You are on page 1of 46

WCDMA Access Procedure

Review

Access is associated with the call setup success rate of the network. Mastering the access procedure can increase this KPI with the access parameters optimization.

Objectives

Upon completion of this course,you will be able to:

Know

the

detailed

access

procedure in UMTS Know how to optimize the

access procedure

Course Contents

Random access procedure RRC setup procedure RAB setup procedure

Random access procedure Physical channel about access Random access procedure Parameters optimization .

PRACH access slot radio frame: 10 ms 5120 chips Access slot #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 radio frame: 10 ms Random Access Transmission Random Access Transmission Random Access Transmission Random Access Transmission UE can start the random-access transmission at the beginning of a access slot There are 15 access slots per two frames what access slots are available is given by higher layers .

Structure of the random-access transmission P r ea m b le 4 0 9 6 ch ip s P r ea m b le P r ea m b le M essa g e p a r t 1 0 m s (on e r a d io fr a m e) P r ea m b le P r ea m b le M essa g e p a r t 2 0 m s (tw o r a d io fr a m es) P r ea m b le 4 0 9 6 ch ip s Each random-access transmission consists of one or several preambles of length 4096 chips and a message of length 10 ms or 20 ms. Each preamble is of length 4096 chips and consists of 256 repetitions of a signature of length 16 chips. .

τp-a PRACH access slots TX at UE Preamble Preamble Message part τp-p τp-m The preamble-to-preamble distance τp-p shall be larger than or equal to the minimum preamble-to-preamble distance τp-p. Ind.Structure of the random-access transmission One access slot AICH access slots RX at UE Acq. .min .

min = 15360 chips (3 access slots) τp-a = 7680 chips τp-m = 15360 chips (3 access slots) when AICH_Transmission_Timing is set to 1. then τp-p.Structure of the random-access transmission when AICH_Transmission_Timing is set to 0 τp-p. .min = 20480 chips (4 access slots) τp-a = 12800 chips τp-m = 20480 chips (4 access slots) The parameter AICH_Transmission_Timing is signalled by higher layers.

Random access procedure Physical channel about access Random access procedure Parameters optimization .

Concepts in random access procedure Preamble Signature AC (Access Class) ASC (Access Service Class) RACH sub channels Access slot set .

UE gets signature from system info type5.Preamble Signature The preamble signature corresponding to a signatures consists of 256 repetitions of a length 16 signature Ps(n) shown as the following table. Preamble signature P0(n) P1(n) P2(n) P3(n) P4(n) P5(n) P6(n) P7(n) P8(n) P9(n) P10(n) P11(n) P12(n) P13(n) P14(n) P15(n) 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 2 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 3 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 4 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 5 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 6 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 Value of n 7 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 9 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 10 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 11 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 12 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 13 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 14 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 15 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 .

Access Class 14 --.For PLMN Use. they cannot initiate the emergency calls when Access Class 10 and Access Class 11~15 are all barred. Different from Access Class 0~9 and 11~15. indicating whether the UEs belonging to Access Class 0~9 or without IMSI can be accessed to the network in case of emergency calls. as shown below: Access Class 15 --. .Security Services.PLMN Staff.Access Class The SIMs/USIMs of all the UEs are allocated with one of Access Class 0~9.Emergency Services.Public Utilities. For the UEs with Access Class 11~15. the control information of Access Class 10 is sent to UEs by means of air interface signalling. Access Class 13 --. Access Class 12 --. Access Class 11 --. In addition. one or more special access classes (Access Class 11~15) might be allocated to the SIM/USIM storage information of the UEs with high priority.

The ASCs are numbered within the range 0<= i <=7. One ASC defines a partition of certain PRACH resources. "0" indicates the highest priority and "7" indicates the lowest priority. In case the UE is member of several ACs it shall select the ASC for the highest AC number.Access Service Class The PRACH resources (access timeslots and preamble signatures in FDD mode) can be classified into several ASCs. AC to ASC mapping. AC ASC 0–9 1 IE st 10 2 IE nd rd 11 3 IE th 12 4 IE th 13 5 IE th 14 6 IE th 15 7 IE . and the maximum number of ASCs is 8.

