This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE
Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System
CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION 1.1Introduction:
Today photovoltaic (PV) power systems are becoming more and more popular, with the increase of energy demand and the concern of environmental pollution around the world. Four different system configurations are widely developed in grid-connected PV power applications: the centralized inverter system, the string inverter system, the multi string inverter system and the module-integrated inverter system. Generally three types of inverter systems except the centralized inverter system can be employed as small-scale distributed generation (DG) systems, such as residential power applications. The most important design constraint of the PV DG system is to obtain a high voltage gain. For a typical PV module, the open-circuit voltage is about 21 V and the maximum power point (MPP) voltage is about 16 V. And the utility grid voltage is 220 or 110 Vac. Therefore, the high voltage amplification is obligatory to realize the grid-connected function and achieve the low total harmonic distortion (THD). The conventional system requires large numbers of PV modules in series, and the normal PV array voltage is between 150 and 450 V, and the system power is more than 500 W. This system is not applicable to the module-integrated inverters, because the typical power rating of the module-integrated inverter system is below 500 W, and the modules with power ratings between 100 and 200 W are also quite common. The other method is to use a line frequency step-up transformer, and the normal PV array volt-age is between 30 and 150 V. But the line frequency transformer has the disadvantages of larger size and weight. In the grid-connected PV system, power electronic inverters are needed to realize the power conversion, grid interconnection, and control optimization. Generally, gird-connected pulse width modulation (PWM) voltage source inverters (VSIs) are widely applied in PV systems, which have two functions at least because of the unique features of PV modules. First, the dc-bus voltage of the inverter should be stabilized to a specific value because the output voltage of the PV modules varies with temperature, irradiance, and the effect of maximum power-point tracking (MPPT). Second, the energy should be fed from the PV modules into the
Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 2
Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System
utility grid by inverting the dc current into a sinusoidal waveform synchronized with utility grid. Therefore, it is clear that for the inverter-based PV system, the conversion power quality including the low THD, high power factor, and fast dynamic response, largely depends on the control strategy adopted by the grid-connected inverters.
Fig 1: photovoltaic array
In this paper, a grid-connected PV power system with high voltage gain is proposed. The steady-state model analysis and the control strategy of the system are presented. The gridconnected PV system includes two power-processing stages: a high step-up ZVT-interleaved boost converter for boosting a low voltage of PV array up to the high dc-bus voltage, which is not less than grid voltage level; and a full-bridge inverter for inverting the dc current into a sinusoidal waveform synchronized with the utility grid. Furthermore, the dc–dc converter is responsible for the MPPT and the dc–ac inverter has the capability of stabilizing the dc-bus voltage to a specific value.
1.2 Literature survey
S. B. Kjaer, J. K. Pedersen, and F. Blaabjerg, “A review of single-phase grid-connected inverters for photovoltaic modules,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1292–1306, Sep./Oct. 2005. This review focuses on inverter technologies for connecting photovoltaic (PV) modules to a single-phase grid. The inverters are categorized into four classifications: 1) the number of power
Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 3
” in Proc. IEEE PESC. The invention proposes a circuit arrangement for converting a DC voltage present at DC voltage terminals into an alternating current. A systematic discussion is also provided at the end of the paper that focuses on the major advantages and disadvantages of each MIC arrangement. which is supplied via AC voltage terminals. J. wherein the first winding (W1) is connected in series with the first electronic switch (S0) and buffer-stores the energy produced via said electronic switch. and evaluated against demands. 4. The information includes details not only on the topologies commercially available but also on the switching devices employed and the associated switching frequencies. Myrzik. International Patent. Jul. 23.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System processing stages in cascade. which are arranged tightly coupled to one another. and V. 2) the type of power decoupling between the PV module(s) and the single-phase grid. G. T. the paper outlines issues associated with the development of relevant international industry standards affecting PV inverter technology. “A review of the single phase photovoltaic module integrated converter topologies with three different DC link configurations. Finally. Agelidis. Li and P. 3) whether they utilizes a transformer (either line or high frequency) or not. The MIC topologies are classified into three different arrangements based on the dc link configurations.” Patent WO/2007/077031. compared. The inductor is in the form of a twin inductor (DR1) having two windings (W1. W2). 2007. and 4) the type of grid-connected power stage. component ratings. Power Electron. and cost. 2002. some of the topologies are pointed out as the best candidates for either single PV module or multiple PV module applications..” IEEE Trans. “Circuit arrangement having a twin inductor for converting a DC voltage into an AC voltage or an alternating current. efficiency. An overview on developments and a summary of the state-of-the-art of inverter technology in Europe for single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems for power levels up to 5 kW is provided in this paper. 3. vol. price trends and market share. Building integrated PV (BIPV) projects are emerging as the strongest part of the PV market and grid interactive inverters are a key component in determining the total system cost. which circuit arrangement has a first series circuit. Wolfs. “Inverters for single-phase grid connected photovoltaic systems—An overview. Finally. and has a plurality of second electronic switches (S1. no. The annual world photovoltaic (PV) cell/module production is growing at almost an exponential rate and has reached 1727 MW in 2005. This paper concentrates on the topology study of the PV MICs in the power range below 500 W and covers most topologies recently proposed for MIC applications. S2). comprises a first electronic switch (S0) and an inductor. 12. Spooner. May 2008. pp. M. Various inverter topologies are presented. pp. Q. or an AC voltage. lifetime. Module integrated converter (MIC) technology has become a global trend in grid interactive PV applications and may assist in driving down the balance of system costs to secure an improved total system cost. vol. wherein one of the DC voltage terminals and one of the AC voltage terminals are connected to a neutral conductor (N/PE). The two windings are each connected to the AC voltage terminal which is not connected to the neutral conductor via a Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 4 . which is connected to the DC voltage terminals. Calais. These are considered in detail and will provide a useful framework and point of reference for the next generation MIC designs and applications. 1320–1333. 1995–2000.
Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System second electronic switch (S1.3 Module separation Module 1: Steady-State Model of High Step-Up ZVT-Interleaved Boost Converter Module 2: Control Strategy of Full-Bridge Inverter with Bidirectional Power Flow Module 3: Simple MPPT Solution Based on Power Balance Module 4: Simulation results and Experimental results. Proposed grid-connected PV power system. the proposed system can not only be applied to the string or multistring inverter system. the required quantity of PV modules in series is greatly reduced. And the system power can be controlled in a wide range from several hundred to thousand watts only by changing the quantity of PV module branches in parallel. 1. but also to the module-integrated inverter system in low power applications. On the one hand. Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 5 . On the other hand. while the power system interfaces the utility grid. 2. the nonisolation PV systems employing neutral-point-clamped (NPC) Fig. The grid-connected PV power system can offer a high voltage gain and guarantee the used PV array voltage is less than 50 V. Therefore. S2).
. highly efficient reliable inverter concept (HERIC) topology. High step-up ZVT-interleaved boost converter and its equivalent circuit. etc. . Topology. 3.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System Fig. have been widely used especially in Europe. H5 topology. it has several advantages such as high efficiency. Although the transformerless system having a floating and nonearth-connected PV dc bus requires more protection . etc. (b) Equivalent circuit. Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 6 . (a) ZVT-interleaved boost converter.. lightweight.
Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System CHAPTER-2 Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 7 .
the switching losses and electromagnetic interference noises will be occurred following increasing the switching frequency. However. The topology usually employed in power factor correction single-phase power supplies is composed by a front-end rectifier followed by a boost converter. Quasi-resonant converters (PWM-QRC) operate with fixed switching frequency. some of their characteristics such as load limitations and control difficulties due to variable frequency operation restrict the practical use of these converters. the reduction of input current harmonics and high power factor operation is an important requirement for power supplies. which leads to a substantial increase in conduction loss.1 Introduction Reduced power factor and polluted utility voltage have been rising due to the increase of nonlinear loads use by residential. Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 8 . Nowadays international regulation governing the amount of harmonic current became mandatory.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System CHAPTER-2 STEADY-STATE MODEL OF HIGH STEP-UP ZVT-INTERLEAVED BOOST CONVERTER 2. initially raise the snubbers. switching losses in the approaches proposed in can be reduced only at the expense of much increased current stresses of the main switch. In order to improve the efficiency of the power factor correction (PFC) circuit. its main switch presents current and/or voltage stresses. many efforts have been done on the soft-switching converter. Thus. In this topology. Unfortunately. To reduce the switching losses. the boost converter in continuous conduction mode (CCM) with the average current control and pulse-width modulation (PWM) technique has been the most popular circuit. High power density and fast transient response of this circuit can be achieved by increasing the switching frequency. on the other hand they present all the other disadvantages of the QRC’s that limit their applications. Nowadays there are many converters that do not present the limitations described above . Although this converter presents several advantages. Example of these snubbers can be found in the references Later on appeared the quasiresonant converters (QRCs) proposed in. and industrial customers. However. commercial.
where Lm 1 and Lm 2 are the magnetizing inductors. LCC. which is proposed by our research team. Each coupled inductor is modeled as the combination of a magnetizing inductor. for the high step-up gain applications. the full-bridge dc–dc converter is also employed commonly as a similar first stage in the PV system. Cs1 and Cs2 are the parallel capacitors. an example of these converters is presented in. the large current ripples of the primary-side switches increase the conduction losses. which are Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 9 . 2. Therefore. and the secondary-side diodes need to sustain a high voltage stress. Llk 1 and Llk 2 are the leakage inductors including the reflected leakage inductors of the second and third windings of the coupled inductors.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System Most recent development in high-frequency converter configuration is a hybrid of resonant soft switching and pulse-width-modulation (PWM) control. and higher order element converters are studied and developed. However. the design of the transformer is difficult and the converter’s efficiency is impacted. The winding-coupled inductors offer the voltage-gain extension.2 Operation principle: The operation principle analysis and the steady-state waveforms of the high step-up ZVTinterleaved boost converter have been discussed and compared with the proposed converter. Fig. Cc1 and Cc2 are the clamp capacitors. Do1 and Do2 are the output diodes. Moreover. a large turn’s ratio of the transformer is necessary to obtain a high step-up gain. as a buck-type converter. N is the turns ratio n2 /n1. Furthermore. which induces a large leakage inductance and large commutation energy on the primary-side switches. The active-clamp circuits realize the ZVT commutation of the main switches and the auxiliary switches. The coupling method of the winding-coupled inductors is marked by open circles and asterisks. The equivalent circuit model is demonstrated in Fig. As shown in Fig. the switches operate in resonant mode only during switching transitions and then return to PWM operation for the rest of a switching period. 2(a). 2(b). Sc1 and Sc2 are the active-clamp switches. the resonant-mode converters such as LLC. including the parasitic capacitors of the switches. This group of converters is called soft switching PWM converters. an ideal trans-former with corresponding turn’s ratio and a leakage inductor in series with the magnetizing inductor. In the soft switching PWM converters. S1 and S2 are the main switches. 2 shows the ZVT-interleaved boost converter with winding-coupled inductors and active-clamp circuits.
ZVT soft switching is achieved for both main switches and auxiliary switches during the whole switching transition.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System attractive for potential higher efficiency and higher power density than PWM counterparts. the low-voltage and high-performance devices can be used to reduce the switching and conduction losses. If the clamp capacitance is assumed large enough and the volt-age ripple on the switches can be ignored when they turn off. as the turn’s ratio increases. such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems due to variable frequency operation and reduced conversion efficiency due to circulating energy generation. Omitting the effect of the leakage inductance and applying the voltage-second balance to the magnetizing inductor. 1. the voltage gain is given by 2. However. Therefore. the normalized voltage stress of the main switches is given by 3. Voltage stress of the main switches is reduced. Moreover. to make practical use of the resonant converters. As the turns ratio increases. Voltage gain is extended greatly by using a proper turns ratio design. which can reduces the input and output current ripples. most of resonant converters include some inherent problems. which means the switching losses are reduced greatly. Diode reverse-recovery loss is greatly reduced because the di/dt of the diode current is controlled by the inherent leakage inductor of a coupled boost inductor. Correspondingly the ZVT-interleaved boost converter has the following three main advantages. the voltage gain increases without the extreme duty ratio. Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 10 . And the voltage spikes are clamped effectively and the leakage energy is recovered. the required precise control waveform and difficult over current protections increase the design complexity of the whole system.
And the following approximations are given: The equation of the output voltage is always true by the Kirchhoff voltage law Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 11 . so the voltage 2. 3. especially when the leakage inductance increases to a certain level. To simplify the calculation. The clamp capacitance is large enough. the leakage inductance of the winding-coupled inductors should be considered. 1. 3. The dead times of the main switches and the corresponding auxiliary switches are ignored. which have reached a steady state. The two interleaved and inter coupled boost converter cells are provided with a strict symmetry. To derive a more accurate steady-state model of the converter. so the magnetizing current IL m is taken as a constant in one switching period. the following conditions are assumed in reason. The magnetizing inductance is much larger than the leak-age inductance. the leakage inductor of the winding-coupled inductors has great effect on the voltage gain expression and a big error is found in the steady-state model based on (1). 4. 2. which brings difficulty to the design of circuit parameters.3 Previous Assumptions Based on the previous assumptions.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System Unfortunately. since the leakage inductance strongly influences the operation states of the circuit. 5. Ripple on the main switches can be ignored and the voltage Vds is taken as a constant when they turn off. the partial key waveforms of this converter are shown in Fig.
represent the voltage of the second winding L1b and the voltage of the third winding L2c . Stage b (Main Switches S1 is ON and S2 is ON) Likewise. it can be found that As shown in Fig. A. 3. Stage a (Main Switches S1 is OFF and S2 is ON) Based on the voltage-second balance to the magnetizing inductor. 2. and (10) into (5). (9). respectively. the voltages on the winding-coupled inductors are decided by Where V ◦ n1 represents the voltage of the first winding L1a.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System Where V ◦n2 and V ∗n2 . from the waveforms shown in Fig. it can be found that Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 12 . the equation of the output voltage in stage a is obtained B. Therefore. 3. substituting (6). the switching voltage of S1 is given by From the waveform of iLk1 shown in Fig.
4.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System Fig. Partial key waveforms of the converter Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 13 .
Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System Considering the polarity of the voltages on the winding coupled inductors in stage b. the voltage expressions for the winding-coupled inductors are also obtained by Therefore. Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 14 . (15). and (16) into (5). the equation of the output voltage in stage b is obtained In addition. substituting (12). the charge-conservation equation can be found that Therefore. 3. the charge through the load in one switching period is Therefore. (17). the total charge through the two output diodes in one switching period is decided by Meanwhile. the (11). and (20) can be solved to obtain the expression for the steadystate model of the converter. from the waveform of iDo1 shown in Fig.
and R is the equivalent load of the converter.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System Where Llk is the equivalent leakage inductance of the winding-coupled inductors. are compared to verify the proposed model.4 STEADY-STATE MODEL VERIFICATION As shown in Table I. TABLE I 2. and Llk = Llk 1 = Llk 2 . From the data in Table I. the maximum error of the output voltage between the accurate model based on and the Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 15 . the results calculated by the two steady-state models and the simulation software PSIM.
