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CONCERT PROGRAM
April 12-14, 2013
Yan Pascal Tortelier, conductor
Augustin Hadelich, violin
ROSSINI L’italiana in Algeri Overture (1813)
(1792-1868)
PAGANINI Violin Concerto No. 1 in D major, op. 6 (1816)
(1782-1840)
Allegro maestoso
Adagio
Rondo: Allegro spiritoso

Cadenzas composed by Augustin Hadelich
Augustin Hadelich, violin
INTERMISSION
BERLIOZ Symphonie fantastique, op. 14 (1830)
(1803-1869)
Rêveries. Passions: Largo; Allegro agitato e appassionato assai
Un bal: Valse. Allegro non troppo
Scène aux champs: Adagio
Marche au supplice: Allegretto non troppo
Songe d’une nuit du sabbat: Larghetto; Allegro assai; Allegro
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Yan Pascal Tortelier is the Edna W. Sternberg Guest Artist.
Augustin Hadelich is the Bruce Anderson Memorial Fund Guest Artist.
The concert of Friday, April 12, is underwritten in part by a generous gift from
Mr. and Mrs. Wilfred R. Konneker.
The concert of Saturday, April 13, is underwritten in part by a generous gift from
The Honorable and Mrs. Sam Fox.
The concert of Sunday, April 14, is underwritten in part by a generous gift from
Jcannc and Rcx Sinquclcld.
These concerts are presented by Thompson Coburn LLP.
Pre-Concert Conversations are presented by Washington University Physicians.
These concerts are part of the Wells Fargo Advisors Series.
Large print program notes are available through the generosity of Mosby
Building Arts and are located at the Customer Service table in the foyer.
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FROM THE STAGE
Bjorn Ranheim, cello: “Symphonie fantastique is an amazing trip through the
tortured mind and imagination of Hector Berlioz!”
Cally Banham, oboe/English horn: “Symphonie fantastique is one of the only
pieces in the orchestral repertoire in which the English horn plays entirely
alone. I relish being able to do that in a setting like Powell Hall, with such
sonorous acoustics!”
Bjorn Ranheim Cally Banham
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TIMELINKS
1813-16
ROSSINI
L’italiana in Algeri
Overture
PAGANINI
Violin Concerto No. 1 in
D major, op. 6
Giuseppe Verdi born
1830
BERLIOZ
Symphonie fantastique,
op. 14
Tocqueville publishes
Democracy in America
The three works featured in tonight’s program
were written between 1813 and 1830, by three
composers who knew one another. Paganini
paid Rossini the supreme compliment of
writing variations on themes from at least three
of his operas. Rossini is quoted as saying that if
Paganini ever started writing operas, “we’d all
be in trouble.” Berlioz called Paganini “a genius,
a titan among the giants.” Paganini recognized
the French composer’s gifts right away and
commissioned a piece for his Stradivarius
viola. Paganini never played Harold in Italy,
the requested work, but he gave Berlioz a
generous sum of money and hailed him as “the
resurrected Beethoven.”
Although Rossini and Berlioz were both
friends with Paganini, their relationship with
each other was complicated. Berlioz, one of the
leading music critics of the era, wrote several
blistering reviews of Rossini’s works. Over
time he grudgingly acknowledged the merits
of Il barbiere di Siviglia and Le Comte Ory, but
his tirades are far more memorable than his
compliments. In his memoir, he railed against
“...Rossini’s melodious cynicism, his contempt
for the traditions of dramatic expression, his
perpetual repetition of one kind of cadence, his
eternal puerile crescendo, and his crashing big
drum....” The feeling may have been mutual. After
seeing a score of Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique,
Rossini reportedly said, “What a good thing it
isn’t music.”