14 and starts (τp-a –2560) chips before the downlink P-CCPCH frame for which SFN mod 2 = 1. AICH access slots τp-a #0 #1 SFN mod 2 = 0 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 SFN mod 2 = 1 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 #0 PRACH access slots #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 Access slot set 1 Access slot set 2 10 ms 10 ms .Access Slot Set Access slot set 1 contains PRACH slots 0 – 7 and starts τp-a chips before the downlink P-CCPCH frame for which SFN mod 2 = 0. Access slot set 2 contains PRACH slots 8 .

SFN modulo 8 of corresponding PCCPCH frame Sub-channel number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 12 1 13 2 14 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 6 10 7 8 11 0 9 6 10 7 8 3 4 5 9 6 11 12 1 13 2 14 3 4 5 0 10 7 8 9 11 12 1 13 2 14 3 4 5 0 10 11 12 1 13 2 14 .RACH sub channels A RACH sub-channel defines a sub-set of the total set of uplink access slots. There are a total of 12 RACH sub-channels.

Random access procedure .

The Power offset P p-m = Pmessage-control – Ppreamble. The parameter Preamble Retrans Max. The set of Transport Format parameters. Preamble_Initial_Power. either 10 or 20 ms.Random access procedure Before random-access procedure. The message length in time. The set of available signatures and the set of available RACH sub-channels for each ASC. The power-ramping factor Power Ramp Step. This includes the power offset between the data part and the control part of the random-access message for each Transport Format. Layer 1 shall receive the following information from the RRC layers: The preamble scrambling code. The AICH_Transmission_Timing parameter [0 or 1]. .

. The data to be transmitted . The ASC of the PRACH transmission.Random access procedure Layer 1 shall also receive the following information from the MAC layers : The Transport Format to be used for the PRACH message part.

4. Set the parameter Commanded Preamble Power to Preamble_Initial_Power.Random access steps 1. Randomly select a signature from the set of available signatures within the given ASC . Set the Preamble Retransmission Counter to Preamble Retrans Max. 2. 3. . Derive the available uplink access slots in the next full access slot set and Randomly select one access slot .

Check if the counter more than 0 and the preamble power less than the maximum allowed. Check the corresponding AI. set L1 status “Nack on AICH received”. 7. If no AI received. Transmit a preamble using the selected uplink access slot. if received positive AI. If true. send a preamble again. increase the preamble power by power ramp step. signature and decrease the preamble retransmission counter by one.Random access steps 5. send the message part and set L1 status “RACH message transmitted”. set L1 status “No ack on AICH” . select the next access slot. . 6. If received negative AI. signature. Otherwise. and preamble transmission power.

Random access procedure Physical channel about access Random access procedure Parameters optimization .

but the access process will become shorter. the access power will satisfy the requirements. the initial transmission power will be too big.ConstantValue Preamble_Initial_Power = DL_Path_Loss + UL_interference + Constant_Value. Influence on the network performance: If this parameter is set too big. . but the preamble requires multiple ramps. if it is set too small. This parameter is used for the UE to estimate the initial PRACH transmission power according to the open loop power. which will lengthen the access process.

but some power will be saved. the access process will be shortened. It is a value to be weighed. the access process will be lengthened. if it is set too small. Influence on the network performance: If this value is set too big.PRACH Power Ramp Step PRACH PowerRampStep is the ramp step of the preamble power by the UE before it receives the NodeB capture indication. but the probability of wasting power will be bigger. .

Influence on the network performance: If this value is set too big. the access process will be shortened. but the probability of wasting power will be bigger.Maximum Preamble Retransmit Times PreambleRetransMax is the maximum preamble retransmission times of the UE within a preamble ramp cycle. It is a value to be weighed. . the access process will be lengthened. if it is set too small. but some power will be saved.

if it is set too big.Maximum Preamble Cycle Times Mmax defines the maximum times of the random access preamble cycle. Influence on the network performance: If this parameter is set too small. which will increase the uplink interference. if the UE has not received the capture indication yet. but the maximum cycle times cannot exceed Mmax. . the UE will probably try access attempt repeatedly within a long time. the UE access success rate will be influenced. it will repeat the access attempt after the specified waiting time. When the UE transmits a preamble and has reached the maximum retransmit times (PreambleRetransMax).

Course Contents Random access procedure RRC setup procedure RAB setup procedure .

RRC Setup Procedure .

