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# Moles The concept of a mole is important in chemistry. A mole simply refers to a certain amount of particles.

In chemistry, one mole equals 6.02 x 1023 particles. The mole is used to calculate amounts of chemicals used in reactions, and to predict if an reaction will take place. Moles and stoichiometry are concepts that are covered in Chemistry 20, and they are essential to your understanding of Chemistry 30. There are four things that you need to learn to do with regards to moles: Thing # 1: Calculating the molar mass of atoms and molecules Looking at the periodic table, you can see that every element has an atomic number and a mass number listed with its symbol. The atomic number is the number of protons, and the mass number is the number of protons and neutrons. The mass number is also the mass (in grams) of one mole of an element. For example, one mole of Potassium (19) has a mass of 39.1 grams. (** To keep things consistent, let's get in the habit of rounding atomic masses to one decimal place. **) The first thing you should be able to do in this section is calculate the molar mass of a chemical. For atoms this is easy – you just look at the molar mass of the atom on the periodic table. For molecules, it requires some addition. For example, to calculate the molar mass of CO2, you would have to add the molar mass of carbon to the molar mass of two oxygens. Molar mass CO2 = 1 Carbon (12.0 g/mole) + 2 Oxygens (16.0 g/mole each) = 44.0 g/mole Practice questions Calculate the molar mass of each of these molecules: H2O NaCl __________ __________ CH3COOH BeCl2 ____________ ____________

Thing #2: Converting mass of a chemical into moles, and vice versa The formula in this section is: Moles = mass of chemical / molar mass

If you are given a mass of a chemical, you can convert it to a number of moles quite easily using the above formula. For example, if there is 42.0 g of Silicon, and you need to convert this to a number of moles, you would do the following steps:
Write out the formula: Insert numbers into the formula: Do the math: Moles = mass of chemical / molar mass Moles = 42.0 g / 28.1 g per mole (this is dividing) Moles = 1.50 moles of Silicon

which tells us that for every one mole of N2 that is consumed.If you are dealing with a molecule.50 moles of H2O .0 g/mole Moles = mass of chemical / molar mass 4.50 by 44. c) 63.which tells us that it takes three moles of H2 to fully react with one mole of N2.50 moles = mass of chemical / 44.27 moles of CO2 To convert from moles of a chemical in to grams. a) 15. N2 + 3 H2 → 2 NH3 for every one mole of the molecule N2.21 moles of PbS2b) 0. and you need to convert this to a mass.5 g of TiO2 c) 2. two moles of NH3 are produced.0 g/mole) = 44.0 ** Please do the following questions: 1. if there are 4.0 g of B b) 120. Convert the following mole quantities into masses. you need to add up the molar mass of each atom inside the molecule.0 g/mole) = 44.0 g / 44. There are three molar ratios in this reaction: 1 N2 : 2 NH3 3 H2 : 2 NH3 1 N2 : 3 H2 .0 g of NH4OH 2. it indicates how many moles of a chemical are needed in order to make the reaction happen. . . there must be three moles of H2 to react with it. and you need to convert this to a number of moles.0 g/mole Moles = mass of chemical / molar mass Moles = 100. For example in the reaction.50 moles of CO2.573 moles of CH4 Thing #3: Using molar ratios to make predictions When a chemical reaction is balanced. Convert the following masses to moles.0 g per mole mass = 198 grams of CO2 ** math note: we got the number '198' by multiplying 4.which tells us that for every three moles of H2 that are consumed. and amounts of product that will be produced. you would do the following steps: Calculate the molar mass of CO2: Write out the formula: Insert numbers into the formula: Do the math: C (12.0 g of CO2.0 g per mole Moles = 2. if there is 100. you would do the following steps: Calculate the molar mass of CO2: Write out the formula: Insert numbers into the formula: Do the math: C (12. two moles of NH3 are produced. The idea of a molar ratio becomes very important when predicting amounts of reactants that are used up. a) 1. For example. we use the same formula.0 g/mole) + 2 O (16.0 g/mole) + 2 O (16. For example. If there are. the reaction will produce two moles of NH3.

