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# MATH 211 – Winter 2013

Lecture Notes
(Adapted by permission of K. Seyﬀarth)
Sections 3.3
Sections 3.3 Page 1/50
§3.3 Diagonalization and Eigenvalues
Sections 3.3 Page 2/50
Example
Let A =
_
4 −2
−1 3
_
. Find A
100
.
How can we do this eﬃciently?
Consider the matrix P =
_
1 −2
1 1
_
. Observe that P is invertible (why?),
and that
P
−1
=
1
3
_
1 2
−1 1
_
.
Furthermore,
P
−1
AP =
1
3
_
1 2
−1 1
_ _
4 −2
−1 3
_ _
1 −2
1 1
_
=
_
2 0
0 5
_
= D,
where D is a diagonal matrix.
Sections 3.3 Page 3/50
Example (continued)
This is signiﬁcant, because
P
−1
AP = D
P(P
−1
AP)P
−1
= PDP
−1
(PP
−1
)A(PP
−1
) = PDP
−1
IAI = PDP
−1
A = PDP
−1
,
and so
A
100
= (PDP
−1
)
100
= (PDP
−1
)(PDP
−1
)(PDP
−1
) · · · (PDP
−1
)
= PD(P
−1
P)D(P
−1
P)D(P
−1
· · · P)DP
−1
= PDIDIDI · · · IDP
−1
= PD
100
P
−1
.
Sections 3.3 Page 4/50
Example (continued)
Now,
D
100
=
_
2 0
0 5
_
100
=
_
2
100
0
0 5
100
_
.
Therefore,
A
100
= PD
100
P
−1
=
_
1 −2
1 1
_ _
2
100
0
0 5
100
_ _
1
3
__
1 2
−1 1
_
=
1
3
_
2
100
+ 2 · 5
100
2
100
−2 · 5
100
2
100
−5
100
2 · 2
100
+ 5
100
_
=
1
3
_
2
100
+ 2 · 5
100
2
100
−2 · 5
100
2
100
−5
100
2
101
+ 5
100
_
Sections 3.3 Page 5/50
Theorem (§3.3 Theorem 1)
If A = PDP
−1
, then A
k
= PD
k
P
−1
for each k = 1, 2, 3, . . .
The process of ﬁnding an invertible matrix P and a diagonal matrix D so
that A = PDP
−1
is referred to as diagonalizing the matrix A, and P is
called the diagonalizing matrix for A.
Problem
When is it possible to diagonalize a matrix?
How do we ﬁnd a diagonalizing matrix?
Sections 3.3 Page 6/50
Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
Deﬁnition
Let A be an n ×n matrix, λ a real number, and X = 0 an n-vector. If
AX = λX, then λ is an eigenvalue of A, and X is an eigenvector of A
corresponding to λ, or a λ-eigenvector.
Example
Let A =
_
1 2
1 2
_
and X =
_
1
1
_
. Then
AX =
_
1 2
1 2
_ _
1
1
_
=
_
3
3
_
= 3
_
1
1
_
= 3X.
This means that 3 is an eigenvalue of A, and
_
1
1
_
is an eigenvector of A
corresponding to 3 (or a 3-eigenvector of A).
Sections 3.3 Page 7/50
Finding all Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of a Matrix
Suppose that A is an n ×n matrix, X = 0 an n-vector, λ ∈ R, and that
AX = λX.
Then
λX −AX = 0
λIX −AX = 0
(λI −A)X = 0
Since X = 0, the matrix λI −A has no inverse, and thus
det(λI −A) = 0.
Sections 3.3 Page 8/50
Deﬁnition
The characteristic polynomial of an n ×n matrix A is
c
A
(x) = det(xI −A).
Example
The characteristic polynomial of A =
_
4 −2
−1 3
_
is
c
A
(x) = det
__
x 0
0 x
_

_
4 −2
−1 3
__
= det
_
x −4 2
1 x −3
_
= (x −4)(x −3) −2
= x
2
−7x + 10
Sections 3.3 Page 9/50
Theorem (§3.3 Theorem 2)
Let A be an n ×n matrix.
1
The eigenvalues of A are the roots of c
A
(x).
2
The λ-eigenvectors X are the nontrivial solutions to (λI −A)X = 0.
Example (continued)
For A =
_
4 −2
−1 3
_
, we have
c
A
(x) = x
2
−7x + 10 = (x −2)(x −5),
so A has eigenvalues λ
1
= 2 and λ
2
= 5.
To ﬁnd the 2-eigenvectors of A, solve (2I −A)X = 0:
_
−2 2 0
1 −1 0
_

