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# 6HULL GH GLVWULEX LH D IUHFYHQ HORU

## SERII SIMPLE (date negrupate)

0 ULPL PHGLL

0HGLD DULWPHWLF 0HGLD QLYHOXULORU DULWPHWLF LORU HVWH UH]XOWDWXO VLQWHWL] ULL SULQ vQWU R VLQJXU YDORULL H[SUHVLH WRWDOL]DWH QXPHULF D FDUDF D WXWXURU

LQGLYLGXDOH

REVHUYDWH

RE LQXW

UDSRUWDUHD

teristicii la

## QXP UXO WRWDO DO XQLW

x=

xi
i =1

n
QLYHOXULOH LQGLYLGXDOH DOH YDULDELOHL

unde: xi

UHSUH]LQW

x
i =1

UHSUH]LQW UHSUH]LQW

observate.

3URSULHW

a) b) c) d)

GDF

## x1=x2=...=xi=...=xn=xc , x min < x < x max

n i =1 i

atunci

x = xc

(x
GDF

x) = 0

x= xi # a , atunci x = x # a , de unde x = x a

e)

## xi x , atunci x = , de unde x = x h , h h respectiv :

GDF

x" =

GDF

x" = xi h , atunci x = x h

, de unde x =

x h

## Formule de calcul simplificat al mediei aritmetice:

a n n xi i =1 h x= h sau n n xi a h i =1 x= h+ a n
i =1
0HGLD DUPRQLF

x=

(x

# a)

x=

(x h)
i =1 i

:h

0HGLD S WUDWLF

0HGLD DUPRQLF

GLQ YDORULOH

(x p )

xp =

x
i =1

2 i

x g UHSUH]LQW

xg = n

x
i =1
n i =1

lg x g =

lg x
n

## xh < xg < xa < x p

9DORUL PHGLL GH SR]L LH VDX GH VWUXFWXU UHSUH]LQW YDORDUHD FHQWUDO D XQHL VHULL VWDWLVWLFH RUGRQDWH FUHVF WRU VDX

## GHVFUHVF WRU FDUH vPSDUWH WHUPHQLL VHULHL vQ GRX

n +1 unde n UHSUH]LQW 2

S U L HJDOH

## QXP UXO WHUPHQLORU VHULHL

Valoarea medianei: GDF QXP UXO WHUPHQLORU VHULHL HVWH LPSDU n=2p+1):

Me = x p + 1
x p + x p +1 2

n=2p):

Me =

Modul (Mo)

## FXQRVFXW vQ OLWHUDWXUD GH VSHFLDOLWDWH L VXE GHQXPLUHD GH

dominanta seriei.

a)

## Amplitudinea abVROXW (Aa minim (xmin) al caracteristicii: Aa = xmax - xmin

\$PSOLWXGLQHD UHODWLY YDULD LHL L QLYHOXO PHGLX DO FDUDF

xmax

L QLYHOXO

D YDULD LHL

A% teristicii:

VH FDOFXOHD]

## FD UDSRUW vQWUH DPSOLWXGLQHD DEVROXW

A% =

Aa 100 x
VH FDOFXOHD] FD GLIHUHQ vQWUH ILHFDUH YDULDQW D DFHVWRUD

vQUHJLVWUDW

## Abaterile individuale absolute (di)

L PHGLD DULWPHWLF

d i = xi x

i = 1, n
VH FDOFXOHD] UDSRUWkQG DE

## Abaterile individuale relative (di%) mediu al caracteristicii: d x x d i % = i 100 = i 100 x x altul. b)

,QGLFDWRULL VLQWHWLFL DL YDULD LHL

## aterile absolute la nivelul

i = 1, n

Q DQDOL]D YDULD LHL GH PXOWH RUL QH OLPLW P OD D FDOFXOD DEDWHULOH PD[LPH vQWU

\$EDWHUHD

PHGLH

OLQLDU

(d )

VH

FDOFXOHD]

FD

PHGLH

DULWPHWLF

VLPSO

GLQ

DEDWHULOH

d=

x
i =1

\$EDWHUHD PHGLH S

WUDWLF

## sau abaterea standard ( )

VH FDOFXOHD]

FD R PHGLH S WUDWLF

din

(x
i =1

x)2

n
UHOD LD

>d

FODU

GH

Dispersia

YDULDQ D

XQHL

FDUDFWHULVWLFL

( 2 )

VH

FDOFXOHD]

FD

PHGLH

DULWPHWLF

VLPSO

GH PHGLD ORU

## Formulele de calcul sunt:

2 =

(x
i =1

x)

sau

n x xi 2 = i =1 i =1 n n
n 2 i

&RHILFLHQWXO GH YDULD LH

(v

VH FDOFXOHD]

L QLYHOXO

mediu al seriei:

v=

UHOD LD

## ,( 81,',0(16,21\$/( GDWH JUXSDWH

,QGLFDWRUL GH IUHFYHQ H

UHODWLYH

( ni*

VH

RE LQ

UDSRUWkQG

IUHFYHQ D

ILHF UHL

JUXSH

ni) la totalul

( ni ) :
i =1

ni* =

ni

n
i =1

sau
i

ni*(%) =

ni

n
i =1

100
i

FX

Fi sau Fi*

## calcul (absolute sau relative):

F i = n j ; i = 1 , 2 , 3 ,..., k ;
j =1
0 ULPL PHGLL

respectiv

F i* = n * j ; i = 1 , 2 , 3 ,... k ;
j =1

## 0HGLD DULWPHWLF &DOFXOXO FX IUHFYHQ H DEVROXWH

x=

xi ni
i =1

ni
i =1
3URSULHW PHGLD L VH vQFDGUHD] vQ LQWHUYDOXO FX IUHFYHQ D PD[LP VDX vQ XQXO GLQ FHOH GRX

a) b)

intervale nvecinate.

(x
i =1
GDF

x ) ni = 0

c)

x = xi # a , atunci x =

( xi
i =1 k i =1

# a )ni = x#a

ni
k

d)

GDF

x =

xi , atunci x = h

xi ni i =1 h

n
i =1

x h

UHVSHFWLY GDF

x = xi h , atunci x =
SXQFWHOH

(x
i =1
OD

h) ni
i

n
i =1

= hx

3URSULHW 6H XWLOL]HD]

LOH

GH OD

F L G VHUYHVF

## vQ DFHVW VFRS IRUPXOHOH

x=

(xi
i =1 k i =1

# a )n i a

ni
x= xi ni i =1 h
k

ni
i =1

, respectiv

x=

( x i h )n i
i =1

ni
i =1

x=

xi a ni h i =1
k

ni
i =1

h + a ,

unde: a - mijlocul unui intHUYDO GH RELFHL FHQWUXO LQWHUYDOXOXL FX IUHFYHQ D FHD PDL PDUH h - P ULPHD LQWHUYDOXOXL GDF VHULD DUH LQWHUYDOH GH YDULD LH HJDOH e)
GDF vQWU R VHULH VH UHGXF SURSRU LRQDO WRDWH IUHFYHQ HOH PHGLD FDOFXODW

SH ED]D QRLORU

## IUHFYHQ H U PkQH QHVFKLPEDW

x
\$FHDVW

ni c =x ni c
i

n acest caz c = ni :

SURSULHWDWH

VHUYHWH

OD

FDOFXOXO

PHGLHL

FX

DMXWRUXO

IUHFYHQ HORU

UHODWLYH

x = xi ni* sau x =
0HGLD DUPRQLF

x n
i

* i (%)

100

## &DOFXOXO FX IUHFYHQ H DEVROXWH

xh =

n
i =1

x
i =1
k

1
i

ni
100 1 * ni (%) i =1 xi
k

## &DOFXOXO FX IUHFYHQ H UHODWLYH

xh =

1 1 * ni i =1 xi

sau

xh =

)RUP

WUDQVIRUPDW

D PHGLHL DULWPHWLFH

## &DOFXOXO FX IUHFYHQ H DEVROXWH

xh =

x n
i =1 i k

1 xi ni i =1 xi
1 1 xi ni* i =1 x i
k

=x

## &DOFXOXO FX IUHFYHQ H UHODWLYH

xh =

sau

xh =

100 1 xi ni*(%) i =1 xi
k

0HGLD S

WUDWLF

xp =

x
i =1 k i =1

2 i

ni
i

xp =

x
i =1

2 i

ni*

sau

xp =

x
i =1

2 i

ni*(%)

100

0HGLD JHRPHWULF

xg =

ni
i =1

i =1
i

x in i

## Prin lRJDULWPDUH VH YD RE LQH

lg x g =

n
i =1

lg x i
i
XUP WRDUH UHOD LH GH RUGLQH

n
i =1

## Modul (modulul, dominanta)

Q FD]XO XQHL VHULL GH GLVWULEX LH SH YDULDQWH PRGXO HVWH YDULDQWD FX IUHFYHQ D PD[LP  Q FD]XO JUXS ULL SH LQWHUYDOH ORFXO PRGXOXL HVWH LQWHUYDOXO FX IUHFYHQ D PD[LP VH FDOFXOHD] DVWIHO LDU YDORDUHD

Mo = x0 + h
n care: x0 h 1 2 UHSUH]LQW P U

1 1 + 2
OLPLWD LQIHULRDU D LQWHUYDOXOXL PRGDO

## imea intervalului modal;

GLIHUHQ D GLQWUH IUHFYHQ D LQWHUYDOXOXL PRGDO L D FHOXL SUHFHGHQW GLIHUHQ D GLQWUH IUHFYHQ D LQWHUYDOXOXL PRGDO L D FHOXL XUP WRU

## Mediana (Me) a) n cazul datelor grupate pH

FXPXODW YDULDQWH

## n +1 iar valoarea medianei este chiar varianta 2

ORFXO

PHGLDQHL

HVWH

YDULDQWD

F UHL

IUHFYHQ

UHVSHFWLY 

b)

Q FD]XO GDWHORU JUXSDWH SH LQWHUYDOH ORFXO PHGLDQHL HVWH LQWHUYDOXO D F UXL IUHFYHQ

FXPXODW

## HVWH SULPD PDL PDUH GHFkW

n
i =1

+1
 LDU YDORDUHD PHGLDQHL VH FDOFXOHD] GXS

formula:

n
i =1

+1

Me = x0 + h

2 nm

ni
i =1

m 1

unde: h m

n
i =1

m 1

- P ULPHD LQWHUYDOXOXL PHGLDQ - indexul intervalului median; - VXPD IUHFYHQ HORU SUHFHGHQWH LQWHUYDOXOXL a intervalului precedent celui median); IUHFYHQ D DEVROXW D LQWHUYDOXOXL PHGLDQ

