Monday: 12.00pm to 1.00pm

Logan Hall

David Buckingham, Institute of Education, University of London Is there a digital generation? Abstract: Children and young people who have grown up with digital technology have a new orientation towards learning, communication and social interaction – or so we are frequently told. Technology, it is argued, is producing a new generation gap with profound social, psychological and political consequences. But what is the evidence for such claims? This opening presentation will offer a critical evaluation of the rhetoric of the ‘digital generation’, and outline an agenda for further research. It will focus on a series of claims that are often made about the impact of digital technologies on areas such as learning, play, communication and identity - and indeed on the very definition of childhood itself. The presentation will draw on sociological analyses of generations, on debates about the social construction of age categories, and on existing evidence about young people’s uses of both new and ‘old’ media. It will challenge the technological determinism and the essentialist views of childhood that often characterise such debates. However, it will also argue that the use of digital technology reflects fundamental changes in the lived experiences of children and young people that cannot be ignored. Biography: David Buckingham is Professor of Education at the Institute of Education where he directs the Centre for the Study of Children, Youth and Media ( He is the author, co-author or editor of seventeen books, including Children Talking Television, Moving Images, The Making of Citizens, After the Death of Childhood and Media Education. His work has been translated into fifteen languages. He has recently directed projects on the uses of educational media in the home; young people’s interpretations of sexual representations in the media; and the uses of digital media by migrant/refugee children across Europe. His most recent book is Young People, Sex and the Media: The Facts of Life? (with Sara Bragg).


Thurday: 9:00 – 10:00

Logan Hall

Andrew Burn, Institute of Education, University of London and James Durran, Parkside Community College, Cambridge Digital anatomies: analysis as production in media education Abstract: Media education in recent years has placed considerable emphasis on the new technologies of production, especially of digital video. While it is natural, in this context, to want to explore and celebrate student production work, we want to ask how these technologies also function as analytical tools. We will take a look at examples from our own practice of the use of technologies to unpick media texts, to help children to analyse them, transform them and rework them. We want to contribute to the bringing-together of processes of analysis and production, proposing that analysis can be creative, productive and affective. Our aim is to see technologies such as digital video editing softwares as produced by the structures and histories of film and television, but also as tools whose use is transformatively determined by processes of teaching and learning in media education, by the needs of teachers and students. Biographies: Andrew Burn is Associate Director of the Centre for the Study of Children, Youth and Media. He has taught English, Drama and Media Studies in comprehensive schools for over twenty years. He has been Head of English and an Assistant Principal at his last school, Parkside Community College in Cambridge. His main role there was to direct the school’s media arts specialism: it was the first specialist Arts College in the country with a media focus. He has also been a member of the national executive of NATE, and editor of NATEnews. Publications include Analysing Media Texts (with David Parker); and Videogames: text, narrative, play (with David Buckingham, Diane Carr and Gareth Schott (forthcoming)). James Durran is an Advanced Skills Teacher at Parkside Community College, where he was previously Head of English, Media and Drama. As mentioned above, Parkside was the first specialist Media Arts College, and is also a ‘Leading Edge School’ developing innovative uses of classroom technology. James is involved in training and curricular development both locally and across the country. He also tutors on PGCE courses for the University of Cambridge Faculty of Education. He is active in the National Association for the Teaching of English, and has co-written a number of publications for Pearson Publishing, in Cambridge.


Monday: 4.15pm – 5.15pm

Logan Hall

Gunther Kress, Institute of Education, University of London Gains and losses in the era of the digital generation Abstract: Much attention is focused on attempts to understand what precisely the move to the digital media entails, in all domains of public and private life. However, from the perspective of education that attention and consequent questions are likely to be quite specific ones; and it is these which I wish to explore. In that exploration I am not going to confine myself to the traditional sites (school, the university e.g.) and notions (formal curricula, assessment e.g.) of education, for after all, the undercutting of these is precisely one effect of the ubiquitous presence and use of the digital technologies. And of course, the kind of institutionalised education which has characterized ‘Western’ societies has been a phenomenon only of the last two centuries or so, and may very well disappear again during this century. Nor will my attention be focused on the media – or the technologies – alone; rather I wish to consider the simultaneous changes in representational practices which are, in part, due to changes in technologies of (semiotic/cultural) production and of dissemination and which are at the same time in large part independent of them. That is, I will focus, for instance, on what happens when we move from the dominance of the mode of writing to a dominance of the mode of image: when image becomes the deep metaphor that guides representation (as in layout practices for instance, even of printed materials), rather than writing. I use the phrase “Gains and Losses” as a means for thinking; not in any way nostalgically or pessimistically, but, I hope, with a sense of responsibility to those who are moving into full adult lives in that era. As an educator I see it as my aim, first and foremost, to understand, and from the standpoint of the best possible understandings to reflect on consequences, actions, and future directions in policies and practices around representation, pedagogies and curricula, forms of knowledge, and potentials for learning. Biography: Gunther Kress is Professor of English and Head of the School of Culture, Language and Education. His main interests are in questions of society, culture and meaning; all aspects of communication from a (social) semiotic perspective; visual communication / semiotics of the visual; language, literacy and questions of literacy; discourse analysis; questions of curriculum and pedagogy for the future; and education and social futures generally. Recent books include Literacy in the New Media Age, Multimodal Discourse, Before Writing: Rethinking the paths to literacy and Reading Images: The grammar of graphic design.

