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Woodrow's S2.6 notes (linear algebra)

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Lecture Notes

(Adapted by permission of K. Seyarth)

Sections 2.6

Sections 2.6 Page 1/1

2.6 Matrix Transformations

Sections 2.6 Page 2/1

Linear Transformations

Denition

A transformation T : R

n

R

m

is a linear transformation if and only if,

for all X, Y R

n

and all scalars a,

T1. T(X + Y) = T(X) + T(Y) (preservation of addition)

T2. T(aX) = aT(X) (preservation of scalar multiplication)

As a consequence of T2, for any linear transformation T,

T(0X) = 0T(X), implying T(0) = 0,

and

T((1)X) = (1)T(X), implying T(X) = T(X),

i.e., T preserves the zero vector and T preserves the negative of a vector.

Sections 2.6 Page 3/1

Furthermore, if X

1

, X

2

, . . . , X

k

are vectors in R

n

and Y is a linear

combination of X

1

, X

2

, . . . , X

k

, i.e.,

Y = a

1

X

1

+ a

2

X

2

+ + a

k

X

k

for some a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

k

R, then T1 and T2 used repeatedly give us

T(Y) = T(a

1

X

1

+ a

2

X

2

+ + a

k

X

k

)

= a

1

T(X

1

) + a

2

T(X

2

) + + a

k

T(X

k

),

i.e.,T preserves linear combinations.

Sections 2.6 Page 4/1

Example

Let T : R

4

R

3

be a linear transformation such that

T

_

_

1

1

0

2

_

_

=

_

_

2

3

1

_

_

and T

_

_

0

1

1

1

_

_

=

_

_

5

0

1

_

_

. Find T

_

_

1

3

2

4

_

_

.

The only way it is possible to solve this problem is if

_

_

1

3

2

4

_

_

is a linear combination of

_

_

1

1

0

2

_

_

and

_

_

0

1

1

1

_

_

,

i.e., if there exist a, b R so that

_

_

1

3

2

4

_

_

= a

_

_

1

1

0

2

_

_

+ b

_

_

0

1

1

1

_

_

Sections 2.6 Page 5/1

Example (continued)

Solve the system of four equations in two variables:

_

_

1 0 1

1 1 3

0 1 2

2 1 4

_

_

_

_

1 0 1

0 1 2

0 0 0

0 0 0

_

_

Thus a = 1, b = 2, and

_

_

1

3

2

4

_

_

=

_

_

1

1

0

2

_

_

2

_

_

0

1

1

1

_

_

.

Sections 2.6 Page 6/1

Example (continued)

It follows that

T

_

_

1

3

2

4

_

_

= T

_

_

_

_

_

_

1

1

0

2

_

_

2

_

_

0

1

1

1

_

_

_

_

_

_

= T

_

_

1

1

0

2

_

_

2T

_

_

0

1

1

1

_

_

=

_

_

2

3

1

_

_

2

_

_

5

0

1

_

_

=

_

_

8

3

3

_

_

Sections 2.6 Page 7/1

Example (2.6 Example 2)

Every matrix transformation is a linear transformation.

Proof.

Suppose T : R

n

R

m

is a matrix transformation induced by the m n

matrix A, i.e., T(X) = AX for each X R

n

.

Let X, Y R

n

and let a R. Then

T(X + Y) = A(X + Y) = AX + AY = T(X) + T(Y),

proving that T preserves addition. Also,

T(aX) = A(aX) = a(AX) = aT(X),

proving that T preserves scalar multiplication.

Since T1 and T2 are satised, T is, in fact, a linear transformation.

Sections 2.6 Page 8/1

It turns out that the converse of this statement is also true, i.e., every

linear transformation from R

n

to R

m

is a matrix transformation.

Theorem (2.6 Theorem 2)

Let T : R

n

R

m

be a transformation.

1

T is linear if and only if T is a matrix transformation.

2

If T is linear, then T is induced by the unique matrix

A =

_

T(E

1

) T(E

2

) T(E

n

)

,

where E

j

is the j

th

column of I

n

.

Why does this work for nding A?

Sections 2.6 Page 9/1

The uniqueness in Theorem 2 guarantees that there is exactly one matrix

for any linear transformation, so it makes sense to say the matrix of a

linear transformation.

Sections 2.6 Page 10/1

Examples

Q

0

: R

2

R

2

is reection in the x-axis, i.e.,

Q

0

_

x

y

_

=

_

x

y

_

.