PHGLDQ

IUHFYHQ D

FXPXODW

nm

1

Q1 = x0 + h

( ni + 1) ni
i =1 i =1

u 1

nu

## unde u HVWH LQGH[XO LQWHUYDOXOXL FDUH FRQ LQH Q1

Q2 = Me

Q3 = x 0 + h

( ni + 1) ni
i =1 i =1

v 1

nv

unde v HVWH LQGH[XO LQWHUYDOXOXL FDUH FRQ LQH Q3 Decilele GLYLG VHULD vQ ]HFH S
1
k
U L HJDOH IRORVLQG vQ DFHVW VFRS QRX GHFLOH

D1 = x0 + h

10

( ni + 1) ni
i =1 i =1

d 11

nd 1

9

D9 = x 0 + h

10

( n i + 1)
i =1

d 9 1 i =1

nd 9

a)

## ,QGLFDWRULL VLPSOL DL YDULD LHL

\$PSOLWXGLQHD DEVROXW

(Aa)

## Aa=xL-xl , unde: xL liPLWD VXSHULRDU xl OLPLWD LQIHULRDU

D XOWLPXOXL LQWHUYDO D SULPXOXL LQWHUYDO D YDULD LHL

\$PSOLWXGLQHD UHODWLY

A%)

A% =

Aa 100 x

b)

(d ) lute:

d =

x
i =1

x ni
i

n
i =1 k

## &DOFXOXO FX IUHFYHQ H UHODWLYH

d = xi x n sau d =
i =1 * i
\$EDWHUHD PHGLH S WUDWLF

x
i =1

x n * i (%) 100

(x
i =1

i k

x ) 2 ni
i

n
i =1

(x
i =1

x ) 2 n *i

sau

(x
i =1

x ) 2 ni (%) 100

## &HL GRL LQGLFDWRUL YHULILF

UHOD LD

>d
&RHILFLHQWXO GH YDULD LH

(v):
v = d 100 x

v=

100 , respectiv x

2 =

(x
i =1

i k

x ) 2 ni
i

n
i =1
k

## FDOFXOXO FX IUHFYHQ H UHODWLYH

2 = ( xi x ) 2 n * i
i =1

sau

2 =

(x
i =1

## FDOFXOXO FX IUHFYHQ H UHODWLYH

k x ni xi ni = i =1k i =1k ni ni i =1 i =1
k 2 i

k k 2 = x 2 i ni* xi ni* i =1 i =1

sau

2 =

xi2 ni*(%)
i =1

100

k xi ni*(%) i =1 100

## prin formula de calcul simplificat

SHQWUX R VHULH GH IUHFYHQ H DEVROXWH

xi a ni h i =1 2 = h 2 ( x a) 2 k ni
k 2 i =1

k 2

1RW

## &RUHF LD OXL 6KHSSDUG

( 2 ) = 2
unde h
\$FHDVW

HVWH P ULPHD LQWHUYDOXOXL GH JUXSDUH FRUHF LH VH DSOLF QXPDL SHQWUX VHULLOH FDUH SUH]LQW VDX XRU DVLPHWULF  XUP WRDUHOH SURSULHW L

h2 , 12

## UHSDUWL LD DUH LQWHUYDOH GH JUXSDUH HJDOH

9DULD LD LQWHUFXDUWLOLF

L LQWHUGHFLOLF

\$EDWHUHD LQWHUFXDWLOLF

## CoeILFLHQWXO GH YDULD LH LQWHUFXDUWLOLF Q3 Q1 Qd Q Q1 2 Vq = = = 3 Me Me 2 Me

\$EDWHUHD LQWHUGHFLOLF

9T

: ( Me D1 ) + ( D9 Me) D9 D1 Dd = = 2 2

## &RHILFLHQWXO GH YDULD LH LQWHUGHFLOLF

: D9 D1 D D D1 2 Vd = d = = 9 Me Me 2 Me

0HGLD L GLVSHUVLD FDUDFWHULVWLFLL DOWHUQDWLYH 'LVWULEX LD GH IUHFYHQ H D FDUDFWHULVWLFLL DOWHUQDWLYH VH SUH]LQW vQWU

## -un tabel de forma:

Tabel 3.1.

Valoarea caracteristicii 0 x1 = 1

VSXQVXO

nregistrat 1 DA

)UHFYHQ H DEVROXWH

)UHFYHQ H UHODWLYH

2 M
QXP UXO XQLW FDUH SRVHG LORU

p=

## caracteristica) (N-M) x2 = 0 Total NU

QXP UXO GH XQLW FDUH QX SRVHG L

M N

q=

caracteristica) N = M + (N - M)

NM = 1 p N
p+q=1

Media:
p= M N

Dispersia:
2 2 p = p q sau p = p (1 p )

\$EDWHUHD PHGLH S

WUDWLF

p = pq

Asimetria
\$VLPHWULD DEVROXW

&RHILFLHQ LL GH DVLPHWULH SURSXL GH .DUO 3HDUVRQ SHQWUX VHULL GH GLVWULEX LH XRU DVLPHWULFH

( As ) As = x Mo

C as

C as = 0 x Mo = C as > 0 C as < 0

## Acest coeficient poate lua valori cuprinse ntre -

DEVROXW FX DWkW DVLPHWULD HVWH PDL PLF 

## +1; cu ct este mai mic n valoare

) se poate calcula (C as

Q FD]XO FkQG VH FXQRDWH PHGLDQD VHULHL FRHILFLHQWXO GH DVLPHWULH XWLOL]kQG UHOD LD

= C as
IRUPDW

3( x Me)

## GLQWU XQ QXP U IRDUWH PDUH GH REVHUYD LL

= C as

2 3 3 2

3 = , unde 2 =

( xi x ) 3 ni ni ( xi x ) 2 ni ni
=
2

Coeficientul propus de Yule: (Q Me) ( Me Q1 ) C asY = 3 , (Q3 Me) + ( Me Q1 ) unde C asY [ 1 , 1 ] Coeficientul propus de Bowley: ( D Me) ( Me D1 ) C asB = 9 , ( D9 Me) + ( Me D1 ) unde C asB [ 1,1]

,QGLFDWRULL FRQFHQWU

ULL

g
xi ni
k

2 i

i = 1, k ,

gi =

xi ni
i = 1

,1 . n

CS =

n g i2 1

,( %,',0(16,1\$/(

VH SUH]LQW

vQWU

Tabel 3.2.

## Valorile caracteristicii de grupare X x1 x2 ... xi ... xr Total

Variantele sau valorile caracteristicii dependente Y y1 n11 n21 ... ni1 ... nr1 n.1 y2 n12 n22 ... ni2 ... nr2 n.2 ... yj n1j n2j ... nij ... nrj n.j ym n1m n2m ... nim ... nrm n.m

i =1

Medii pe grupe
(y i )
(y1 ) (y 2 )

...
(y i )

...
(yr )
m

ni. = n. j
j =1

## 9ROXPXO IUHFYHQ D JUXSHL

i:

n
j =1
0

ij

= ni .

ULPL PHGLL

0HGLLOH GH JUXS

( y i ):

yi =

y
j =1 m j =1

nij
ij

Media pe total:

y j n. j
y=
j =1

n. j
j =1
,QGLFDWRULL YDULD LHL

sau

y=

yi ni .
i =1

ni .
i =1

'LVSHUVLD GH JUXS

## sau GLVSHUVLD SDU LDO ( i2 ) :

=
2 i

(y
i =1

y i ) 2 nij
,
ij

n
j =1

unde: yj UHSUH]LQW YDULDQWD VDX PLMORFXO LQWHUYDOXOXL j al caracteristicii dependente; y i media grupei i; nij IUHFYHQ HOH FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH ILHF UHL YDULDQWH LQWHUYDO GH YDORUL GLQ FDGUXO JUXSei.

( 2 = 2 ) y/r

i2 n i .
i =1

ni .
i =1

## ): Dispersia dintre grupe ( 2 = 2 y/ x

2 y/ x

( y i
i =1 r

y ) 2 ni .

ni .
i =1
m

2 ): DisSHUVLD WRWDO ( 2 = y

2 2 = y =

(y
j =1

j m

y ) 2 n. j
.j

n
j =1

5HJXOD DGXQ

ULL GLVSHUVLLORU

=
2

2 y/x

2 y/r

## Pe baza regulii de adunare a dispersiilor se pot calcula indicatori statistici cu caracter de

P ULPL UHODWLYH GH VWUXFWXU

2 Ry /x =
'DF

(R y / x ) ! 

2 y /x 100 2

DGPLWHP F

## SHQWUX YDULD LD IDFWRUXOXL GHWHUPLQDW

Y).

*UDGXO GH QHGHWHUPLQD LH

2 Ky /x =

2 y/r

100
WUDWLF OD QLYHOXO JUXSHL

\$EDWHUHD PHGLH S

i = i2
\$EDWHUHD PHGLH S WUDWLF SH WRWDO

= 2
&RHILFLHQWXO GH YDULD LH OD QLYHOXO JUXSHL

vi =

i 100 , yi

WUDWLF

D JUXSHL

v=

100 , y

WUDWLF

SH WRWDO

ve
VH SUH]LQW vQWU

## -un tabel de forma:

Tabel 3.3.