_
1 −1 0
−2 2 0
_

_
1 −1 0
0 0 0
_
Sections 3.3 Page 10/50
Example (continued)
The general solution, in parametric form, is
X =
_
t
t
_
= t
_
1
1
_
where t ∈ R.
To ﬁnd the 5-eigenvectors of A, solve (5I −A)X = 0:
_
1 2 0
1 2 0
_

_
1 2 0
0 0 0
_
The general solution, in parametric form, is
X =
_
−2s
s
_
= s
_
−2
1
_
where s ∈ R.
Sections 3.3 Page 11/50
Deﬁnition
A basic eigenvector of an n ×n matrix A is any nonzero multiple of a basic
solution to (λI −A)X = 0, where λ is an eigenvalue of A.
Example (continued)
_
1
1
_
and
_
−2
1
_
are basic eigenvectors of the matrix
A =
_
4 −2
−1 3
_
corresponding to eigenvalues λ
1
= 2 and λ
2
= 5, respectively.
Sections 3.3 Page 12/50
Example
For A =
_
_
3 −4 2
1 −2 2
1 −5 5
_
_
, ﬁnd c
A
(x), the eigenvalues of A, and ﬁnd
corresponding basic eigenvectors.
det(xI −A) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
x −3 4 −2
−1 x + 2 −2
−1 5 x −5
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
x −3 4 −2
0 x −3 −x + 3
−1 5 x −5
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
x −3 4 2
0 x −3 0
−1 5 x
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= (x −3)
¸
¸
¸
¸
x −3 2
−1 x
¸
¸
¸
¸
c
A
(x) = (x −3)(x
2
−3x + 2) = (x −3)(x −2)(x −1).
Sections 3.3 Page 13/50
Example (continued)
Therefore, the eigenvalues of A are λ
1
= 3, λ
2
= 2, and λ
3
= 1.
Basic eigenvectors corresponding to λ
1
= 3: solve (3I −A)X = 0.
_
_
0 4 −2 0
−1 5 −2 0
−1 5 −2 0
_
_
→ · · · →
_
_
1 0 −
1
2
0
0 1 −
1
2
0
0 0 0 0
_
_
Thus X =
_
_
1
2
t
1
2
t
t
_
_
= t
_
_
1
2
1
2
1
_
_
, t ∈ R.
Choosing t = 2 gives us X
1
=
_
_
1
1
2
_
_
as a basic eigenvector corresponding
to λ
1
= 3.
Sections 3.3 Page 14/50
Example (continued)
Basic eigenvectors corresponding to λ
2
= 2: solve (2I −A)X = 0.
_
_
−1 4 −2 0
−1 4 −2 0
−1 5 −3 0
_
_
→ · · · →
_
_
1 0 −2 0
0 1 −1 0
0 0 0 0
_
_
Thus X =
_
_
2s
s
s
_
_
= s
_
_
2
1
1
_
_
, s ∈ R.
Choosing s = 1 gives us X
2
=
_
_
2
1
1
_
_
as a basic eigenvector corresponding
to λ
2
= 2.
Sections 3.3 Page 15/50
Example (continued)
Basic eigenvectors corresponding to λ
3
= 1: solve (I −A)X = 0.
_
_
−2 4 −2 0
−1 3 −2 0
−1 5 −4 0
_
_
→ · · · →
_
_
1 0 −1 0
0 1 −1 0
0 0 0 0
_
_
Thus X =
_
_
r
r
r
_
_
= r
_
_
1
1
1
_
_
, r ∈ R.
Choosing r = 1 gives us X
3
=
_
_
1
1
1
_
_
as a basic eigenvector corresponding
to λ
3
= 1.
Sections 3.3 Page 16/50
Geometric Interpretation of Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
Let A be a 2 ×2 matrix. Then A can be interpreted as a linear
transformation from R
2
to R
2
.
Problem
How does the linear transformation aﬀect the eigenvectors of the matrix?
Deﬁnition
Let V be a nonzero vector in R
2
. We denote by L
V
the unique line in R
2
that contains V and the origin.
Lemma (§3.3 Lemma 1)
Let V =
_
a
b
_
be a nonzero vector in R
2
. Then L
V
is the set of all scalar
multiples of V, i.e.,
L
V
= RV = {tV | t ∈ R} .
Sections 3.3 Page 17/50
Deﬁnition
Let A be a 2 ×2 matrix and L a line in R
2
through the origin. Then L is
said to be A-invariant if the vector AX lies in L whenever X lies in L,
i.e., AX is a scalar multiple of X,
i.e., AX = λX for some scalar λ ∈ R,
i.e., X is an eigenvector of A.
Theorem (§3.3 Theorem 3)
Let A be a 2 ×2 matrix and let V = 0 be a vector in R
2
. Then L
V
is
A-invariant if and only if V is an eigenvector of A.
This theorem provides a geometrical method for ﬁnding the eigenvectors
of a 2 ×2 matrix.
Sections 3.3 Page 18/50
Example (§3.3 Example 6)
Let m ∈ R and consider the linear transformation Q
m
: R
2
→R
2
, i.e.,
reﬂection in the line y = mx.
The matrix that induces Q
m
is
A =
1
1 + m
