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# Break Even Analysis It is a widely used technique to study the cost -volume –profit relationship.

The narrower interpretation of term break –even analysis refers to system of determination of that level of activity where total cost equals total selling price. The broader interpretation refers to that system of analysis which determines probable profit at any level of activity. It portrays the relationship between the cost of production, volume of production and sales value. Break –even analysis indicates the level of sales at which cost and revenue are in equilibrium .The equilibrium point is commonly known as break even point, The break even point is that point of sales volume at which total revenue is equal to total cost. Utility of Break Even Analysis: It is the most useful technique of profit planning and control. It is a device to explain the relationship between the cost volume profit .The utility of break even analysis lies in the following advantages: 1) Provided detailed and understandable information: Break even analysis is a simple concept to present and interpret accounting data. Many business executives and other are unable to understand accounting data contained in the financial statements and reports but break even charts visualizes information very clearly and a look at a glance shall give a vivid picture of whole affairs. The different elements of cost direct material, direct labour, overheads (factory, office and selling etc) can be presented through an analytical break even chart. Further the information is in a simple format therefore it is clearly understandable even to layman. 2) Profitability of product and business can be known: The profitability of different can be known with the help of break even chart, besides the level no profit no loss .The problem of managerial decision regarding temporary or permanent shutdown of business or continuation at a loss can be solved by break even analysis .It is thus provides the basis information for profit improvement studies and it is useful starting point for the detailed investigation. 3) Effects of changing of cost and sales price can be demonstrated: The effect of changes of fixed and variable cost at different level of production on profits can be demonstrated by graph legibly. In other words relationship of cost, volume, profit at different level of activity and varying selling prices is shown through chart. Thus it studied requisites for survival of the company. 4) Cost control can be analyzed: The relative importance of fixed in the total cost of product can be analyzed and if the total cost are high, they can be controlled by the management. Thus it is a

The efficiency of output is indicated by the angle of incidence formed at intersection of sales line and the variable cost.It is possible that due to plant expansion absolute break even point may increase. discounts. . B) Fixed cost remains constant: The assumption that fixed costs remain constant does not hold good. This situation where break even point as a percentage of capacity may does not increase. 6) Diagnostic tool: It is useful diagnostic tool. 5) Economy and efficiency can be affected: The capacity can be utilized to fullest possible extent and economies of scale and capacity utilization can be affected. elimination of wastages and achieving better efficiency. It indicates to management the cause of increasing break even point and falling profit the analysis of these causes will reveal that what action should be taken. Comparative plant efficiency can be studied on break even chart. If break even point as a percentage of capacity is increasing. it indicates the unfavorable condition and need immediate action . or variable such as direct material cost but a large number of cost belong to mixed category . If a firm has zero output some of fixed cost can certainly be reduced or eliminated. for example if the company increases its production or sales it need more workers who may be less efficient and less experienced or existing workers need overtime and company have to pay for it. On the other hand if the company uses its ideal capacity additional fixed cost may be incurred. However some of the can be easily identified as fixed such as rent of building. However it suffers from the following limitations: 1) Based on the false assumptions: A) Cost segregation: It is difficult to classified fixed and variable cost. So lines drawn are not straight and sometimes a curved line is obtained in respect of total cost.managerial tool for control and reduction of cost. Similarly material cost will be less due to purchase.such cost known as semivariable cost consists of fixed as well as variable cost and are difficult to separate. Thus fixed costs are not constant and can change in the stepwise fashion. For example some of the supervisors can be dismissed and the salaries can be reduced. Limitation of break even analysis Though break even analysis is a simple and useful concept but it is based on the certain assumption which limits its utility and general applicability. C) Variable cost very proportionately: The variable cost does not change in the same proportion as volume of production or sales changes. if purchases in bulk. is not unfavorable .

d) Change in selling price: Similarly selling price may remain the constant under the perfect competition. 3)Short term focus: It is a short term technique of profit planning and can not be used for the long term planning because it lead to long term decision. Hence the need of presentation through chart and using mathematical tool of break even analysis does not arise. . but it is not true since the absorption of fixed cost depends on the production and not on sales. of preparing the break even charts on account of the following reasons: A) Simple tabulation sufficient: because result of cost and sales can serve the purpose which is served by break even chart. But in the real market situation of monopolistic completion or oligopoly selling price have to be reduced to increase the sales volume. a number of charts will have to be drawn up Similarly when a number of products are manufactured it would a difficult task to present information through single break even chart. As a matter of fact it is assumed that stock changes will not affect income. c) Difficult to understand: The chart becomes very complicated and difficult to understand particularly for the non technical man. b) Conclusive guidance not provided: No conclusive basis for action is provided to management by technique of breakeven analysis. In spite of all above limitation it remain an important tool for the profit planning what is needed is that financial analyst should understand underlying assumption and their corresponding limitation and adjust his data appropriately to suits his needs. 4) NO necessity: There is no necessity. e) Stock changes do not affect incomes: The break even chart depicts volume of production or sales along x axis and thus ignores the effect of changes in stock volume. Thus sales revenue will not change in the direct proportion with output. if number of lines or curves depicted on graph is large d) No basis for comparative efficiency: Charts do not provide any basis for the comparative efficiency between the different units. variable cost and selling prices. but it may be beneficial over a long period of time. If we have to study changes of fixed cost. 2) Limited information: can be presented in a single break even chart. For example a company wishes to increase his productive capacity and it may not yield enough revenue in the first year. Thus in the term of break even analysis company may drop idea of adding to productive capacity.