Tuesday: 9.00pm – 10.00am

Logan Hall

Mizuko Ito, Annenberg Centre for Communications, University of Southern California


Technologies of the childhood imagination: Yugioh, media mixes, and otaku Abstract: Current Japanese media mixes in children's popular culture are based on a hybrid relation between interactive and non-interactive media forms, taking the more familiar formats of comic books and television animation and cross-referencing them with trading cards and video games. By mobilizing portable, trade-able, and recombinable trading card monsters, these media mixes represent a more pervasive reach in the logics of digital imaginaries, a growing interpenetration between the virtual and the real in a wide range of everyday settings. These media mixes are also tied to entrepreneurial and often oppositional forms of media consumption that have come to be associated with Japanese otaku (media geeks). Far from the shut-in behavior that gave rise to the most familiar forms of anti-media rhetoric, this media mix of children’s popular culture is wired, extroverted and hypersocial, sociality augmented by a dense set of technologies, signifiers, and systems of exchange. The image of solitary kids staring at television screens and twiddling their thumbs has given way to the figure of the activist kid beaming monsters between Game Boys, trading cards in the park, text messaging friends on their bus ride home, and reading breaking Yugioh information emailed to a mobile phone. This presentation will report on ethnographic fieldwork in Tokyo, describing the imaginary of Yugioh as built upon media mixing as technical form, hypersociality as social form, and remix as cultural form. These new forms of media engagements are also related to changes in the intergenerational cultural politics of childhood. Biography: Mizuko Ito is a cultural anthropologist of technology use, focusing on children and youth’s changing relationships to media and communications. Her current research is on Japanese technoculture, and she is completing a study on how children in Japan and the US engage with post-Pokemon media mixes. A book she has co-edited, Personal, Portable, Pedestrian: Mobile Phones in Japanese Life, is due out next year. She is a Research Associate at the Annenberg Center for Communication, a Teaching Fellow at the Anthropology Department at the University of Southern California, and a Visiting Associate Professor at Keio University in Japan. Past workplaces include the Institute for Research on Learning, Xerox PARC, Tokyo University, the National Institute for Educational Research in Japan, and Apple Computer. Her web page is at


Wednesday: 4.15pm – 5.15pm

Logan Hall

Henry Jenkins, Massachusetts Institute of Technology The war between “effects” and meanings: rethinking the video game violence debate Abstract: This talk attempts to explore the relationship of emerging research on the pedagogical potential of computer and video games to the long-standing debate about the effects of video game violence on young players. It will move swiftly from a discussion of the Limbaugh decision (and its subsequent overturn), a major court case which initially found that video games did not constitute a meaningful medium of expression, through a comparison between the pedagogical assumptions made by video game opponents and defenders, and into a consideration of ways that creative design and educational intervention are encouraging players to reflect about and debate the meanings of violence. What can the developers of educational games learn by revisiting the debate about media violence? What does the new research on games and education add to the longstanding debates on media violence? Biography: Henry Jenkins is the Director of the Comparative Media Studies program and the John E. Burchard Professor of the Humanities at MIT. He is the author of nine books on various aspects of media and popular culture, including From Barbie to Mortal Kombat: Gender and Computer Games and The Children’s Culture Reader. He is one of the founders of The Education Arcade, a consortium of researchers from MIT, University of Wisconsin-Madison, and elsewhere focused on exploring the pedagogical potentials of computer and video games. He writes two monthly columns, one for Technology Review Online and one for Computer Games magazine, both targeted at making academic debates about media and culture available to a larger public. He has testified before the U.S. Senate Commerce Committee on the “marketing of violence to youth” and was one of a group of 32 international scholars who wrote an Amicus Brief which helped to overturn the Limbaugh decision.