N315.Parameters optimization T300 and N300 DPDCH Power Control Preamble Length (PCPreamble) Successive Synchronization Indication Times (NInSyncInd) Successive Out-of-sync Indication Times (NOutSyncInd) Radio Link Failure Timer Duration (TRLFailure) N312 and T312 N313. T313 .

and consequently other users will be influenced seriously. Once the timer times out. It will likely be that a UE repeats the access attempt and the connection setup request transmission. Influence on the network performance: The T300 setting should be considered together with the UE. the higher success probability of the RRC connection setup will be. . and the longer RRC setup time will probably be. The bigger T300 is. and the timer will be stopped after the UE receives RRC CONNECTION SETUP message. the longer time the UE T300 will wait for. the T300 timer will be started. the UE repeats RRC CONNECTION REQUEST. The bigger N300 is.T300 and N300 After the UE transmits RRC CONNECTION REQUEST message. otherwise it will be in the idle mode. if RRC CONNECTION REQUEST message is retransmitted less than the number of times specified by the constant N300. UTRAN processing delay and the propagation delay.

Later. This delay depends on the searching process and the propagation delay. this parameter has been originally used in the uplink and downlink power control convergence to prevent the uncontrollable power of the UE at the beginning. and data loss will occur. or. if it is the confirmation mode. it will lead to data loss and retransmission delay. which will consequently influence the service rate and the transmission delay. it was considered in some proposals that NodeB needs some time to find the uplink signal after the UE starts DPCCH transmission. If this parameter is set improperly. because the data cannot be received normally at this time. the retransmission may cause more serious data delay. Influence on the network performance: At first. .PCPreamble PCPreamble defines the lasting time of DPCCH transmission by the UE before the UE transmits DPDCH. It makes no sense to start the uplink DPDCH transmission process before the end of this process.

Once the radio link recovery process is triggered. and the more difficult the sync will be. if the link quality is bad. However.NInSyncInd This parameter defines the successive synchronization indication times required for the NodeB to trigger the radio link recovery process. Influence on the network performance: The bigger this parameter is. the radio link set is considered to be in the synchronized state. the smaller it is. . the easier the synchronization will be. this parameter is used together with the successive outof-sync indication counter. a simple synchronization requirement will lead to the waste of the UE power and the increase of uplink interference. the stricter the synchronization process will be. The radio link set remains in the initial state until it receives NInsyncInd successive synchronization indications from L1. in the radio link maintenance process. then NodeB triggers the radio link recovery process. which indicates that the radio link set has been synchronized.

the link out-of-sync decision will be likely to occur. it will result in waste of the UE power and increased uplink interference. if the link quality is bad. but. out-of-sync will not be likely to occur. the NodeB will trigger the radio link failure process. . and indicate the radio link set that is out-of-sync. If the timer TRlFailure times out. The NodeB should stop and reset the timer TRlFailure after receiving NInsyncInd successive sync indications. this parameter is adopted together with the successive synchronization indication counter.NOutSyncInd NOutSyncInd defines the successive out-of-sync indication times that are required to receive to start the timer TRlFailure. if it is set too big. the NodeB will start the timer TRlFailure after it receives NOutsyncInd successive out-of-sync indications. In the radio link maintenance process. Influence on the network performance: If this parameter is set too small. When the radio link set is in synchronized state.

there will few chances for link synchronization. if it is set too long. When the radio link set is in synchronized state. . If the timer TRlFailure times out. NodeB should start the timer TRlFailure after it receives NOutsyncInd successive out-of-sync indications. and the downlink interference will be increased.TRLFailure This value defines the timer TRlFailure duration. NodeB will trigger the radio link failure process. and indicate the radio link set that is out-of-sync. the radio link failure process will probably be delayed. and NodeB should stop and reset the timer TRlFailure after receiving NInsyncInd successive sync indications. Influence on the network performance: If the timer is set too short.

but the longer the synchronization time will be. Influence on the network performance: The bigger N312 is. the more difficult the dedicated channel synchronization will be. Once the timer times out. and after the UE detects N312 synchronization indications from L1. it means that the physical channel setup has failed. the longer T312 is. . it starts the T312 timer. the bigger the synchronization probability will be.N312 and T312 When the UE starts to set up the dedicated channel. it will stop the T312 timer.

and the bigger the link recovery probability will be. the more difficult it will be to start T313. These three parameters should be used together. which will reduce the out-of-sync probability. the longer T313 will be. . the radio link fails. And after the UE detects N315 successive sync indications from L1. it will start the T313 timer.N313. it will stop the T313 timer. Once the timer times out. the smaller N315 is. Influence on the network performance: The bigger N313 is. T313 After the UE detects N313 successive out-of-sync indications from L1. N315.

