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6HULL GH GLVWULEX LH D IUHFYHQ HORU

SERII SIMPLE (date negrupate)


0 ULPL PHGLL

0HGLD DULWPHWLF 0HGLD QLYHOXULORU DULWPHWLF LORU HVWH UH]XOWDWXO VLQWHWL] ULL SULQ vQWU R VLQJXU YDORULL H[SUHVLH WRWDOL]DWH QXPHULF D FDUDF D WXWXURU

LQGLYLGXDOH

REVHUYDWH

RE LQXW

UDSRUWDUHD

teristicii la

QXP UXO WRWDO DO XQLW

x=

xi
i =1

n
QLYHOXULOH LQGLYLGXDOH DOH YDULDELOHL

unde: xi

UHSUH]LQW

x
i =1

UHSUH]LQW UHSUH]LQW

YROXPXO FHQWUDOL]DW DO YDULDELOHL QXP UXO XQLW LORU

observate.

3URSULHW

a) b) c) d)

GDF

x1=x2=...=xi=...=xn=xc , x min < x < x max


n i =1 i

atunci

x = xc

(x
GDF

x) = 0

x= xi # a , atunci x = x # a , de unde x = x a

e)

xi x , atunci x = , de unde x = x h , h h respectiv :


GDF

x" =

GDF

x" = xi h , atunci x = x h

, de unde x =

x h

Formule de calcul simplificat al mediei aritmetice:


a n n xi i =1 h x= h sau n n xi a h i =1 x= h+ a n
i =1
0HGLD DUPRQLF

x=

(x

# a)

x=

(x h)
i =1 i

:h

xh VH GHILQHWH inverse ale termenilor aceleLDL VHULL n xh = n 1 i =1 x i


0HGLD S WUDWLF

0HGLD DUPRQLF

FD ILLQG LQYHUVD PHGLHL DULWPHWLFH FDOFXODW

GLQ YDORULOH

0HGLD S WUDWLF PRGLILF

(x p )

HVWH DFHD YDORDUH FDUH vQORFXLQG WHUPHQLL VHULHL ULGLFD L OD S WUDW QX

VXPD S WUDWHORU ORU

xp =

x
i =1

2 i

0HGLD JHRPHWULF 0HGLD JHRPHWULF

x g UHSUH]LQW

DFHD YDORDUH FX FDUH GDF

VH vQORFXLHVF WR L WHUPHQLL VHULHL

L VH IDFH SURGXVXO ORU YDORDUHD OD FDUH VH DMXQJH HVWH HJDO

FX SURGXVXO WHUPHQLORU UHDOL

xg = n

x
i =1
n i =1

3ULQ ORJDULWPDUH VH RE LQH

lg x g =

lg x
n

QWUH PHGLLOH SUH]HQWDWH H[LVW

XUP WRDUHD UHOD LH GH RUGLQH

xh < xg < xa < x p

9DORUL PHGLL GH SR]L LH VDX GH VWUXFWXU UHSUH]LQW YDORDUHD FHQWUDO D XQHL VHULL VWDWLVWLFH RUGRQDWH FUHVF WRU VDX

Mediana (Me) Locul Me =

GHVFUHVF WRU FDUH vPSDUWH WHUPHQLL VHULHL vQ GRX

n +1 unde n UHSUH]LQW 2

S U L HJDOH

QXP UXO WHUPHQLORU VHULHL

Valoarea medianei: GDF QXP UXO WHUPHQLORU VHULHL HVWH LPSDU n=2p+1):

GDF QXP UXO WHUPHQLORU HVWH SDU

Me = x p + 1
x p + x p +1 2

n=2p):

Me =

Modul (Mo)

HVWH YDORDUHD FDUH VH UHSHW

GH FHOH PDL PXOWH RUL PRWLY SHQWUX FDUH PDL HVWH

FXQRVFXW vQ OLWHUDWXUD GH VSHFLDOLWDWH L VXE GHQXPLUHD GH

dominanta seriei.

,QGLFDWRULL YDULD LHL

a)

,QGLFDWRULL VLPSOL DL YDULD LHL VH FDOFXOHD] FD GLIHUHQ vQWUH QLYHOXO PD[LP

Amplitudinea abVROXW (Aa minim (xmin) al caracteristicii: Aa = xmax - xmin


$PSOLWXGLQHD UHODWLY YDULD LHL L QLYHOXO PHGLX DO FDUDF

xmax

L QLYHOXO

D YDULD LHL

A% teristicii:

VH FDOFXOHD]

FD UDSRUW vQWUH DPSOLWXGLQHD DEVROXW

A% =

Aa 100 x
VH FDOFXOHD] FD GLIHUHQ vQWUH ILHFDUH YDULDQW D DFHVWRUD

vQUHJLVWUDW

Abaterile individuale absolute (di)


L PHGLD DULWPHWLF

d i = xi x

i = 1, n
VH FDOFXOHD] UDSRUWkQG DE

Abaterile individuale relative (di%) mediu al caracteristicii: d x x d i % = i 100 = i 100 x x altul. b)


,QGLFDWRULL VLQWHWLFL DL YDULD LHL

aterile absolute la nivelul

i = 1, n

Q DQDOL]D YDULD LHL GH PXOWH RUL QH OLPLW P OD D FDOFXOD DEDWHULOH PD[LPH vQWU

-un sens sau

$EDWHUHD

PHGLH

OLQLDU

(d )

VH

FDOFXOHD]

FD

PHGLH

DULWPHWLF

VLPSO

GLQ

DEDWHULOH

WHUPHQLORU VHULHL GH OD PHGLD ORU OXDWH vQ YDORDUH DEVROXW 

d=

x
i =1

$EDWHUHD PHGLH S

WUDWLF

sau abaterea standard ( )

VH FDOFXOHD]

FD R PHGLH S WUDWLF

din

DEDWHULOH WXWXURU YDULDQWHORU VHULHL GH OD PHGLD ORU DULWPHWLF 

(x
i =1

x)2

n
UHOD LD

&DOFXOD L SHQWUX DFHHDL VHULH FHL GRL LQGLFDWRUL YHULILF

Q OLWHUDWXUD GH VSHFLDOLWDWH VH DSUHFLD] QRUPDOLWDWH DEDWHUHD PHGLH OLQLDU HVWH HJDO

>d

SHQWUX R VHULH GH GLVWULEX LH FX WHQGLQ

FODU

GH

FX  GLQ YDORDUHD DEDWHULL PHGLL S WUDWLFH

Dispersia

YDULDQ D

XQHL

FDUDFWHULVWLFL

( 2 )

VH

FDOFXOHD]

FD

PHGLH

DULWPHWLF

VLPSO

S WUDWHORU DEDWHULORU WHUPHQLORU ID

GH PHGLD ORU

Formulele de calcul sunt:

2 =

(x
i =1

x)

sau

n x xi 2 = i =1 i =1 n n
n 2 i

&RHILFLHQWXO GH YDULD LH

(v

VH FDOFXOHD]

FD UDSRUW vQWUH DEDWHUHD PHGLH S WUDWLF

L QLYHOXO

mediu al seriei:

100 x Coeficientul GH YDULD LH VH PDL SRDWH FDOFXOD L GXS d v = 100 x


v=

UHOD LD

6(5,, '( ',675,%8

,( 81,',0(16,21$/( GDWH JUXSDWH

,QGLFDWRUL GH IUHFYHQ H

)UHFYHQ HOH IUHFYHQ HORU

UHODWLYH

( ni*

VH

RE LQ

UDSRUWkQG

IUHFYHQ D

ILHF UHL

JUXSH

ni) la totalul

( ni ) :
i =1

ni* =

ni

n
i =1

sau
i

ni*(%) =

ni

n
i =1

100
i

)UHFYHQ HOH FXPXODWH VH QRWHD]

FX

Fi sau Fi*

vQ IXQF LH GH IHOXO IUHFYHQ HORU LQFOXVH vQ

calcul (absolute sau relative):


F i = n j ; i = 1 , 2 , 3 ,..., k ;
j =1
0 ULPL PHGLL

respectiv

F i* = n * j ; i = 1 , 2 , 3 ,... k ;
j =1

0HGLD DULWPHWLF &DOFXOXO FX IUHFYHQ H DEVROXWH

x=

xi ni
i =1

ni
i =1
3URSULHW PHGLD L VH vQFDGUHD] vQ LQWHUYDOXO FX IUHFYHQ D PD[LP VDX vQ XQXO GLQ FHOH GRX

a) b)

intervale nvecinate.

(x
i =1
GDF

x ) ni = 0

c)

x = xi # a , atunci x =

( xi
i =1 k i =1

# a )ni = x#a

ni
k

d)

GDF

x =

xi , atunci x = h

xi ni i =1 h

n
i =1

x h

UHVSHFWLY GDF

x = xi h , atunci x =
SXQFWHOH

(x
i =1
OD

h) ni
i

n
i =1

= hx

3URSULHW 6H XWLOL]HD]

LOH

GH OD

F L G VHUYHVF

calculul simplificat al mediei aritmetice.

vQ DFHVW VFRS IRUPXOHOH

x=

(xi
i =1 k i =1

# a )n i a

ni
x= xi ni i =1 h
k

ni
i =1

, respectiv

x=

( x i h )n i
i =1

ni
i =1

x=

xi a ni h i =1
k

ni
i =1

h + a ,

unde: a - mijlocul unui intHUYDO GH RELFHL FHQWUXO LQWHUYDOXOXL FX IUHFYHQ D FHD PDL PDUH h - P ULPHD LQWHUYDOXOXL GDF VHULD DUH LQWHUYDOH GH YDULD LH HJDOH e)
GDF vQWU R VHULH VH UHGXF SURSRU LRQDO WRDWH IUHFYHQ HOH PHGLD FDOFXODW

SH ED]D QRLORU

IUHFYHQ H U PkQH QHVFKLPEDW 

x
$FHDVW

ni c =x ni c
i

n acest caz c = ni :

SURSULHWDWH

VHUYHWH

OD

FDOFXOXO

PHGLHL

FX

DMXWRUXO

IUHFYHQ HORU

UHODWLYH

x = xi ni* sau x =
0HGLD DUPRQLF

x n
i

* i (%)

100

&DOFXOXO FX IUHFYHQ H DEVROXWH

xh =

n
i =1

x
i =1
k

1
i

ni
100 1 * ni (%) i =1 xi
k

&DOFXOXO FX IUHFYHQ H UHODWLYH

xh =

1 1 * ni i =1 xi

sau

xh =

)RUP

WUDQVIRUPDW

D PHGLHL DULWPHWLFH

&DOFXOXO FX IUHFYHQ H DEVROXWH

xh =

x n
i =1 i k

1 xi ni i =1 xi
1 1 xi ni* i =1 x i
k

=x

&DOFXOXO FX IUHFYHQ H UHODWLYH

xh =

sau

xh =

100 1 xi ni*(%) i =1 xi
k

0HGLD S

WUDWLF

&DOFXOXO FX IUHFYHQ H DEVROXWH

xp =

x
i =1 k i =1

2 i

ni
i

&DOFXOXO FX IUHFYHQ H UHODWLYH

xp =

x
i =1

2 i

ni*

sau

xp =

x
i =1

2 i

ni*(%)

100

0HGLD JHRPHWULF

xg =

ni
i =1

i =1
i

x in i

Prin lRJDULWPDUH VH YD RE LQH


lg x g =

n
i =1

lg x i
i
XUP WRDUH UHOD LH GH RUGLQH

n
i =1

QWUH PHGLLOH SUH]HQWDWH H[LVW

xh < x g < xa < x p

9DORUL PHGLL GH SR]L LH VDX GH VWUXFWXU

Modul (modulul, dominanta)


Q FD]XO XQHL VHULL GH GLVWULEX LH SH YDULDQWH PRGXO HVWH YDULDQWD FX IUHFYHQ D PD[LP  Q FD]XO JUXS ULL SH LQWHUYDOH ORFXO PRGXOXL HVWH LQWHUYDOXO FX IUHFYHQ D PD[LP VH FDOFXOHD] DVWIHO LDU YDORDUHD

Mo = x0 + h
n care: x0 h 1 2 UHSUH]LQW P U

1 1 + 2
OLPLWD LQIHULRDU D LQWHUYDOXOXL PRGDO

imea intervalului modal;

GLIHUHQ D GLQWUH IUHFYHQ D LQWHUYDOXOXL PRGDO L D FHOXL SUHFHGHQW GLIHUHQ D GLQWUH IUHFYHQ D LQWHUYDOXOXL PRGDO L D FHOXL XUP WRU

Mediana (Me) a) n cazul datelor grupate pH


FXPXODW YDULDQWH

HVWH SULPD PDL PDUH GHFkW

n +1 iar valoarea medianei este chiar varianta 2

ORFXO

PHGLDQHL

HVWH

YDULDQWD

F UHL

IUHFYHQ

UHVSHFWLY 

b)