Wednesday: 9.30am – 10.30am

Logan Hall

Sonia Livingstone, London School of Economics and Political Science, University of London Regulating the internet at home: contrasting the perspectives of children and parents Abstract: The research project UK Children Go Online (UKCGO) is conducting a rigorous investigation of 9-19 year olds’ use of the internet, in order to ask how the internet may be transforming – or may itself be shaped by - family life, peer networks and learning, formal and informal. It combines qualitative interviews and observations with a major national face-to-face survey of children (both users and non-users) and their parents. This paper presents new findings on how the internet is proving challenging and often frustrating for both parents and children as they attempt to fit it into their lives and homes. These private domestic practices are becoming of considerable policy relevance given the growing pressure from governments to widen access to and use of computers and the internet not only in workplaces and schools but also in homes while at the same time freeing up market competitiveness. As national regulation of domestic media environments is ever more difficult to sustain, there is increasing interest in building parental regulation of their children’s media use into national and international policy. The findings of the UKCGO project reveal the ways in which parents and children are responding to this greater responsibility to take charge of the media entering their homes. Findings centre on the tendency of parents to underestimate the risks their children are encountering online, on the tendency of children to underestimate the rules that their parents are attempting to implement regarding internet use, and on some of the issues that complicate parent/child negotiation of domestic regulation (including the generation gap in online expertise, and the balance between parents’ desire for control and their children’s desire for privacy). Biography: Sonia Livingstone joined the LSE in 1990 and is Professor of Social Psychology and a member of the Department of Media and Communications. She is author of Making Sense of Television (1998), Mass Consumption and Personal Identity (with Peter Lunt, 1992), Talk on Television (with Peter Lunt, 1994), Children and Their Changing Media Environment (edited with Moira Bovill, 2001), The Handbook of New Media (edited with Leah Lievrouw, 2002), and Young People and New Media (Sage, 2002). Her current work concerns children, young people and the internet, as part of a broader interest in the domestic, familial and educational contexts of new media access and use (see


Abstract Number: 1

Wednesday: 2:15 – 3:45

Room 822

Giota Alevizou, University of Sussex, UK Electronic encyclopaedias and the (info)rmal learning game: from producer planning to textual and practices This paper will situate theoretical frameworks on the identity of new media and contemporary debates regarding the impact of ICTs on education and learning with the production trajectories and evolving textuality of digital encyclopaedias. Among the oldest genres for modifying and mediating the shape of knowledge in the form of authoritative texts, the evolution of encyclopaedias across time and space has been dependent on the interplay between available media technologies and contemporary assumptions about knowledge construction and learning instruction. Either as representations of ‘universal’ knowledge or as summaries of information, since the enlightenment and throughout the industrial print media age, encyclopaedias have been commercially or institutionally promoted, and individually consumed as ‘symbolic goods’ for the provision of literacy and accessible learning, home education and good parenting. Though the identity of the personal computer as a media machine and indeed of the World Wide Web as a vast information database have, to a certain degree, replaced such symbolic and material functions through new media genres, electronic encyclopaedias remain, both rhetorically and practically, among the acting agents for situating the ‘new’ media possibilities, within well-established social, economic and cultural practices: trusted by educational policy makers and parents as tools for bridging the home-school gap, necessitated by teachers for the digital curriculum, and appropriated by children and young people as intertextual sources of informal learning. The paper will focus on the ways that digital transition and production trajectories of Microsoft Encarta and Encyclopaedia Britannica relate to the commercial and institutional context of edutainment and informal learning. It will finally discuss how contemporary debates on knowledge construction and learning instruction within the new media environment are reflected in these encyclopaedias' evolving textuality, as well as in their inscribed and actual use. Abstract Number: 2 1 Tuesday: 12.15pm – 1.00pm Drama Studio – Level

