).
A number of models similar in approach have been
prepared (Suliciu, Gary, etc.).
EMTPRV uses a quasi threephase Suliciu model
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Modeling and Analysis
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Substation Components
Model substation busbar sections as untransposed distributed
parameter lines between bus supports but if distance between
supports < 3m, combine sections
Between each section lump the bus insulator and support structure
capacitance  for cap& pin:
123kV  80 pF
400kV  120 pF less (1050) for post/NCI
765kV  150 pF
Make sure sections accurately locate major equipment
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Model large lumped capacitances such as
CVT = 4  10 nF, the higher values with lower
voltages)
Magnetic PT ~550 pF
CT = 1501000 pF with increasing voltage
Dead Tank Breaker ~50pf each side to ground
610 pF longitudinal
Live Tank Breaker 5pF to ground, 10pF longitudinal
Plus any grading or TRV capacitors
Bus support structures  three phases 100 ohm Zs
 one phase 300 ohm Zs
 ground resistance 0.1 ohm
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Cables and GIS:
Be careful to model short cables and GIS bus section
lengths accurately and watch out for voltage buildup
(standing waves) if any cables/bus sections can be
fed singleended
Watch out for voltages between sheath and ground.
These are usually the most critical and should be
modeled using an untransposed cable with
transformation matrix evaluated at high frequency.
Any cross bonding and sheath ground
resistance/arrester protection must be included.
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Modeling Guidelines for GIS
Bus sections are lossless DP lines with Z typically
5060 ohms and propagation velocity about 95% of
light speed.
Accurate overall length is important, however
rigorous spacer to spacer resolution is only
important for VFT analysis. For lightning, try to
avoid representing individual bus sections of less
than 3 metres as DP lines. Divide and lump the
spacer capacitance at each end of each bus
section.
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Modeling Guidelines for GIS
spacers  ~ 20 pF
magnetic PT  ~ 100  300 pF (400800 kV)
closed circuit breaker  DP line of the length of the
breaker, velocity of .95c and Z calculated from
average diameter of breaker conducting elements
from end to end. Add lumped phaseearth caps.
Open circuit breaker  same but divided at open
contact and grading capacitors across opening.
Model closing resistor as separate breaker.
Disconnectors  include length as DP line
add shunt cap of ~2550 pF
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Modeling Guidelines for GIS
surge arrester capacitance ~ 100200 pF
cable terminals ~ 6080 pF plus length as DP line
SF6Oil bushing ~ gas filled ~2040 pF
~ capacitive ~ 100300 pF
ground switch ~ 2040 pF
Elbow  additional ~ 2040 pF
Bus end  additional 35 PF for spherical shield
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Power transformers
If possible use wideband transformer model esp. for
surge transfer studies where winding ratio > 10:1, if
not use the LC matrix unless you do parametric
study
As a minimum, model transformers as input
capacitance including bushings [typical HVG values
of large units are 4  40 nF (shell) 1  20 nF (core)]
in shunt with surge impedance of about 5000 ohms
Consider possible open breaker conditions and lines
out of service
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IEEE SPDC WG 3.4.11 Model
(Station Class or IEC Class 45)
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