Q FD]XO GDWHORU JUXSDWH SH LQWHUYDOH ORFXO PHGLDQHL HVWH LQWHUYDOXO D F UXL IUHFYHQ

FXPXODW

HVWH SULPD PDL PDUH GHFkW

n
i =1

+1
 LDU YDORDUHD PHGLDQHL VH FDOFXOHD] GXS

formula:

n
i =1

+1

Me = x0 + h

2 nm

ni
i =1

m 1

unde: h m

n
i =1

m 1

- P ULPHD LQWHUYDOXOXL PHGLDQ - indexul intervalului median; - VXPD IUHFYHQ HORU SUHFHGHQWH LQWHUYDOXOXL a intervalului precedent celui median); IUHFYHQ D DEVROXW D LQWHUYDOXOXL PHGLDQ

PHGLDQ

IUHFYHQ D

FXPXODW

nm

Cuartilele VXQW DFHOH YDORUL DOH FDUDFWHULVWLFLL FDUH VHSDU


1

VHULD vQ SDWUX S U L HJDOH

Q1 = x0 + h

( ni + 1) ni
i =1 i =1

u 1

nu

unde u HVWH LQGH[XO LQWHUYDOXOXL FDUH FRQ LQH Q1

Q2 = Me

Q3 = x 0 + h

( ni + 1) ni
i =1 i =1

v 1

nv

unde v HVWH LQGH[XO LQWHUYDOXOXL FDUH FRQ LQH Q3 Decilele GLYLG VHULD vQ ]HFH S
1
k
U L HJDOH IRORVLQG vQ DFHVW VFRS QRX GHFLOH

D1 = x0 + h

10

( ni + 1) ni
i =1 i =1

d 11

nd 1

unde d1 HVWH LQGH[XO LQWHUYDOXOXL FDUH FRQ LQH D1 D5 = M e


9

D9 = x 0 + h

10

( n i + 1)
i =1

d 9 1 i =1

nd 9

unde d9 HVWH LQGH[XO LQWHUYDOXOXL FDUH FRQ LQH D9.

,QGLFDWRULL YDULD LHL

a)

,QGLFDWRULL VLPSOL DL YDULD LHL

$PSOLWXGLQHD DEVROXW

(Aa)

Aa=xL-xl , unde: xL liPLWD VXSHULRDU xl OLPLWD LQIHULRDU


D XOWLPXOXL LQWHUYDO D SULPXOXL LQWHUYDO D YDULD LHL

$PSOLWXGLQHD UHODWLY

A%)

A% =

Aa 100 x

b)

,QGLFDWRULL VLQWHWLFL DL YDULD LHL

$EDWHUHD PHGLH OLQLDU

(d ) lute:

&DOFXOXO FX IUHFYHQ H DEVR

d =

x
i =1

x ni
i

n
i =1 k

&DOFXOXO FX IUHFYHQ H UHODWLYH

d = xi x n sau d =
i =1 * i
$EDWHUHD PHGLH S WUDWLF

x
i =1

x n * i (%) 100

sau abaterea standard () :

&DOFXOXO FX IUHFYHQ H DEVROXWH

(x
i =1

i k

x ) 2 ni
i

n
i =1

Calculul cu fUHFYHQ H UHODWLYH

(x
i =1

x ) 2 n *i

sau

(x
i =1

x ) 2 ni (%) 100

&HL GRL LQGLFDWRUL YHULILF

UHOD LD

>d
&RHILFLHQWXO GH YDULD LH

(v):
v = d 100 x

v=

100 , respectiv x

Dispersia (variaQ D ( 2 ) : IRUPXOH GHULYDWH GLQ GHILQL LH

FDOFXOXO FX IUHFYHQ H DEVROXWH

2 =

(x
i =1

i k

x ) 2 ni
i

n
i =1
k

FDOFXOXO FX IUHFYHQ H UHODWLYH

2 = ( xi x ) 2 n * i
i =1

sau

2 =

(x
i =1

x ) 2 ni* (%) 100

ca moment centrat de ordinul doi calculul cu freFYHQ H DEVROXWH

FDOFXOXO FX IUHFYHQ H UHODWLYH

k x ni xi ni = i =1k i =1k ni ni i =1 i =1
k 2 i

k k 2 = x 2 i ni* xi ni* i =1 i =1

sau

2 =

xi2 ni*(%)
i =1

100

k xi ni*(%) i =1 100

prin formula de calcul simplificat


SHQWUX R VHULH GH IUHFYHQ H DEVROXWH

xi a ni h i =1 2 = h 2 ( x a) 2 k ni
k 2 i =1

pentru o serie cu frecven H UHODWLYH 2 k xi a * 2 2 = ni h ( x a ) 2 sau h i =1


k 2

1RW

xi a * ni (%) h i =1 2 = h 2 ( x a) 2 100  a L h DX DFHOHDL VHPQLILFD LL FD OD FDOFXOXO PHGLHL DULWPHWLFH

&RUHF LD OXL 6KHSSDUG

( 2 ) = 2
unde h
$FHDVW

HVWH P ULPHD LQWHUYDOXOXL GH JUXSDUH FRUHF LH VH DSOLF QXPDL SHQWUX VHULLOH FDUH SUH]LQW VDX XRU DVLPHWULF  XUP WRDUHOH SURSULHW L

h2 , 12

UHSDUWL LD HVWH QRUPDO

UHSDUWL LD DUH LQWHUYDOH GH JUXSDUH HJDOH

9DULD LD LQWHUFXDUWLOLF

L LQWHUGHFLOLF

$EDWHUHD LQWHUFXDWLOLF

Qd): ( Me Q1 ) + (Q3 Me) Q3 Q1 Qd = = 2 2

CoeILFLHQWXO GH YDULD LH LQWHUFXDUWLOLF Q3 Q1 Qd Q Q1 2 Vq = = = 3 Me Me 2 Me


$EDWHUHD LQWHUGHFLOLF

9T

: ( Me D1 ) + ( D9 Me) D9 D1 Dd = = 2 2

&RHILFLHQWXO GH YDULD LH LQWHUGHFLOLF

: D9 D1 D D D1 2 Vd = d = = 9 Me Me 2 Me

0HGLD L GLVSHUVLD FDUDFWHULVWLFLL DOWHUQDWLYH 'LVWULEX LD GH IUHFYHQ H D FDUDFWHULVWLFLL DOWHUQDWLYH VH SUH]LQW vQWU

-un tabel de forma:


Tabel 3.1.

Valoarea caracteristicii 0 x1 = 1

VSXQVXO

nregistrat 1 DA

)UHFYHQ H DEVROXWH

)UHFYHQ H UHODWLYH

2 M
QXP UXO XQLW FDUH SRVHG LORU

p=

caracteristica) (N-M) x2 = 0 Total NU


QXP UXO GH XQLW FDUH QX SRVHG L

M N

q=

caracteristica) N = M + (N - M)

NM = 1 p N
p+q=1

Media:
p= M N

Dispersia:
2 2 p = p q sau p = p (1 p )

$EDWHUHD PHGLH S

WUDWLF

p = pq

Asimetria
$VLPHWULD DEVROXW

&RHILFLHQ LL GH DVLPHWULH SURSXL GH .DUO 3HDUVRQ SHQWUX VHULL GH GLVWULEX LH XRU DVLPHWULFH 

( As ) As = x Mo

C as

C as = 0 x Mo = C as > 0 C as < 0

VHULH VLPHWULF DVLPHWULH SR]LWLY DVLPHWULH QHJDWLY

Acest coeficient poate lua valori cuprinse ntre -


DEVROXW FX DWkW DVLPHWULD HVWH PDL PLF 

+1; cu ct este mai mic n valoare


) se poate calcula (C as

Q FD]XO FkQG VH FXQRDWH PHGLDQD VHULHL FRHILFLHQWXO GH DVLPHWULH XWLOL]kQG UHOD LD

= C as
IRUPDW

3HDUVRQ PDL SURSXQH L XQ D

3( x Me)

lt coeficient pentru calculul gradului de asimetrie al unei serii

GLQWU XQ QXP U IRDUWH PDUH GH REVHUYD LL

= C as

2 3 3 2

3 = , unde 2 =

( xi x ) 3 ni ni ( xi x ) 2 ni ni
=
2

Coeficientul propus de Yule: (Q Me) ( Me Q1 ) C asY = 3 , (Q3 Me) + ( Me Q1 ) unde C asY [ 1 , 1 ] Coeficientul propus de Bowley: ( D Me) ( Me D1 ) C asB = 9 , ( D9 Me) + ( Me D1 ) unde C asB [ 1,1]

,QGLFDWRULL FRQFHQWU

ULL

Coeficientul de concentrare propus de statisticianul italian Corado Gini: CG = unde :

g
xi ni
k

2 i

i = 1, k ,

gi =

xi ni
i = 1

Acest coeficient ia valori n intervalul

,1 . n

Coeficientul de concentrare propus de R. Struck:

n 1 Acest coeficient ia valori n intervalul [0,1].

CS =

n g i2 1

6(5,, '( ',675,%8

,( %,',0(16,1$/(

$ &DOFXOXO FX IUHFYHQ H DEVROXWH

O serie de distrLEX LH ELGLPHQVLRQDO

VH SUH]LQW

vQWU

-un tabel de forma:


Tabel 3.2.

Valorile caracteristicii de grupare X x1 x2 ... xi ... xr Total

Variantele sau valorile caracteristicii dependente Y y1 n11 n21 ... ni1 ... nr1 n.1 y2 n12 n22 ... ni2 ... nr2 n.2 ... yj n1j n2j ... nij ... nrj n.j ym n1m n2m ... nim ... nrm n.m

Volumul grupei (ni.) n1. n2. ... ni. ... nr.


i =1

Medii pe grupe
(y i )
(y1 ) (y 2 )

...
(y i )

...
(yr )
m

ni. = n. j
j =1

9ROXPXO IUHFYHQ D JUXSHL

i:

n
j =1
0

ij

= ni .

ULPL PHGLL

0HGLLOH GH JUXS

( y i ):

yi =

y
j =1 m j =1

nij
ij

Media pe total:

y j n. j
y=
j =1

n. j
j =1
,QGLFDWRULL YDULD LHL

sau

y=

yi ni .
i =1

ni .
i =1

'LVSHUVLD GH JUXS

sau GLVSHUVLD SDU LDO ( i2 ) :

=
2 i

(y
i =1

y i ) 2 nij
,
ij

n
j =1

unde: yj UHSUH]LQW YDULDQWD VDX PLMORFXO LQWHUYDOXOXL j al caracteristicii dependente; y i media grupei i; nij IUHFYHQ HOH FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH ILHF UHL YDULDQWH LQWHUYDO GH YDORUL GLQ FDGUXO JUXSei.

0HGLD GLVSHUVLLORU GH JUXS

( 2 = 2 ) y/r

i2 n i .
i =1

ni .
i =1

unde: i2 - dispersia grupei i; n i . - volumul grupei i.

): Dispersia dintre grupe ( 2 = 2 y/ x

2 y/ x

( y i
i =1 r

y ) 2 ni .

ni .
i =1
m

2 ): DisSHUVLD WRWDO ( 2 = y

2 2 = y =

(y
j =1

j m

y ) 2 n. j
.j

n
j =1

5HJXOD DGXQ

ULL GLVSHUVLLORU

=
2

2 y/x

2 y/r

Pe baza regulii de adunare a dispersiilor se pot calcula indicatori statistici cu caracter de


P ULPL UHODWLYH GH VWUXFWXU 

2 Gradul de dHWHUPLQD LH ( R y /x):

2 Ry /x =
'DF

(R y / x ) ! 

2 y /x 100 2

DGPLWHP F

IDFWRUXO GH JUXSDUH HVWH KRW UkWRU VHPQLILFDWLY GHWHUPLQDQW

SHQWUX YDULD LD IDFWRUXOXL GHWHUPLQDW

Y).

*UDGXO GH QHGHWHUPLQD LH

2 Ky /x =

2 y/r

100
WUDWLF OD QLYHOXO JUXSHL

$EDWHUHD PHGLH S

i = i2
$EDWHUHD PHGLH S WUDWLF SH WRWDO

= 2
&RHILFLHQWXO GH YDULD LH OD QLYHOXO JUXSHL

vi =

i 100 , yi

unde: i - DEDWHUHD PHGLH S y i - media grupei.

WUDWLF

D JUXSHL

&RHILFLHQWXO GH YDULD LH SH WRWDO

v=

100 , y

unde: - DEDWHUHD PHGLH S y - media pe total.

WUDWLF

SH WRWDO

% &DOFXOXO FX IUHFYHQ H UHODWL

ve
VH SUH]LQW vQWU

2 VHULH GH GLVWULEX LH ELGLPHQVLRQDO

-un tabel de forma:


Tabel 3.3.