Valorile caracteristicii de grupare X x1 x2 ... xi ... xr Total y1 n*11 n*21 ... n*i1 ... n*r1

)UHFYHQ H UHODWLYH

Total (%) ym n*1m n*2m ... n*im ... n*rm 100 100 ... 100 ... 100

Ponderea grupei (ni(%)) n1(%) n2(%) ... ni(%) ... nr(%) 100

## yj n*1j n*2j ... n*ij ... n*rj

0HGLLOH GH JUXS

( y i ):

yi =

y
j =1

n * ij

100

Media pe total:

y i n i (%)
y=
i =1

100
VDX GLVSHUVLD SDU LDO

'LVSHUVLD GH JUXS

( i2 ) :

i2 =

( y j
i =1

y i ) 2 n * ij 100
(
2

2 y/r

i2 n i (%)

i =1

100
2

## Dispersia dintre grupe (

2 y/x

):

( y i

2 y/x

y ) 2 n i (%) 100

=
2

i =1

'LVSHUVLD WRWDO

(
2 y

=
2

2 y

):
2

## ,QGLFDWRULL PHGLL L DL YDULD LHL SHQWUX FDUDFWHULVWLFL DOWHUQDWLYH

'LVSHUVLD GH JUXS

( 2 pi ):
i

2 2 p = p i q i sau p = p i (1 p i ) ,
i

## n care: pi - UHSUH]LQW PHGLL GH JUXS  qi - IUHFYHQ HOH UHODWLYH DOH XQLW

0HGLD GLVSHUVLLORU SDU LDOH

## FDUDFWHULVWLFD vQ ILHFDUH JUXS 

2 ( p ):

=
2 p

i =1 r i =1

2 pi

Ni

,
i
QXP UXO WRWDO DO XQLW LORU REVHUYDWH vQ ILHFDUH JUXS 

n care Ni UHSUH]LQW

p2 =

(p
i =1

i r

p) 2 N i

N
i =1

,
i

## n care p este media caracteristicii alternative pe ntreaga colectivitate.

'LVSHUVLD WRWDO

( 2 p):

2 p = pq
5HJXOD DGXQ

dispersiilor: = + p2
2 p 2 p

ULL

## 9HULILFDUHD VHPQLILFD LHL IDFWRUXOXL GH JUXSDUH IRORVLQG WHVWXO )

Fcalculat =
unde:
2 Sy /x = r

2 Sy /x 2 Sy /r

(y
i =1
r m

y ) ni .
2

2 Sy /r =

(y
i =1 j =1

r 1
j

(r - QXP
2

UXO GH JUXSH

y i ) nij

nr

> Ftabelar factorul de grupare este semnificativ < Ftabelar factorul de grupare nu este semnificativ Ftabelar VH GHWHUPLQ vQ IXQF ie de un anumit nivel de semnifica gradele de libertate f1=r-1 L f2=n-r.
'DF )calculat

'DF

)calculat

LH GH H[HPSOX  L GH

PROBLEME REZOLVATE

ntr-un magazLQ OXFUHD]  YkQ] WRUL FDUH vQ OXQD RFWRPEULH  DX UHDOL]DW XQ YROXP desfacerilor (mil. lei) astfel: 138,8; 146,0; 150,0; 152,3; 158,2; 163,1; 165,0; 170,4; 176,2; 180,0. Se cere: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
V V V V V V VH IRUPH]H VHULD SULYLQG YROXPXO GHVIDFHULORU SULQ FHQWUDOL]DU VH FDOFXOH]H L V YROXPXO PHGLX DO GHVIDFHULORU GLQ DFHVW VH YHULILFH SULQFLSDOHOH SURSULHW HOH ID GH PHGLD DULWPHWLF  L DOH DFHVWHLD VH DUDWH vQ FH U

1.

DO

ea datelor individuale;
IRORVLQG PHGLD

PDJD]LQ

DULWPHWLF

VH IRORVHDVF

## SHQWUX DFHHDL VHULH L DOWH WLSXUL GH PHGLL L V

aport de

P ULPH VH DIO

VH FDOFXOH]H LQGLFDWRULL PHGLL GH SR]L LH PHGLL GH VWUXFWXU  VH FDUDFWHUL]H]H JUDGXO GH YDULD LH DO GLVWULEX LHL FDOFXOkQG vQ DFHVW VFRS LQGLFDWRULL

## VLPSOL L VLQWHWLFL DL YDULD LHL SUHFXP L VH UHSUH]LQWH JUDILF VHULD

Rezolvare 1.
6HULD VH IRUPHD] SULQ RUGRQDUHD YDORULORU YH]L WDEHOXO  FRORDQHOH  L  

x
i =1

x
i =1

10

L DOH DFHVWHLD

2.

se poate

## face cu ajutorul unui tabel de calcul (Vezi tabelul 3.4.).

&DOFXOXO PHGLHL DULWPHWLFH VLPSOH L YHULILFDUHD SULQFLSDOHORU SURSULHW L

Tabelul 3.4. Volumul desfacerilor (mil. lei) 1 138,8 146,0 150,0 152,3 158,2 163,1 165,0 170,4 176,2 180,0 1600,0

Nr.crt. A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total

xi x
2 -21,2 -14,0 -10,0 -7,7 -1,8 +3,1 +5,0 +10,4 +16,2 +20,0 0

xi a
a = 138,8 3 0 7,2 11,2 13,5 19,4 24,3 26,2 31,6 37,4 41,2 212

xi ; h = 20 h
4 6,94 7,3 7,5 7,615 7,91 8,155 8,25 8,52 8,01 9,0 80

x
i =1

10

(x
i =1

10

x)

(x
i =1

10

a)

h
i =1

10

xi

2.1. Calculul mediei aritmetice simple (vezi coloana 1 din tabelul 3.4.): xi = 1600 = 160 PLO OHLYkQ] WRU x= n 10 2.2. 9HULILFDUHD SULQFLSDOHORU SURSULHW a) x min < x < x max 138,8 < x < 180 b)
L DOH PHGLHL DULWPHWLFH

x ) = 0 (vezi tabelul 3.4., coloana 2) Media fiind un ct exact, suma abaterilor pozitive s-a compensat cu suma abaterilor negative:(-54,7) + (54,7) = 0
i

(x
x
i =1 n

c)

= n x

d) x =

## = x a n Alegnd arbitrar a = 138,8 - primul termen - L FDOFXOkQG

i =1
 VH RE LQH

(x

a)
YDORULOH

xi - a (vezi tabelul

x =

(x
i =1

a) =

WRU

h n xi = x h

##  PLO OHLYkQ] WRU

e)

/XkQG DUELWUDU XQ K

##  YH]L WDEHOXO  FRORDQD  VH RE LQH

x =

xi = 80 =8 10
PLO OHLYkQ] WRU

n x = x h x = 8 20 = 160

## (x ) (vezi tabelul 3.5., coloana 3):

p
PLO OHLYkQ] WRU

xp = n

2 i

## &DOFXOXO PHGLHL DUPRQLFH S

WUDWLFH L JHRPHWULFH

Tabelul 3.5. Volumul desfacerilor (mil. lei) 1 138,8 146,0 150,0 152,3 158,2 163,1 165,0 170,4 176,2 180,0 1600,0

## Nr. crt. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total

1 xi
2 0,0072046 0,0068000 0,0066670 0,0065659 0,0063211 0,0061312 0,0060606 0,0058685 0,0056753 0,0055550 0,0628986

xi2
3 19265,44 21316,00 22500,00 23195,29 25027,24 26601,61 27225,00 29036,16 31046,44 32400,0 257613,18

lg xi
4 2,14239 2,16425 2,17605 2,18270 2,19921 2,21245 2,21748 2,23045 2,24601 2,25527 22,02640

3.2. Calculul mediei armonice ( x h ) (vezi tabelul 3.5., coloana 2) n 10 xh = = = 158,98 PLOOHLYkQ] WRU 1 0,0628986 x i xh < x ; 158,98 < 160,0 Deci: x h < x < x p 3.3. Calculul mediei geometrice ( x g ) (vezi tabelul 3.5., coloana 4):

xg = n
lg x g =

xi ;
i =1

lg x g =

lg x
i =1

## 22,02640 2,20264 10 antilog 2,20264 = 159,5 => x g =  PLOOHL YkQ]

Deci: x g < x a ; x a = x = 160,0 159,5 < 160

WRU

## 5HFDSLWXOkQG YDORULOH PHGLLORU RE LQXWH DYHP PLOOHLYkQ] WRU WRU

x p =160,5 PLOOHLYkQ]

WRU WRU

x h = 158,98 PLOOHLYkQ]
5HOD LD GLQWUH PHGLL HVWH

x g = 159,50 PLOOHLYkQ]

xh < xg < xa < x p 158,98 < 159,5 < 160 < 160.5
\$EDWHULOH vQWUH FHOH SDWUX P ULPL PHGLL ILLQG IRDUWH PLFL VH SRDWH WUDJH FRQFOX]LD F DFHDVW VHULH RULFH PHGLH V DU IRORVL HD P VRDU SHQWUX VXILFLHQW GH FRUHFW WHQGLQ D FHQWUDO L GHFL PHGLD

4.

## locul medianei: U ( Me) =

n + 1 10 + 1 = = 5,5 2 2

## valoarea medianei: x + x 6 158,2 + 163,1 Me = 5 = = 160,65 mil. lei 2 2

L QHDYkQG WHUPHQL FDUH V VH UHSHWH QX HVWH FD]XO

## 4.2. Calculul modului

)LLQG VHULH VLPSO

4.3. Calculul cuartilelor Calculul cuartilelor presupune stabilirea locului cuartilelor U(Q2 L DSRL FDOFXODUHD YDORULORU lor:

U (Q1 ) =
Q1 =

n + 1 11 = = 2,75 4 4

## Q 2 = M e = 160 , 65 mil. lei

U (Q3 ) =
Q3 =

3(n + 1) = 8,25 4

## Potrivit celor trei cuartile, seria se poate structura astfel:

6WUXFWXUD VHULHL vQ IXQF LH GH YDORULOH FHORU WUHL FXDUWLOH

Tabelul 3.6.
,QWHUYDO GH YDULD LH

5.