DEMONOLOGY
BY RENÉ SPENCER SALLER
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GIOACHINO ROSSINI
L’italiana in Algeri Overture
OPERA STAR For Gioachino Rossini, 1813 was
a very good year. He was the most famous living
opera composer in Italy, possibly in Europe, and
he was only 21 years old. His opera seria Tancredi
was a huge hit in February, at its Venice premiere.
A few months later, he followed it with another
big crowd-pleaser, his comic opera L’italiana in
Algeri. He wrote it in less than a month. With a
libretto by Angelo Anelli, the plot is invariably
described as “zany,” a charitable interpretation.
Opera fans have never cared about such minor
matters. As W.H. Auden famously observed, “No
good opera plot can be sensible, for people do
not sing when they are being sensible.” At any
rate, Venetians loved this nonsensical tale of a
noblewoman from Italy who sails to Algeria to
rescue her enslaved lover.
WHAT TO LISTEN FOR It is important to remember
that Italy had no tradition of symphonic music
and very little orchestral music during the 19th
century. Had he opted to write symphonies
instead of operas, Rossini would have needed to
leave his homeland for Austria or Germany. The
fact that this overture is now performed so often
suggests that Italy’s foremost opera composer
might have become a major symphonist, had
circumstances permitted. The overture to
L’italiana shows a matuic and conldcnt usc
of instrumental timbres and ranges and a
witty approach to orchestration: tuneful and
propulsive, with vaguely exotic touches. It begins
quietly, with tentative pizzicato strings, only to
explode into a Haydenesque “surprise” from the
wholc oichcstia. A lcisuicly oloc mclody loats
above the thrumming strings; the orchestra
becomes more assertive and then abruptly stops.
The oboe reprises its solo, joined by a call-and-
icsµonsc claiinct. Thc list thcmc is voiccd ly
the woodwinds, followed by a sprightly string
interlude punctuated by rolling percussion.
Uncxµcctcd wind µaiiings cngagc in liity lantci
before the recapitulation and characteristically
rousing crescendo.
Born
February 29, 1792, Pesaro, Italy
Died
November 13, 1868, Paris
First Performance
May 22, 1813, at the Teatro
San Benedetto in Venice
STL Symphony Premiere
January 14, 1961, Edouard Van
Remoortel conducting
Most Recent STL Symphony
Performance
October 6, 2007, Nicholas
McGegan conducting
Scoring
piccolo
2 oboes
2 clarinets
2 bassoons
2 horns
2 trumpets
trombone
timpani
percussion
strings
Performance Time
approximately 9 minutes
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NICCOLÒ PAGANINI
Violin Concerto No. 1 in D major, op. 6
DEMONIC FIDDLER Niccolò Paganini is widely
cited as the greatest violinist of all time, but he
might also lc thc list iock god. His astonishing
virtuosity, along with his sinister appearance—
wild black hair, weirdly long limbs, piercing eyes
set deep in a gaunt face—contributed to his aura
of mystery. Some claimed that his mother made a
pact with the devil, selling her six-year-old’s soul
in exchange for his superhuman talent. According
to another rumor, the strings of his violin were
made from the guts of murdered lovers; if you
listened closely, it was said, you could hear their
screams. He dressed entirely in black and often
traveled to concerts in a black coach drawn by
black horses. When he performed, women fainted
in ecstasy. His technical wizardry and abundant
charisma inspired Franz Liszt to become, in his
words, the “Paganini of the piano.” Paganini’s
death, at the age of 57, happened too suddenly
for a priest to perform the last rites. Because of
this and his general notoriety, he was denied a
Catholic burial. After four years and an appeal
to the Pope, the Church allowed his body to be
moved to a cellar, but he was not actually buried
until more than 30 years later.
INVENTIVE COMPOSER In addition to his
prodigious skills as a violinist, Paganini was also
a lnc comµosci÷µossilly lccausc hc was unallc
to lnd cxisting music that allowcd him to disµlay
his extraordinary skills. On his concert tours, he
mostly played original compositions grounded in
his relentless pursuit of the seemingly unplayable.