Valorile caracteristicii de grupare X x1 x2 ... xi ... xr Total y1 n*11 n*21 ... n*i1 ... n*r1

)UHFYHQ H UHODWLYH

Total (%) ym n*1m n*2m ... n*im ... n*rm 100 100 ... 100 ... 100

Ponderea grupei (ni(%)) n1(%) n2(%) ... ni(%) ... nr(%) 100

y2 n*12 n*22 ... n*i2 ... n*r2

... ... ... ...

yj n*1j n*2j ... n*ij ... n*rj

0HGLLOH GH JUXS

( y i ):

yi =

y
j =1

n * ij

100

Media pe total:

y i n i (%)
y=
i =1

100
VDX GLVSHUVLD SDU LDO

'LVSHUVLD GH JUXS

( i2 ) :

i2 =

( y j
i =1

y i ) 2 n * ij 100
(
2

0HGLD GLVSHUVLLORU GH JUXS

2 y/r

i2 n i (%)

i =1

100
2

Dispersia dintre grupe (

2 y/x

):

( y i

2 y/x

y ) 2 n i (%) 100

=
2

i =1

'LVSHUVLD WRWDO

(
2 y

=
2

2 y

):
2

,QGLFDWRULL PHGLL L DL YDULD LHL SHQWUX FDUDFWHULVWLFL DOWHUQDWLYH

'LVSHUVLD GH JUXS

( 2 pi ):
i

2 2 p = p i q i sau p = p i (1 p i ) ,
i

n care: pi - UHSUH]LQW PHGLL GH JUXS  qi - IUHFYHQ HOH UHODWLYH DOH XQLW


0HGLD GLVSHUVLLORU SDU LDOH

LORU FDUH QX SRVHG

FDUDFWHULVWLFD vQ ILHFDUH JUXS 

2 ( p ):

=
2 p

i =1 r i =1

2 pi

Ni

,
i
QXP UXO WRWDO DO XQLW LORU REVHUYDWH vQ ILHFDUH JUXS 

n care Ni UHSUH]LQW

2 ): Dispersia dintre grupe ( p

p2 =

(p
i =1

i r

p) 2 N i

N
i =1

,
i

n care p este media caracteristicii alternative pe ntreaga colectivitate.


'LVSHUVLD WRWDO

( 2 p):

2 p = pq
5HJXOD DGXQ

dispersiilor: = + p2
2 p 2 p

ULL

9HULILFDUHD VHPQLILFD LHL IDFWRUXOXL GH JUXSDUH IRORVLQG WHVWXO )

Fcalculat =
unde:
2 Sy /x = r

2 Sy /x 2 Sy /r

(y
i =1
r m

y ) ni .
2

2 Sy /r =

(y
i =1 j =1

r 1
j

(r - QXP
2

UXO GH JUXSH

y i ) nij

nr

> Ftabelar factorul de grupare este semnificativ < Ftabelar factorul de grupare nu este semnificativ Ftabelar VH GHWHUPLQ vQ IXQF ie de un anumit nivel de semnifica gradele de libertate f1=r-1 L f2=n-r.
'DF )calculat

'DF

)calculat

LH GH H[HPSOX  L GH

PROBLEME REZOLVATE

ntr-un magazLQ OXFUHD]  YkQ] WRUL FDUH vQ OXQD RFWRPEULH  DX UHDOL]DW XQ YROXP desfacerilor (mil. lei) astfel: 138,8; 146,0; 150,0; 152,3; 158,2; 163,1; 165,0; 170,4; 176,2; 180,0. Se cere: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
V V V V V V VH IRUPH]H VHULD SULYLQG YROXPXO GHVIDFHULORU SULQ FHQWUDOL]DU VH FDOFXOH]H L V YROXPXO PHGLX DO GHVIDFHULORU GLQ DFHVW VH YHULILFH SULQFLSDOHOH SURSULHW HOH ID GH PHGLD DULWPHWLF  L DOH DFHVWHLD VH DUDWH vQ FH U

1.

DO

ea datelor individuale;
IRORVLQG PHGLD

PDJD]LQ

DULWPHWLF

VH IRORVHDVF

SHQWUX DFHHDL VHULH L DOWH WLSXUL GH PHGLL L V

aport de

P ULPH VH DIO

VH FDOFXOH]H LQGLFDWRULL PHGLL GH SR]L LH PHGLL GH VWUXFWXU  VH FDUDFWHUL]H]H JUDGXO GH YDULD LH DO GLVWULEX LHL FDOFXOkQG vQ DFHVW VFRS LQGLFDWRULL

VLPSOL L VLQWHWLFL DL YDULD LHL SUHFXP L VH UHSUH]LQWH JUDILF VHULD

gradul de asimetrie;

Rezolvare 1.
6HULD VH IRUPHD] SULQ RUGRQDUHD YDORULORU YH]L WDEHOXO  FRORDQHOH  L  

Notnd cu xi termenii individuali, volumul centralizat este

x
i =1

x
i =1

10

= 138,8 +146,0 +150,0 +....+180,0 = 1600 mil. lei


L DOH DFHVWHLD

2.

&DOFXOXO PHGLHL DULWPHWLFH L YHULILFDUHD SULQFLSDOHORU SURSULHW

se poate

face cu ajutorul unui tabel de calcul (Vezi tabelul 3.4.).


&DOFXOXO PHGLHL DULWPHWLFH VLPSOH L YHULILFDUHD SULQFLSDOHORU SURSULHW L

Tabelul 3.4. Volumul desfacerilor (mil. lei) 1 138,8 146,0 150,0 152,3 158,2 163,1 165,0 170,4 176,2 180,0 1600,0

Nr.crt. A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total

xi x
2 -21,2 -14,0 -10,0 -7,7 -1,8 +3,1 +5,0 +10,4 +16,2 +20,0 0

xi a
a = 138,8 3 0 7,2 11,2 13,5 19,4 24,3 26,2 31,6 37,4 41,2 212

xi ; h = 20 h
4 6,94 7,3 7,5 7,615 7,91 8,155 8,25 8,52 8,01 9,0 80

x
i =1

10

(x
i =1

10

x)

(x
i =1

10

a)

h
i =1

10

xi

2.1. Calculul mediei aritmetice simple (vezi coloana 1 din tabelul 3.4.): xi = 1600 = 160 PLO OHLYkQ] WRU x= n 10 2.2. 9HULILFDUHD SULQFLSDOHORU SURSULHW a) x min < x < x max 138,8 < x < 180 b)
L DOH PHGLHL DULWPHWLFH

x ) = 0 (vezi tabelul 3.4., coloana 2) Media fiind un ct exact, suma abaterilor pozitive s-a compensat cu suma abaterilor negative:(-54,7) + (54,7) = 0
i

(x
x
i =1 n

c)

= n x

10 160,0 = 1600 mil. lei

d) x =

= x a n Alegnd arbitrar a = 138,8 - primul termen - L FDOFXOkQG


i =1
 VH RE LQH

(x

a)
YDORULOH

xi - a (vezi tabelul

x =

(x
i =1

a) =

212 = 21,2 mil. OHLYkQ] 10

WRU

deci: x x = a 160-21,2=138,8 de unde: x = x + a x = 


h n xi = x h

 PLO OHLYkQ] WRU

e)

/XkQG DUELWUDU XQ K

 YH]L WDEHOXO  FRORDQD  VH RE LQH

x =

xi = 80 =8 10
PLO OHLYkQ] WRU

n x = x h x = 8 20 = 160

3. &DOFXOXO PHGLHL S 3.1. &DOFXOXO PHGLHL S

WUDWLFH DO PHGLHL DUPRQLFH L DO PHGLHL JHRPHWULFH WUDWLFH

(x ) (vezi tabelul 3.5., coloana 3):


p
PLO OHLYkQ] WRU

xp = n

257613,18 160,5 n 10 x p > x; 160,5 > 160 = 10

2 i

&DOFXOXO PHGLHL DUPRQLFH S

WUDWLFH L JHRPHWULFH

Tabelul 3.5. Volumul desfacerilor (mil. lei) 1 138,8 146,0 150,0 152,3 158,2 163,1 165,0 170,4 176,2 180,0 1600,0

Nr. crt. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total

1 xi
2 0,0072046 0,0068000 0,0066670 0,0065659 0,0063211 0,0061312 0,0060606 0,0058685 0,0056753 0,0055550 0,0628986

xi2
3 19265,44 21316,00 22500,00 23195,29 25027,24 26601,61 27225,00 29036,16 31046,44 32400,0 257613,18

lg xi
4 2,14239 2,16425 2,17605 2,18270 2,19921 2,21245 2,21748 2,23045 2,24601 2,25527 22,02640

3.2. Calculul mediei armonice ( x h ) (vezi tabelul 3.5., coloana 2) n 10 xh = = = 158,98 PLOOHLYkQ] WRU 1 0,0628986 x i xh < x ; 158,98 < 160,0 Deci: x h < x < x p 3.3. Calculul mediei geometrice ( x g ) (vezi tabelul 3.5., coloana 4):

xg = n
lg x g =

xi ;
i =1

lg x g =

lg x
i =1

22,02640 2,20264 10 antilog 2,20264 = 159,5 => x g =  PLOOHL YkQ]


Deci: x g < x a ; x a = x = 160,0 159,5 < 160

WRU

5HFDSLWXOkQG YDORULOH PHGLLORU RE LQXWH DYHP PLOOHLYkQ] WRU WRU

x p =160,5 PLOOHLYkQ]

WRU WRU

x h = 158,98 PLOOHLYkQ]
5HOD LD GLQWUH PHGLL HVWH

x g = 159,50 PLOOHLYkQ]

xh < xg < xa < x p 158,98 < 159,5 < 160 < 160.5
$EDWHULOH vQWUH FHOH SDWUX P ULPL PHGLL ILLQG IRDUWH PLFL VH SRDWH WUDJH FRQFOX]LD F DFHDVW VHULH RULFH PHGLH V DU IRORVL HD P VRDU SHQWUX VXILFLHQW GH FRUHFW WHQGLQ D FHQWUDO L GHFL PHGLD

vQ DFHVW FD] SRDWH IL R YDORDUH WLSLF 

4.

&DOFXOXO LQGLFDWRULORU PHGLL GH SR]L LH

4.1. Calculul medianei (Me)


locul medianei: U ( Me) =

n + 1 10 + 1 = = 5,5 2 2

valoarea medianei: x + x 6 158,2 + 163,1 Me = 5 = = 160,65 mil. lei 2 2


L QHDYkQG WHUPHQL FDUH V VH UHSHWH QX HVWH FD]XO

4.2. Calculul modului


)LLQG VHULH VLPSO

4.3. Calculul cuartilelor Calculul cuartilelor presupune stabilirea locului cuartilelor U(Q2 L DSRL FDOFXODUHD YDORULORU lor:

U (Q1 ) =
Q1 =

n + 1 11 = = 2,75 4 4

x 2 + x3 146 + 150 = = 148 mil. lei 2 2

Q 2 = M e = 160 , 65 mil. lei

U (Q3 ) =
Q3 =

3(n + 1) = 8,25 4

x8 + x9 170,4 + 176,2 = = 173,3 mil. lei 2 2

Potrivit celor trei cuartile, seria se poate structura astfel:


6WUXFWXUD VHULHL vQ IXQF LH GH YDORULOH FHORU WUHL FXDUWLOH

Tabelul 3.6.
,QWHUYDO GH YDULD LH

138,80-148,00 148,00-160,65 160,65-173,30 173,30-180,00

Structura seriei (%) 25 25 25 25

5.