## PenWUX FDOFXOXO LQGLFDWRULORU GH YDULD LH VH IRORVHWH WDEHOXO 

&DOFXOXO LQGLFDWRULORU GH YDULD LH

## Tabelul 3.7. Nr. crt. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

xi
1 138,8 146,0 150,0 152,3 158,2 163,1 165,0 170,4 176,2 180,0 1600,0
n i =1 i

xi x
2 21,2 14,0 10,0 7,7 1,8 3,1 5,0 10,4 16,2 20,0 109,4

(xi x )2
3 449,44 196,00 100,00 59,29 3,24 9,61 25,0 108,16 262,44 400,00 1613,18

xi2
4 19265,44 21316,00 22500,00 23195,24 25027,24 26601,61 27225,00 29036,16 31046,44 32400,00 257613,18
2

xi x x

100

5 - 13,25 - 8,75 - 6,25 - 4,81 - 1,13 1,94 3,13 6,50 10,13 12,50

xi x

(xi x )
i =1

## \$PSOLWXGLQHD YDULD LHL

Aa = xmax - xmin =180-138,8 = 41,2 mil. lei x x min 41,2 A% = max = 100 = 25,75% x 160

Abaterile absolute DOH ILHF UHL YDULDELOH ID GH PHGLH di): d i = xi x (vezi tabelul 3.7., coloana 2) Abaterile relative (di(%)) x x d i (%) = i 100 (vezi tabelul 3.7., coloana 5) x

(d )
x

dx =

x
i =1

x =

109,4 = 10,94 10

## PLO OHLYkQ] WRU

2 x ) VH FDOFXOHD] Dispersia (

## FX GDWHOH GLQ WDEHOXO  FRORDQD

3:

2 x =

(x
i =1

x)

1613,18 = 161,318 10

## 'LVSHUVLD VH PDL SRDWH FDOFXOD L FX IRUPXOD

x2 n Datele necesare VH J VHVF vQ WDEHOXO  FRORDQHOH  L  257613,18 2 x = 160 2 = 161,318 10 Deci s-D DMXQV OD DFHODL UH]XOWDW
i =1

2 x =

2 i

\$EDWHUHD PHGLH S

WUDWLF

x =

(xi x )2
n

sH FDOFXOHD]

## H[WU JkQG U G FLQD S WUDW

din dispersie:
2 x = x = 161,318 = 12,70
PLO OHLYkQ] WRU

&RHILFLHQ LL GH YDULD LH

(v, v) dx 10 , 94 v = 100 = 100 = 6 , 84% x 160 x 12 , 70 100 = 100 = 7 , 84% v= x 160 v' L v    GHFL VH SRDWH DILUPD F VHULD DUH XQ JUDG PDUH GH RPRJHQLWDWH L PHGLD
HVWH UHSUH]HQWDWLY SHQWUX vQWUHDJD VHULH

6.
UDGLDO

5HSUH]HQWDUHD JUDILF

Q DFHVW FD] YDULD LD QHILLQG FRQWLQX  VH SRDWH IRORVL XQ JUDILF SULQ FRORDQH L R GLDJUDP FX ]HFH UD]H YH]L ILJXULOH  L  

200

mil. lei

## 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 138,8 146 150

152,3

158,2 163,1

165

173,4 176,2

180

10

)LJXUD  5HSDUWL LD VDODULD LORU vQ IXQF LH GH YROXPXO GHVIDFHULORU PLO OHL

7 6

## de volumul desfacerilor (mil. lei)

2.
3HQWUX R VRFLHWDWH FRPHUFLDO VH FXQRVF XUP WRDUHOH GDWH SULYLWRU OD YHFKLPHD vQ SURGXF LH vQVFULVH vQ WDEHOXO  GDWH FRQYHQ LRQDOH 
5HSDUWL LD VDODULD LORU GLQWU R VHF LH GXS

YHFKLPH

## Tabelul 3.8. Grupe dH VDODULD L

GXS YHFKLPH DQL 1XP UXO VDODULD LORU

Sub 5 10

5-10 40

10-15 60

15-20 80

20-25 50

25-30 30

30-35 20

 L

peste 10

Se cere: 1. UHSUH]HQWDUHD JUDILF D VHULHL IRORVLQG IUHFYHQ HOH UHDOH L FHOH FXPXODWH 2. vechimea medie a muncitorilor prin caOFXOXO PHGLHL DULWPHWLFH FX IUHFYHQ H
UHODWLYH L SULQ FDOFXOXO VLPSOLILFDW VSHFLILFkQG FH SURSULHW DEVROXWH

## OD ED]D FDOFXOXOXL PHGLHL DULWPHWLFH FX IUHFYHQ H UHODWLYH L SULQ FDOFXOXO VLPSOLILFDW

3. LQGLFDWRULL PHGLL GH SR]L ie; 4. LQGLFDWRULL VLPSOL L VLQWHWLFL DL YDULD LHL 5. indicatorii de asimetrie; 6. PHGLD L GLVSHUVLD SHQWUX PXQFLWRULL cu o vechime mai mare dect vechimea medie.

Rezolvare 1.
5HSUH]HQWDUHD JUDILF D VHULHL

3.3.);

## D IUHFYHQ HORU YH]L ILJXUD  

90 80 70

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 vechime (ani)
)LJXUD  'LVWULEX LD VDODULD LORU vQ IXQF LH GH YHFKLPH

350
U VDODULD L QXP

## 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

vechime (ani)
)LJXUD  'LVWULEX LD VDODULD LORU vQ IXQF LH GH YHFKLPH

2. Calculul vechimii medii n acest scop se vor folosi datele din tabelul 3.9.
Tabelul 3.9. Grupe de
VDODULD L GXS 1XP UXO VDODULD LORU

vechime (ani) 0 0-5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 Total

## abs. (ni) 1 10 40 60 80 50 30 20 10 300

n i*( % )

Centrul de interval (xi) 3 2,5 7,5 12,5 17,5 22,5 27,5 32,5 37,5 -

xi ni
4 25 300 750 1400 1125 825 650 375 5450

x i n i*( % )
5 8,325 99,975 250,000 466,725 375,075 275,000 216,775 124,875 1816,75

xi a h
a=17,5 h=5 6 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 -

xi a ni h
7 -30 -80 -60 0 50 60 60 40 40

)UHFYHQ H

ni
i =1

n i*( % )
i =1

xi ni
i =1

xi ni* (%)
i =1

i =1

xi a ni h

x=

xi ni
i =1

ni
i =1

## IUHFYHQ HORU UHODWLYH

x=

x i n i*( % )
i =1

100

18 , 2 ani/salariat
SH SURSULHWDWHD

## &DOFXOXO PHGLHL IRORVLQG IUHFYHQWHOH UHODWLYH VH ED]HD]

n xi i k c i =1 = x ; n acest caz = c ni k ni i =1 i =1 c 2.2. Calculul simplificat al mediei aritmetice: k xi a h ni 40 i =1 x= h + a = 5 + 17 , 5 = 18 , 1667 18 , 2 ani/salariat k 300 ni
i =1

SURSULHW

## L DOH PHGLHL DULWPHWLFH L

(x
i =1 k

i k

a ) ni
i

n
i =1

= x a ,

de unde:

x= xi

(x
i =1

i k

a ) ni
i

n
i =1

+ a;

x =

xi ni i =1 h

n
i =1

x , de unde: h

x=

hn
i =1 k

n
i =1

&kQG VXQW LQWHUYDOH HJDOH HVWH FRQYHQDELO V IUHFYHQ D PD[LP  DGLF DGLF

## se ia a egal cu centrul intervalului cu

R YDORDUH HJDO FX P ULPHD LQWHUYDOHORU

L SHQWUX

3.

## 3.1. &DOFXOXO PHGLDQHL 0H L D FHORUODOWH PHGLL GH SR]L LH:

FX IUHFYHQ H DEVROXWH

U ( Me) =

n
i =1

+1 =

300 + 1 = 150,5 , 2

deci

15 < Me < 20

n
i =1

+1

Me = x 0 + h

2 nm

ni
i =1

m 1

= 15 + 5

U (Q1 ) =

n
i =1

+1 =

10< Q1 <15

## 3 k v 1 n i + 1 n i 4 i =1 i =1 = 20 + 5 225,75 190 = 23,525 ani Q3 = x 0 + h nv 50

FX IUHFYHQ H UHODWLYH

U ( Me ) =

n *(
i =1
i

+1 =

2
k

100 + 1 = 50 , 5 , 2

deci

15 < Me < 20

n i*( % ) + 1
i =1

Me = x 0 + h

n *i ( % )
i =1

m 1

* nm (%

= 15 + 5

50 , 5 36 , 66 = 17 , 59 ani 26 , 67

U ( Q1 ) =

n *(
i =1

i %

+1 =

101 = 25 , 25 , 2

deci

10 < Q1 < 15

Q1 = x 0 + h

u 1 * 1 k * n n + 1 i (% ) i( % ) 4 i =1 i =1
* nu (%

= 10 + 5

25 , 25 16 , 66 = 12 , 148 ani 20

Q 2 = M e = 17 , 59 ani

U ( Q3 ) =

3 3 k * = 101 = 75 , 75 , n + 1 i( % ) 4 i = 1 4
v 1 3 k * n i ( % ) + 1 n i*( % ) 4 i =1 i =1
* nv (%

deci

20 < Q3 < 25

Q3 = x0 + h

= 20 + 5

75 , 75 63 , 33 = 23 , 725 ani 16 , 67

'LIHUHQ HOH GLQWUH LQGLFDWRULL FDOFXOD L FX IUHFYHQ H DEVROXWH L FHL FX IUHFYHQ H UHODWLYH VXQW QHVHPQLILFDWLYH L SURYLQ GLQ URWXQMLUHD IUHFYHQ HORU UHODWLYH

## 3.2. Calculul modului (Mo):

FX IUHFYHQ H DEVROXWH



Mo < 20.

## cu frecven H UHODWLYH 1 26,67 20 Mo = x 0 + h = 15 + 5 = 17,27 ani 1 + 2 (26,67 20) + (26,67 16,67)

9DORULOH WHQGLQ HL FHQWUDOH FRQVLGHUDWH FD P ULPL WLSLFH FH GHILQHVF DFHDVW VHULH SHQWUX

## x =18,2 ani; Me=17,5 ani; Mo=17 ani.

4. Calculul indicatorilor GH YDULD LH (vezi tabelul 3.10.). 4.1. Calculul indicatorilor simpli
Q DFHVW FD] QX VXQW FRQFOXGHQ L

4.2. Calculul indicatorilor sintetici \$EDWHUHD PHGLH OLQLDU d i ) VH RE LQH GLQ vQVXPDUHD YDORULORU GLQ FRORDQD  YH]L WDEHOXO 3 I U V VH LQ VHDPD GH VHPQ dx =

x
i =1

i k

x ni
i

n
i =1

2 x =

(x
i =1

x ) ni
2 k i

n
i =1

## 20367 = 67,89 300

calculul simplificat:
xi a ni h 820 i =1 2 x = h 2 ( x a) 2 = 25 (18,2 17,5) 2 = 67,84 k 300 ni
k 2 i =1

x)

## 2 x = x = 67,84 = 8,2 ani/salariat

&RHILFLHQ LL GH YDULD LH

v L v)

GDF

GDF

v=

## Interpretnd valoarea coeficientului de YDULD LH VH SRDWH DILUPD F

UHSUH]HQWDWLY  FD XUPDUH D IDSWXOXL F V DSDU LQ WR L VDODULD LL HUD GH DWHSWDW FD YHFKLPHD PHGLH V DLE OD vQWUHJXO LQWHUYDO GH YDULD LH D YHFKLPLL