His innovations and iclncmcnts icvolutionizcd
violin technique, and his frenetic tempos,
aciolatic lngciings, unusual tunings, and
bravura leaps of the bow make his compositions
staples of the soloist’s showpiece repertoire.
He wrote six violin concertos, including an
unnumbered youthful effort, and at least twenty
other pieces for violin and orchestra.
PASSION AND PRECISION Paganini composed the
Violin Concerto No. 1 sometime between 1816
and 1818, when he was in his mid-30s. Studded
Born
October 27, 1782, Genoa
Died
May 27, 1840, Nice
First Performance
March 7, 1816, in Milan,
Paganini was soloist
STL Symphony Premiere
January 26, 1917, Efrem
Zimbalist was soloist, with
Max Zach conducting
Most Recent STL Symphony
Performance
April 3, 2004, Rachel Lee was
soloist, with Itzhak Perlman
conducting
Scoring
solo violin
2 flutes
2 oboes
2 clarinets
bassoon
contrabassoon
2 horns
2 trumpets
3 trombones
timpani
percussion
strings
Performance Time
approximately 35 minutes
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with double-stop thirds, quicksilver shifts of register, strummed chords,
unison and octavc tiills, and chiomatic glissandi, thc lciociously dillcult woik
icquiics loth dclicacy and stamina liom thc soloist. Thc list movcmcnt, thc
Allcgio macstoso, is ioughly in sonata loim, lut its many ihaµsodic lights
and its emphasis on individual expression over formal constraints mark it as
the product of a proto-Romantic. The lyrical Adagio that follows is reminiscent
of bel canto opera and features interesting orchestral textures, with dramatic
contiilutions liom thc tiomloncs and doullc lasscs. Thc lnal movcmcnt, a
spirited rondo, is another strenuous workout for the soloist, with an extended
passage of thirds in high harmonics. As a whole, the First Concerto is a perfect
marriage of passion and precision, boldness and discipline.
Augustin Hadelich
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HECTOR BERLIOZ
Symphonie fantastique, op. 14
A BAD TRIP In 1969, during one of his celebrated
Young People’s Concerts, Leonard Bernstein
called Hector Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique
¯thc list µsychcdclic symµhony in histoiy."
Summarizing its storyline, he quipped, “Berlioz
tells it like it is. You take a trip, you wind up
screaming at your own funeral.” Although this
may seem like an old dude’s attempt to suck
up to the hippie kids, Bernstein was simply
paraphrasing the composer’s own program notes,
which Berlioz maintained were indispensable for
a complete understanding of his work. Previous
symphonies—such as Beethoven’s “Pastoral”
Symµhony, which also comµiiscs lvc movcmcnts
and was a majoi inlucncc on Symphonie
fantastique—depicted landscapes and moods, but
none had told a story so explicitly, identifying
the ways in which various melodies and sound
cllccts coiicsµond to sµccilc chaiactcis and
plot points. Essentially, Symphonie fantastique is
an opera without singers. Today we recognize
Berlioz’s symphonic debut as the archetypal
program symphony—music that describes
characters, events, and emotions, as opposed to
absolute music, which is, at least theoretically,
nonrepresentational—but audience members
at the 1830 Paris premiere were unprepared for
such detailed notes, particularly on such a sordid
topic. Here’s the synopsis: A sensitive young
artist (an obvious proxy for the composer) falls
desperately in love with a total stranger (clearly
the Irish actress Harriet Smithson, whom Berlioz
had been stalking, to no avail, since he saw
her play Ophelia in Hamlet three years earlier);
attempts to poison himself with opium; but
instead has a nightmare about murdering his
beloved, being condemned to death by guillotine,
witnessing his own execution, and attending his
own funeral in the company of ghouls, witches,
and devils.