We saw earlier that Q

0

is induced by the matrix A =

_

1 0

0 1

_

, so

Q

0

is a linear transformation.

By Theorem 2, Q

0

is induced by the matrix

_

Q

0

(E

1

) Q

0

(E

2

)

=

_

Q

0

_

1

0

_

Q

0

_

0

1

_ _

=

_

1 0

0 1

_

= A.

Sections 2.6 Page 11/1

Examples (continued)

R

2

: R

2

R

2

is (counterclockwise) rotation about the origin through

an angle of

2

, and

R

2

_

x

y

_

=

_

y

x

_

.

We saw earlier that R

2

is induced by the matrix B =

_

0 1

1 0

_

, so

R

2

is a linear transformation.

By Theorem 2, R

2

is induced by the matrix

_

R

2

(E

1

) R

2

(E

2

)

=

_

R

2

_

1

0

_

R

2

_

0

1

_ _

=

_

0 1

1 0

_

= B.

Sections 2.6 Page 12/1

Example (2.6 Example 4)

Q

1

: R

2

R

2

is reection in the line y = x, i.e.,

Q

1

_

a

b

_

=

_

b

a

_

.

Notice that

_

b

a

_

=

_

0 1

1 0

_ _

a

b

_

,

so Q

1

is a matrix transformation, and hence a linear transformation.

Again, illustrating Theorem 2, Q

1

is induced by the matrix

_

Q

1

(E

1

) Q

1

(E

2

)

=

_

Q

1

_

1

0

_

Q

1

_

0

1

_ _

=

_

0 1

1 0

_

.

Sections 2.6 Page 13/1

Example

Let T : R

2

R

3

be a transformation dened by

T

_

x

y

_

=

_

_

2x

y

x + 2y

_

_

.

Show that T is a linear transformation.

Solution. If T were a linear transformation, then T would be induced by

the matrix

A =

_

T(E

1

) T(E

2

)

=

_

T

_

1

0

_

T

_

0

1

_ _

=

_

_

2 0

0 1

1 2

_

_

.

Sections 2.6 Page 14/1

Example

Let T : R

2

R

3

be a transformation dened by

T

_

x

y

_

=

_

_

2x

y

x + 2y

_

_

.

Show that T is a linear transformation.

Solution. If T were a linear transformation, then T would be induced by

the matrix

A =

_

T(E

1

) T(E

2

)

=

_

T

_

1

0

_

T

_

0

1

_ _

=

_

_

2 0

0 1

1 2

_

_

.

Sections 2.6 Page 15/1

Example (continued)

Since

A

_

x

y

_

=

_

_

2 0

0 1

1 2

_

_

_

x

y

_

=

_

_

2x

y

x + 2y

_

_

= T

_

x

y

_

,

T is a matrix transformation, and therefore a linear transformation.

Sections 2.6 Page 16/1

Example

Let T : R

2

R

2

be a transformation dened by

T

_

x

y

_

=

_

xy

x + y

_

.

Is T is a linear transformation? Explain.

Solution. If T were a linear transformation, then T would be induced by

the matrix

A =

_

T(E

1

) T(E

2

)

=

_

T

_

1

0

_

T

_

0

1

_ _

=

_

0 0

1 1

_

.

Now

A

_

x

y

_

=

_

0 0

1 1

_ _

x

y

_

=

_

0

x + y

_

.

Sections 2.6 Page 17/1

Example (continued)

In particular,

A

_

1

1

_

=

_

0 0

1 1

_ _

1

1

_

=

_

0

2

_

,

while

T

_

1

1

_

=

_

1

2

_

.

Since A

_

1

1

_

= T

_

1

1

_

, T is not a linear transformation.

There is an alternate way to show that T is not a linear transformation.

Sections 2.6 Page 18/1

Example (continued)

Notice that

_

1

1

_

=

_

1

0

_

+

_

0

1

_

, and

T

_

1

1

_

=

_

1

2

_

, T

_

1

0

_

=

_

0

1

_

, T

_

0

1

_

=

_

0

1

_

.

From this we see that

T

_

1

1

_

= T

_

1

0

_

+ T

_

0

1

_

,

i.e., T does not preserve addition, and so T is not a linear transformation.

Sections 2.6 Page 19/1

Denition (Vector scalar multiplication)

Let X R

2

and let k R. Then kX is the vector in R

2

that is |k| times

the length of X; kX points the same directions as X if k > 0, and

opposite to X if k < 0.