## PHGLD QX HVWH VXILFLHQW GH

VHULD QX HVWH VXILFLHQW GH RPRJHQ  'H DOWIHO ILLQG YRUED GH R GLVSHUVLH PDUH VDODULD LL vQ DQVDPEOX

l lor

## Tabelul 3.10. Grupe de

VDODULD L GXS 1XP UXO

## muncitorilor abs. (ni) 1 10 40 60 80 50 30 20 10 300

vechime (ani) 0 0-5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 Total

n i* ( %

Centrul de interval (xi) 3 2,5 7,5 12,5 17,5 22,5 27,5 32,5 37,5 -

xi x

(xi x ) ni

(xi x )2 .ni
a = 17,5 h=5

xi a ni h
2

## 4 -15,7 -10,7 -5,7 -0,7 4,3 9,3 14,3 19,3 -

ni
i =1
'HRDUHFH

n i*( % )
i =1
QX HVWH XQ FkW

5 -157 -428 -342 -56 215 279 286 193 -10 1) (xi x ) ni

(x

i

x ) .ni
2
QX

## 7 90 160 60 0 60 120 180 160 820

xi a ni h i =1
k 2
SURSULHWDWHD

1)

(xi x ) ni = 0 . 'LIHUHQ D ILLQG IRDUWH PLF -10), rotunjirea medie ntr-R P VXU IRDUWH PLF P ULPHD FHORUODO L LQGLFDWRUL
5. Calculul indicatorilor de asimetrie

PHGLD

H[DFW

IRVW

URWXQMLW 

YHULILF

QX YD LQIOXHQ D GHFkW

(Cas

L &as L

Yule:
C as =

= C as

## 3( x Me) 3(18,2 17,5) = = 0,256 x 8,2

AS =

q 2 q1 , q 2 + q1

unde

## q1 = 17,5 12,125 = 5,375 q2 = 33,575 17,5 = 6,075

AS = 6,075 5,375 = 0,061 6,075 + 5,375
R DVLPHWULH PRGHUDW SR]LWLY 

## &HL WUHL LQGLFDWRUL GH DVLPHWULH FDOFXOD L LQGLF

6. 0HGLD L GLVSHUVLD FDUDFWHULVWicii alternative Media (p) M p= , N unde: M QXP UXO PXQFLWRULORU FX R YHFKLPH ! x = 18,2 ani; M =110; N QXP UXO WRWDO DO PXQFLWRULORU 1  M 110 p= = = 0,3667 N 300 Dispersia ( 2 p)

## 2 p = p (1 p ) = 0,3667(1 0,3667) = 0,2322

3.
ntr-R VRFLHWDWH FRPHUFLDO s-DX RE LQXW XUP WRDUHOH GDWH
 FDUH DUH  GH PXQFLWRUL V D RUJDQL]DW R REVHUYDUH VWDWLVWLF

EXF

## Tabelul 3.11. Grupe de muncitori

GXS SURGXF LD RE LQXW EXF 1XP U PXQFLWRUL

## Sub 120 120-140 140-160 160-180 180-200 200-220 220-240

 L SHVWH

Total

10 18 23 38 51 40 15 5 200

## 5HSDUWL LD PXQFLWRULORU vQ IXQF LH GH YHFKLPH DQL

Tabelul 3.12. Grupe de muncitori GXS YHFKLPH (ani) Sub 2 2-4 4-8 8-12 12-18 18-24
 L SHVWH

Structura muncitorilor
vQ IXQF LH GH YHFKLPH

Total

## 4,2 8,5 12,9 30,2 26,2 10,2 7,8 100,0

Se cere: 1. 2.
V V VH FDUDFWHUL]H]H VWDWLVWLF FHOH GRX VH SUHFL]H]H GXS VHULL IRORVLQG PHWRGD JUDILF  LQGLFDWRULL WHQGLQ HL FHQWUDOH PHGLLOH GH VWUXFWXU  LQGLFDWRULL GH YDULD LH L VRFLHW LL FRPHUFLDOH UHVSHFWLYH

asimetrie;
FROHFWLYLWDWHD GH PXQFLWRUL DL

## FDUH GLQ YDULDELOH HVWH PDL RPRJHQ

Rezolvare 1.
6HULD SULYLQG UHSDUWL LD PXQFLWRULORU vQ IXQF LH GH SURGXF LD LQGLYLGXDO FX IUHFYHQ H DEVROXWH L HVWH JUXSDW 3HQWUX FDUDFWHUL]DUHD VWDWLVWLF SH  LQWHUYDOH GH YDULD LH HJDOH HVWH SUH]HQWDW

D DFHVWHL VHULL GH IUHFYHQ H VH YD IDFH UHSUH]HQWDUHD JUDILF D IUHFYHQ HORU YH]L ILJ  L  IRORVLQG FRO L

## SULQ KLVWRJUDP  SROLJRQXO L FXUED FXPXODWLY

7 din tabelul 3.13. Graficul de concentrare se face analog cu cel din figura 1.4. (vezi capitolul 1).

60

51
50

38
0 1 2( %) '& (' %&
40 30

40

23 18 15 5

20

10
10 0 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280

  ! "# \$

## )LJXUD  'LVWULEX LD PXQFLWRULORU vQ IXQF LH GH SURGXF LD ]LOQLF

EXF

225 200 175 nr. muncitori 150 125 100 75 50 25 0 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260
SURGXF LD EXF

## )LJXUD  'LVWULEX LD PXQFLWRULORU vQ IXQF LH GH SURGXF LD ]LOQLF

EXF

)LLQG LQWHUYDOH HJDOH SHQWUX PHGLH L GLVSHUVLH VH YRU XWLOL]D IRUPXOHOH GH FDOFXO VLPSOLILFDW

x=

xi a h i =1
k

ni

ni
i =1

h + a ,

respectiv

xi a ni h i =1 2 x = h 2 ( x a) 2 k ni
k 2 i =1

## Pentru calculul indicatorilor se va folosi tabelul 3.13.

&DOFXOXO LQGLFDWRULORU FDUH FDUDFWHUL]HD] vQ IXQF LH GH P UHSDUWL LD FHORU  GH PXQFLWRUL ULPHD SURGXF LHL ]LOQLFH RE LQXWH

## Tabelul 3.13. Grupe de muncitori

GXS SURGXF LD RE LQXW 1XP U

muncitori (ni)

## Centre de interval (xi)

xi a h
a=190 h=20 3 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

2 xi x x a ni i ni h h

)UHFYHQ H FXPXODWH

&UHVF

WRU

DescresF WRU

## (buc.) 0 sub 120 120-140 140-160 160-180 180-200 200-220 220-240

 L SHVWH

Total

1 10 18 23 38 51 40 15 5 200

x=

2 x

v=

## x 33,28 100 = 100 = 18,42% x 180,7

PHGLD HVWH UHSUH]HQWDWLY

3H ED]D FRHILFLHQWXOXL GH YDULD LH VH SRDWH WUDJH FRQFOX]LD F   FHHD FH vQVHDPQ vQ DFHODL WLPS F

pentru cele mai multe valori individuale ale serieL GHRDUHFH DP RE LQXW XQ FRHILFLHQW PLF GH YDULD LH
GDWHOH VXQW GHVWXO GH RPRJHQH vQWUH HOH 'LQ DFHODL WDEHO VH SRW FDOFXOD L FHLODO L GRL LQGLFDWRUL DL WHQGLQ HL FHQWUDOH YDORDUH PRGDO L YDORDUH PHGLDQ  ,QWHUYDOXO FX IUHFYHQ PD[LP  FXSULQGH L PRGXO

Mo = x 0 + h

EXF

## Locul medianei n serie:

U ( Me) =

n
i =1

+1 =

200 + 1 = 100,5 2

Q LQWHUYDOXO DO FLQFLOHD VXPD IUHFYHQ HORU FXPXODWH HVWH PDL PDUH GHFkW ORFXO PHGLDQHL vQ

seULH DGLF

## 180 < Me < 200

n
i =1

+1

Me = x 0 + h
Deci, x , Me
UHOD LD L

2 nm

ni
i =1

m 1

= 180 + 20

100,5 89 = 184,5 51

EXF

Mo

L SXWHP YHULILFD

## x -Mo = 180,7-190,83 =-10,13

QVHDPQ F SHQWUX VHULD QRDVWU  FX R GLIHUHQ QHVHPQLILFDWLY  VH YHULILF UHOD LD GLQWUH FHL WUHL LQGLFDWRUL DL WHQGLQ HL FHQWUDOH H[LVWHQW vQ FD]XO UHSDUWL LLORU PRGHUDW DVLPHWULFH

## Pentru stabilirea gradului de asimetrie vom avea: C as = ( x Mo )

=

180 , 7 190 , 83 10 , 13 = = 0 , 30 33 , 28 33 , 28

= C as

## 3( x Me) 3(180,7 184,5) 11,4 = = = 0,34 x 33,28 33,28

AS =

q 2 q1 , q 2 + q1

unde

q1=Me - Q1;

q2 =Q3 Me

U (Q1 ) =

n
i =1

+1 =

201 = 50,25 4

## 140 < Q1 < 160

1 k u 1 n i + 1 n i 4 i =1 i =1 = 140 + 20 50,25 28 = 159,34 Q1 = x0 + h nu 23

EXF

U (Q3 ) =

3 k 3 ni + 1 = 201 = 150,75 4 i =1 4

## 200 < Q3 < 220

3 k v 1 n i + 1 n i 4 i =1 i =1 = 200 + 20 150,75 140 = 205,375 Q3 = x 0 + h nv 40

EXF

## q1 = 184,5-159,34 = 25,16 q2 = 205,375-184,5 = 20,875

AS = 20,875 25,16 = 0,093 20,875 + 25,16
RE LQXW YDORUL QHJDWLYH UHODWLY PLFL SHQWUX FRHILFLHQ LL GH DVLPHWULH YDORULOH PDL PDUL L FD DWDUH LQGLFDWRULL WHQGLQ HL FHQWUDOH VXQW PDL DEDWHUL QHJDWLYH vQ FRPSDUD LH FX FHL FDUH SUH]LQW SUHGRPLQ