2
_
1 −m
2
2m
2m m
2
−1
_
.
Claim. X
1
=
_
1
m
_
is an eigenvector of A corresponding to eigenvalue
λ = 1.
The reason for this: X
1
=
_
1
m
_
lies in the line y = mx, and hence
Q
m
_
1
m
_
=
_
1
m
_
, implying that A
_
1
m
_
= 1
_
1
m
_
.
Sections 3.3 Page 19/50
Example (continued)
More generally, any vector
_
k
km
_
, k = 0, lies in the line y = mx and is
an eigenvector of A.
Another way of saying this is that the line y = mx is A-invariant for the
matrix
A =
1
1 + m
2
_
1 −m
2
2m
2m m
2
−1
_
.
Sections 3.3 Page 20/50
Example (§3.3 Example 7)
Let θ be a real number, and R
θ
: R
2
→R
2
rotation through an angle of θ,
induced by the matrix
A =
_
cos θ −sin θ
sin θ cos θ
_
.
Claim. A has no real eigenvectors unless θ is an integer multiple of π, i.e.,
±π, ±2π, ±3π, etc.
The reason for this: a line L in R
2
is A invariant if and only if θ is an
integer multiple of π.
Sections 3.3 Page 21/50
Diagonalization
Notation. An n ×n diagonal matrix
D =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
a
1
0 0 · · · 0 0
0 a
2
0 · · · 0 0
0 0 a
3
· · · 0 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 0 · · · a
n−1
0
0 0 0 · · · 0 a
n
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
is written diag(a
1
, a
2
, a
3
, . . . , a
n−1
, a
n
).
Recall that if A is an n ×n matrix and P is an invertible n ×n matrix so
that P
−1
AP is diagonal, then P is called a diagonalizing matrix of A, and
A is diagonalizable.
Sections 3.3 Page 22/50
Theorem (§3.3 Theorem 4)
Let A be an n ×n matrix.
1
A is diagonalizable if and only if it has eigenvectors X
1
, X
2
, . . . , X
n
so
that
P =
_
X
1
X
2
· · · X
n
¸
is invertible.
2
If P is invertible, then
P
−1
AP = diag(λ
1
, λ
2
, . . . , λ
n
)
where λ
i
is the eigenvalue of A corresponding to the eigenvector X
i
,
i.e., AX
i
= λ
i
X
i
.
Sections 3.3 Page 23/50
Example
A =
_
_
3 −4 2
1 −2 2
1 −5 5
_
_
has eigenvalues and corresponding basic eigenvectors
λ
1
= 3 and X
1
=
_
_
1
1
2
_
_
; λ
2
= 2 and X
2
=
_
_
2
1
1
_
_
; λ
3
= 1 and X
3
=
_
_
1
1
1
_
_
.
Let P =
_
X
1
X
2
X
3
¸
=
_
_
1 2 1
1 1 1
2 1 1
_
_
. Then P is invertible (check
this!), so by Theorem 4,
P
−1
AP = diag(3, 2, 1) =
_
_
3 0 0
0 2 0
0 0 1
_
_
.
Sections 3.3 Page 24/50
Note. It is not always possible to ﬁnd n eigenvectors so that P is
invertible.
Example
Let A =
_
_
1 −2 3
2 6 −6
1 2 −1
_
_
. Then
c
A
(x) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
x −1 2 −3
−2 x −6 6
−1 −2 x + 1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= · · · = (x −2)
3
.
A has only one eigenvalue, λ
1
= 2, with multiplicity three.
To ﬁnd the 2-eigenvectors of A, solve the system (2I −A)X = 0.
Sections 3.3 Page 25/50
Example (continued)
_
_
1 2 −3 0
−2 −4 6 0
−1 −2 3 0
_
_
→ · · · →
_
_
1 2 −3 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
_
_
The general solution in parametric form is
X =
_
_
−2s + 3t
s
t
_
_
= s
_
_
−2
1
0
_
_
+ t
_
_
3
0
1
_
_
, s, t ∈ R.
Since the system has only two basic solutions, there are only two basic
eigenvectors, implying that the matrix A is not diagonalizable.
Sections 3.3 Page 26/50
Example
Diagonalize, if possible, the matrix A =
_
_
1 0 1
0 1 0
0 0 −3
_
_
.
c
A
(x) = det(xI −A) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
x −1 0 −1
0 x −1 0
0 0 x + 3
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= (x −1)
2
(x + 3).
A has eigenvalues λ
1
= 1 of multiplicity two; λ
2
= −3 of multiplicity one.
Sections 3.3 Page 27/50
Example (continued)
Eigenvectors for λ
1
= 1: solve (I −A)X = 0.
_
_
0 0 −1 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 4 0
_
_