It is clear that the proposed steady-state model approaches the simulation results closely.6%.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System simulation results is only 0. Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 16 . and the corresponding maximum error of the model based on reaches up to 43.1%.
Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System CHAPTER-3 CHAPTER-3 CONTROL STRATEGY OF FULL-BRIDGE INVERTER WITH BIDIRECTIONAL POWER FLOW Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 17 .
In case of DC to AC inverters the output AC voltage can be either single phase or three phase. An inverter is also used in an induction motor to regulate the speed by changing the frequency of AC output. which synchronizes with the utility grid voltage. Fig. the VS-PWM converter can force the instantaneous load current to accurately follow the sinusoidal reference.1 Introduction DC to AC inverters are those devices which are used to produce inversion by converting a direct current into an alternating current. which implements the bidirectional power flow. The variable frequency drives controls the frequency and voltage of power supplied to the motor. the devices are called as AC-AC cycloconverters or DC-AC inverters. When the main power is not available UPS uses batteries and inverter to supply AC power. Furthermore. If the output of a circuit is AC then depending on the input i. 5 shows the control block of the full-bridge inverter with bidirectional power flow. 1 works as a voltage-source PWM (VS-PWM) converter in this paper.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System 3. Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 18 . thus controlling the speed of AC motor. 4 shows the control block of the two-stage gridconnected PV system. Fig. The full-bridge inverter shown in Fig. DC to AC inverters are such devices whose AC output has magnitude and frequency which is either fixed or variable. Also. the magnitude of the AC voltage is from the range of 110-380 VAC while the frequencies are either 50Hz. A rectifier is used to recharge the batteries used when the main power is back. Other applications of an inverter included Variable frequency drives. Some of the basic applications of inverters would be an UPS (uninterruptible power supply). By using a directcurrent-control strategy. the bidirectional flow of power facilitates the compensation of the dc-bus and the ac-side voltage variations. which helps to stabilize the dc-bus voltage in startup and cloudy situations and improves the stability of overall system. either AC or DC.e. 60Hz or 400Hz. An inverter is used in the variable frequency drives to provide controller power. And the high power factor. the low THD and the fast dynamic response are achieved.
5.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System Fig. Control block of full-bridge inverter with bidirectional power flow 3.2 Control of the Bidirectional Power Flow As shown in Fig. 5. the dc-bus voltage Udc is always con-trolled to keep a constant value Uref with zero error by the voltage-feedback control loop. Meanwhile. 6. Control block of two-stage grid-connected PV system Fig. the direction and Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 19 .
which is only used to compensate for the switch losses of VSPWM converter. If Udc > Uref then Ue is increasing. 5. The energy generation of PV power system is positively correlated with the magnitude of Ue . The earlier characteristic guarantees that the dc-bus voltage is stabilized to a required value by the back-end VS-PWM converter. higher than the voltage loop bandwidth of 200–500 Hz. which draws the energy from the utility grid to the capacitor of dc bus. the grid voltage is not an ideal sinusoidal waveform in practice. and the VS-PWM converter works as an inverter which transfers the PV array power to the utility grid. the instantaneous power and the dc-bus voltage include a ripple component with the frequency 2ω in the case of a single-phase inverter. and when Ue < 0. Generally.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System magnitude of VS-PWM converter’s output current and power are decided dynamically by the value of Ue . If Udc < Uref then Ue is decreasing. However. the fast response to provide high dynamic performances. to as-sure the stability of the proposed inverter control with two PI regulators. maintaining the stability of dc-bus voltage.3 Direct Current Control with Compensation Units As shown in Fig. whether the front-end dc–dc converter works or not. Furthermore. it is avoided that the ZVT-interleaved Boost converter works in an open-circuit state. Main advantages of this direct current control are the low harmonics to reduce losses in steady state. Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 20 . and the peak-current protection to reject overload. Therefore. the VS-PWM converter works as a PWM rectifier. on the condition that the back end is started up prior to the front end. The current in the negative direction finally approaches a quite small value. the current control loop is designed to have a bandwidth of 2–5 kHz. the load currents iout is detected and compared with the reference current iref . and the error signal is processed by a PI regulator in the current-feedback control loop. which is the output of negative PI regulator in the voltage loop. 3.
The feed forward control has little impact on the system’s zeros and poles configuration.4 P&O ALGORITHM EMPLOYING Ue Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 21 .Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System Therefore. but achieves to track the sinusoidal reference accurately and restrain the harmonics distortion of the load current. Accordingly. Kd is defined as TABLE II 3. two compensation units are added to the current control loop as the feed forward control units. especially at the current peak. Compensation coefficient Kd directly processes the magnitude of reference currents iref . it is hard to achieve low THD of the output current by using the simple directcurrent-control strategy in the real grid condition. and can counteract the main influences of the dc-bus voltage ripple because Kd represents a negative fluctuating feature with the frequency 2ω. compared with the dc-bus voltage ripple.
Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System CHAPTER-4 CHAPTER-4 SIMPLE MPPT SOLUTION BASED ON POWER BALANCE 4.1 Introduction Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 22 .
though optical power transmission systems can benefit from similar technology. or motors.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is a technique that grid-tie inverters. In tabulated data it is often used to estimate the maximum power that a cell Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 23 . typically solar panels. Fill factor is defined as the ratio of the maximum power from the solar cell to the product of Open Circuit Voltage Voc and ShortCircuit Current Isc. 4. Solar cells have a complex relationship between solar irradiation. and regulation for driving various loads. is a parameter which characterizes the non-linear electrical behavior of the solar cell. batteries. MPPT devices are typically integrated into an electric power converter system that provides voltage or current conversion. filtering. including power grids. The fill factor. temperature and total resistance that produces a non-linear output efficiency which can be analyzed based on the I-V curve.2 I-V Curve: Photovoltaic cells have a complex relationship between their operating environment and the maximum power they can produce. solar battery chargers and similar devices use to get the maximum possible power from one or more photovoltaic devices. It is the purpose of the MPPT system to sample the output of the cells and apply the proper resistance (load) to obtain maximum power for any given environmental conditions. abbreviated FF. Fig:7 solar cell I-V curve in varying sun light.