&DOFXOXO LQGLFDWRULORU GH YDULD LH L DVLPHWULH

PenWUX FDOFXOXO LQGLFDWRULORU GH YDULD LH VH IRORVHWH WDEHOXO 


&DOFXOXO LQGLFDWRULORU GH YDULD LH

Tabelul 3.7. Nr. crt. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

xi
1 138,8 146,0 150,0 152,3 158,2 163,1 165,0 170,4 176,2 180,0 1600,0
n i =1 i

xi x
2 21,2 14,0 10,0 7,7 1,8 3,1 5,0 10,4 16,2 20,0 109,4

(xi x )2
3 449,44 196,00 100,00 59,29 3,24 9,61 25,0 108,16 262,44 400,00 1613,18

xi2
4 19265,44 21316,00 22500,00 23195,24 25027,24 26601,61 27225,00 29036,16 31046,44 32400,00 257613,18
2

xi x x

100

5 - 13,25 - 8,75 - 6,25 - 4,81 - 1,13 1,94 3,13 6,50 10,13 12,50

xi x

(xi x )
i =1

5.1. ,QGLFDWRULL VLPSOL DL YDULD LHL

$PSOLWXGLQHD YDULD LHL

Aa = xmax - xmin =180-138,8 = 41,2 mil. lei x x min 41,2 A% = max = 100 = 25,75% x 160

Abaterile absolute DOH ILHF UHL YDULDELOH ID GH PHGLH di): d i = xi x (vezi tabelul 3.7., coloana 2) Abaterile relative (di(%)) x x d i (%) = i 100 (vezi tabelul 3.7., coloana 5) x

5.2. ,QGLFDWRULL VLQWHWLFL DL YDULD LHL

$EDWHUHD PHGLH OLQLDU

(d )
x

L VH IRORVHVF GDWHOH GLQ WDEHOXO  FRORDQD 

dx =

x
i =1

x =

109,4 = 10,94 10

PLO OHLYkQ] WRU

2 x ) VH FDOFXOHD] Dispersia (

FX GDWHOH GLQ WDEHOXO  FRORDQD

3:

2 x =

(x
i =1

x)

1613,18 = 161,318 10

'LVSHUVLD VH PDL SRDWH FDOFXOD L FX IRUPXOD

x2 n Datele necesare VH J VHVF vQ WDEHOXO  FRORDQHOH  L  257613,18 2 x = 160 2 = 161,318 10 Deci s-D DMXQV OD DFHODL UH]XOWDW
i =1

2 x =

2 i

$EDWHUHD PHGLH S

WUDWLF

x =

(xi x )2
n

sH FDOFXOHD]

H[WU JkQG U G FLQD S WUDW

din dispersie:
2 x = x = 161,318 = 12,70
PLO OHLYkQ] WRU

&RHILFLHQ LL GH YDULD LH

(v, v) dx 10 , 94 v = 100 = 100 = 6 , 84% x 160 x 12 , 70 100 = 100 = 7 , 84% v= x 160 v' L v    GHFL VH SRDWH DILUPD F VHULD DUH XQ JUDG PDUH GH RPRJHQLWDWH L PHGLD
HVWH UHSUH]HQWDWLY SHQWUX vQWUHDJD VHULH

6.
UDGLDO

5HSUH]HQWDUHD JUDILF

Q DFHVW FD] YDULD LD QHILLQG FRQWLQX  VH SRDWH IRORVL XQ JUDILF SULQ FRORDQH L R GLDJUDP FX ]HFH UD]H YH]L ILJXULOH  L  

200

mil. lei

180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 138,8 146 150

152,3

158,2 163,1

165

173,4 176,2

180

10

)LJXUD  5HSDUWL LD VDODULD LORU vQ IXQF LH GH YROXPXO GHVIDFHULORU PLO OHL

1 10 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 2

7 6

)LJXUD  5HSDUWL LD VDODULD LORU vQ IXQF LH

de volumul desfacerilor (mil. lei)

2.
3HQWUX R VRFLHWDWH FRPHUFLDO VH FXQRVF XUP WRDUHOH GDWH SULYLWRU OD YHFKLPHD vQ SURGXF LH vQVFULVH vQ WDEHOXO  GDWH FRQYHQ LRQDOH 
5HSDUWL LD VDODULD LORU GLQWU R VHF LH GXS

YHFKLPH

Tabelul 3.8. Grupe dH VDODULD L


GXS YHFKLPH DQL 1XP UXO VDODULD LORU

Sub 5 10

5-10 40

10-15 60

15-20 80

20-25 50

25-30 30

30-35 20

 L

peste 10

Se cere: 1. UHSUH]HQWDUHD JUDILF D VHULHL IRORVLQG IUHFYHQ HOH UHDOH L FHOH FXPXODWH 2. vechimea medie a muncitorilor prin caOFXOXO PHGLHL DULWPHWLFH FX IUHFYHQ H
UHODWLYH L SULQ FDOFXOXO VLPSOLILFDW VSHFLILFkQG FH SURSULHW DEVROXWH

L DOH PHGLHL DULWPHWLFH VWDX

OD ED]D FDOFXOXOXL PHGLHL DULWPHWLFH FX IUHFYHQ H UHODWLYH L SULQ FDOFXOXO VLPSOLILFDW

3. LQGLFDWRULL PHGLL GH SR]L ie; 4. LQGLFDWRULL VLPSOL L VLQWHWLFL DL YDULD LHL 5. indicatorii de asimetrie; 6. PHGLD L GLVSHUVLD SHQWUX PXQFLWRULL cu o vechime mai mare dect vechimea medie.

Rezolvare 1.
5HSUH]HQWDUHD JUDILF D VHULHL

+LVWRJUDPD L SROLJRQXO IUHFYHQ HORU YH]L ILJXUD &XUED FXPXODWLY

3.3.);

D IUHFYHQ HORU YH]L ILJXUD  

90 80 70

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 vechime (ani)
)LJXUD  'LVWULEX LD VDODULD LORU vQ IXQF LH GH YHFKLPH

350
U VDODULD L QXP

300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

vechime (ani)
)LJXUD  'LVWULEX LD VDODULD LORU vQ IXQF LH GH YHFKLPH

2. Calculul vechimii medii n acest scop se vor folosi datele din tabelul 3.9.
Tabelul 3.9. Grupe de
VDODULD L GXS 1XP UXO VDODULD LORU

vechime (ani) 0 0-5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 Total

abs. (ni) 1 10 40 60 80 50 30 20 10 300

n i*( % )

Centrul de interval (xi) 3 2,5 7,5 12,5 17,5 22,5 27,5 32,5 37,5 -

xi ni
4 25 300 750 1400 1125 825 650 375 5450

x i n i*( % )
5 8,325 99,975 250,000 466,725 375,075 275,000 216,775 124,875 1816,75

xi a h
a=17,5 h=5 6 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 -

xi a ni h
7 -30 -80 -60 0 50 60 60 40 40

)UHFYHQ H

absolute cumulate cres- descresF WRU F WRU

2 3,33 13,33 20,00 26,67 16,67 10,00 6,67 3,33 100

8 10 50 110 190 240 270 290 300 -

9 300 290 250 190 110 60 30 10 -

ni
i =1

n i*( % )
i =1

xi ni
i =1

xi ni* (%)
i =1

i =1

xi a ni h

2.1. Calculul mediei aritmetice pe baza:

frecven HORU DEVROXWH


x=

xi ni
i =1

ni
i =1

5450 = 18.167 18 , 2 ani/salariat 300

IUHFYHQ HORU UHODWLYH

x=

x i n i*( % )
i =1

100

18 , 2 ani/salariat
SH SURSULHWDWHD

&DOFXOXO PHGLHL IRORVLQG IUHFYHQWHOH UHODWLYH VH ED]HD]

n xi i k c i =1 = x ; n acest caz = c ni k ni i =1 i =1 c 2.2. Calculul simplificat al mediei aritmetice: k xi a h ni 40 i =1 x= h + a = 5 + 17 , 5 = 18 , 1667 18 , 2 ani/salariat k 300 ni
i =1

Calculul mediei prin acest procedeu s-D ED]DW SH GRX anume: x =

SURSULHW

L DOH PHGLHL DULWPHWLFH L

(x
i =1 k

i k

a ) ni
i

n
i =1

= x a ,

de unde:

x= xi

(x
i =1

i k

a ) ni
i

n
i =1

+ a;

x =

xi ni i =1 h

n
i =1

x , de unde: h

x=

hn
i =1 k

n
i =1

&kQG VXQW LQWHUYDOH HJDOH HVWH FRQYHQDELO V IUHFYHQ D PD[LP  DGLF DGLF

se ia a egal cu centrul intervalului cu


R YDORDUH HJDO FX P ULPHD LQWHUYDOHORU

a  h = 5 (vezi tabelul 3.9.).

L SHQWUX

3.

&DOFXOXO LQGLFDWRULORU PHGLL GH SR]L LH

3.1. &DOFXOXO PHGLDQHL 0H L D FHORUODOWH PHGLL GH SR]L LH:

FX IUHFYHQ H DEVROXWH

U ( Me) =

n
i =1

+1 =

300 + 1 = 150,5 , 2

deci

15 < Me < 20

n
i =1

+1

Me = x 0 + h

2 nm

ni
i =1

m 1

= 15 + 5

150,5 110 = 17,5 ani 80

U (Q1 ) =

n
i =1

+1 =

301 = 75,25 , deci 2

10< Q1 <15

1 k u 1 n i + 1 n i 4 i =1 i =1 = 10 + 5 75,25 50 = 12,125 ani Q1 = x0 + h nu 60

Q 2 = M e = 17 , 5 ani U (Q3 ) = 3 k 3 ni + 1 = 301 = 225,75 4 i =1 4 deci 20 < Q3 < 25

3 k v 1 n i + 1 n i 4 i =1 i =1 = 20 + 5 225,75 190 = 23,525 ani Q3 = x 0 + h nv 50

FX IUHFYHQ H UHODWLYH

U ( Me ) =

n *(
i =1
i

+1 =

2
k

100 + 1 = 50 , 5 , 2

deci

15 < Me < 20

n i*( % ) + 1
i =1

Me = x 0 + h

n *i ( % )
i =1

m 1

* nm (%

= 15 + 5

50 , 5 36 , 66 = 17 , 59 ani 26 , 67

U ( Q1 ) =

n *(
i =1

i %

+1 =

101 = 25 , 25 , 2

deci

10 < Q1 < 15

Q1 = x 0 + h

u 1 * 1 k * n n + 1 i (% ) i( % ) 4 i =1 i =1
* nu (%

= 10 + 5

25 , 25 16 , 66 = 12 , 148 ani 20

Q 2 = M e = 17 , 59 ani

U ( Q3 ) =

3 3 k * = 101 = 75 , 75 , n + 1 i( % ) 4 i = 1 4
v 1 3 k * n i ( % ) + 1 n i*( % ) 4 i =1 i =1
* nv (%

deci

20 < Q3 < 25

Q3 = x0 + h

= 20 + 5

75 , 75 63 , 33 = 23 , 725 ani 16 , 67

'LIHUHQ HOH GLQWUH LQGLFDWRULL FDOFXOD L FX IUHFYHQ H DEVROXWH L FHL FX IUHFYHQ H UHODWLYH VXQW QHVHPQLILFDWLYH L SURYLQ GLQ URWXQMLUHD IUHFYHQ HORU UHODWLYH

3.2. Calculul modului (Mo):

FX IUHFYHQ H DEVROXWH

Locul Mo vO FRQVWLWXLH LQWHUYDOXO FX IUHFYHQ D PD[LP 1 20 Mo = x 0 + h = 15 + 5 = 17 ani 1 + 2 20 + 30

  

Mo < 20.

cu frecven H UHODWLYH 1 26,67 20 Mo = x 0 + h = 15 + 5 = 17,27 ani 1 + 2 (26,67 20) + (26,67 16,67)


9DORULOH WHQGLQ HL FHQWUDOH FRQVLGHUDWH FD P ULPL WLSLFH FH GHILQHVF DFHDVW VHULH SHQWUX

FDOFXOXO FX IUHFYHQ H DEVROXWH VXQW

x =18,2 ani; Me=17,5 ani; Mo=17 ani.

4. Calculul indicatorilor GH YDULD LH (vezi tabelul 3.10.). 4.1. Calculul indicatorilor simpli
Q DFHVW FD] QX VXQW FRQFOXGHQ L

4.2. Calculul indicatorilor sintetici $EDWHUHD PHGLH OLQLDU d i ) VH RE LQH GLQ vQVXPDUHD YDORULORU GLQ FRORDQD  YH]L WDEHOXO 3 I U V VH LQ VHDPD GH VHPQ dx =

x
i =1

i k

x ni
i

n
i =1

1956 = 6,5 ani/salariat 300

2 Dispersia ( x ): - FDOFXOXO RELQXLW

2 x =

(x
i =1

x ) ni
2 k i

n
i =1

20367 = 67,89 300

calculul simplificat:
xi a ni h 820 i =1 2 x = h 2 ( x a) 2 = 25 (18,2 17,5) 2 = 67,84 k 300 ni
k 2 i =1

$EDWHUHD PHGLH S WUDWLF

x)

2 x = x = 67,84 = 8,2 ani/salariat

&RHILFLHQ LL GH YDULD LH

v L v)

GDF

VH SRUQHWH GH OD DEDWHUHD PHGLH OLQLDU 

d 6,5 v = x 100 = 100 = 35,7% x 18,2


GDF

v=

x 8,2 100 = 100 = 45% x 18,2

VH SRUQHWH GH OD DEDWHUHD PHGLH S WUDWLF 

Interpretnd valoarea coeficientului de YDULD LH VH SRDWH DILUPD F


UHSUH]HQWDWLY  FD XUPDUH D IDSWXOXL F V DSDU LQ WR L VDODULD LL HUD GH DWHSWDW FD YHFKLPHD PHGLH V DLE OD vQWUHJXO LQWHUYDO GH YDULD LH D YHFKLPLL