## n toate cazurile s-DX

FHHD FH vQVHDPQ F

## abateri pozitive ( x < Me < Mo). 2.

6HULD SULYLQG UHSDUWL LD PXQFLWRULORU GXS YHFKLPH HVWH SH LQWHUYDOH QHHJDOH L FX IUHFYHQ H UHODWLYH 3HQWUX UHSUH]HQWDUHD JUDILF HVWH QHFHVDU V VH IDF R VHULH GH FDOFXOH SUHJ WLWRDUH

*UXSH GXS

vechime (ani)

## Structura muncitorilor (n*i(%))

ULPHD

5DSRUWXO ID

GH

)UHFYHQ H

)UHFYHQ H

intervalulu i (hi)

primul interval

reduse

h Ki = i h1
3 1,0 1,0 2,0 2,0 3,0 3,0 3,0 15

n i* (%) Ki
4 4,2 8,5 6,5 15,1 8,7 3,4 2,6 -

relative cumulate
FUHVF

- descresF WRU

## 1 4,2 8,5 12,9 30,2 26,2 10,2 7,8 100

2 2 2 4 4 6 6 6 -

## Folosind datele din tabelul 3.14. se constituie: histograma, polLJRQXO

FXPXODWLY YH]L ILJ  L  

8,5 12,9

30,2

26,2

10,2 7,8

12

16

20

24

28

32

vechime (ani)

## structura muncitorilor (%)

100 80 60 40 20 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

vechime (ani)

## )vJXUD  5HSDUWL LD PXQFLWRULORU vQ IXQF LH GH YHFKLPH

L vQ DFHVW FD] WUHEXLH FDOFXOD L LQGLFDWRULL FDUH FDUDFWHUL]HD] VLPSOLILFDW 'H UHJXO  VH RSWHD] QXPDL SHQWUX IRORVLUHD XQHL

## VHULH )LLQG GH FDOFXO L

LQWHUYDOH QHHJDOH WUHEXLH FDOFXODWH FHQWUHOH GH LQWHUYDO L DSRL VH YD DSOLFD R IRUPXO VLQJXUH PLFRUDUHD WHUPHQLORU FX R FRQVWDQW

bazate pe

## a" (vezi tabelul 3.15.).

ntr-o serie cu intervale neegale Tabelul 3.15.

## &DOFXOXO LQGLFDWRULORU WHQGLQ HL FHQWUDOH D PHGLLORU GH SR]L LH L D LQGLFDWRULORU GH YDULD LH

)UHFYHQ

Intervale
GH YDULD LH

reODWLY (n
* i (%) )

Centrul intervalului ( xi ) 2 1 3 6 10 15 21 27 -

(xi - a) a = 10 3 -9 -7 -4 0 5 11 17 -

( xi a ) ni*(%) ( xi a ) 2 ni*(%)
4 -37,8 -59,5 -51,6 0 31 112,2 132,6 226,9 5 340,2 416,5 206,4 0 655 1234,3 2554,2 5113,5

)UHFYHQ H UHODWLYH

(x x=

2 x

a ) ni*(%) 100

## 226,9 + 10 12,3 ani/muncitor 100

( x a )2 = 5113 , 5 ( 12 , 3 10 ) 2 = 45 , 84 100

(xi =

a ) 2 n i*(%) 100

v=

## x 6,77 100 = 100 = 55% x 12,3

8 < Mo < 12
Mo = x 0 + h 1 (30,2 12,9) =8+4 = 11,25 ani 1 + 2 (30,2 12,9) + (30,2 26,2)

## Locul medianei n serie:

U ( Me) =

n
i =1

+1 =

100 + 1 = 50,5 2

8 <Me < 12

n*
i =1

i (%)

+1

Me = x 0 + h

2 n
*
m

n *i (%)
i =1

m 1

=8+4

50 , 5 26 , 6 30 , 2

= 11 , 298 ani

(% )

U (Q1 ) =

101 = 25,25 4

4 < Q1 <8

Q1 = 4 + 4

## 25,25 12,7 = 7,89 ani 12,9

Q 2 = M e = 11 , 298 ani
U (Q3 ) = 3 101 = 75,75 4

12 < Q3 < 18
Q3 = 12 + 6 75,75 55,8 = 16,568 ani 26,2

C as =

( x Mo) 12,3 11,25 = = 0,155 6,77 x 3( x Me) 3(12,3 11,298) = = 0,44 x 6,77

= C as

## q1 = Me-Q1=11,298 7,89 = 3,488 q2 = Q3 Me = 16,568 11,298 = 5,27

AS = q 2 q1 5,2 3,488 = = 0,203 q 2 + q1 25,2 + 3,488
F VHULD DUH FDUDFWHU QHRPRJHQ GHRDUHFH FRHILFLHQWXO GH VLWXD LH HUD GH DWHSWDW VHULD DYkQG  5HIHULQGX QH OD YHFKLPH DFHDVW

## \$QDOL]kQG UH]XOWDWHOH VH FRQVWDW YDULD LH WRWDO HVWH GH 

LQWHUYDOH QHHJDOH GH YDULD LH L IUHFYHQ HOH GLVWULEXLQGX &DOFXOkQG FRHILFLHQ LL GH DVLPHWULH VH FRQVWDW Q ILQDO VH SRDWH VSXQH F RPRJHQ  FDUDFWHUL]DW vQWUHSULQGHUHD UHVSHFWLY

## -se neuniform. R DVLPHWULH spre valorile mici (Mo < Me < x ).

L HVWH PXOW PDL vQ PRG FRUHFW vQ WUDJHP FRQFOX]LD F

## VHULD SULYLQG GLVWULEX LD SURGXF LHL vQ EXF

GH LQGLFDWRUL FX YDORUL PLFL SHQWUX YDULD LH L DVLPHWULH L HVWH QHRPRJHQ SURGXF LLOH LQGLYLGXDOH RE LQXWH QX GHSLQG vQ SULQFLSDO GH YHFKLPH FL GH

SHQWUX VHULD SULYLQG YHFKLPHD PHGLH FHHD FH QH SHUPLWH V DO L IDFWRUL HVHQ LDOL VSHFLILFL

4.
SULQ XQLW

ntr-R

## GHVWLQDW YkQ] ULL LL PXQFLL

LOH SURSULL GDWHOH QHFHVDUH GHWHUPLQ ULL QLYHOXOXL PHGLX DO SURGXFWLYLW GH WLPS GH PXQF

consumului specific

## FKHOWXLHOLOH WRWDOH GH WLPS GH PXQF

zi UHSUH]LQW

yi 

'DWHOH VH SUH]LQW

(xi) L DO

vQ FDUH

YDULDELOH

## Tabelul 3.16. Produs Nivelul

SURGXFWLYLW LL

Consumul specific de timp Cheltuielile GH PXQF RUH-om la 1000 lei totale de timp
SURGXF LH GH PXQF

muncii orare
PLL OHLRU

(yi)

(xi) A A B C Total 1 10,0 6,25 7,47 8,65 2 0,100 0,160 0,134 0,116

## (mii ore-om) (zi) 3 11624 6444 100 18168

Se cere: 1. calculul nivelului mediu al SURGXFWLYLW LL PXQFLL ( w = x ); 2. FDOFXOXO FRQVXPXOXL PHGLX GH WLPS GH PXQF ( t = y ). 1RW  V VH VSHFLILFH FH IHO GH PHGLL V-DX XWLOL]DW L GH FH "

Rezolvare
'DF FHOH GRX FDUDFWHULVWLFL VXQW FRQVLGHUDWH LQWHUGHSHQGHQWH vQWUH HOH VH SXQH SUREOHPD SURSRU LRQDOLWDWH L DOHJHULL FHOXL PDL SRWULYLW WLS GH PHGLH SHQWUX D S VWUD DFHHDL UHOD LH GH LQYHUV vQWUH P ULPLOH PHGLL FDOFXODWH QWUH FHOH GRX YDULDELOH DSDU UHOD LLOH

xi =

(n ).
xi yi
QLYHOXULORU

1 yi

SHQWUX

FDUH

VH

YD

RE LQH

UHSDUWL LH

SURGXFWLYLW

LL

PXQFLL

HVWH

IRUPDW

GLQ

GDWHOH

## -a doua sHULH GH GLVWULEX LH - D FRQVXPXULORU VSHFLILFH GH WLPS GH PXQF

VHULL DX DFHOHDL SRQGHUL YDULDELOH L vQWUH P ULPLOH IRORVL PHGLD DULWPHWLF QXP UXO WRWDO GH RP PHGLX DO

## SHQWUX DPEHOH FDUDFWHULVWLFL DGLF PHGLL SHQWUX FDOFXOXO QLYHOXOXL

-ore lucrate.
LL PXQFLL YRP VH YD DSOLFD PHGLD DUPRQLF

1.

LL PXQFLL

w=x=

x n
i =1 k i

xi yi

n
i =1

xi yi

2.

## &DOFXOXO FRQVXPXOXL PHGLX GH WLPS GH PXQF

t =y=

n
i =1

xi y i

y
i =1

1
i

n xi yi

18168 = 0,116 ore-om/1000 lei 1 1 1 11624 + 6444 + 100 0,10 0,16 0,134
PHGLL vQ PLL OHL

## 9HULILFDUHD UHOD LHL GLQWUH FHOH GRX

1 x= ; y
'LIHUHQ D PHGLD DULWPHWLF SRDWH FkQG VH

1 = 8,62; 0,116
SURYHQL GLQ URWXQMLUHD FDOFXOXOXL IUHFYHQ 'HFL L QX PHGLD DUPRQLF SRDWH 8Q VXEVWLWXL DVWIHO GH FXQRVF SURGXVHOH GH IUHFYHQ HOH ,QGLFL  UHDOH

5.

Tabelul 3.17.