DETRACTORS AND DEFENDERS To many 19th-
century listeners, the music was as depraved as
the subject matter. Felix Mendelssohn’s reaction
was not atypical: “How utterly loathsome this is
Born
December 11, 1803, near
Grenoble, France
Died
March 8, 1869, Paris
First Performance
December 5, 1830, at
the Paris Conservatoire,
François-Antoine Habeneck
conducted an orchestra
assembled by the composer
STL Symphony Premiere
November 11, 1910, Max Zach
conducting
Most Recent STL Symphony
Performance
January 16, 2010, Susanna
Mälkki conducting
Scoring
2 flutes
piccolo
2 oboes
English horn
2 clarinets
E-flat clarinet
4 bassoons
4 horns
2 cornets
2 trumpets
3 trombones
2 tubas
2 timpani
percussion
2 harps
strings
Performance Time
approximately 49 minutes
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to me.... To see one’s most cherished ideas debased and expressed in perverted
caricatures would enrage anyone. And yet this is only the program. The
execution is still more miserable: nowhere a spark, no warmth, utter foolishness,
contrived passion represented through every possible exaggerated orchestral
means: four timpani, two pianos for four hands, which are supposed to imitate
bells, two harps, many big drums, violins divided into eight parts, two parts
for the double basses which play solo passages, and all these means...used
to express nothing but indifferent drivel, mere grunting, shouting, screaming
back and forth.”
The work also attracted passionate defenders, such as Camille Saint-
Saëns and Franz Liszt. Moreover, despite the premiere’s many technical
hitches, Berlioz described it in a letter two days later as a “furious success”:
“The Symphonie fantastique was welcomed with shouting and stamping; they
dcmandcd a icµctition ol thc |louith movcmcnt|; and thc |lnal movcmcnt|
destroyed everything with Satanic effect!”
ROMANTICISM AND BEYOND In Symphonie fantastique, the composer realized
his dream of a new art form, one that comprised music, literature, and
autobiography. The symphony has come to both apotheosize the Romantic
era and move beyond it. His —the recurrent melody that symbolizes the
lclovcd and unilcs thc lvc movcmcnts÷µicdatcd thc Vagnciian lcitmotiv,
and his often bizarre orchestral sonorities (the col legno string passages in the
lnal movcmcnt, loi instancc) anticiµatcd similai cxµciimcnts ly avant-gaidc
20th-ccntuiy comµoscis. Thc lcvciish list movcmcnt lcais only a µassing
resemblance to sonata form. The second movement, an elegant waltz, contrasts
a ballroom party (two harps!) with the protagonist’s subjective experience
(obsessive torment!), culminating in a dazzling polyphonic display when the
two worlds collide. In the third movement, subverted pastoral conventions
become yet another means to convey the artist’s isolation and despair. The
sonic equivalent of a decapitation serves as the climax to the fourth movement.
In thc lnalc, thc lclovcd's thcmc, oncc ¯nollc and shy," dcvolvcs into a vulgai
jig voiced by a shrill clarinet, and then dancing witches enact a burlesque
parody of the Catholic plainchant Dies irae from the Requiem mass. Call it
black metal avant la lettre.
Program notes © 2013 by René Spencer Saller
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YAN PASCAL TORTELIER
EDNA W. STERNBERG GUEST ARTIST
Yan Pascal Tortelier enjoys a distinguished career
as a guest with the world’s most prestigious
orchestras. He began his musical career as a
violinist and at 1+ won list µiizc loi violin at thc
Paris Conservatoire and also made his debut as a
soloist with the London Philharmonic Orchestra.