PHGLD QX HVWH VXILFLHQW GH

VHULD QX HVWH VXILFLHQW GH RPRJHQ  'H DOWIHO ILLQG YRUED GH R GLVSHUVLH PDUH VDODULD LL vQ DQVDPEOX

l lor

&DOFXOXO LQGLFDWRULORU VLQWHWLFL DL YDULD LHL

Tabelul 3.10. Grupe de


VDODULD L GXS 1XP UXO

muncitorilor abs. (ni) 1 10 40 60 80 50 30 20 10 300

vechime (ani) 0 0-5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 Total

n i* ( %

Centrul de interval (xi) 3 2,5 7,5 12,5 17,5 22,5 27,5 32,5 37,5 -

xi x

(xi x ) ni

(xi x )2 .ni
a = 17,5 h=5

xi a ni h
2

2 3,33 13,33 20,00 26,67 16,67 10,00 6,67 3,33 100

4 -15,7 -10,7 -5,7 -0,7 4,3 9,3 14,3 19,3 -

ni
i =1
'HRDUHFH

n i*( % )
i =1
QX HVWH XQ FkW

5 -157 -428 -342 -56 215 279 286 193 -10 1) (xi x ) ni

(x

6 2464,9 4579,6 1949,4 39,2 924,5 2594,7 4089,8 3724,9 20367,0


i

x ) .ni
2
QX

7 90 160 60 0 60 120 180 160 820

xi a ni h i =1
k 2
SURSULHWDWHD

1)

(xi x ) ni = 0 . 'LIHUHQ D ILLQG IRDUWH PLF -10), rotunjirea medie ntr-R P VXU IRDUWH PLF P ULPHD FHORUODO L LQGLFDWRUL
5. Calculul indicatorilor de asimetrie

PHGLD

H[DFW

IRVW

URWXQMLW 

YHULILF

QX YD LQIOXHQ D GHFkW

Q DFHVW VFRS YRP FDOFXOD FRHILFLHQ LL GH DVLPHWULH SURSXL GH 3HDUVRQ

(Cas

L &as L

Yule:
C as =

( x Mo) 18,2 17 = = 0,146 x 8,2

= C as

3( x Me) 3(18,2 17,5) = = 0,256 x 8,2

AS =

q 2 q1 , q 2 + q1

unde

q1=Me - Q1; q2 =Q3 Me

q1 = 17,5 12,125 = 5,375 q2 = 33,575 17,5 = 6,075


AS = 6,075 5,375 = 0,061 6,075 + 5,375
R DVLPHWULH PRGHUDW SR]LWLY 

&HL WUHL LQGLFDWRUL GH DVLPHWULH FDOFXOD L LQGLF

6. 0HGLD L GLVSHUVLD FDUDFWHULVWicii alternative Media (p) M p= , N unde: M QXP UXO PXQFLWRULORU FX R YHFKLPH ! x = 18,2 ani; M =110; N QXP UXO WRWDO DO PXQFLWRULORU 1  M 110 p= = = 0,3667 N 300 Dispersia ( 2 p)

2 p = p (1 p ) = 0,3667(1 0,3667) = 0,2322

3.
ntr-R VRFLHWDWH FRPHUFLDO s-DX RE LQXW XUP WRDUHOH GDWH
 FDUH DUH  GH PXQFLWRUL V D RUJDQL]DW R REVHUYDUH VWDWLVWLF

5HSDUWL LD PXQFLWRULORU vQ IXQF LH GH SURGXF LD RE LQXW

EXF

Tabelul 3.11. Grupe de muncitori


GXS SURGXF LD RE LQXW EXF 1XP U PXQFLWRUL

Sub 120 120-140 140-160 160-180 180-200 200-220 220-240


 L SHVWH

Total

10 18 23 38 51 40 15 5 200

5HSDUWL LD PXQFLWRULORU vQ IXQF LH GH YHFKLPH DQL

Tabelul 3.12. Grupe de muncitori GXS YHFKLPH (ani) Sub 2 2-4 4-8 8-12 12-18 18-24
 L SHVWH

Structura muncitorilor
vQ IXQF LH GH YHFKLPH

Total

4,2 8,5 12,9 30,2 26,2 10,2 7,8 100,0

Se cere: 1. 2.
V V VH FDUDFWHUL]H]H VWDWLVWLF FHOH GRX VH SUHFL]H]H GXS VHULL IRORVLQG PHWRGD JUDILF  LQGLFDWRULL WHQGLQ HL FHQWUDOH PHGLLOH GH VWUXFWXU  LQGLFDWRULL GH YDULD LH L VRFLHW LL FRPHUFLDOH UHVSHFWLYH

asimetrie;
FROHFWLYLWDWHD GH PXQFLWRUL DL

FDUH GLQ YDULDELOH HVWH PDL RPRJHQ

Rezolvare 1.
6HULD SULYLQG UHSDUWL LD PXQFLWRULORU vQ IXQF LH GH SURGXF LD LQGLYLGXDO FX IUHFYHQ H DEVROXWH L HVWH JUXSDW 3HQWUX FDUDFWHUL]DUHD VWDWLVWLF SH  LQWHUYDOH GH YDULD LH HJDOH HVWH SUH]HQWDW

D DFHVWHL VHULL GH IUHFYHQ H VH YD IDFH UHSUH]HQWDUHD JUDILF D IUHFYHQ HORU YH]L ILJ  L  IRORVLQG FRO L

SULQ KLVWRJUDP  SROLJRQXO L FXUED FXPXODWLY

7 din tabelul 3.13. Graficul de concentrare se face analog cu cel din figura 1.4. (vezi capitolul 1).

60

51
50

38
0 1 2( %) '& (' %&
40 30

40

23 18 15 5

20

10
10 0 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280

  ! "# $

)LJXUD  'LVWULEX LD PXQFLWRULORU vQ IXQF LH GH SURGXF LD ]LOQLF

EXF

225 200 175 nr. muncitori 150 125 100 75 50 25 0 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260
SURGXF LD EXF

)LJXUD  'LVWULEX LD PXQFLWRULORU vQ IXQF LH GH SURGXF LD ]LOQLF

EXF

)LLQG LQWHUYDOH HJDOH SHQWUX PHGLH L GLVSHUVLH VH YRU XWLOL]D IRUPXOHOH GH FDOFXO VLPSOLILFDW

x=

xi a h i =1
k

ni

ni
i =1

h + a ,

respectiv

xi a ni h i =1 2 x = h 2 ( x a) 2 k ni
k 2 i =1

Pentru calculul indicatorilor se va folosi tabelul 3.13.


&DOFXOXO LQGLFDWRULORU FDUH FDUDFWHUL]HD] vQ IXQF LH GH P UHSDUWL LD FHORU  GH PXQFLWRUL ULPHD SURGXF LHL ]LOQLFH RE LQXWH

Tabelul 3.13. Grupe de muncitori


GXS SURGXF LD RE LQXW 1XP U

muncitori (ni)

Centre de interval (xi)

xi a h
a=190 h=20 3 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

2 xi x x a ni i ni h h

)UHFYHQ H FXPXODWH

&UHVF

WRU

DescresF WRU

(buc.) 0 sub 120 120-140 140-160 160-180 180-200 200-220 220-240


 L SHVWH

Total

1 10 18 23 38 51 40 15 5 200

2 110 130 150 170 190 210 230 250

4 -40 -54 -46 -38 0 40 30 15 -93

5 160 162 92 38 0 40 60 45 597

6 10 28 51 89 140 180 195 200 -

7 200 190 172 149 111 60 20 5 -

x=

93 20 + 190 = 180 , 7 buc./muncitor 200 = 597 20 2 ( 180 , 7 190 ) 2 = 1107 , 51 200

2 x

x = 1107,51 = 33,28 buc./muncitor


v=

x 33,28 100 = 100 = 18,42% x 180,7


PHGLD HVWH UHSUH]HQWDWLY

3H ED]D FRHILFLHQWXOXL GH YDULD LH VH SRDWH WUDJH FRQFOX]LD F   FHHD FH vQVHDPQ vQ DFHODL WLPS F

pentru cele mai multe valori individuale ale serieL GHRDUHFH DP RE LQXW XQ FRHILFLHQW PLF GH YDULD LH
GDWHOH VXQW GHVWXO GH RPRJHQH vQWUH HOH 'LQ DFHODL WDEHO VH SRW FDOFXOD L FHLODO L GRL LQGLFDWRUL DL WHQGLQ HL FHQWUDOH YDORDUH PRGDO L YDORDUH PHGLDQ  ,QWHUYDOXO FX IUHFYHQ PD[LP  FXSULQGH L PRGXO

180 < Mo < 200, de unde:

Mo = x 0 + h

1 (51 38) = 180 + 20 = 190,83 1 + 2 (51 38) + (51 40)

EXF

Locul medianei n serie:

U ( Me) =

n
i =1

+1 =

200 + 1 = 100,5 2

Q LQWHUYDOXO DO FLQFLOHD VXPD IUHFYHQ HORU FXPXODWH HVWH PDL PDUH GHFkW ORFXO PHGLDQHL vQ

seULH DGLF

180 < Me < 200

n
i =1

+1

Me = x 0 + h
Deci, x , Me
UHOD LD L

2 nm

ni
i =1

m 1

= 180 + 20

100,5 89 = 184,5 51

EXF

Mo

VH J VHVF vQ DFHODL LQWHUYDO VHULD HVWH XRU DVLPHWULF

L SXWHP YHULILFD

3( x -Me) = x -Mo 3(180,700-184,5) =-11,4

x -Mo = 180,7-190,83 =-10,13


QVHDPQ F SHQWUX VHULD QRDVWU  FX R GLIHUHQ QHVHPQLILFDWLY  VH YHULILF UHOD LD GLQWUH FHL WUHL LQGLFDWRUL DL WHQGLQ HL FHQWUDOH H[LVWHQW vQ FD]XO UHSDUWL LLORU PRGHUDW DVLPHWULFH

Pentru stabilirea gradului de asimetrie vom avea: C as = ( x Mo )


=

180 , 7 190 , 83 10 , 13 = = 0 , 30 33 , 28 33 , 28

= C as

3( x Me) 3(180,7 184,5) 11,4 = = = 0,34 x 33,28 33,28

AS =

q 2 q1 , q 2 + q1

unde

q1=Me - Q1;

q2 =Q3 Me

U (Q1 ) =

n
i =1

+1 =

201 = 50,25 4

140 < Q1 < 160


1 k u 1 n i + 1 n i 4 i =1 i =1 = 140 + 20 50,25 28 = 159,34 Q1 = x0 + h nu 23

EXF

U (Q3 ) =

3 k 3 ni + 1 = 201 = 150,75 4 i =1 4

200 < Q3 < 220


3 k v 1 n i + 1 n i 4 i =1 i =1 = 200 + 20 150,75 140 = 205,375 Q3 = x 0 + h nv 40

EXF

q1 = 184,5-159,34 = 25,16 q2 = 205,375-184,5 = 20,875


AS = 20,875 25,16 = 0,093 20,875 + 25,16
RE LQXW YDORUL QHJDWLYH UHODWLY PLFL SHQWUX FRHILFLHQ LL GH DVLPHWULH YDORULOH PDL PDUL L FD DWDUH LQGLFDWRULL WHQGLQ HL FHQWUDOH VXQW PDL DEDWHUL QHJDWLYH vQ FRPSDUD LH FX FHL FDUH SUH]LQW SUHGRPLQ

n toate cazurile s-DX


FHHD FH vQVHDPQ F

UHSUH]HQWDWLYL SHQWUX WHUPHQLL FDUH SUH]LQW

abateri pozitive ( x < Me < Mo). 2.


6HULD SULYLQG UHSDUWL LD PXQFLWRULORU GXS YHFKLPH HVWH SH LQWHUYDOH QHHJDOH L FX IUHFYHQ H UHODWLYH 3HQWUX UHSUH]HQWDUHD JUDILF HVWH QHFHVDU V VH IDF R VHULH GH FDOFXOH SUHJ WLWRDUH

&DOFXOXO IUHFYHQ HORU UHGXVH L D IUHFYHQ HORU FXPXODWH

pentru seria referitoare la vechime Tabelul 3.14.