_
_
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
_
_
X =
_
_
s
t
0
_
_
, s, t ∈ R so basic eigenvectors corresponding to λ
1
= 1 are
_
_
1
0
0
_
_
,
_
_
0
1
0
_
_
Sections 3.3 Page 28/50
Example (continued)
Eigenvectors for λ
2
= −3: solve (−3I −A)X = 0.
_
_
−4 0 −1 0
0 −4 0 0
0 0 0 0
_
_

_
_
1 0
1
4
0
0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0
_
_
X =
_
_

1
4
t
0
t
_
_
, t ∈ R so a basic eigenvector corresponding to λ
2
= −3 is
_
_
−1
0
4
_
_
Sections 3.3 Page 29/50
Example (continued)
Let
P =
_
_
−1 1 0
0 0 1
4 0 0
_
_
.
Then P is invertible, and
P
−1
AP = diag(−3, 1, 1) =
_
_
−3 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
_
_
.
Sections 3.3 Page 30/50
Theorem (§3.3 Theorem 5)
A square matrix A is diagonalizable if and only if every eigenvalue λ of
multiplicity m yields exactly m basic eigenvectors, i.e., the solution to
(λI −A)X = 0 has m parameters.
A special case of this is
Theorem (§3.3 Theorem 6)
An n ×n matrix with distinct eigenvalues is diagonalizable.
Sections 3.3 Page 31/50
Example
Show that A =
_
_
1 1 0
0 1 0
0 0 2
_
_
is not diagonalizable.
First,
c
A
(x) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
x −1 −1 0
0 x −1 0
0 0 x −2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= (x −1)
2
(x −2),
so A has eigenvalues λ
1
= 1 of multiplicity two; λ
2
= 2 (of multiplicity
one).
Sections 3.3 Page 32/50
Example (continued)
Eigenvectors for λ
1
= 1: solve (I −A)X = 0.
_
_
0 −1 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 −1 0
_
_

