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B12 Reproduction

Asexual reproduction refers to the type of reproduction involving only one parent and without the fusion of specialized sex cells by simply splitting into two. This process produces identical offspring, i.e. bacteria, potatoesetc. This process occurs through mitosis - The replication of a cell to form two daughter cells with identical sets of chromosomes . In contrast, sexual reproduction refers to the type of reproduction involving two parents and with the fusion of specialized sex cells by fusion from a mobile male gamete and a stationary female gamete formed by meiosis, producing a zygote. This process produces a unique off spring featuring variation between the two parents. This process occurs through meiosis A special form of cell division whereby each daughter cell has half the amount of chromosomes from the parent cell. Sepal Protects the flower while its still a bud Anther The part of the stamen containing the pollen grains. Ovule Contains the female gamete Petals Attract insects to the flower Stamen The male sex organ Carpel The female sex organ Ovary Contains many ovules and becomes the fruit following fertilization Stigma - The receptive female tip of the flower at the end of the style, it collects pollen Nectary The gland at the base of the petal which makes the sugary liquid, nectar. Guide-lines Lines on the petal which guide insects to the base of the petal. The transfer of pollen from the anther of the flower to a stigma is called pollination.

Insect-Pollinated Flower
Large, conspicuous petals often with guidelines to attract insects Often strongly scented in order to attract insects Often contain nectaries at the base of the flowers to attract insects Anthers are inside the flower so insects have to brush past them to get to the nectar Stigma inside the flower, where insects have to brush past it to get to the nectar Sticky or spiky pollen grains, which will stick to insects Large quantities of pollen made because some will be eaten or carried to the wrong flower Flowers appear at warmer times of the year, where there are plenty of active insects

Wind-Pollinated Flower
Small inconspicuous petals or no petals at all since its unnecessary No scent as its unnecessary No nectaries are required Anthers dangling outside the flower, so they can catch the wind Stigma large and feathery, dangling outside flower where pollen in the air may land Smooth, light pollen, which can easily be blown in the wind. Even larger quantities of pollen are made, because most will be blown away and lost Flowers appear throughout the year, notably during more windy seasons.

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The anther has four pollen sacs inside, the cells surrounding the edge of the pollen sacs divide through meiosis forming pollen grains. The flower bud opens, splitting open the anther which exposes the pollen grains on the outside of the anther.

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Pollination then occurs either through insects or the wind, depending on the type of flower it is. As insects pass the anther some of the pollen becomes stuck to the insect because of their sticky coat or the wind carries it to other plants. After pollination the male and female gamete is still separate, therefore the pollen excretes enzymes which break down the stigma and form the pollen tube. The pollen tube continues to grow until it nears the ovule which is surrounded by a double layer of cells called the integuments, protecting the female gamete. At one end there is a small hole called the micropyle. The pollen tube grows through this, into the ovule so the male gamete can travel to fertilize the female gamete.

The joining of the male and female sex cell is known as fertilization, this process forms a zygote which eventually develops into a new organism.

Internal Fertilization
Occurs inside the body through copulation Fertilization can occur out of water Usually few offspring are created Often develops with parental care Examples Mammals, birds, fish

External Fertilization
Occurs outside the organisms body Fertilization mainly occurs in water fluid Usually many offspring are created Zygote often develops without parental care Example Amphibians, insects, fish

Seeds and Germination


Following fertilization, many parts of the flower are no longer needed, thus parts such as the sepals, petals, and stamen wither and fall off. The zygote formed from fertilization forms an embryo plant, eventually this causes the ovule to develop into a seed. The integuments of the ovule become hard and dry, to form the testa of the seed. The ovary also grows and develops into a fruit. The seed is then dispersed, which is vital because: It prevents too many plants growing close together preventing over competition of resources such as light, water and nutrients. It allows plants to colonize new areas. Some seeds are dispersed by animals, e.g. goose grass fruit, and burr grass fruit which have hooks or spines which stick to animas fur. Some seeds are dispersed by wind, e.g. sycamore fruit, wallflower fruit, dandelionsetc. A seed contains an embryo plant - it developed from a fertilized ovule. Germination refers to the spouting of the seed which is the first step of development of a plant from a seed. Testa The tough, protective covering of a seed which protects the embryo from being damaged and it also prevents bacteria and fungi from entering the seed. Radicle Part of the embryo plant which grows into a root. Plumule Part of the embryo plant which grows into the shoot. Cotyledon The storage area of the plant, it contains starch, protein, and enzymes. Micropyle A tiny hole in the testa which takes up water during germination. There are various conditions which have to be met in order for germination to occur, including: Water This is needed so that the seed can swell up and burst open. It also allows the embryo to be fed since maltose and amino acids are soluble. Oxygen Oxygen is needed so that respiration can occur. Warmth This is needed for proper growth to ensure enzymes work within the optimum conditions. 1. The seed is dehydrated while forming so that almost no metabolic reactions can take place, thus it is inactive or dormant allowing it to survive a longer time.

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The seed gains mass as it absorbs water from the soil, which causes the enzymes to become active so the food stores are now quickly being used as molecules are broken down. The now smaller and soluble molecules of maltose and amino acids dissolve in the water and diffuse into the embryo plant which uses this for growth. Amino acids are used to make protein molecules for cell membranes and cytoplasm, whilst the stored sugar is made into cellulose. Since all this requires energy, the seed loses weight as a lot of the glucose from the stored starch is used up in respiration. The radicle begins to grow down into the soil, while the plumule of the seed soon grows above the surface of the ground. The first leaves open and begin to photosynthesize, the plant can now make its own food faster than its being used up so the plant increases in mass.