*UXSH GXS

vechime (ani)

Structura muncitorilor (n*i(%))

ULPHD

5DSRUWXO ID

GH

)UHFYHQ H

)UHFYHQ H

intervalulu i (hi)

primul interval

reduse

h Ki = i h1
3 1,0 1,0 2,0 2,0 3,0 3,0 3,0 15

n i* (%) Ki
4 4,2 8,5 6,5 15,1 8,7 3,4 2,6 -

relative cumulate
FUHVF

- descresF WRU

A 0-2 2-4 4-8 8-12 12-18 18-24 24-30 Total

1 4,2 8,5 12,9 30,2 26,2 10,2 7,8 100

2 2 2 4 4 6 6 6 -

tor 5 4,2 12,7 25,6 55,8 82,0 92,2 100 -

6 100,0 95,8 87,3 74,4 44,2 18,0 7,8 -

Folosind datele din tabelul 3.14. se constituie: histograma, polLJRQXO


FXPXODWLY YH]L ILJ  L  

IUHFYHQ HORU L FXUED

16 structura muncitorilor (%) 14 12 10 8 6 4,2 4 2 0 0 4 8


8,5 12,9

30,2

26,2

10,2 7,8

12

16

20

24

28

32

vechime (ani)

)LJXUD  5HSDUWL LD PXQFLWRULORU vQ IXQF LH GH YHFKLPH

structura muncitorilor (%)

100 80 60 40 20 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

vechime (ani)

)vJXUD  5HSDUWL LD PXQFLWRULORU vQ IXQF LH GH YHFKLPH

L vQ DFHVW FD] WUHEXLH FDOFXOD L LQGLFDWRULL FDUH FDUDFWHUL]HD] VLPSOLILFDW 'H UHJXO  VH RSWHD] QXPDL SHQWUX IRORVLUHD XQHL

VWDWLVWLF DFHDVW SURSULHW

VHULH )LLQG GH FDOFXO L

LQWHUYDOH QHHJDOH WUHEXLH FDOFXODWH FHQWUHOH GH LQWHUYDO L DSRL VH YD DSOLFD R IRUPXO VLQJXUH PLFRUDUHD WHUPHQLORU FX R FRQVWDQW

bazate pe

a" (vezi tabelul 3.15.).


ntr-o serie cu intervale neegale Tabelul 3.15.

&DOFXOXO LQGLFDWRULORU WHQGLQ HL FHQWUDOH D PHGLLORU GH SR]L LH L D LQGLFDWRULORU GH YDULD LH

)UHFYHQ

Intervale
GH YDULD LH

reODWLY (n
* i (%) )

Centrul intervalului ( xi ) 2 1 3 6 10 15 21 27 -

(xi - a) a = 10 3 -9 -7 -4 0 5 11 17 -

( xi a ) ni*(%) ( xi a ) 2 ni*(%)
4 -37,8 -59,5 -51,6 0 31 112,2 132,6 226,9 5 340,2 416,5 206,4 0 655 1234,3 2554,2 5113,5

)UHFYHQ H UHODWLYH

cumulative 6 4,2 12,7 25,6 5,5,8 82,0 92,2 100,0 -

A 0-2 2-4 4-8 8 - 12 12 - 18 18 - 24 24 - 30 Total

1 4,2 8,5 12,9 30,2 26,2 10,2 7,8 100

(x x=

2 x

a ) ni*(%) 100

226,9 + 10 12,3 ani/muncitor 100


( x a )2 = 5113 , 5 ( 12 , 3 10 ) 2 = 45 , 84 100

(xi =

a ) 2 n i*(%) 100

x = 45,84 = 6,77 ani/muncitor


v=

x 6,77 100 = 100 = 55% x 12,3

8 < Mo < 12
Mo = x 0 + h 1 (30,2 12,9) =8+4 = 11,25 ani 1 + 2 (30,2 12,9) + (30,2 26,2)

Locul medianei n serie:

U ( Me) =

n
i =1

+1 =

100 + 1 = 50,5 2

8 <Me < 12

n*
i =1

i (%)

+1

Me = x 0 + h

2 n
*
m

n *i (%)
i =1

m 1

=8+4

50 , 5 26 , 6 30 , 2

= 11 , 298 ani

(% )

U (Q1 ) =

101 = 25,25 4

4 < Q1 <8

Q1 = 4 + 4

25,25 12,7 = 7,89 ani 12,9

Q 2 = M e = 11 , 298 ani
U (Q3 ) = 3 101 = 75,75 4

12 < Q3 < 18
Q3 = 12 + 6 75,75 55,8 = 16,568 ani 26,2

C as =

( x Mo) 12,3 11,25 = = 0,155 6,77 x 3( x Me) 3(12,3 11,298) = = 0,44 x 6,77

= C as

q1 = Me-Q1=11,298 7,89 = 3,488 q2 = Q3 Me = 16,568 11,298 = 5,27


AS = q 2 q1 5,2 3,488 = = 0,203 q 2 + q1 25,2 + 3,488
F VHULD DUH FDUDFWHU QHRPRJHQ GHRDUHFH FRHILFLHQWXO GH VLWXD LH HUD GH DWHSWDW VHULD DYkQG  5HIHULQGX QH OD YHFKLPH DFHDVW

$QDOL]kQG UH]XOWDWHOH VH FRQVWDW YDULD LH WRWDO HVWH GH 

LQWHUYDOH QHHJDOH GH YDULD LH L IUHFYHQ HOH GLVWULEXLQGX &DOFXOkQG FRHILFLHQ LL GH DVLPHWULH VH FRQVWDW Q ILQDO VH SRDWH VSXQH F RPRJHQ  FDUDFWHUL]DW vQWUHSULQGHUHD UHVSHFWLY

-se neuniform. R DVLPHWULH spre valorile mici (Mo < Me < x ).


L HVWH PXOW PDL vQ PRG FRUHFW vQ WUDJHP FRQFOX]LD F

VHULD SULYLQG GLVWULEX LD SURGXF LHL vQ EXF

GH LQGLFDWRUL FX YDORUL PLFL SHQWUX YDULD LH L DVLPHWULH L HVWH QHRPRJHQ SURGXF LLOH LQGLYLGXDOH RE LQXWH QX GHSLQG vQ SULQFLSDO GH YHFKLPH FL GH

SHQWUX VHULD SULYLQG YHFKLPHD PHGLH FHHD FH QH SHUPLWH V DO L IDFWRUL HVHQ LDOL VSHFLILFL

4.
SULQ XQLW

ntr-R

VRFLHWDWH FRPHUFLDO  V DX vQUHJLVWUDW FX SULYLUH OD XQ SURGXV GH ED]

GHVWLQDW YkQ] ULL LL PXQFLL

LOH SURSULL GDWHOH QHFHVDUH GHWHUPLQ ULL QLYHOXOXL PHGLX DO SURGXFWLYLW GH WLPS GH PXQF

consumului specific

FKHOWXLHOLOH WRWDOH GH WLPS GH PXQF

zi UHSUH]LQW

yi 

'DWHOH VH SUH]LQW

vQWU R VHULH ELGLPHQVLRQDO

(xi) L DO

vQ FDUH

IUHFYHQ HOH FRPXQH SHQWUX FHOH GRX

YDULDELOH

Tabelul 3.16. Produs Nivelul


SURGXFWLYLW LL

Consumul specific de timp Cheltuielile GH PXQF RUH-om la 1000 lei totale de timp
SURGXF LH GH PXQF

muncii orare
PLL OHLRU

(yi)

(xi) A A B C Total 1 10,0 6,25 7,47 8,65 2 0,100 0,160 0,134 0,116

(mii ore-om) (zi) 3 11624 6444 100 18168

Se cere: 1. calculul nivelului mediu al SURGXFWLYLW LL PXQFLL ( w = x ); 2. FDOFXOXO FRQVXPXOXL PHGLX GH WLPS GH PXQF ( t = y ). 1RW  V VH VSHFLILFH FH IHO GH PHGLL V-DX XWLOL]DW L GH FH "

Rezolvare
'DF FHOH GRX FDUDFWHULVWLFL VXQW FRQVLGHUDWH LQWHUGHSHQGHQWH vQWUH HOH VH SXQH SUREOHPD SURSRU LRQDOLWDWH L DOHJHULL FHOXL PDL SRWULYLW WLS GH PHGLH SHQWUX D S VWUD DFHHDL UHOD LH GH LQYHUV vQWUH P ULPLOH PHGLL FDOFXODWH QWUH FHOH GRX YDULDELOH DSDU UHOD LLOH

xi =

ELGLPHQVLRQDO 3ULPD HVWH IRUPDW

FX IUHFYHQ H FRPXQH VHULH GH GLVWULEX LH D

(n ).
xi yi
QLYHOXULORU

1 yi

SHQWUX

FDUH

VH

YD

RE LQH

UHSDUWL LH

SURGXFWLYLW

LL

PXQFLL

HVWH

IRUPDW

GLQ

GDWHOH

FRORDQHORU  L  LDU FHD GH

-a doua sHULH GH GLVWULEX LH - D FRQVXPXULORU VSHFLILFH GH WLPS GH PXQF


VHULL DX DFHOHDL SRQGHUL YDULDELOH L vQWUH P ULPLOH IRORVL PHGLD DULWPHWLF QXP UXO WRWDO GH RP PHGLX DO

GLQ GDWHOH FRORDQHORU  L  $VWIHO SUH]HQWDWH FHOH GRX

SHQWUX DPEHOH FDUDFWHULVWLFL DGLF PHGLL SHQWUX FDOFXOXO QLYHOXOXL

-ore lucrate.
LL PXQFLL YRP VH YD DSOLFD PHGLD DUPRQLF

3HQWUX D S VWUD UHOD LD GH LQYHUV SRQGHUDW SRQGHUDW 

SURSRU LRQDOLWDWH GLQWUH FHOH GRX SURGXFWLYLW

LDU SHQWUX FDOFXOXO FRQVXPXOXL PHGLX GH WLPS GH PXQF

1.

&DOFXOXO QLYHOXOXL PHGLX DO SURGXFWLYLW

LL PXQFLL

w=x=

x n
i =1 k i

xi yi

n
i =1

10 11624 + 6,25 6444 + 7,47 100 = 8,65 mii lei/ore-om 18168

xi yi

2.

&DOFXOXO FRQVXPXOXL PHGLX GH WLPS GH PXQF

t =y=

n
i =1

xi y i

y
i =1

1
i

n xi yi

18168 = 0,116 ore-om/1000 lei 1 1 1 11624 + 6444 + 100 0,10 0,16 0,134
PHGLL vQ PLL OHL

9HULILFDUHD UHOD LHL GLQWUH FHOH GRX

1 x= ; y
'LIHUHQ D PHGLD DULWPHWLF SRDWH FkQG VH

1 = 8,62; 0,116
SURYHQL GLQ URWXQMLUHD FDOFXOXOXL IUHFYHQ 'HFL L QX PHGLD DUPRQLF SRDWH 8Q VXEVWLWXL DVWIHO GH FXQRVF SURGXVHOH GH IUHFYHQ HOH ,QGLFL  UHDOH

exemplu poate fi cel al indiceluL DUPRQLF DO SUH XULORU YH]L FDSLWROXO

5.

6H FXQRVF XUP WRDUHOH GDWH FX SULYLUH OD GLVWULEX LD YkQ] WRULORU GLQWU

-un complex comercial


Tabelul 3.17.

vQ IXQF LH GH YHFKLPHD vQ PXQF

L YDORDUHD YkQ] ULORU UHDOL]DWH vQWU R V SW PkQ 

6XEJUXSH GH YkQ]

WRUL GXS

YROXPXO YkQ]

ULORU PLO OHL

Grupe GH YkQ]
GXS

WRUL

YHFKLPH DQL

sub 190 1 5 5

190-200 2 15 12 27

200-210 3 5 35 7 47

210-220 4 8 15 23

220
L SHVWH

Total 6 25 55 30 110

A sub 10 10-20
 L SHVWH

5 8 8

Total

Se cere: 1. 2.
SROLJRQXO IUHFYHQ HORU SULYLQG UHSDUWL LD YkQ] WRULORU GXS YROXPXO YkQ] ULORU SH WRWDO L

pe grupe de vechime;
UHSUH]HQWDUHD JUDILF JUDILFXO SULQ S WUDW D QXP UXOXL YkQ] WRULORU GXS YHFKLPH SH FHOH

trei grupe, folosind

3. calculul mediiloU SH JUXSH GH YHFKLPH L SH WRWDO 4. LQGLFDWRULL VLQWHWLFL DL YDULD LHL SH ILHFDUH JUXS L SH WRWDO 5. LQWHUSUHWDUHD JUDGXOXL GH RPRJHQLWDWH SH JUXSH L SH WRWDO 6. verificarea regulii de adunare a dispersiilor; 7. ce indicatori statistici se pot calcula pe baza UHJXOLL GH DGXQDUH
LQWHUSUHWHD] VWDWLVWLF DFHWL LQGLFDWRUL YkQ]

D GLVSHUVLLORU L FXP VH

8.

FDOFXOXO L LQWHUSUHWDUHD GLVSHUVLLORU SHQWUX FDUDFWHULVWLFD PHGLD YkQ] ULORU SH WRWDO 

WRUL FDUH VH DIO

SHVWH

Rezolvare 1.
5HSUH]HQWDUHD JUDILF D GLVWULEX LHL YkQ] WRULORU ILJXULOH  L  

50 45
WRUL 1XP U YkQ]

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 170 180
9ROXPXO YkQ] ULORU PLO OHL

190

200

210

220

230

240

)LJXUD  5HSDUWL LD YkQ]

WRULORU vQWU XQ FRPSOH[ FRPHUFLDO GXS

YROXPXO GHVIDFHULORU

50 45
WRUL

Total gr. I gr. II gr. III

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

1XP

U YkQ]

170

180

9ROXPXO YkQ]

190

200

ULORU PLO OHL

210

220

230

240

)LJXUD  5HSDUWL LD YkQ]

WRULORU GXS

YROXPXO GHVIDFHULL SH WRWDO L SH JUXSH GH YHFKLPH

2.