Following general musical studies with Nadia
Boulanger, Tortelier studied conducting with
Franco Ferrara at the Accademia Chigiana in
Siena, and from 1974 to 1983 he was Associate
Conductor of the Orchestre National du Capitole
de Toulouse. Further positions have included
Principal Conductor and Artistic Director of
the Ulster Orchestra (1989-92) and Principal
Guest Conductor of the Pittsburgh Symphony
Orchestra (2005-08). He was Principal
Conductor of the Sao Paulo Symphony Orchestra
(2009-11) and currently holds the position of
Guest Conductor of Honor, in which capacity he
returns to the orchestra a number of times each
season. Following his outstanding work as Chief
Conductor of the BBC Philharmonic between
1992 and 2003, including annual appearances at
the BBC Proms and a very successful tour of the
U.S. to celebrate the orchestra’s 60th-anniversary
season, he was given the title of Conductor
Emeritus and continues to work with the
orchestra regularly. He also holds the position of
Principal Guest Conductor at the Royal Academy
of Music in London.
Highlights of the 2012-13 season and
beyond include return visits to the Dresden
Philharmonic Orchestra, BBC Philharmonic and
Hallé Orchestras, St. Petersburg Philharmonic
Orchestra, and the Pittsburgh, San Francisco,
Cincinnati, and Baltimore symphony orchestras.
He also undertakes a long-awaited return to
Australia for performances with the Melbourne,
Adelaide, and West Australian symphony
orchestras.
Yan Pascal Tortelier most
recently conducted the
St. Louis Symphony in
May 2009.
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AUGUSTIN HADELICH
BRUCE ANDERSON MEMORIAL FUND GUEST ARTIST
Augustin Hadclich has conlimcd his µlacc in thc
top echelon of young violinists. After performing
a stellar debut with the Boston Symphony at
Tanglewood in August playing the Barber Violin
Concerto, he has recently played an equally
impressive subscription debut with the New York
Philharmonic at Lincoln Center playing Lalo’s
Symphonie espagnole.
Among Hadelich’s 2012-13 season highlights
are debuts with the Buffalo Philharmonic, Dallas
Symphony, Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra,
National Symphony, New Jersey Symphony, San
Francisco Symphony, and the Toronto Symphony,
as well as re-invitations to the Colorado, Houston,
and Jacksonville symphonies and to the New
York Philharmonic at Vail in the summer of 2013.
Among his upcoming worldwide engagements
are the BBC Philharmonic, SWR Orchestra/
Stuttgart, and Finland’s Tampere Philharmonic.
Hadelich has recorded two CDs for AVIE:
Flying Solo, a CD of masterworks for solo violin
(including the Bartók solo sonata); and Echoes
of Paris, which features French and Russian
icµcitoiic inlucnccd ly Paiisian cultuic in thc
early 20th century. For Naxos, he has recorded
Haydn’s complete violin concerti with the
Cologne Chamber Orchestra and Telemann’s
complete Fantasies for Solo Violin. A new CD,
Histoire du Tango, will be released in the spring
of 2013.
The 2006 Gold Medalist of the International
Violin Competition of Indianapolis, Hadelich is
also the recipient of Lincoln Center’s Martin E.
Segal Award (2012), an Avery Fisher Career Grant
(2009), and a Borletti-Buitoni Trust Fellowship in
the U.K. (2011).
Born in Italy in 1984, the son of German
parents, Hadelich holds an artist diploma from
the Juilliard School, where he was a student of Joel
Smirnoff. He plays on the 1723 “Ex-Kiesewetter”
Stradivarius violin, on loan from Clement and
Karen Arrison through the generous efforts of the
Stradivari Society.
Augustin Hadelich makes
his St. Louis Symphony
debut this week.
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A BRIEF EXPLANATION
You don’t need to know what “andante” means or what a glockenspiel is to
enjoy a St. Louis Symphony concert, but it’s fun to know stuff. How about
col lengo?
Col legno: litcially, ¯with thc wood," in Italian; Bcilioz is onc ol thc list to
exploit use of this effect, in which the string musicians vibrate the strings
of their instruments with the wood of their bows
RATTLE & ROLL:
DANA EDSON MYERS ON COL LEGNO
“In Symphonie fantastique Berlioz makes use of col legno to produce a rattling,
unsettling sound, like skeleton bones. It evokes bizarre emotions and moods
in the symphony. There’s a work by the contemporary composer Kamran
Ince in which col lengo makcs a sound likc lic ciackling.