Course Contents Random access procedure RRC setup procedure RAB setup procedure .

RAB Setup Procedure .

A A L 2 Q .A A L 2 D o w n link S y nc h ro nis a t io n U p link S y nc h ro n is a t io n D C H -F P D C H -F P C C C H : R R C C o n ne c t io n RRC D C C H : R R C C o nne c t io n RRC RLC RRC D C C H : R R C C o nne c t io n DCCH : S e tup RRC RRC RLC RRC S e tup C o m p le te S e tup C o m p le te a c k In ita l D ir e c t T ra ns fe r .A A L 2 D C H -F P D C H -F P S ta rt T X E s ta blis h R e q ue s t E s ta blis h C o nf irm Q .Appendix: MOC signaling process UE N ode B S e rving R N S C C C H : R R C C o n ne c t io n R e q u e s t R a d io L ink S e tup R e q ue s t NBAP S e rving RNC CN RRC RRC N BAP S ta rt R X N BAP R a d io L ink S e tup R e s p o ns e NBAP Q .A A L 2 Q .

Appendix: MOC signaling process UE Node B Serving RNS Serving RNC CN RRC DCCH : Inital Direct Transfer RRC Initial UE Message RANAP RANAP (CM Service Request) Direct Transfer (CM Service Accept) RANAP RANAP RRC RRC RRC DCCH : Downlink Direct Transfer DCCH : Uplink Direct Transfer RRC RRC RANAP RANAP Direct Transfer (Setup) Direct Transfer (Call Proceeding) RANAP RANAP RRC RRC DCCH : Downlink Direct Transfer DCCH : Uplink Direct Transfer RRC RRC .

AAL2 Q.AAL2 RANAP Serving RNC CN RRC RRC RRC Q.Appendix: MOC signaling process UE Node B Serving RNS DCCH : Downlink Direct Transfer DCCH : Uplink Direct Transfer RRC RAB Assignment Request RANAP Q.AAL2 NBAP Radio Link Reconfiguration Prepare NBAP NBAP ( Establishment ) Establish Request Establish Confirm Q.AAL2 NBAP Radio Link Reconfiguration Ready .

AAL2 Establish Request Establish Confirm Q.AAL2 Q.AAL2 NBAP Q.Appendix: MOC signaling process UE Node B Serving RNS Serving RNC CN Q.AAL2 NBAP Downlink Synchronisation Uplink Synchronisation Radio Link Reconfiguration Commit NBAP NBAP NBAP RRC NBAP RRC DCCH : Radio Bearer Setup Apply new transport format set RRC RLC DCCH : Radio Bearer Setup Complete DCCH : Radio Bearer Setup Complete ack RRC RLC RANAP RAB Assignment Response RANAP Establishment ) ( .

Appendix: MOC signaling process UE Node B Serving RNS Serving RNC CN RANAP RRC DCCH : Downlink Direct Transfer Direct Transfer (Alerting) Direct Transfer (Connect) RANAP RRC RANAP RANAP RRC DCCH : Downlink Direct Transfer DCCH : Uplink Direct Transfer RRC RRC RANAP Direct Transfer (Connect Acknowledge) RANAP RRC RRC DCCH : Uplink Direct Transfer RRC RANAP RANAP Direct Transfer (Disconnect) Direct Transfer (Release) RANAP RANAP RRC RRC DCCH : Downlink Direct Transfer DCCH : Uplink Direct Transfer RRC RRC RANAP Direct Transfer (Rlease Complete) RANAP .

AAL2 Iu Release Complete RANAP .AAL2 Q.AAL2 Q.AAL2 DCCH : RRC Connection Release DCCH : RRC Connection ReleaseComplete NBAP Radio Link Deletion NBAP Radio Link Deletion Complete Release Request Release Complete NBAP Q.AAL2 NBAP Q.AAL2 Q.AAL2 RANAP Iu Release Command Release Request Release Complete RANAP Q.Appendix: MOC signaling process UE Node B Serving RNS Serv ing RNC CN RANAP Q.AAL2 Q.

RRC setup procedure and parameters optimization.Summary Random access procedure: physical channels. . detailed random access procedure. access parameters optimization. RAB setup procedure and the whole UE outgoing call procedure.