5HSUH]HQWDUHD JUDILF

D QXP

UXOXL YkQ]

WRULORU GXS

YHFKLPH

(vezi figura 3.11.).

Scara: 1 cm = 2 persoane

55 25 30

sub 10 ani
)LJXUD  1XP

10-20 ani
UXO GH YkQ]

 DQL L SHVWH

WRUL SH JUXSH GH YHFKLPH

3. Calculul mediilor PHGLLOH GH JUXS :


yi =

y n
j =1 j

ij

n
j =1

ij

y1 =

185 5 + 195 15 + 205 5 = 195 25

PLO OHLYkQ] WRU

y2 =
y3 =

195 12 + 205 35 + 215 8 = 204,27 55


205 7 + 215 15 + 225 8 = 215,33 30

PLO OHLYkQ] WRU

PLO OHLYkQ] WRU

PHGLD JHQHUDO

(y ):
j

independent:
y=

y n
j =1 j

n
j =1

y=
-

185 5 + 195 27 + 205 47 + 215 23 + 225 8 = 205,18 110




PLO OHLYkQ] WRU

pe baza mediilor de JUXS y=

y n
i =1 r i

n
i =1

y=

195 25 + 204,27 55 + 215,33 30 = 205,18 110

PLO OHLYkQ] WRU

4.

&DOFXOXO LQGLFDWRULORU VLQWHWLFL DL YDULD LHL GLVSHUVLLOH GH JUXS

( ): m ( y j y i )2 n ij
2 i

i2 =

j =1

n ij
j =1

12 =

(185 - 195) 2 5 + (195 - 195 ) 2 15 + (205 - 195 ) 2 5 = 40 25

2 2 =

(195 - 204,27 ) 2 12 + (205 - 204,27 ) 2 35 + (215 - 204,27 ) 2 8 = 35,83 55

2 = 3

(205 - 215,33

)2

7 + (215 - 215,33 ) 2 15 + (225 - 215,33 ) 2 8 30

= 49 , 89

PHGLD GLVSHUVLLORU SDU LDOH

( ):
2

2 =

i =1 r i =1

2 i

ni
i

n
r

40 25 + 35,83 55 + 49,89 30 = 40,63 110

2 dispersia dintre grupe 2 = y /x :

( y i
i =1 r

y ) n i
2

n i
i =1

( 195 205 , 18 ) 2 25 + ( 204 , 27 205 , 18 ) 2 55 + ( 215 , 33 205 , 18 ) 2 30 110

= 52 , 06

GLVSHUVLD WRWDO

( ): m ( y j y )2 n j
2

=
2

j =1

n j
j =1

(185 205,18) 2 5 + (195 205,18) 2 27 + ( 205 205,18) 2 47


110

( 215 205,18) 2 23+ ( 225 205,18) 2 8


110

= 92, 69

5. Aprecierea gradului de omRJHQLWDWH SH JUXSH L SH WRWDO


&DOFXOXO FRHILFLHQ LORU GH YDULD LH

pe grupe

1 = 12 = 40 = 6,32
v1 =

PLO OHLYkQ] WRU

1 6,32 100 = 100 = 3,24% y1 195


PLO OHLYkQ] WRU

2 2 = 2 = 35,83 = 5,98

v2 =

2 5,98 100 = 100 = 2,93% y2 204,27


PLO OHLYkQ] WRU

3 = 32 = 49,89 = 7,06
v3 =

3 7,06 100 = 100 = 3,18% y3 215,33

pe total

= 2 = 92,69 = 9,62
v=

PLO OHLYkQ] WRU

9,62 100 = 100 = 4,69% y 205,18


F  GHFkW FROHFWLYLWDWHD JHQHUDO GLQ FDUH D IRVW

&RPSDUkQG UH]XOWDWHOH RE LQXWH VH FRQVWDW

ILHFDUH JUXS H[WUDV 

OXDW

VHSDUDW HVWH PDL RPRJHQ

grupD D GRXD HVWH PDL RPRJHQ


JUDG GH RPRJHQLWDWH ULGLFDW

GHFkW FHOHODOWH GRX  L SH WRWDO DWHVW L GHFL XQ JUDG XQ GH

YDORULOH PLFL DOH FRHILFLHQ LORU GH YDULD LH FDOFXOD L SH ILHFDUH JUXS DO JUXSHORU L FROHFWLYLW LL WRWDOH

UHSUH]HQWDWLYLWDWH FRUHVSXQ] WRU SHQWUX PHGLLOH FDUH OH FDUDFWHUL]HD] 

6. Verificarea regulii de adunare a dispersiilor 2 = 2 + 2 92,69 = 52,06 + 40,63 7.


3H ED]D UHJXOLL GH DGXQDUH D GLVSHUVLLORU VH SRW FDOFXOD DO L GRL LQGLFDWRUL VWDWLVWLFL

*UDGXO GH GHWHUPLQD LH

2 ( Ry /x )

2 Ry /x =

2 52,06 100 = 100 = 56,16% 2 92,69


2 (Ky /x )

*UDGXO GH QHGHWHUPLQD LH

2 Ky /x =
6H

40,63 2 100 = 100 = 43,84% 2 92,69


F  GLQ YDULD LD WRWDO D YROXPXOXL YkQ] ULORU HVWH H[SOLFDW GH

SRDWH DILUPD

YDULD LD SURGXV GH 

GH IDFWRUXO GH JUXSDUH YHFKLPHD

factor dominant deoarece

2 Ry > x

50%), restul

ILLQG LQIOXHQ D UHODWLY

D FHORUODO L IDFWRUL QHvQUHJLVWUD L

8.
*

&DOFXOXO

LQWHUSUHWDUHD

GLVSHUVLLORU

SHQWUX

YkQ]

WRULL

FDUH

VH

DIO

SHVWH

YROXPXO

PHGLX DO YkQ]

ULORU SH WRWDO

"

Calculul mediilor

PHGLLOH SH JUXS

: wi =

mi , ni

de unde: 0 w1 = =0 25 8 w2 = = 0,1455 55
w3 = 23 = 0,7667 30

media pe total: w =

m 31 = = 0,2818 n 110

Calculul dispersiilor

GLVSHUVLLOH GH JUXS

2 w = wi ( 1 w ),
i i

de unde:
2 w = w 1 (1 w 1 ) = 0 (1 0 ) = 0
1

2 w

= w 2 (1 w 2 ) = 0 , 1455 (1 0 , 1455 ) = 0 , 1243

2 w = w 3 (1 w 3 ) = 0 , 7667 (1 0 , 7667 ) = 0 , 1789


3

PHGLD GLVSHUVLLORU SDU LDOH

2 ( w ):

=
2 w

i =1 r i =1

2 wi

ni
i

n (w
i =1 r

0 25 + 0,1243 55 + 0,1789 30 = 0,1109 110

2 dispersia dintre grupe ( w ):

=
2 w

w ) ni
2 r i

n
i =1

2 2 ( 0 0,2818) 25 + (0,1455 0,2818) 55 = +

110

(0,7667 0,2818)2 30 = 0,0914


110

2 w = w( 1 w) = 0,2818 ( 1 0,2818 ) = 0,2023


L vQ FD]XO FDUDFWHULVWLFLL DOWHUQDWLYH

2 dispersia total ( w ):

5HJXOD DGXQ ULL GLVSHUVLLORU VH S VWUHD]

= + 0,2023 = 0,1109 + 0,0914


2 w 2 w 2 w

3HQWUX XQ DJHQW HFRQRPLF FH GHVI RDU WUHL DFWLYLW L V-au nregistrat datele privind veniturile salariale ale personalului pentru luna mai 2001 (vezi tabelul 3.18.).

6.

5HSDUWL LD VDODULD LORU SH DFWLYLW

L vQ IXQF LH GH P

ULPHD YHQLWXULORU VDODULDOH vQ OXQD PDL 

Tabelul 3.18.
vQ ID GH WRWDOXO JUXSHL

Grupe duS VDODULL (zeci mii lei) A sub 250 250 - 270 270 - 290 290 - 310 310 - 330 330 - 350 350 - 370  L Seste Total

Activitatea I 1 10 12 25 28 15 10 100

Activitatea II 2 20 35 20 15 10 100

Activitatea III 3 20 47 23 10 100

1XP UXO GH VDODULD L D vQUHJLVWUDW XUP WRDUHD VWUXFWXU  DFWLYLWDWHD O

- 20%; activitatea II -

- 

L DFWLYLWDWHD ,,,

- 30%.

Se cere: 1. 2. 3.
V V V VH DSOLFH UHJXOD GH DGXQDUH D GLVSHUVLLORU L V VH VSHFLILFH GDF IDFWRUXO G

e grupare

este semnificativ sau nu;


VH DUDWH JUDGXO GH RPRJHQLWDWH SH FHOH WUHL DFWLYLW L L SH WRWDO L V VH LQWHUSUHWH]H UH]XOWDWHOH RE LQXWH SHQWUX FDUDFWHUL]DUHD YDULD LHL VH FDOFXOH]H QXP UXO GH VDODULD L IUHFYHQ HOH DEVROXWH WLLQG F SH WRWDO QXP UXO ORU D IRVW GH  L V VH YHULILFH SH ED]D IUHFYHQ HORU DEVROXWH GLVSHUVLD WRWDO 

Rezolvare 1.
)LLQG LQWHUYDOH HJDOH PHGLLOH L GLVSHUVLLOH VH SRW GHWHUPLQD FX IRUPXOHOH GH FDOFXO VLPSOLILFDW FX IUHFYHQ H UHODWLYH

yj a * nij (%) h j =1 yi = h + a 100

yj a * h nij (%) j =1 2 i = h 2 (y a )2 100

1.1. Pentru activitatea I VH YD PHGLH S WUDWLF (vezi tabelul 3.19.).

H[WUDJH VHULD L VH YRU FDOFXOD PHGLD GLVSHUVLD

abaterea

&DOFXOXO PHGLHL L GLVSHUVLHL VDODULLORU SHQWUX DFWLYLWDWHD ,

Tabelul 3.19. Grupe GXS salarii (zeci mii lei) Structura


VDODULD LORU

(n

* 1 j (%)

Centrul de interval

(y )
j

yj a h
a = 300 h = 20 3 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 -

yj a * h n1 j (%)
4 -30 -24 -25 0 15 20 -44

yj a * h n1 j (%)
2

A 230-250 250-270 270-290 290-310 310-330 330-350 Total

1 10 12 25 28 15 10 100

2 240 260 280 300 320 340 -

5 90 48 25 0 15 40 218

y1 =

44 20 + 300 = 291,200 zeci mii lei/salariat 100


218 2 20 2 (291,2 300 ) = 794,56 100

12 =

1 = 794,56 = 28,187 zeci mii lei/salariat


v1 = 28,187 100 = 9,68% 291,2

1.2. Pentru activitatea II (vezi calculele n tabelul 3.20.)


&DOFXOXO PHGLHL L GLVSHUVLHL VDODULLORU SHQWUX DFWLYLWDWHD D ,,,

-a

Tabelul 3.20.
*UXSH GXS

Structura
VDODULD LORU

salarii (zeci mii lei)

(n

* 2 j (%)

Centrul de interval

(y )
j

yj a h
a = 300 h = 20 3 -1 0 1 2 3 -

y j a h

* n2

j (%)

y j a h

* n2

j (%)

A 270-290 290-310 310-330 330-350 350-370 Total

1 20 35 20 15 10 100

2 280 300 320 340 360 -

4 -20 0 20 30 30 60

5 20 0 20 60 90 190

y2 =

60 20 + 300 = 312 ]HFL PLL OHLVDODULDW DGLF 100

 OH

i/salariat

2 2 =

190 2 20 2 (312 300 ) = 616 100

2 = 616 = 24,82 zeci mii lei/salariat


v2 = 24,82 100 = 7,95% 312

1.3. Pentru activitatea a III-a vezi calculele n tabelul 3.21.


&DOFXOXO PHGLHL L GLVSHUVLHL VDODULLORU SHQWUX DFWLYLWDWHD D 

-a Tabelul 3.21.