_
_
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0
_
_
Therefore, X =
_
_
s
0
0
_
_
, s ∈ R.
Since λ
1
= 1 has multiplicity two, but has only one basic eigenvector, A is
not diagonalizable.
Sections 3.3 Page 33/50
Problem
Let A =
_
_
8 5 8
0 −1 0
−4 −5 −4
_
_
.
Show that 4 is an eigenvalue of A, and ﬁnd a corresponding basic
eigenvector.
Verify that
_
1 −1 −1
¸
is an eigenvector os A, and ﬁnd its
corresponding eigenvalue.
Sections 3.3 Page 34/50
Linear Dynamical Systems
A linear dynamical system consists of
an n ×n matrix A and an n-vector V
0
;
a matrix recursion deﬁning V
1
, V
2
, V
3
, . . . by V
k+1
= AV
k
; i.e.,
V
1
= AV
0
V
2
= AV
1
= A(AV
0
) = A
2
V
0
V
3
= AV
2
= A(A
2
V
0
) = A
3
V
0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
V
k
= A
k
V
0
.
Linear dynamical systems are used, for example, to model the evolution of
populations over time.
Sections 3.3 Page 35/50
If A is diagonalizable, then
P
−1
AP = D = diag(λ
1
, λ
2
, . . . , λ
n
),
where λ
1
, λ
2
, . . . , λ
n
are the (not necessarily distinct) eigenvalues of A.
Thus A = PDP
−1
, and A
k
= PD
k
P
−1
. Therefore,
V
k
= A
k
V
0
= PD
k
P
−1
V
0
.
Sections 3.3 Page 36/50
Example
Consider the linear dynamical system V
k+1
= AV
k
with
A =
_
2 0
3 −1
_
, and V
0
=
_
1
−1
_
.
Find a formula for V
k
.
First, c
A
(x) = (x −2)(x + 1), so A has eigenvalues λ
1
= 2 and λ
2
= −1,
and thus is diagonalizable.
Solve (2I −A)X = 0:
_
0 0 0
−3 3 0
_

_
1 −1 0
0 0 0
_
has general solution X =
_
s
s
_
, s ∈ R, and basic solution X
1
=
_
1
1
_
.
Sections 3.3 Page 37/50
Example (continued)
Solve (−I −A)X = 0:
_
−3 0 0
−3 0 0
_

_
1 0 0
0 0 0
_
has general solution X =
_
0
t
_
, t ∈ R, and basic solution X
2
=
_
0
1
_
.
Thus, P =
_
1 0
1 1
_
is a diagonalizing matrix for A,
P
−1
=
_
1 0
−1 1
_
, and P
−1
AP =
_
2 0
0 −1
_
.
Sections 3.3 Page 38/50
Example (continued)
Therefore,
V
k
= A
k
V
0
= PD
k
P
−1
V
0
=
_
1 0
1 1
_ _
2 0
0 −1
_
k
_
1 0
−1 1
_ _
1
−1
_
=
_
1 0
1 1
_ _
2
k
0
0 (−1)
k
_ _
1
−2
_
=
_
2
k
0
2
k
(−1)
k
_ _
1
−2
_
=
_
2
k
2
k
−2(−1)
k
_
Sections 3.3 Page 39/50
Often, instead of ﬁnding an exact formula for V
k
, it suﬃces to estimate
V
k
as k gets large.
This can easily be done if A has a dominant eigenvalue with multiplicity
one: an eigenvalue λ
1
with the property that