how many moles of NH3 will be produced? I like to set up ratios like this: 1 mole of N2 2 moles of NH3 = 5 moles of N2 X To solve for “X”. d) If you want to have 6. Which one is it? How much NH3 will be produced? Answers: 1. how many moles of N2 will be used up? (You do this one. How many moles of N2 do we have? Moles = mass of chemical / molar mass = 42. One of the two reactants will be the “limiting reagent” (the chemical that will run out first). how much NH3 will be produced? 4. How many moles of H2 do we have? 3. If all of the N2 is used up.0 g of N2 and 7. 12 moles of H2 will be used to produce 8 moles of NH3. and the other is said to be “in excess”. How many moles of N2 do we have? 2. For the reaction: N2 + 3 H2 → 2 NH3 if you start with 42. how many moles of NH3 will be produced? c) If you want to get 8 moles of NH3 produced.0 g of N2 / 28.) b) If you have 3.) Thing #4: Moles and stoichiometry Stoichiometry uses mole ratios to calculate the actual mass of product that will be formed in a reaction. how many moles of H2 will be used up? 3 moles H2 2 moles NH3 (3) x (8) 24 24/2 X = 12 = = = = X 8 moles NH3 (2) x (X) (2) x (X) X In other words. 10 moles of NH3 will be produced.You can use the ratios to answer the following questions: a) If you have 5 moles of N2. You need to be comfortable with mole ratios to do this! When examining the masses of reactants that are put into the reaction. we can examine the following questions: 1.5 moles of N2. If all of the H2 is used up. .00 g of H2. you need to cross multiply and divide. we label one chemical the “limiting reagent” (it will run out first). Your math will look like this: (1) x (X) = (2) x (5) X = 10 In other words.0 grams per mole = 1.50 moles This mass equals 1. how much NH3 will be produced? 5. (You do this one.5 moles of NH3 produced.50 moles of N2.

50 moles of N2 and 3.50 / 3 X = 1. If all of the H2 is used up. Work: 1 N2 2 NH3 = 1.33 moles of NH3 produced 5. only 1.50 N2 X (1) x (X) = (2) x (1.2.50) X = 3.50) X = 7. (There's not enough of it to fully react with all 1.50 H2 X (3) x (X) = (1) x (3. 1.780 moles of NH3.50) X = 3.50 moles of H2 will produce 0.00 moles of NH3 produced 4.50 moles of H2. there would have to be 4.00 moles of NH3. and the N2 reacts in a 1:3 ratio. how much NH3 will be produced? Since 1 mole of N2 produces 2 moles of NH3.17 moles of N2 will be used up.50 moles of N2 will produce 3.34 moles of NH3. Work: 3 H2 1 N2 = 3. This means that the H2 will be the limiting reagent.50 moles of H2. Work: 3 H2 2 NH3 = 3.) The N2 is said to be “in excess”. (It's a 1 : 2 ratio.50 H2 X (3) x (X) = (2) x (3.50 moles This mass equals 3. 1.50 moles of N2. Which one will be the limiting reagent? We know from our first two calculations that we have 1.00 grams per mole = 3. In order for all of the N2 to be used up.17 moles of N2 will produce 2.) . The chemicals react in a ratio of 1 N2 : 3 H2. How much of the other reactant will be used up? Since we only have 3. how much NH3 will be produced? Since 3 moles of H2 produces 2 moles of NH3.00 g of H2 / 2. How many moles of H2 do we have? Moles = mass of chemical / molar mass = 7. If all of the N2 is used up.50 moles of H2.17 moles of N2 are used up How much NH3 will be produced? Since 1 mole of N2 produces 2 moles of NH3. 3. 3.50 moles of H2.00 / 3 X = 2.