6XEJUXSH GH YkQ]

WRUL GXS

YROXPXO YkQ]

## ULORU PLO OHL

Grupe GH YkQ]
GXS

WRUL

YHFKLPH DQL

sub 190 1 5 5

190-200 2 15 12 27

200-210 3 5 35 7 47

210-220 4 8 15 23

220
L SHVWH

Total 6 25 55 30 110

A sub 10 10-20
 L SHVWH

5 8 8

Total

Se cere: 1. 2.
SROLJRQXO IUHFYHQ HORU SULYLQG UHSDUWL LD YkQ] WRULORU GXS YROXPXO YkQ] ULORU SH WRWDO L

pe grupe de vechime;
UHSUH]HQWDUHD JUDILF JUDILFXO SULQ S WUDW D QXP UXOXL YkQ] WRULORU GXS YHFKLPH SH FHOH

## trei grupe, folosind

3. calculul mediiloU SH JUXSH GH YHFKLPH L SH WRWDO 4. LQGLFDWRULL VLQWHWLFL DL YDULD LHL SH ILHFDUH JUXS L SH WRWDO 5. LQWHUSUHWDUHD JUDGXOXL GH RPRJHQLWDWH SH JUXSH L SH WRWDO 6. verificarea regulii de adunare a dispersiilor; 7. ce indicatori statistici se pot calcula pe baza UHJXOLL GH DGXQDUH
LQWHUSUHWHD] VWDWLVWLF DFHWL LQGLFDWRUL YkQ]

D GLVSHUVLLORU L FXP VH

8.

## WRUL FDUH VH DIO

SHVWH

Rezolvare 1.
5HSUH]HQWDUHD JUDILF D GLVWULEX LHL YkQ] WRULORU ILJXULOH  L  

50 45
WRUL 1XP U YkQ]

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 170 180
9ROXPXO YkQ] ULORU PLO OHL

190

200

210

220

230

240

## WRULORU vQWU XQ FRPSOH[ FRPHUFLDO GXS

YROXPXO GHVIDFHULORU

50 45
WRUL

## Total gr. I gr. II gr. III

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

1XP

U YkQ]

170

180

9ROXPXO YkQ]

190

200

210

220

230

240

WRULORU GXS

## YROXPXO GHVIDFHULL SH WRWDO L SH JUXSH GH YHFKLPH

2.

5HSUH]HQWDUHD JUDILF

D QXP

UXOXL YkQ]

WRULORU GXS

YHFKLPH

## (vezi figura 3.11.).

Scara: 1 cm = 2 persoane

55 25 30

sub 10 ani
)LJXUD  1XP

10-20 ani
UXO GH YkQ]

 DQL L SHVWH

yi =

y n
j =1 j

ij

n
j =1

ij

y1 =

y2 =
y3 =

## 195 12 + 205 35 + 215 8 = 204,27 55

205 7 + 215 15 + 225 8 = 215,33 30

PHGLD JHQHUDO

(y ):
j

independent:
y=

y n
j =1 j

n
j =1

y=
-

y n
i =1 r i

n
i =1

y=

4.

## &DOFXOXO LQGLFDWRULORU VLQWHWLFL DL YDULD LHL GLVSHUVLLOH GH JUXS

( ): m ( y j y i )2 n ij
2 i

i2 =

j =1

n ij
j =1

12 =

2 2 =

2 = 3

(205 - 215,33

)2

= 49 , 89

( ):
2

2 =

i =1 r i =1

2 i

ni
i

n
r

( y i
i =1 r

y ) n i
2

n i
i =1

## ( 195 205 , 18 ) 2 25 + ( 204 , 27 205 , 18 ) 2 55 + ( 215 , 33 205 , 18 ) 2 30 110

= 52 , 06

GLVSHUVLD WRWDO

( ): m ( y j y )2 n j
2

=
2

j =1

n j
j =1

110

110

= 92, 69

## 5. Aprecierea gradului de omRJHQLWDWH SH JUXSH L SH WRWDO

&DOFXOXO FRHILFLHQ LORU GH YDULD LH

pe grupe

1 = 12 = 40 = 6,32
v1 =

## 1 6,32 100 = 100 = 3,24% y1 195

PLO OHLYkQ] WRU

2 2 = 2 = 35,83 = 5,98

v2 =

## 2 5,98 100 = 100 = 2,93% y2 204,27

PLO OHLYkQ] WRU

3 = 32 = 49,89 = 7,06
v3 =

## 3 7,06 100 = 100 = 3,18% y3 215,33

pe total

= 2 = 92,69 = 9,62
v=

## 9,62 100 = 100 = 4,69% y 205,18

F  GHFkW FROHFWLYLWDWHD JHQHUDO GLQ FDUH D IRVW

OXDW

## grupD D GRXD HVWH PDL RPRJHQ

JUDG GH RPRJHQLWDWH ULGLFDW

## GHFkW FHOHODOWH GRX  L SH WRWDO DWHVW L GHFL XQ JUDG XQ GH

YDORULOH PLFL DOH FRHILFLHQ LORU GH YDULD LH FDOFXOD L SH ILHFDUH JUXS DO JUXSHORU L FROHFWLYLW LL WRWDOH

## 6. Verificarea regulii de adunare a dispersiilor 2 = 2 + 2 92,69 = 52,06 + 40,63 7.

3H ED]D UHJXOLL GH DGXQDUH D GLVSHUVLLORU VH SRW FDOFXOD DO L GRL LQGLFDWRUL VWDWLVWLFL

*UDGXO GH GHWHUPLQD LH

2 ( Ry /x )

2 Ry /x =

## 2 52,06 100 = 100 = 56,16% 2 92,69

2 (Ky /x )

*UDGXO GH QHGHWHUPLQD LH

2 Ky /x =
6H

## 40,63 2 100 = 100 = 43,84% 2 92,69

F  GLQ YDULD LD WRWDO D YROXPXOXL YkQ] ULORU HVWH H[SOLFDW GH

SRDWH DILUPD

2 Ry > x

50%), restul

## D FHORUODO L IDFWRUL QHvQUHJLVWUD L

8.
*

&DOFXOXO

LQWHUSUHWDUHD

GLVSHUVLLORU

SHQWUX

YkQ]

WRULL

FDUH

VH

DIO

SHVWH

YROXPXO

PHGLX DO YkQ]

ULORU SH WRWDO

"

Calculul mediilor

PHGLLOH SH JUXS

: wi =

mi , ni

de unde: 0 w1 = =0 25 8 w2 = = 0,1455 55
w3 = 23 = 0,7667 30

media pe total: w =

m 31 = = 0,2818 n 110

Calculul dispersiilor

GLVSHUVLLOH GH JUXS

2 w = wi ( 1 w ),
i i

de unde:
2 w = w 1 (1 w 1 ) = 0 (1 0 ) = 0
1

2 w

3

2 ( w ):

=
2 w

i =1 r i =1

2 wi

ni
i

n (w
i =1 r

=
2 w

w ) ni
2 r i

n
i =1

110

110

## 2 w = w( 1 w) = 0,2818 ( 1 0,2818 ) = 0,2023

L vQ FD]XO FDUDFWHULVWLFLL DOWHUQDWLYH

2 dispersia total ( w ):

## = + 0,2023 = 0,1109 + 0,0914

2 w 2 w 2 w

3HQWUX XQ DJHQW HFRQRPLF FH GHVI RDU WUHL DFWLYLW L V-au nregistrat datele privind veniturile salariale ale personalului pentru luna mai 2001 (vezi tabelul 3.18.).

6.

## 5HSDUWL LD VDODULD LORU SH DFWLYLW

L vQ IXQF LH GH P

## ULPHD YHQLWXULORU VDODULDOH vQ OXQD PDL 

Tabelul 3.18.
vQ ID GH WRWDOXO JUXSHL

Grupe duS VDODULL (zeci mii lei) A sub 250 250 - 270 270 - 290 290 - 310 310 - 330 330 - 350 350 - 370  L Seste Total

Activitatea I 1 10 12 25 28 15 10 100

Activitatea II 2 20 35 20 15 10 100

## 1XP UXO GH VDODULD L D vQUHJLVWUDW XUP WRDUHD VWUXFWXU  DFWLYLWDWHD O

- 20%; activitatea II -

- 

L DFWLYLWDWHD ,,,

- 30%.

Se cere: 1. 2. 3.
V V V VH DSOLFH UHJXOD GH DGXQDUH D GLVSHUVLLORU L V VH VSHFLILFH GDF IDFWRUXO G

e grupare

## este semnificativ sau nu;

VH DUDWH JUDGXO GH RPRJHQLWDWH SH FHOH WUHL DFWLYLW L L SH WRWDO L V VH LQWHUSUHWH]H UH]XOWDWHOH RE LQXWH SHQWUX FDUDFWHUL]DUHD YDULD LHL VH FDOFXOH]H QXP UXO GH VDODULD L IUHFYHQ HOH DEVROXWH WLLQG F SH WRWDO QXP UXO ORU D IRVW GH  L V VH YHULILFH SH ED]D IUHFYHQ HORU DEVROXWH GLVSHUVLD WRWDO 

Rezolvare 1.
)LLQG LQWHUYDOH HJDOH PHGLLOH L GLVSHUVLLOH VH SRW GHWHUPLQD FX IRUPXOHOH GH FDOFXO VLPSOLILFDW FX IUHFYHQ H UHODWLYH

abaterea

## Tabelul 3.19. Grupe GXS salarii (zeci mii lei) Structura

VDODULD LORU

(n

* 1 j (%)

Centrul de interval

(y )
j

yj a h
a = 300 h = 20 3 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 -

yj a * h n1 j (%)
4 -30 -24 -25 0 15 20 -44

yj a * h n1 j (%)
2

## A 230-250 250-270 270-290 290-310 310-330 330-350 Total

1 10 12 25 28 15 10 100

## 2 240 260 280 300 320 340 -

5 90 48 25 0 15 40 218

y1 =

## 44 20 + 300 = 291,200 zeci mii lei/salariat 100

218 2 20 2 (291,2 300 ) = 794,56 100

12 =

## 1 = 794,56 = 28,187 zeci mii lei/salariat

v1 = 28,187 100 = 9,68% 291,2

## 1.2. Pentru activitatea II (vezi calculele n tabelul 3.20.)

&DOFXOXO PHGLHL L GLVSHUVLHL VDODULLORU SHQWUX DFWLYLWDWHD D ,,,

-a

Tabelul 3.20.
*UXSH GXS

Structura
VDODULD LORU

## salarii (zeci mii lei)

(n

* 2 j (%)

Centrul de interval

(y )
j

yj a h
a = 300 h = 20 3 -1 0 1 2 3 -

y j a h

* n2

j (%)

y j a h

* n2

j (%)

## A 270-290 290-310 310-330 330-350 350-370 Total

1 20 35 20 15 10 100

## 2 280 300 320 340 360 -

4 -20 0 20 30 30 60

5 20 0 20 60 90 190

y2 =

 OH

i/salariat

2 2 =

## 2 = 616 = 24,82 zeci mii lei/salariat

v2 = 24,82 100 = 7,95% 312

## 1.3. Pentru activitatea a III-a vezi calculele n tabelul 3.21.

&DOFXOXO PHGLHL L GLVSHUVLHL VDODULLORU SHQWUX DFWLYLWDWHD D 

-a Tabelul 3.21.