“A lot of musicians don’t like it because it messes with the wood, the
metal can scratch the wood of your bow. There’s really no technique to it.
Anybody can do it. You just turn your wrist so the wood is facing down and
you clatter away.”
Col legno, “with the wood”
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YOU TAKE IT FROM HERE
If these concerts have inspired you to learn more, here are suggested source
materials with which to continue your explorations.
Jascha Heifetz plays Paganini Caprice
No. 24
youtube.com/watch?v=vPcnGrie__M
A vintage clip of the great Heifetz
Alan Kendall, Gioacchino Rossini: The
Reluctant Hero
Trafalgar Press
An accurate, well-written overview,
and nicely illustrated
Leonard Bernstein’s Young People’s
Concerts: “Berlioz Takes a Trip”
youtube.com/watch?v=tWrut6bxK0M
“The list µsychcdclic symµhony in
history,” Bernstein informs his young
audience in 1969.
Hector Berlioz, translation by David
Cairns, The Memoirs of Hector Berlioz
Everyman’s Library
One of the classic autobiographies

Read the program notes online at stlsymphony.org/planyourvisit/programnotes
Keep up with the backstage life of the St. Louis Symphony, as chronicled by
Symphony staffer Eddie Silva, via stlsymphony.org/blog

The St. Louis Symphony is on
32
CORPORATE & FOUNDATION
DONOR SPOTLIGHT
MARY PILLSBURY FINE JEWELRY
An Interview with Mary Pillsbury Wainwright
The St. Louis Symphony gratefully acknowledges
the sponsorship of concerts with soprano Christine
Brewer on May 3-5 by Mary Pillsbury Wainwright.
Philanthropist, singer, and entrepreneur, Mary is the
founder of Mary Pillsbury Fine Jewelry located at Le
Chateau Village in Frontenac, Missouri.
Trained as a lyrical soprano, she has performed
for a host of dignitaries including President George
H. Bush and President Mikhail Gorbachev. Mary
has also received national and regional recognition
for her community involvement, most recently
as 2012 National Woman of the Year for the
Leukemia & Lymphoma Society and St. Louis’
Women of Achievement.
How did you enter the jewelry business and what will customers find at Mary
Pillsbury Fine Jewelry?
While living in New York, I was the in- house singer during the evenings for
the Café Pierre in the Pierre Hotel on Fifth Avenue. During the day, I started
selling Indian jewelry and eventually diamonds, learning the trade from some
of the best. I earned a degree from the Gemological Institute of America and
returned to St. Louis to open Mary Pillsbury Fine Jewelry in 1978. Our selection
includcs lnc diamond jcwcliy liom woild-icnowncd dcsigncis as wcll as my
own custom creations.
How do you select the organizations that receive your support?
In addition to arts and culture, I feel blessed I have the opportunity to support
other causes I’m passionate about. My involvement with the Leukemia and
Lymµhoma Socicty is quitc µcisonal÷my list husland, Ed Hcitz, dicd liom
leukemia at age 38. I founded the Diamond Ball in 1986 in his memory, and
this event has raised millions of dollars in support of cancer research and
medical breakthroughs.
Why do you support the St. Louis Symphony?
My husband, Don and I love the Symphony and wholeheartedly support their
performances that enrich people’s lives through the inspiration and beauty of
music. The quality of the orchestra’s programs at Powell Hall as well as in the
community is world class.
As a singer, I’m honored to be supporting performances that feature
Christine Brewer—I have such admiration for her as a singer and person.
Mary Pillsbury Wainwright
33
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34
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HANDICAPPED-ACCESSIBLE
FAMILY RESTROOM
POWELL HALL

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