And as discussed earlier. the slope) dI/dV of the I-V curve is equal and opposite the I/V ratio (where dP/dV=0). the majority of MPPT algorithms can be implemented by controlling the value Ue rather than the calculated power value by multiplying the inputs from voltage and current sensors. From basic circuit theory. acts as a constant current source . This is a dynamic quantity which changes depending on the level of illumination. For most purposes. at a photovoltaic cell's MPP region. A load with resistance R=V/I equal to the reciprocal of this value draws the maximum power from the device.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System can provide with an optimal load under given conditions. This is sometimes called the characteristic resistance of the cell. its curve has an approximately inverse exponential relationship between current and voltage. the generated power of the PV array is equal to the output power that is transferred to the utility grid. Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 24 . Voc. the rms value of the load currents iout is in proportion to the PV array power. In this paper a simple MPPT solution is adopted in view of the power balance. for the majority of its useful curve. FF. If the resistance is lower or higher than this value. P=FF*Voc*Isc. Therefore. the power delivered from or to a device is optimized where the derivative (graphically. and thus the cell will not be used as efficiently as it could be. and Isc are enough information to give a useful approximate model of the electrical behavior of a photovoltaic cell under typical conditions. This is known as the maximum power point (MPP) and corresponds to the "knee" of the curve. These values correspond to a particular load resistance. which holds universality. A photovoltaic cell. Therefore. For any given set of operational conditions. cells have a single operating point where the values of the current (I) and Voltage (V) of the cell result in a maximum power output. However. as well as other factors such as temperature and the age of the cell. as the grid voltage is clamped to 220 or 110 V. If omitting the whole system losses. The power P is given by P=V*I. the magnitude of the load current iout directly depends on the output Ue of the negative PI controller in the voltage loop. which is equal to V / I as specified by Ohm's Law. the power drawn will be less than the maximum available. Maximum power point trackers utilize different types of control circuit or logic to search for this point and thus to allow the converter circuit to extract the maximum power available from a cell.
Although the two are equivalent in theory. Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 25 . as shown in Table II. the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm of employing the value Ue is applied in this paper. The operating point is then adjusted to maximize PV array power. like nonlinearity of the whole system losses and long-term fluctuation of the utility grid voltage.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System To verify the previous analysis. are eliminated. and consequently. And perturbing the duty ratio D of the ZVT-interleaved boost converter perturbs the PV array current and voltage. The other advantage is the simple MPPT solution ensures the maximization of the power transferred to the utility grid. the former is a real MPPT technique in practice that converts maximum energy to utility grid. but not the output power from PV array. because some complications. perturbs the PV array power.
Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System CHAPTER-5 CHAPTER-5 PID-CONTROLLER 5.1 Introduction Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 26 .
for best performance. the PID parameters used in the calculation must be tuned according to the nature of the system – while the design is generic. the degree to which the Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 27 . Heuristically. based on current rate of change.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System Fig-8 A block diagram of a PID controller A proportional–integral–derivative controller (PID controller) is a generic control loop feedback mechanism (controller) widely used in industrial control-systems – a PID is the most commonly used feedback controller. A PID controller calculates an "error" value as the difference between a measured process variable and a desired set point. The PID controller calculation (algorithm) involves three separate parameters. and the derivative value determines the reaction based on the rate at which the error has been changing. and D. The response of the controller can be described in terms of the responsiveness of the controller to an error. The weighted sum of these three actions is used to adjust the process via a control element such as the position of a control valve or the power supply of a heating element. In the absence of knowledge of the underlying process. and is accordingly sometimes called three-term control: the proportional. denoted P. and ‘D’ is a prediction of future errors. I. the integral and derivative values. The proportional value determines the reaction to the current error. By tuning the three constants in the PID controller algorithm. ‘I ‘on the accumulation of past errors. PID controllers are the best controllers. the parameters depend on the specific system. The controller attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the process control inputs. these values can be interpreted in terms of time: P depends on the present error. However. the controller can provide control action designed for specific process requirements. the integral value determines the reaction based on the sum of recent errors.
Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System controller overshoots the set point and the degree of system oscillation. Sensing water temperature is analogous to taking a measurement of the process value or process variable (PV). After measuring the temperature (PV). whereas the absence of an integral value may prevent the system from reaching its target value due to the control action. This is achieved by setting the gain of undesired control outputs to zero. The desired temperature is called the set point (SP). Note that the use of the PID algorithm for control does not guarantee optimal control of the system or system stability. A PID controller will be called a PI. This typically involves the mixing of two process streams. When the controller first turns the valve on. 5. PI-controllers are fairly common. since derivative action is sensitive to measurement noise. P or I controller in the absence of the respective control actions. PD. the hot and cold water. and then calculating the error. many naming Conventions for the relevant variables are in common use. The difference between the temperature measurement and the set point is the error (e) that quantifies whether the water is too hot or too cold and by how much. Based on this feedback they perform a control action to adjust the hot and cold water valves until the process temperature stabilizes at the desired value.2 Control loop basics A familiar example of a control loop is the action taken when adjusting hot and cold faucet valves to maintain the faucet water at the desired temperature. they may turn the hot valve only slightly if warm water is desired. or they Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 28 . Some applications may require using only one or two modes to provide the appropriate system control. The input to the process (the water valve position) is called the manipulated variable (MV). The person touches the water to sense or measure its temperature. Note: Due to the diversity of the field of control theory and application. the controller decides when to change the tap position (MV) and by how much.
because the controller is adjusting the valves too quickly and over-compensating or overshooting the set point. In the interest of achieving a gradual convergence at the desired temperature (SP). In theory. Variables that impact on the process other than the MV are known as disturbances. the controller may try to speed-up the process by opening up the hot water valve more-and-more as time goes by. then further changes by the controller will be in response to changes in other measured or unmeasured inputs to the process that impact on the process. it is possible that in some systems the water temperature may oscillate between hot and cold. learning from the process history. Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 29 .Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System may open the valve all the way if very hot water is desired. simple PID controllers do not have the ability to learn and must be set up correctly. In the event that hot water does not arrive quickly. whereas if they decrease the system is stable. If a controller starts from a stable state at zero error (PV = SP). This is an example of a simple proportional control. If the oscillations remain at a constant magnitude the system is marginally stable. Making a change that is too large when the error is small is equivalent to a high gain controller and will lead to overshoot. If the controller were to repeatedly make changes that were too large and repeatedly overshoot the target. Selecting the correct gains for effective control is known as tuning the controller. By using only the proportional and integral control methods. or decaying sinusoid. Generally controllers are used to reject disturbances and/or implement set point changes. If the oscillations increase with time then the system is unstable. the controller may wish to damp the anticipated future oscillations. This can be thought of as a derivative control method. the controller may elect to temper their adjustments. Changes in feed water temperature constitute a disturbance to the faucet temperature control process. the output would oscillate around the set point in either a constant. a known ideal value for that output (SP) and an input to the process (MV) that will affect the relevant PV. growing. however. a controller can be used to control any process which has a measurable output (PV). A human would not do this because we are adaptive controllers. So in order to compensate for this effect. This is an example of an integral control. and hence on the PV.
PID controllers are the controllers of choice for many of these applications. simplicity. For other forms please see the section "Alternative nomenclature and PID forms".3 PID Controller Theory This section describes the parallel or non-interacting form of the PID controller.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System Controllers are used in industry to regulate temperature.1 Proportional term Fig – 9 Plot of PV vs time. pressure. Hence: Where Pout. The PID control scheme is named after its three correcting terms. and simple setup and maintenance requirements. established history. flow rate. Automobile cruise control is an example of a process which utilizes automated control. 5. as defined below.3. due to their wellgrounded theory. chemical composition. and Dout are the contributions to the output from the PID controller from each of the three terms. for three values of Kp (Ki and Kd held constant) Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 30 . 5. whose sum constitutes the manipulated variable (MV). speed and practically every other variable for which a measurement exists. Iout.
Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 31 . The proportional response can be adjusted by multiplying the error by a constant Kp. 5.3.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System The proportional term (sometimes called gain) makes a change to the output that is proportional to the current error value. If the proportional gain is too high. G = Kpe. If the proportional gain is too low.2 Droop In the absence of disturbances. The proportional term is given by: Pout = Kpe(t) Where Pout: Proportional term of output Kp: Proportional gain. Pout. the system can become unstable (see the section on loop tuning). a small gain results in a small output response to a large input error. In contrast. a tuning parameter e: Error = SP − PV t: Time or instantaneous time (the present) A high proportional gain results in a large change in the output for a given change in the error. such as cooling of a furnace towards room temperature – is denoted by G and assumed to be approximately constant in the error. so e = G / Kp. the control action may be too small when responding to system disturbances. but will retain a steady state error (droop) that is a function of the proportional gain and the process gain. then the droop is when this constant gain equals the proportional term of the output. Specifically. and a less responsive (or sensitive) controller. which is linear in the error. called the proportional gain. pure proportional control will not settle at its target value. if the process gain – the long-term drift in the absence of control.
Only the drift component (long-term average.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System This is when the proportional term. If the process gain is down. which is pushing the parameter towards the set point. hence the term "droop". zero-frequency component) of process gain matters for the droop – regular or random fluctuations above or below the drift cancel out. Droop is proportional to process gain and inversely proportional to proportional gain. Droop can be mitigated by adding a bias term (setting the set point above the true desired value). a tuning parameter e: Error = SP – PV Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 32 . then the steady state will be below the set point. or corrected by adding an integration term (in a PI or PID controller). for example if room temperature changes. which is pulling the parameter away from the set point. both tuning theory and industrial practice indicate that it is the proportional term that should contribute the bulk of the output change. and is an inevitable defect of purely proportional control. which effectively computes a bias adaptively. The process gain may change over time or in the presence of external changes.3. as in cooling. Despite the droop. 5. is exactly offset by the process gain.3 Integral term Iout: integral term of output Ki : integral gain. cooling may be faster or slower.
The integral term (when added to the proportional term) accelerates the movement of the process towards set point and eliminates the residual steady-state error that occurs with a proportional only controller. However. Ki. For further notes regarding integral gain tuning and controller stability. a tuning parameter e: Error = SP – PV Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 33 . see the section on loop tuning. 5. since the integral term is responding to accumulated errors from the past. it can cause the present value to overshoot the set point value (cross over the set point and then create a deviation in the other direction). The magnitude of the contribution of the integral term to the overall control action is determined by the integral gain. Summing the instantaneous error over time (integrating the error) gives the accumulated offset that should have been corrected previously.3.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System t : Time or instantaneous time (the present) τ: a dummy integration variable Plot of PV vs time. The accumulated error is then multiplied by the integral gain and added to the controller output. for three values of Ki (Kp and Kd held constant) The contribution from the integral term (sometimes called reset) is proportional to both the magnitude of the error and the duration of the error.4 Derivative term Where DOUT: Derivative term of output Kd : Derivative gain.
Ki Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 34 . 5. integral. Hence. Such a circuit is known as a Phase-Lead compensator.2 Integral gain.4 Summary The proportional. Kp Larger values typically mean faster response since the larger the error. An excessively large proportional gain will lead to process instability and oscillation. differentiation of a signal amplifies noise and thus this term in the controller is highly sensitive to noise in the error term.4. and derivative terms are summed to calculate the output of the PID controller.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System t: Time or instantaneous time (the present) τ: a dummy integration variable The derivative term slows the rate of change of the controller output and this effect is most noticeable close to the controller set point. and can cause a process to become unstable if the noise and the derivative gain are sufficiently large. However. Hence an approximation to a differentiator with a limited bandwidth is more commonly used. Defining u(t) as the controller output. the final form of the PID algorithm is: where the tuning parameters are: 5. 5. derivative control is used to reduce the magnitude of the overshoot produced by the integral component and improve the combined controller-process stability.4. the larger the proportional term compensation.1 Proportional gain.
different applications have different requirements. Kd Larger values decrease overshoot. Instability is Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 35 . integral and derivative terms) are chosen incorrectly. i.e. this section describes some traditional manual methods for loop tuning. different systems have different behavior. but slow down transient response and may lead to instability due to signal noise amplification in the differentiation of the error.1 Stability If the PID controller parameters (the gains of the proportional.4. Further. PID controllers often provide acceptable control even in the absence of tuning. because it must satisfy complex criteria within the limitations of PID control. and is limited only by saturation or mechanical breakage. 5. 5. Stability (bounded oscillation) is a basic requirement. but performance can generally be improved by careful tuning. this can be corrected by gain scheduling (using different parameters in different operating regions). and performance may be unacceptable with poor tuning. and more sophisticated techniques are the subject of patents. integral gain/reset. but beyond that. derivative gain/rate) to the optimum values for the desired control response.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System Larger values imply steady state errors are eliminated more quickly. its output diverges. The trade-off is larger overshoot: any negative error integrated during transient response must be integrated away by positive error before reaching steady state.5. the controlled process input can be unstable.5 Loop tuning Tuning a control loop is the adjustment of its control parameters (gain/proportional band. There are accordingly various methods for loop tuning. some processes have a degree of non-linearity and so parameters that work well at fullload conditions don't work when the process is starting up from no-load. PID tuning is a difficult problem. with or without oscillation.3 Derivative gain. even though there are only three parameters and in principle is simple to describe. and some desiderata conflict. 5.
particularly in the presence of significant lag.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System caused by excess gain. though sometimes marginal stability (bounded oscillation) is acceptable or desired. Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 36 . Generally. stability of response (the reverse of instability) is required and the process must not oscillate combination of process conditions and set points.
Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System CHAPTER-6 CHAPTER-6 MATLAB 6. programming and visualization in a user-friendly environment where problems and solutions are expressed in an easy-to-understand mathematical notation. It integrates computation.1 Introduction Matlab is a high-performance language for technical computing. Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 37 .
especially those with matrix and vector operations. If it is not defined otherwise. Matlab is a matrix-based programming tool. 6. The building blocks of expressions are • • • • Variables Numbers Operators Functions Page 38 Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE . graphical functions. This allows the user to solve many technical computing problems. Matlab provides mathematical expressions. so-called Mfiles that extend the Matlab environment to solve particular classes of problems. It is very important to most users of Matlab that toolboxes allow to learn and apply specialized technology.2 Expressions Like most other programming languages. but unlike most programming languages. mathematical functions. these expressions involve entire matrices. in less time than it would take to write a program in a scalar non-interactive language such as C or FORTRAN. Although matrices often need not to be dimensioned explicitly. Column vectors and row vectors are represented consistently by n × 1 and 1 × n matrices. and input/output operations. Matlab features a family of application-specific solutions which are called toolboxes. the user has always to look carefully for matrix dimensions. Matlab operations can be classified into the following types of operations: • • • • arithmetic and logical operations. In the following sections. the standard matrix exhibits two dimensions n × m. respectively. individual elements of Matlab operations are explained in detail.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System Matlab is an interactive system whose basic data element is an array that does not require dimensioning. These toolboxes are comprehensive collections of Matlab functions.
Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System
6.2.1 Variables Matlab does not require any type declarations or dimension statements. When a new variable name is introduced, it automatically creates the variable and allocates the appropriate amount of memory. If the variable already exists, Matlab changes its contents and, if necessary, allocates new storage. For example >> books = 10 creates a 1-by-1 matrix named books and stores the value 10 in its single element. In the expression above, >> constitutes the Matlab prompt, where the commands can be entered. Variable names consist of a string, which start with a letter, followed by any number of letters, digits, or underscores. Matlab is case sensitive; it distinguishes between uppercase and lowercase letters. A and a are not the same variable. To view the matrix assigned to any variable, simply enter the variable name. 6.2.2 Numbers Matlab uses the conventional decimal notation. A decimal point and a leading plus or minus sign is optional. Scientific notation uses the letter e to specify a power-of-ten scale factor. Imaginary numbers use either i or j as a suffix. Some examples of legal numbers are: 7 -55 0.0041 9.657838 6.10220e-10 7.03352e21 2i -2.71828j 2e3i 2.5+1.7j.