*UXSH GXS

Structura
VDODULD LORU

## salarii (zeci mii lei)

(n

* 3 j (%)

Centrul de interval

(y )
j

yj a h
a = 300 h = 20 3 -1 0 1 2 -

yj a * h n 2 j (%)
4 -20 0 23 20 23

y j a h

* n3 j (%)
5 20 0 23 40 83

## A 310-330 330-350 350-370 3 L SHVWH Total

1 20 47 23 10 100

y3 =

32 =

v3 =

## 17,06 100 = 5,11% 344,84

PHGLLOH SDU LDOH L SRQGHULOH VDODULD LORU DFWLYLW LORU UHVSHFWLYH VH SRDWH

r

## y i n i*( % ) ( 291, 2 20 )+ (312 50 ) (344, 6 30 ) i =1 y= = = 317 , 62

100 100
1.5.
GRX \$SOLFkQG UHJXOD DGXQ ULL GLVSHUVLLORU V GLQWUH HOH XUPkQG FD GLVSHUVLD WRWDO ILH FDOFXODW

SXW

2 = 2 + 2

VH FRQVWDW

em calcula doar

i2 n i*(%)
i =1

100

## (794,56 20) + (616 50) + (310,84 30) 100

= 560 , 164

( y i y )2 n i*(%)
i =1

100

= = 378 , 24

## 2 = 2 + 2 = 560,164 + 378,24 = 938,404

1.6. &DOFXOXO JUDGXOXL GH GHWHUPLQD LH L QHGHWHUPLQD LH:
2 Ry /x

2 Ky /x =

## 2 560,164 100 = 100 = 59,69% 2 938,404

IDFWRU GH JUXSDUH QHUHSUH]HQWDWLY FHHD FH vQVHDPQ SURSRU LH GH  GLIHUHQ H VSHFLILFH vQWUH F vQ OXQD QRLHPEULH QX L vQ

cazul

2.

## Tabelul 3.22. AFWLYLW

L

Structura Salariile medii personalului (zeci mii lei) 1 20% 50% 30% 100% 2 291,2 312,0 344,6 317,62

Dispersiile

Abaterile medii
S WUDWLFH

&RHILFLHQ LL GH YDULD LH

A I II III Total

## DWkW SH vQWUHDJD VRFLHWDWH FRPHUFLDO

FkW L SH ILHFDUH DFWLYLWDWH VHULLOH VXQW RPRJHQH VH LHUDUKL]HD] LORU HVWH DFWLYLWDWHD D ,,,

deoarece s-DX
VHULLOH GXS

RE LQXW YDORUL PLFL SHQWUX FRHILFLHQ LL GH YDULD LH 'DF  L PDL SX LQ RPRJHQ

-a

## (5,11%); activitatea a II-D

UHSUH]HQWDWLYLWDWH ID

FDUH

## GHS HWH FX IRDUWH SX LQ JUDGXO GH RPRJHQLWDWH SH

total (9,64%);

DYkQG FRHILFLHQ L PLFL GH YDULD LH PHGLLOH VXQW vQ WRDWH FD]XULOH FX XQ JUDG PDUH GH GH YDORULOH LQGLYLGXDOH GLQ FDUH DX IRVW FDOFXODWH GHRDUHFH WR L  FRHILFLHQ LL GH YDULD LH VXQW VXE 

## 3. Seriile din tabelul 3.1 VH SRW SUH]HQWD L FX IUHFYHQ H DEVROXWH

WLLQG F VH RE LQH QXP UXO WRWDO DO VDODULD LORU D IRVW GH  L DYkQG UHSDUWL LD ORU UHODWLY SH DFWLYLW L

IUHFYHQ HOH

20 = 80 VDODULD L 100 50 activitatea a II-a 400 = 200 salaria L 100 30 activitatea a III-a 400 = 120 VDODULD L 100
activitatea I

400

## \$SOLFkQG JUHXW DEVROXWH

LOH VSHFLILFH GLQ ILHFDUH DFWLYLWDWHD OD QXP UXO GH VDODULD L VH FDOFXOHD] FDUH VH GHWHUPLQ QXPDL vQ QXPHUH vQWUHJL UHIHULQGX

-se la persoane

## L vQ IXQF LH GH YHQLWXULOH VDODULDOH

Tabelul 3.23.
*UXSH GXS VDODULL

Activitatea I 8 10 20 22 12 8 80

Activitatea II 40 70 40 30 20 200

## Activitatea III 24 56 28 12 120

Total 8 10 60 92 76 94 48 12 400

(zeci mii lei) sub 250 250-270 270-290 290-310 310-330 330-350 350-370
 L SHVWH

Total

## &DOFXOXO PHGLHL L GLVSHUVLHL SH WRWDO SH ED]D IUHFYHQ HORU DEVROXWH

Tabelul 3.24.
*UXSH GXS VDODULL 1XP UXO LORU

## (zeci mii lei)

salDULD
j

(n )
1 8 10 60 92 76 94 48 12

Centrul de interval

(y )
j

yj a h
a = 340 h = 20 3 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2

yj a h nj
4 -40 -40 -180 -184 -76 0 48 24 -448

yj a h nj
2

 L SHVWH

Total

400

y=

i =1

xj a h

nj

n
i =1
k

h+ a =

2 i =1

## Deci s-a ajuns la aceleDL

IUHFYHQ HORU UHODWLYH

## YDORUL L SHQWUX PHGLH L SHQWUX GLVSHUVLH FD vQ FD]XO IRORVLULL

PROBLEME PROPUSE

Pentru 40 de agen L HFRQRPLFL FH DFWLYHD] vQ DFHODL GRPHQLX GH DFWLYLWDWH s-au nregistrat datele privind profitul realizat (mil. lei) n luna august: 40, 63, 59, 52, 62, 50, 45. 51, 54, 50, 48, 55, 59, 47, 57, 53, 46, 55, 64, 53, 42, 51, 53, 56, 52, 58, 49, 54, 60, 46, 41, 47, 42, 44, 63, 58, 49, 55, 50, 53. Se cere:
1.
V VH JUXSH]H FHL  GH DJHQ L HFRQRPLFL SH LQWHUYDOH GH YDULD LH HJDOH GXS SURILWXO UHDOL]DW

1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

V V V V V

VH UHSUH]LQWH JUDILF UHSDUWL LD RE LQXW VH YHULILFH UHSUH]HQWDWLYLWDWHD PHGLHL VH GHWHUPLQH LQGLFDWRULL FDUH VHSDU VH P VRDUH JUDGXO GH DVLPHWULH

UHSDUWL LHL

2.

## 3HQWUX R XQLWDWH HFRQRPLF

VH FXQRVF GDWHOH

## Tabelul 3.25. Grupe de muncitori

GXS P ULPHD SURGXF LHL PLL EXF

Nr. muncitori 2 6 10 20 18 6 60

## Sub 10 10-12 12-14 14-16 16 -18

 L SHVWH

Total

Se cere:
1.
V VH UHSUH]LQWH JUDILF GLVWULEX LD PXQFLWRULORU GXS P ULPHD SURGXF LHL

2. 3. 4.

V V V

VH YHULILFH GDF

## P ULPHD SURGXF LHL HVWH RPRJHQ

VH FDOFXOH]H QLYHOXO FHQWUDOL]DW DO SURGXF LHL SHQWUX PXQFLWRULL FX SURGXF LD GH FHO VH FDOFXOH]H LQGLFDWRUXO FDUH VHSDU  GLQ PXQFLWRUL GH UHVWXO PXQFLWRULORU

SX LQ  PLL EXF

3.

GXS L 1XP U

YHFKLPH DQL

VDODULD L

Abaterea medie
S WUDWLF SULYLQG

A sub 10 10-20
 L SHVWH

1 20 90 40

2 30 45 55

## timpul nelucrat (min.) 3 4,8 9,0 6,6

Se cere: 1. 2. 3.
V V V VH UHSUH]LQWH JUDILF VWUXFWXUD VDODULD LORU GXS VH YHULILFH RPRJHQLWDWHD SH JUXSH L SH WRWDO VH GHWHUPLQH vQ FH P VXU YDULD LD WLPSXOXL QHOXFUDW VH GDWRUHD] GHRVHELULORU SULYLQG YHFKLPH

YHFKLPHD vQ PXQF 

4.
Dintr-XQ VRQGDM VWDWLVWLF GH 
SURSRU LRQDO VWUDWLILFDW V DX RE LQXW GD

tele:
Tabelul 3.27.

ULPHD SURILWXOXL

sub 10 1 5 5

10-14 2 10 10 20

## (mil. lei) 14-18 18-22 3 5 15 10 30 4 25 20 45

22-26 5 15 15 30

 L

Total 7 20 70 50 140

## (mil. lei) A I II III Total

peste 6 5 5 10

Se cere: 1. 2. 3.
V V V VH UHSUH]LQWH JUDILF GLVWULEX LD DJHQ LORU HFRQRPLFL GXS VH YHULILFH UHJXOD GH DGXQDUH D GLVSHUVLLORU L V VH FDUDFWHUL]H]H RPRJHQLWDWHD SH ILHFDUH JUXS P ULPHD SURILWXOXL SH WRWDO IDFWRUXO GH JUXSDUH HVWH VH DUDWH GDF L SH WRWDO

4. 5.

V V

-a;

## profitul mai mic dect 18 mil.lei.

5.
3HQWUX XQ HDQWLRQ GH  GH DJHQ L HFRQRPLFL VH FXQRVF GDWHOH

## Tabelul 3.28. Grupe tipice de

DJHQ L HFRQRPLFL GXS FLIUD

Structura
DJHQ LORU

## Profitul mediu (mil.lei/ag.ec.)

Dispersia privind
P ULPHD

## de afaceri A sub 20 20-30

 L SHVWH

economici (%) 1 50 30 20

## profitului 2 14,4 19,68 30,8 3 11,52 11,28 5,76

Se cere: 1. 2. 3.
V V V VH SUHFL]H]H vQ FH SURSRU LH FLIUD GH DIDFHUL LQIOXHQ HD] VH SUHFL]H]H FDUH JUXS HVWH PDL RPRJHQ   YDULD LD SURILWXOXL