Denition (Vector addition)

Let X, Y R

2

, and consider the parallelogram dened by 0, X and Y.

The vector X + Y corresponds to the fourth vertex of this parallelogram.

Sections 2.6 Page 20/1

Rotation in R

2

Let R

: R

2

R

2

denote counterclockwise rotation about the origin

through and angle of , and let X, Y R

2

and k R. Then

R

(kX) = kR

(X),

and

R

(X + Y) = R

(X) + R

(Y).

This means that R

transformation.

Therefore, by our earlier theorem, we can nd the matrix that induces R

by simply nding R

(E

1

) and R

(E

2

).

Sections 2.6 Page 21/1

R

(E

1

) = R

_

1

0

_

=

_

cos

sin

_

,

and

R

(E

2

) = R

_

0

1

_

=

_

sin

cos

_

Theorem (2.6 Theorem 4)

The transformation R

: R

2

R

2

is a linear transformation, and is

induced by the matrix

_

cos sin

sin cos

_

.

Sections 2.6 Page 22/1

Reection in R

2

Let Q

m

: R

2

R

2

denote reection in the line y = mx, and let

X, Y R

2

and k R. Then

Q

m

(kX) = kQ

m

(X),

and

Q

m

(X + Y) = Q

m

(X) + Q

m

(Y).

This means that Q

m

is a linear transformation and hence a matrix

transformation.

Therefore, by our earlier theorem, we can nd the matrix that induces Q

m

by simply nding Q

m

(E

1

) and Q

m

(E

2

).

Sections 2.6 Page 23/1

However, an easier way to obtain the matrix for Q

m

is to use the following

observation:

Q

m

= R

Q

0

R

,

where is the angle between y = mx and the positive x axis.

Using the standard trigonometric identities:

cos =

1

1 + m

2

and sin =

m

1 + m

2

,

the matrix for Q

m

can be found by computing the product

_

cos sin

sin cos

_ _

1 0

0 1

_ _

cos() sin()

sin() cos()

_

Sections 2.6 Page 24/1

Theorem (2.6 Theorem 5)

The transformation Q

m

: R

2

R

2

, denoting reection in the line y = mx,

is a linear transformation and is induced by the matrix

1

1 + m

2

_

1 m

2

2m

2m m

2

1

_

.

For reection in the x-axis, m = 0, and the theorem yields the expected

matrix

_

1 0

0 1

_

.

However, the y-axis has undened slope, so the theorem does not apply.

We use Q

Y

to denote reection in the y-axis, and as weve already seen,

Q

Y

is induced by the matrix

_

1 0

0 1

_

,

and thus is a linear transformation.

Sections 2.6 Page 25/1

Example

Find the rotation or reection that equals reection in the x-axis followed

by rotation through an angle of

2

.

We must nd the matrix for the transformation R

2

Q

0

.

Q

0

is induced by A =

_

1 0

0 1

_

, and R

2

is induced by

B =

_

cos

2

sin

2

sin

2

cos

2

_

=

_

0 1

1 0

_

R

2

Q

0

is induced by

BA =

_

0 1

1 0

_ _

1 0

0 1

_

=

_

0 1

1 0

_

.

Sections 2.6 Page 26/1

Example (continued)

Notice that BA =

_

0 1

1 0

_

is a reection matrix.

How do we know this?

Now, since 1 m

2

= 0, we know that m = 1 or m = 1. But

2m

1+m

2

= 1 > 0, so m > 0, implying m = 1.

Therefore,

R

2

Q

0

= Q

1

,

reection in the line y = x.

Sections 2.6 Page 27/1

In general,

The composite of two reections is a rotation.

The composite of two rotations is a rotation.

The composite of a reection and a rotation is a reection.

Sections 2.6 Page 28/1

Example

Find the rotation or reection that equals reection in the line y = x

followed by reection in the y-axis.

We must nd the matrix for the transformation Q

Y

Q

1

.

Q

1

is induced by

A =

1

2

_

0 2

2 0

_

=

_

0 1

1 0

_

,

and Q

Y

is induced by

B =

_

1 0

0 1

_

.

Therefore, Q

Y

Q

1

is induced by BA.

Sections 2.6 Page 29/1

Example (continued)

BA =

_

1 0

0 1

_ _

0 1

1 0

_

=

_

0 1

1 0

_

.

What transformation does BA induce?

Rotation through an angle such that

cos = 0 and sin = 1.

Therefore, Q

Y

Q

1

= R

2

= R3

2

.

Sections 2.6 Page 30/1

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