6.2.3 Operators Expressions use familiar arithmetic operators and precedence rules. Some examples are: + Addition - Subtraction * Multiplication / Division ’ Complex conjugate transpose ( ) Brackets to specify the evaluation order. 6.2.4 Functions
Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 39
Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System
Matlab provides a large number of standard elementary mathematical functions, including sin, sqrt, exp, and abs. Taking the square root or logarithm of a negative number does not lead to an error; the appropriate complex result is produced automatically. Matlab also provides a lot of advanced mathematical functions, including Bessel and Gamma functions. Most of these functions accept complex arguments. For a list of the elementary mathematical functions, type >> help elfun Some of the functions, like sqrt and sin are built-in. They are a fixed part of the Matlab core so they are very efficient. The drawback is that the computational details are not readily accessible. Other functions, like gamma and sinh, are implemented in so called M-files. You can see the code and even modify it if you want.
6.3 Handling Matrices
Matlab was mainly designed to deal with matrices. In Matlab, a matrix is a rectangular array of numbers. So scalars can be interpreted to be 1-by-1 matrices and vectors are matrices with only one row or column. Matlab has other ways to store both numeric and nonnumeric data, but in the beginning of learning Matlab, it is usually best to think of everything as a matrix. The operations in Matlab are designed to be as natural as possible. Where other programming languages work only with single numbers, Matlab allows working with entire matrices quickly and easily.
Matlab offers extensive facilities for displaying vectors and matrices as graphs, as well as annotating and printing these graphs. This section describes some of the most important graphics functions and gives some examples of some typical applications. 6.4.1 Creating a Plot The plot function has different forms, depending on the input arguments. If y is a vector, plot(y) produces a piecewise linear graph of the elements of y versus the index of the elements of y. If two vectors are specified as arguments, plot(x,y) produces a graph of y versus x. For example to plot the value of the sine function from zero to 2π, use >> x = 0:pi/100:2*pi;
Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 40
Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System
>> y = sin(x); >> plot(x,y)
y = sin(x) 1
Figure.10 Sine Plot The xlabel, ylabel and zlabel functions are useful to add x-, y- and z-axis labels. The zlabel function is only necessary for three-dimensional plots. The title function adds a title to a graph at the top of the figure and the text function inserts a text in a figure. The following commands create the final appearance of figure 1.1. >> xlabel(’x’); >> ylabel(’y’); >> title(’y = sin(x)’) Multiple x-y pairs create multiple graphs with a single call to plot. Matlab automatically cycles through a predefined (but user settable) list of colors to distinguish between different graphs. For example, these statements plot three related functions of x1, each curve in a separate distinguishing color: >> x1 = 0:pi/100:2*pi; >> y1 = sin(x1); >> y2 = sin(x1 - 0.25); >> y3 = sin(x2 - 0.5); >> plot(x1,y1,x1,y2,x1,y3)
Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE
Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System The number of points of the individual graphs may be even different. To make an existing window the current window. ’*’ and ’x’.y. For example. These correspond to cyan. The plot function automatically opens a figure window to plot the graphic. these windows will be used for the new plot. The most common marker types include ’+’. such as plus signs or circles.y1.5 y 0 -0. ’b’. 2-. It is possible to specify the color. red.11 Multiple graphs with a single call to plot A color style marker is a 1-. Matlab draws only the marker.’b:*’) plots a blue dotted line and places asterisk sign markers at each data point. If only a marker type is specified but not a line style. ’--’ for dashed. yellow. It may consist of a color type. ’:’ for dotted.’ for dash-dotted and ’none’ for no line.’color style marker’) y = sin(x) 1 0. The command figure can be used to keep an existing figure window and open a new one. blue. ’r’. the statement plot(x1. a line style type. Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 42 . white. The next graphic will be plotted in this selected window. type figure(n) where n is the number in the title bar of the window to be selected.5 -1 0 1 2 3 x 4 5 6 7 Figure. or 3-character string. ’g’. ’w’ and ’k’. with: plot(x. magenta. and black. ’-. If there is already an existing figure window. and a marker type: Color strings are ’c’. ’o’. green. the line style and the markers. ’m’. Line style strings are ’-’ for solid. ’y’. which will be used for the next plot.
5 cos(t) 0 -0.5) -1 -3 -2 -1 0 -π ≤ t ≤ π 1 2 3 Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 43 . -0. >> s = cos(t). So the above example could be done with three single plot commands and the hold on command.5. hold off ends the hold on status of a figure window.’This is a note at position (-2. 6.2 Controlling Axes Usually. The axis function overwrites this default by setting custom axis limits. -0.4.5)’) \leq is used to generate the less-equal sign. The hold on command keeps the content of the figure and plots can be added. the hold command is useful. The following example illustrates the use of the functions presented above. >> plot(t. >> axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]).s) >> axis([-pi pi -1 1]) >> xlabel(’-\pi \leq t \leq \pi’) >> ylabel(’cos(t)’) >> title(’The cosine function’) >> text(-2.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System To add further plots to an existing graph. -0. Matlab finds the maxima and minima of the data to be plotted by it and uses them to create an appropriate plot box and axes labeling. >> t = -pi:pi/100:pi. The cosine function 1 0.5 This is a note at position (-2. hold can be used to toggle between on and off.
For example >> for k = 1:10 z(k) = 2 * i. The grid command is used to turn a grid on and off. the while-loop and the if-else-end-structure. predetermined number of times. 6. The for-loop repeats a group of statements a fixed. end >> z z = [ 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 ] It is a good idea to indent the loops for readability. This flow control is based on decision making structures. between for and the end statements are executed one time for every column in array. especially when they are nested.. they are mostly used in M-files (see also 1. >> for l = 1:5 for m = 1:8 H(l. end end Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 44 .12 Example for controlling the axes To take a closer look at an interesting part of a plot. end The commands. Afterwards it is possible to zoom by marking this part with the mouse. the zoom command can be used.5 Flow control Computer programming languages offer possibilities to allow the programmer to control the flow of command execution.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System Figure. Some of the most important structures are the for-loop.m) = 1/(l+m). The general form of a for-loop is >> for x = array commands.. Since the constructions often affect several Matlab commands..6)..
else commands2. Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 45 . between the else and the end statements are executed.. For example >> a = 1..Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System While the for-loop evaluates a group of commands a fixed number of times. >> if a > 0 c = 2*a.. sequences of commands must be conditionally evaluated. >> x = 1:10.. In Matlab this is provided by the if-else-end construction. between the while and the end statements are executed as all elements in expression are true (nonzero).. a while-loop evaluates a group of statements an indefinite number of times. Alternatively the commands2. For example >> a = 5. between the if and the else statements are evaluated if all elements in expression are true (nonzero).. end The commands1... a = a+1. b = 10.. >> if expression commands1. else c = -2*a.. The general form of a while-loop is >> while expression commands. end >> z z = [ 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ] Many times.. end The commands.. >> while (a =< b) z(a) = x(b-a).