1
| > |λ
j
| for j = 2, 3, . . . , n.
Sections 3.3 Page 40/50
Suppose that
V
k
= PD
k
P
−1
V
0
,
and assume that A has a dominant eigenvalue, λ
1
, with corresponding
basic eigenvector X
1
as the ﬁrst column of P.
For convenience, write P
−1
V
0
=
_
b
1
b
2
· · · b
n
¸
T
.
Sections 3.3 Page 41/50
Then
V
k
= PD
k
P
−1
V
0
=
_
X
1
X
2
· · · X
n
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
λ
k
1
0 · · · 0
0 λ
k
2
· · · 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 · · · λ
k
n
_
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
_
b
1
b
2
.
.
.
b
n
_
¸
¸
¸
_
= b
1
λ
k
1
X
1
+ b
2
λ
k
2
X
2
+· · · + b
n
λ
k
n
X
n
= λ
k
1
_
b
1
X
1
+ b
2
_
λ
2
λ
1
_
k
X
2
+· · · + b
n
_
λ
n
λ
1
_
k
X
n
_
Now,
¸
¸
¸
λ
j
λ
1
¸
¸
¸ < 1 for j = 2, 3, . . . n, and thus
_
λ
j
λ
1
_
k
→ 0 as k → ∞.
Therefore, for large values of k, V
k
≈ λ
k
1
b
1
X
1
.
Sections 3.3 Page 42/50
Example
If
A =
_
2 0
3 −1
_
, and V
0
=
_
1
−1
_
,
estimate V
k
for large values of k.
In our previous example, we found that A has eigenvalues 2 and −1. This
means that λ
1
= 2 is a dominant eigenvalue; let λ
2
= −1.
As before X
1
=
_
1
1
_
is a basic eigenvector for λ
1
= 2, and X
2
=
_
0
1
_
is
a basic eigenvector for λ
2
= −1, giving us
P =
_
1 0
1 1
_
, and P
−1
=
_
1 0
−1 1
_
.
Sections 3.3 Page 43/50
Example (continued)
P
−1
V
0
=
_
1 0
−1 1
_ _
1
−1
_
=
_
1
−2
_
=
_
b
1
b
2
_
For large values of k,
V
k
≈ λ
k
1
b
1
X
1
= 2
k
(1)
_
1
1
_
=
_
2
k
2
k
_
Let’s compare this to the formula for V
k
that we obtained earlier:
V
k
=
_
2
k
2
k
−2(−1)
k
_
There is another example of estimating V
k
for large values of k posted in
the Supplementary Notes section on Blackboard.
Sections 3.3 Page 44/50
Example
Consider an owl population of 100 adult females and 40 juvenile females,
and assume we wish to study the population growth.
Imagine that we are biologists and have determined that in general:
1
The number of juvenile females hatched in any year is twice the
number of adult females in the year before.
2
Half the adult females in any year survive to the next year.
3
One quarter of the juvenile females in any year survive to adulthood.
Will the owls survive?
Let:
_
a
k
= the number of adult females after k years
j
k
= the number of juvenile females after k years
Hence we get from the information above that:
_
a
k+1
=
1
2
a
k
+
1
4
j
k
j
k+1
= 2a
k
Sections 3.3 Page 45/50
Thus if we write V
k
=
_
a
k
j
k
_
, then we have:
V
0
=
_
100
40
_
and
V
k+1
=
_
a
k+1
j
k+1
_
=
_
1
2
a
k
+
1
4
j
k
2a
k
_
=
_
1
2
1
4
2 0
_ _
a
k
j
k
_
So we have the dynamical system:
V
k+1
= AV
k
where A =
_
1
2
1
4
2 0
_
, V
0
=
_
100
40
_
Sections 3.3 Page 46/50
Calculations yield:
V
0
=
_
100
40
_
V
1
=
_
80
20
_
V
2
=
_
70
160
_
V
3
=
_
75
140
_
V
4
=
_
72.5
150
_
.....
So what is your guess for the long term???
Sections 3.3 Page 47/50
Let’s use eigenvalues!
It turns out that A =
_
1
2
1
4
2 0
_
has (check it!):
Eigenvalue λ
1
= 1 and corresponding basic eigenvector X
1
=
_
1
2
_
,
Eigenvalue λ
2
= −
1
2
and corresponding basic eigenvector X
2
=
_
−1
4
_
Thus A is diagonalizable!
That is P
−1
AP = D, where
P =
_
1 −1
2 4
_
, P
−1
=
1
6
_
4 1
−2 1
_
, and D =
_
1 0
0 −
1
2
_
.
Sections 3.3 Page 48/50
Hence we get:
_
a
k
j
k
_
= V
k
= A
k
V
0
= PD
k
P
−1
V
0
=
_
1 −1
2 4
_ _
1 0
0 −
1
2
_
k
1
6
_
4 1
−2 1
_ _
100
40
_
=
1
6
_
1 −1
2 4
_ _
1
k
0
0 (−
1
2
)
k
_ _
440
−160
_
=
1
6
_
1 −(−
1
2
)
k
2 4(−
1
2
)
k
_ _
440
−160
_
=
1
6
_
440 + 160(−
1
2
)
k
880 −640(−
1
2
)
k
_
Thus equating top and bottom entries yields exact formulas for a
k
and j
k
:
a
k
=
220
3
+
80
3
(−
1
2
)
k
and j
k
=
440
3

320
3
(−
1
2
)
k
Sections 3.3 Page 49/50
So again the exact values are:
a
k
=
220
3
+
80
3
(−
1
2
)
k
and j
k
=
440
3

320
3
(−
1
2
)
k
For large values of k:
(−
1
2
)
k
is nearly 0, so we have the following approximate values:
a
k

220
3
and j
k
=≈
440
3
Hence, in the long term:
The female population stabilizes with approximately twice as many