*UXSH GXS

Structura
VDODULD LORU

salarii (zeci mii lei)

(n

* 3 j (%)

Centrul de interval

(y )
j

yj a h
a = 300 h = 20 3 -1 0 1 2 -

yj a * h n 2 j (%)
4 -20 0 23 20 23

y j a h

* n3 j (%)
5 20 0 23 40 83

A 310-330 330-350 350-370 3 L SHVWH Total

1 20 47 23 10 100

2 320 340 360 380 -

y3 =

23 20 + 340 = 344,6 zeci mii lei/salariat sau 3446000 lei/salariat 100

83 2 20 2 (310,84 340 ) = 310,84 100 3 = 310,84 = 17,6 zeci mii lei/salariat

32 =

v3 =

17,06 100 = 5,11% 344,84


PHGLLOH SDU LDOH L SRQGHULOH VDODULD LORU DFWLYLW LORU UHVSHFWLYH VH SRDWH

1.4. &XQRVFkQG calcula media pe total:


r

y i n i*( % ) ( 291, 2 20 )+ (312 50 ) (344, 6 30 ) i =1 y= = = 317 , 62


100 100
1.5.
GRX $SOLFkQG UHJXOD DGXQ ULL GLVSHUVLLORU V GLQWUH HOH XUPkQG FD GLVSHUVLD WRWDO ILH FDOFXODW

zeci mii lei/salariat


SXW

2 = 2 + 2

VH FRQVWDW

em calcula doar

SH ED]D UHOD LHL GH PDL VXV

i2 n i*(%)
i =1

100

(794,56 20) + (616 50) + (310,84 30) 100

= 560 , 164

( y i y )2 n i*(%)
i =1

100

= = 378 , 24

( 291, 2 317 , 62 ) 2 20 + ( 312 317 , 62 ) 2 50 + ( 344 , 6 317 , 62 ) 2 30 100

2 = 2 + 2 = 560,164 + 378,24 = 938,404


1.6. &DOFXOXO JUDGXOXL GH GHWHUPLQD LH L QHGHWHUPLQD LH:
2 Ry /x

378,276 2 = 2 100 = 100 = 40,31% 938,404

2 Ky /x =

2 560,164 100 = 100 = 59,69% 2 938,404


IDFWRU GH JUXSDUH QHUHSUH]HQWDWLY FHHD FH vQVHDPQ SURSRU LH GH  GLIHUHQ H VSHFLILFH vQWUH F vQ OXQD QRLHPEULH QX L vQ

2 2 Ky / x > Ry / x a existat dect ntr-R

FHOH WUHL DFWLYLW

cazul

YHQLWXULORU VDODULDOH FHHD FH HUD GH DWHSWDW

2.

3HQWUX DQDOL]D RPRJHQLW

LL VH YRU IRORVL LQGLFDWRULL SUH]HQWD L vQ

tabelul 3.22. (coloana 5).

5HSDUWL LD SH FHOH WUHL DFWLYLW

L D VDODULLORU PHGLL L D LQGLFDWRULORU GH YDULD LH

Tabelul 3.22. AFWLYLW


L

Structura Salariile medii personalului (zeci mii lei) 1 20% 50% 30% 100% 2 291,2 312,0 344,6 317,62

Dispersiile

Abaterile medii
S WUDWLFH

&RHILFLHQ LL GH YDULD LH

A I II III Total

3 794,56 616,00 310,84 938,404

(zeci mii lei) 4 28,187 24,820 17,600 30,63

5 9,68% 7,95% 5,11% 9,64%

Q H[HPSOXO DQDOL]DW VH SRW WUDJH XUP WRDUHOH FRQFOX]LL

DWkW SH vQWUHDJD VRFLHWDWH FRPHUFLDO

FkW L SH ILHFDUH DFWLYLWDWH VHULLOH VXQW RPRJHQH VH LHUDUKL]HD] LORU HVWH DFWLYLWDWHD D ,,,

deoarece s-DX
VHULLOH GXS

RE LQXW YDORUL PLFL SHQWUX FRHILFLHQ LL GH YDULD LH 'DF  L PDL SX LQ RPRJHQ

FULWHULXO YHQLWXULORU VDODULDOH RUGLQHD RPRJHQLW

-a

(5,11%); activitatea a II-D

UHSUH]HQWDWLYLWDWH ID

SULPD DFWLYLWDWHD 

FDUH

GHS HWH FX IRDUWH SX LQ JUDGXO GH RPRJHQLWDWH SH

total (9,64%);

DYkQG FRHILFLHQ L PLFL GH YDULD LH PHGLLOH VXQW vQ WRDWH FD]XULOH FX XQ JUDG PDUH GH GH YDORULOH LQGLYLGXDOH GLQ FDUH DX IRVW FDOFXODWH GHRDUHFH WR L  FRHILFLHQ LL GH YDULD LH VXQW VXE 

3. Seriile din tabelul 3.1 VH SRW SUH]HQWD L FX IUHFYHQ H DEVROXWH


WLLQG F VH RE LQH QXP UXO WRWDO DO VDODULD LORU D IRVW GH  L DYkQG UHSDUWL LD ORU UHODWLY SH DFWLYLW L


IUHFYHQ HOH

20 = 80 VDODULD L 100 50 activitatea a II-a 400 = 200 salaria L 100 30 activitatea a III-a 400 = 120 VDODULD L 100
activitatea I

400

$SOLFkQG JUHXW DEVROXWH

LOH VSHFLILFH GLQ ILHFDUH DFWLYLWDWHD OD QXP UXO GH VDODULD L VH FDOFXOHD] FDUH VH GHWHUPLQ QXPDL vQ QXPHUH vQWUHJL UHIHULQGX

-se la persoane

(vezi tabelul 3.23).

5HSDUWL LD VDODULD LORU SH FHOH WUHL DFWLYLW

L vQ IXQF LH GH YHQLWXULOH VDODULDOH

Tabelul 3.23.
*UXSH GXS VDODULL

Activitatea I 8 10 20 22 12 8 80

Activitatea II 40 70 40 30 20 200

Activitatea III 24 56 28 12 120

Total 8 10 60 92 76 94 48 12 400

(zeci mii lei) sub 250 250-270 270-290 290-310 310-330 330-350 350-370
 L SHVWH

Total

&DOFXOXO PHGLHL L GLVSHUVLHL SH WRWDO SH ED]D IUHFYHQ HORU DEVROXWH

Tabelul 3.24.
*UXSH GXS VDODULL 1XP UXO LORU

(zeci mii lei)

salDULD
j

(n )
1 8 10 60 92 76 94 48 12

Centrul de interval

(y )
j

yj a h
a = 340 h = 20 3 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2

yj a h nj
4 -40 -40 -180 -184 -76 0 48 24 -448

yj a h nj
2

A sub 250 250-270 270-290 290-310 310-330 330-350 350-370


 L SHVWH

2 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 -

5 200 160 540 368 76 0 48 48 1440

Total

400

y=

i =1

xj a h

nj

n
i =1
k

h+ a =

448 20 + 340 = 317,6 zeci mii lei/salariat 400

yj a h nj 1440 i =1 2 y = h 2 ( y a) 2 = 400 (340 317,6) 2 = 938,24 k 400 nj


2 i =1

Deci s-a ajuns la aceleDL


IUHFYHQ HORU UHODWLYH

YDORUL L SHQWUX PHGLH L SHQWUX GLVSHUVLH FD vQ FD]XO IRORVLULL

PROBLEME PROPUSE

Pentru 40 de agen L HFRQRPLFL FH DFWLYHD] vQ DFHODL GRPHQLX GH DFWLYLWDWH s-au nregistrat datele privind profitul realizat (mil. lei) n luna august: 40, 63, 59, 52, 62, 50, 45. 51, 54, 50, 48, 55, 59, 47, 57, 53, 46, 55, 64, 53, 42, 51, 53, 56, 52, 58, 49, 54, 60, 46, 41, 47, 42, 44, 63, 58, 49, 55, 50, 53. Se cere:
1.
V VH JUXSH]H FHL  GH DJHQ L HFRQRPLFL SH LQWHUYDOH GH YDULD LH HJDOH GXS SURILWXO UHDOL]DW

1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

V V V V V

VH UHSUH]LQWH JUDILF UHSDUWL LD RE LQXW VH YHULILFH UHSUH]HQWDWLYLWDWHD PHGLHL VH GHWHUPLQH LQGLFDWRULL FDUH VHSDU VH P VRDUH JUDGXO GH DVLPHWULH

OD SXQFWXO SUHFHGHQW VH LQWHUSUHWH]H UHOD LD GLQWUH HL

VH FDOFXOH]H LQGLFDWRULL WHQGLQ HL FHQWUDOH L V 

GLQ DJHQ LL HFRQRPLFL VLWXD L OD FHQWUXO

UHSDUWL LHL

2.

3HQWUX R XQLWDWH HFRQRPLF

VH FXQRVF GDWHOH

Tabelul 3.25. Grupe de muncitori


GXS P ULPHD SURGXF LHL PLL EXF

Nr. muncitori 2 6 10 20 18 6 60

Sub 10 10-12 12-14 14-16 16 -18


 L SHVWH

Total

Se cere:
1.
V VH UHSUH]LQWH JUDILF GLVWULEX LD PXQFLWRULORU GXS P ULPHD SURGXF LHL

2. 3. 4.

V V V

VH YHULILFH GDF

GLVWULEX LD PXQFLWRULORU GXS

P ULPHD SURGXF LHL HVWH RPRJHQ 

VH FDOFXOH]H QLYHOXO FHQWUDOL]DW DO SURGXF LHL SHQWUX PXQFLWRULL FX SURGXF LD GH FHO VH FDOFXOH]H LQGLFDWRUXO FDUH VHSDU  GLQ PXQFLWRUL GH UHVWXO PXQFLWRULORU

SX LQ  PLL EXF

3.

3HQWUX  GH VDODULD L DL XQHL VRFLHW

L FRPHUFLDOH VH FXQRVF GDWHOH

Tabelul 3.26. Grupe GH VDODULD


GXS L 1XP U

YHFKLPH DQL

VDODULD L

Timpul mediu nelucrat (min.)

Abaterea medie
S WUDWLF SULYLQG

A sub 10 10-20
 L SHVWH

1 20 90 40

2 30 45 55

timpul nelucrat (min.) 3 4,8 9,0 6,6

Se cere: 1. 2. 3.
V V V VH UHSUH]LQWH JUDILF VWUXFWXUD VDODULD LORU GXS VH YHULILFH RPRJHQLWDWHD SH JUXSH L SH WRWDO VH GHWHUPLQH vQ FH P VXU YDULD LD WLPSXOXL QHOXFUDW VH GDWRUHD] GHRVHELULORU SULYLQG YHFKLPH

YHFKLPHD vQ PXQF 

4.
Dintr-XQ VRQGDM VWDWLVWLF GH 
SURSRU LRQDO VWUDWLILFDW V DX RE LQXW GD

tele:
Tabelul 3.27.

*UXSH GH DJHQ L HFRQRPLFL GXS P ULPHD FDSLWDOXOXL

*UXSH GH DJHQ L HFRQRPLFL GXS

ULPHD SURILWXOXL

sub 10 1 5 5

10-14 2 10 10 20

(mil. lei) 14-18 18-22 3 5 15 10 30 4 25 20 45

22-26 5 15 15 30

 L

Total 7 20 70 50 140

(mil. lei) A I II III Total

peste 6 5 5 10

Se cere: 1. 2. 3.
V V V VH UHSUH]LQWH JUDILF GLVWULEX LD DJHQ LORU HFRQRPLFL GXS VH YHULILFH UHJXOD GH DGXQDUH D GLVSHUVLLORU L V VH FDUDFWHUL]H]H RPRJHQLWDWHD SH ILHFDUH JUXS P ULPHD SURILWXOXL SH WRWDO IDFWRUXO GH JUXSDUH HVWH VH DUDWH GDF L SH WRWDO

semnificativ sau nu;

4. 5.

V V

VH P VRDUH JUDGXO GH DVLPHWULH SHQWUX JUXSD D ,,

-a;

VH YHULILFH UHJXOD DGXQ ULL GLVSHUVLLORU SHQWUX FDUDFWHULVWLFD DJHQ L HFRQRPLFL FX

profitul mai mic dect 18 mil.lei.

5.
3HQWUX XQ HDQWLRQ GH  GH DJHQ L HFRQRPLFL VH FXQRVF GDWHOH

Tabelul 3.28. Grupe tipice de


DJHQ L HFRQRPLFL GXS FLIUD

Structura
DJHQ LORU

Profitul mediu (mil.lei/ag.ec.)

Dispersia privind
P ULPHD

de afaceri A sub 20 20-30


 L SHVWH

economici (%) 1 50 30 20

profitului 2 14,4 19,68 30,8 3 11,52 11,28 5,76

Se cere: 1. 2. 3.
V V V VH SUHFL]H]H vQ FH SURSRU LH FLIUD GH DIDFHUL LQIOXHQ HD] VH SUHFL]H]H FDUH JUXS HVWH PDL RPRJHQ   YDULD LD SURILWXOXL

VH UHSUH]LQWH JUDILF SURILWXO WRWDO vQ IXQF LH GH IDFWRULL GH LQIOXHQ