However. To suppress this response a concluding semicolon must be entered after the command. and by telling Matlab to open this file. The commands presented in this paper were introduced without a concluding semicolon.: Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 46 .: function [x. e. The use of this editor is very simple and the most important commands can be found in top-down-menus. which do not accept input arguments or return output arguments. e.6 Working with Matlab For simple problems.y. which can accept input arguments and return output arguments. rho) In a Script-file there is no predefined syntax for the first line.g. typing at the Matlab prompt becomes tedious. Another important aspect concerning the work with Matlab should be mentioned here. Matlab allows to place Matlab commands in a simple text file. The first line in a Function-file starts with the keyword function followed by the list of output arguments. Those files are called M-files. or whenever a change of value of one or more variables with a reevaluation is desired. the output argument list must be enclosed in square brackets. To create or edit an M-file in the environment of Linux the command nedit can be used to start a text editor. There are two kinds of M-files: • • Scripts. Sometimes it is much better to avoid this repetition especially in large M-files since a load of information would appear on the screen and the really interesting data might get lost within this load. as the number of commands increases. Internal variables are local to the function.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System end >> c c = 10 6. entering requests at theMatlab prompt in the command window is fast and efficient. Therefore. an equals sign. Functions. If the function has multiple output arguments. the stored commands are evaluated one-by. So entering a new variable causes a repetition of the variable name and its values.z] = cosytrans(theta. The only difference in the syntax of a Script-file and a Function-file is the first line. the name of the function and ending with the list of input variables enclosed in parentheses and separated by commas.g. a response to the commands occurs at the command prompt. The command nedit must be typed at a Linux command window.one as if they were just typed in. phi.
fig1=figure. A1=1. Page 47 . All these methods are discussed in this short tutorial.8 Basic Plotting 6.7. f1=200. generates the same array. Whenever there is a question about Matlab. 6. A2=1.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System >> a = 0:5 leads to the response a=012345 while >> a = 0:5.50] ms in the same figure. but does not display it. f2=50.1 Introduction In Matlab applications it is often necessary to create vectors. By typing help topic the help can be specified. y1=A1*sin(2*pi*f1*t). y2=A2*sin(2*pi*f2*t). is to use the Matlab help command which is a powerful tool searching within a huge data base.8.7 Vector Manipulations 6. 6. A list of the main topics will be listed. A vector is defined containing needed sampling time instants. The second output vector is calculated.. Additionally the cross-references help to find the interesting command with its options. Just type help at the command prompt..1 Plots with basic functionality Plot two sine functions with frequency f1 = 200 Hz and f2 = 50 Hz and amplitudes A1 = 1 V and A2 = 1. A figure is opened and its handle is named ’fig1’. Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Parameter settings. to substitute elements in given vectors. the best way to solve it. T=1e-5. to delete elements of given vectors. Te=5e-2. to append vectors or to insert a given vector into another vector. Use the sampling period T = 10μs. Tst=0. The corresponding m-files are available.5 t=[Tst:T:Te].5 V within the time interval t=[0. The first output vector is calculated.
Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System plot(y1). ’hold’ toggles between ’hold on’ and ’hold off’. axis([Tst. Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 48 . a list of parameters can found in Matlab help. ti=title(’Sine Functions’).7]).y2.and y-axis (syntax like ’hold’). Changes linewidth of first curve.7. for further information type ’help plot’. Plots the second output vector versus input vector.’linewidth’. ylab=ylabel(’y (in V)’).’2’). Displays label on x-axis. Displays title above the figure. axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]) controls axis scaling.’r--’).1. xlab=xlabel(’t (in s)’). Plots the first output vector versus input vector. style (here: dashdot) manually.Te. Since we want to change the appearance of this plot later. plot1=plot(t.’g–’)’ defines color (here: green) and line plot2=plot(t. Note: ’plot(t. Plots the first output vector versus its indices and connects subsequent points with lines. we need to define the handle ’plot1’. The active figure will not be overwritten by the next plot command. grid on. Activates grid of both x.y1). Note: ’hold off’ will deactivate the effect. Displays label on y-axis. set(plot1.. fonttype and fontsize of labels etc. Note: The same syntax can be used to change other parameters like color.y2.-1. hold on.
The figure is divided into ’nr’ rows and ’nc’ columns and the last parameters determines the position of the subfigure (the numbering is row-wise and 1≤counter≤nr*nc).plot2]..1 ‘subplot(nr. same as in 1. Adds legend for the first and second subplot.1.’Fontsize’. f2=50 Hz’). Activates the second subfigure (below the first one).y1). same as in 1.7]). Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 49 . Changes the font size of the title. 6. ylab1=ylabel(’y (in V)’).8. sub1=subplot(211).1 .2). . plot1=plot(t. leg=legend([plot1.13). Displays a legend for the curves with handles ’plot1’ and ’plot2’..Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System set(plot2. f1=200 Hz’..5 V..counter)’ plots a subfigure within the active figure. Changes linewidth of second curve.’linewidth’.’A1=1 V.’2’).’A2=1.’A1=1 V. set(ti. fig1=figure. f1=200. grid on.nc.-1. xlab1=xlabel(’t (in s)’).Te. sub2=subplot(212).2 Plots using ‘subplot’ Plot the same sine functions into two subfigures by using the command ‘subplot’. axis([Tst. set(plot1.’linewidth’. leg1 = legend([plot1].7.
Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System CHAPTER-7 Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 50 .
Lf 1 and Lf 2 : 1. Two ZVT-interleaved boost converters of 1 Kw are connected in parallel via a dc bus through a central inverter of 2 kWto the grid. N = n2 :n1 = 36:18 = 2. and the central inverter can expand the power rate and reduce the system cost. fs : 50 kHz dead time: Δtd1 = Δtd2 = 250 ns. Insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT): FGAF40N60. Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 51 .2 nF. Cs1 and Cs2: 2. a 2-kW prototype of the proposed grid-connected PV power system was built. Sc1 and Sc2 : FQA59N25C. Full-bridge inverter: fs : 20 kHz.1 System Configuration To confirm the theoretical a nalysis in the previous sections. ZVT-interleaved boost converter: Vin : 38–50 V. Llk1 and Llk2: 4 μH. Cc1 and Cc2: 2. Vout : 420 V. Do1 and Do2 : RHRP15120. Cdc: 470 μF × 4.2 μF.2 mH. dead time: 1 μs. Lm1 and Lm2 : 150 μH. The detailed components and parameters used are as follows.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System CHAPTER-7 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 7. S1 and S2 : FQA62N25C. The lower power dc–dc converters are connected respectively to the individual PV arrays.
respectively. far lower than the output voltage 380 V. As shown in Fig. and the total power of the grid-connected PV system can reaches 2 kW. 6(d) shows the experimental waveform of the turn-OFF current of the output diode Do1. Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 52 . shown in Fig. the voltage stress of the main switches is reduced to 170 V. 6(b) and (c). and the low-voltage and high-performance devices can be used to reduce the conduction losses. It is clear that the reverse-recovery current is reduced to a small value. Fig. The errors are induced by the assumptions in modeling. The waveforms of ZVT soft switching of the main switch S1 and clamp switch Sc1 are. the experimental results of the output voltage are compared in Table III. It is clear that the ZVT of the main switches and the auxiliary switches are achieved during the whole switching transition. to verify the proposed steady-state model of the ZVT-interleaved boost converter. 6(a). 7. Meanwhile.5% of the values calculated by the accurate model and the simulation software. It is clear that the experimental error values are within 2. the extreme duty ratio is avoided when the voltage gain is extended. The EMI noise is suppressed significantly. Fig. which reduces the switching losses. and the losses caused by the reverse recovery are reduced greatly.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System Digital controller: TMS320F2808.2 Experimental Results The following experimental results are given at 1 kW power generation of each PV array under a specific temperature and irradiance condition. and the reverserecovery problem is alleviated dramatically by the leakage inductor. improves the efficiency and increases the power density. 6 shows the experimental results of the ZVT-interleaved boost converter at 1 kW when the input voltage is 40V. Furthermore.
