• An m x n matrix is written as

           a11 a 21 ai1 am1 a12 a 22 ithrow → am2 aij amn a1j a1n a 2n           mxn 

Matrices

•A=

Properties of Matrices
• If A,B and C are matrices of same order then
A + B = B + A Matrix addition is commutative (A+B) + C = A+ (B+C) Associative A + O = A = O + A Property of null matrix A +(-A) = O = -A + A Inverse Property

Properties of Matrices
• If A = [aij]nxm then scalar multiplication of A and α is defined as [α .aij]nxm and denoted as αA • (α + β).A = α.A + β.B ∀ α.( A + B) = α.A + α.B • (-1).A = -A • (α • β).A = α .( β.A)

Types of matrices
• : A square matrix is • Upper triangular if aij=0 if i > j • Lower triangular if aij=0 if i < j • Diagonal if is upper ∧ lower ∆ ie aij = 0 if i ≠ j • Scalar matrix if diagonal and aij = λ if i = j • Unit matrix if is scalar and λ = 1 • Null matrix if aij = 0 • Idempotent Matrix if A2 = A

• • • • •

Periodic with period k if Ak+1 = A Nilpotent of order k if Ak = O Involutory matrix A2 = I Symmetric if AT = A’ = A ie aij = aji Skew symmetric AT = A’ = –A ie aij = –aji

• Orthogonal if AT = A–1 ie AAT = I • Singular |A| = 0 • Non singular |A| ≠ 0

• A = diag(a1 , a2, a3, - - an) then • A–1 = diag(1/a1 , 1/a2, 1/a3, - - 1/an) • A.B = 0 does not mean either A = 0 or B=0 • A.B may not be equal to B.A • If A and B are orthogonal then A.B is orthogonal • A + AT is symmetric • A – AT is skew symmetric • (AB)–1 = B–1A–1 • (AB)T = B TA T

Points to remember

• If B is symmetric then • (A.B.A T) is symmetric. 1 d • If A a c  then A–1 =    ad − bc  − b b d • A
–1

− c  a 

=

adj(A) A

,adj(A)=[Aij]T,

• Aij = Cofactor of aij = (-1)i+j Mij = determinant by • Mij = Minor of aij k= p th th deleting i row and j column. aik bkj • [aij]mxp. [bij]pxn =[cij]mxn cij = k =1