9 C o n s t a n t A d d S w it c h S u b t r a c t S w it c h 1 1 z U n it D e la y 1 U n it D e la y 2 1 z Fig-14 subsystem for MPPT Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 53 .3 SIMULATION RESULTS Open loop simulation diagram and results: a m k L Diode m k Pulses a L1 m S G1 Sc1 g D Diode1 PWM Generator Universal Bridge + g A i + +v - G2 g D g D Sc2 g D m S Fo=500Hz S co p e 5 LPF Vin S2 m S S1 m S B R1 C0 C2 R0 Voltage1 +v - C1 NO T NOT 1 NO T NOT2 Voltage S co p e S co p e 1 Discrete. Ts = 5e-007 s.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System 7. powergui Fig-13 open loop simulation diagram Subsystem for MPPT: 1 u e P r o d u c t 2 V p v 1 S c o p e z U n it D e la y 1 V p S w it c h 2 S a t u r a ti o n R e la y S c o p e 1 0 .
Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System Subsystem for PWM: 1 1 In1 >= Scope9 Out1 Saw-tooth waveform >= Scope1 2 Out2 Saw-tooth waveform1 Fig-15 subsystem for PWM Closed loop simulation diagram and results Fig-16-closed loop simulation diagram Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 54 .
Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System WAVE FORM OF PHOTOVOLTAIC VOLTAGE: Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 55 .
to stabilize the dc-bus voltage and shape the output current. and the low current THD and the high dynamic performance are achieved. Two compensation units are added to the system control loops. a simple MPPT method based on power balance is applied in the PV Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 56 . and high voltage gain is obtained by the turns ratio selection of winding-coupled inductors. An accurate steadystate model of the converter is obtained and verified by the simulation and experimental results.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System WAVE FORM OF OUTPUT VOLTAGE AND CURRENT: CONCLUSION This paper presented a grid-connected PV power system with high voltage gain. Furthermore. A full-bridge inverter with bidirectional power flow is used as the second power-processing stage. The proposed PV system employs a high step-up ZVT-interleaved boost converter with windingcoupled inductors and active-clamp circuits as the first power-processing stage.
ADVANTAGES Reduce the system complexity and cost with a high performance High voltage gain Low THD High power factor Fast dynamic response APPLICATIONS Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 57 . A 2-kW prototype is built.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System system and represents a good performance. and experimental results confirm the validity and applicability of the proposed PVsystem.
Q.” IEEE Trans. 1320–1333. 1292– 1306. 23. 2005. S. Kjaer. Pedersen./Oct. May 2008. K. B. vol. J.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System Inverter system can be employed as small-scale distributed generation (DG) systems. which is not less than grid voltage level. Appl. pp. Li and P. a grid-connected PV power system with high voltage gain is proposed. FUTURE SCOPE The scope of this project. and a full-bridge inverter for inverting the dc current into a sinusoidal waveform synchronized with the utility grid. such as residential power applications. The steady-state model analysis and the control strategy of the system are presented.. Power Electron. Blaabjerg. pp. the dc–dc converter is responsible for the MPPT and the dc–ac inverter has the capability of stabilizing the dc-bus voltage to a specific value. Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 58 . Sep. 2. “A review of single-phase grid-connected inverters for photovoltaic modules. Ind. and F. Furthermore. “A review of the single phase photovoltaic module integrated converter topologies with three different DC link configurations. Wolfs. The grid-connected PV system includes two power-processing stages: a high step-up ZVTinterleaved boost converter for boosting a low voltage of PV array up to the high dc-bus voltage. 5. no.. 3. no. REFERENCES 1. 41. vol.” IEEE Trans.
Yu. Jul.. Power Electron. Kojabadi. 693–697. no.782–788. 1995–2000. Q. “A current fed two-inductor boost converter with an in-tegrated magnetic structure and passive lossless snubbers for photovoltaic module integrated converter applications. 4. F. T.. 2002. Agelidis. Lopez. Freijedo. 5.. Gadoura.Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System 3. Kjær. Electron. 2006. Teodorescu.” IEEE Trans. pp. no. vol. 10. pp. R. Borup. Power Elec-tron.” in Proc. “Eliminating ground current in a transformerless photovoltaic applictation. Myrzik. 733–1737. B. and J. Kerekes. and M. Ind. IEEE IAS Conf. 22. Wolfs. and U. Doval-Gandoy.. 9. 2007. no. vol. 45. J. B. pp. Mar. 1998. 2007. J. Malesani. Power Electron. Oct. Sanchis.. 2. 7. P. “Transformerless photovoltaic inverters connected to the grid.. IEEE PES Conf. Pedersen. K.” in Proc. IEEE APEC Conf. 5. 309–321. IEEE PESC. Lopez.” in Proc. pp. M. Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 59 . and V. 4. “Current control techniques for three-phase Voltage-Source PWM converters: A survey. S. pp. and F. 6. 1–5. 2002. Chang. R. 985– 993.” IEEE Trans. 22. G.. “Power inverter topologies for photovoltaic modules—A review. Blaabjerg.” in Proc. Li and P. Jan.” IEEE Trans. Gonzalez. A. T. 8. “Transformerless inverter for single-phase photovoltaic systems. 4. Marroyo. vol. vol. no. 21. P. Kazmierkowski and L. Calais. 1. “Inverters for single-phase grid connected photovoltaic systems—An overview. 691–703.” IEEE Trans. 2007. vol. M. R. M. pp. I. L. Teodorescu. and L. Ghribi. J. H. Spooner. O. “A novel DSP-based current-controlled PWM strategy for single phase grid connected inverters. 2007.
” Patent DE 102 004 030 912 B3. German Patent. Ind.” Berlin. 2003. Electron. 13. 55. 2005. Nagrath and M. Control Systems Engineering – by I. Gonzalez. 3rd edition. R. 2007. ISBN: 978-3-8007-3003-2. and L. 3. 7. Modern Control Engineering – by Katsuhiko Ogata – Prentice Hall of India Pvt. “H5-topology. Dec. Marroyo. “HERIC-topology. German Patent.” Patent DE 10 221 592 A1. 4.” Patent WO/2007/077031. New Age International (P) Limited. “Transformerless single-phase multilevel-based photovoltaic inverter. 14. Publishers. 1998. 606 pp. 2005 National Electrical Code. Lopez. Jul. E.L. J. Ltd. Jul. High voltage engineering by C. Haeberlin. Germany: VDE Publishing House. 2008. MA. vol. 19. 2006. no. 2694–2702. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. 2nd eidition. 12. 12. pp. “Photovoltaik. Gubia. H. (in German).Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System 11. Gopal.Wadhwa. 16.” IEEE Trans. J... International Patent. 15. 2. Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 60 . Jan. “Circuit arrangement having a twin inductor for converting a DC voltage into an AC voltage or an alternating current. Quincy. National Fire Protection Association.
Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System Ramappa Engineering College Department of EEE Page 61 .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.