Ben Bachmair. University of Kassel, Germany Media socialisation without coherent media - on the way to semiotic spaces The cultural relation between media and users of media is in transition. Whether in casting shows such as “Pop Stars” or in children’s games such as Pokémon, TV programmes have become just one element together with many others, including merchandising products. The range of offerings in the field of popular entertainment is moving away radically from the older situation where the media consisted of single, coherent and readable outlets. The question then becomes “What happens


with meaningful personal engagement with and processing of media?” as part of our culture of industrial production and individual consumption? By now, more than one generation of children has already developed its media habits and ‘media literacy’ on this cultural ground. Looking into the future, traditional, ‘established’ forms of children’s TV viewing seem old fashioned; that mode now seems closer to that of the reading of (traditional) books than to ‘consumption’ of commodities. Referring to examples of media offerings and media reception, I will propose the concept of a “space” which could serve as an explanatory basis for the relation of media and ‘user’ of media. From this perspective it is becoming clearer how media, commodities and events - when combined through a widely embracing notion of aesthetics - begin to correlate with the patterns and activities of everyday life. What does this mean for socialisation? It becomes clear that it will be not only a (traditionally) “readable media” which will intervene into the relation of a subject with itself - the subject’s “inner world” - and the “outer world”, that is, the social-cultural and physical-factual environment. The newer ‘semiotic spaces’ that I will describe in my talk will have their, equal effect. The talk will be illustrated with examples and results from the longitudinal research “Kinderwelten/ Children’s Worlds”, organized by the German TV channel Super RTL, which will be briefly reported. Abstract Number: 3 Thursday: 10:30 – 12:30 TV studio

Erin Barnes – 21CC Project Manager, BBC Learning, Dr. Jo Armitage, Hounslow Teaching Support Service; Dr. Sveta Mayer, Lampton School; Fiona Young, Filmmaker and animator E-Learning: Actively opening minds in the 21st century classroom In collaboration with BBC 21CC, action research in Lampton School has focused on providing opportunities for self-determination and creativity to pupils learning KS3 science. This workshop aims to share the teaching and learning experienced by fourteenyear-old pupils that lead them to independently engage in a multimedia Science Animation Project with BBC 21CC. 20 out of 23 pupils had special educational needs related to behaviour, speech and language, English as an additional language or learning difficulties. In the classroom, promotion of an inclusive learning environment and accessing the national curriculum for science were the priorities. Strategies for behaviour management, engagement in learning, thinking and team working skills will be discussed in this workshop. Pupils’ behaviour, participation in class and scientific knowledge was assessed. Following SATs, pupils produced their own animated films. Their ability to manage themselves and make independent conclusions was assessed at this time as well as improved language skills and their ability to analyse, synthesise and apply new knowledge. Pupils were encouraged to reflect upon their experiences in the classroom and with the BBC.


• Delegates will have a chance to experiment with digital stop-frame animation for themselves • Delegates will also be able to discuss how E-learning may be successfully used for teaching and learning in the twenty-first century. Abstract Number: 4 Wednesday: 11.00am – 1.00pm Room 736

Catherine Beavis. Helen Nixon. Stephen Atkinson. Deakin University, Australia New media pathways: navigating the links between home, school and the workplace Recent literature about young people and new media suggests that the 'digital generation' engages in 'new literacies' and 'new kinds of learning' as they play computer games, create websites and interact online. This 'informal learning' (Sefton-Green, 2004), is assumed to have implications for both curriculum and pedagogy in schools and success in the workplace and 'lifelong learning'. In general Australian schools have been slow to explore the implications of these propositions for teacher (re)training and the redesign of curriculum and pedagogy. This paper draws on an Australian Research Council funded qualitative study of the out-ofschool media use of 15-16 year-olds attending schools located in poor communities. The case of two boys enrolled in the 'Multimedia Pathway' offered by Harborside High School is used to discuss the tensions and contradictions inherent in the views that a) school curriculum and pedagogy has much to learn from young people's informal and leisure-based learning, and b) school-based courses in new media are important because they increase student retention and success in post-school pathways. We draw on literature about the 'new work order' (Gee, Hull & Lankshear, 1996) to explore the nature of these boys' learning about and with ICTs. We show how the 'role of the scaffolding, structuring expert is distributed' and that these boys' knowledge exists 'in a network of relationships' (Gee, 2000). Finally, we discuss the part played by their in-school and out-of-school engagements with ICT in their production as the kinds of 'portfolio people' supposedly required by the new capitalism. Abstract 728 Number: 5 Wednesday: 2:15 – 3 :Room 45

Megan Boler, OISE/University of Toronto, Canada Shock and Awe: Media Literacy and Discomfort in the Digital Age In this presentation I analyze the potential of using digital web-based media to engage students interactively with news media. How do educators and students juggle the tensions between students’ expressed skepticism, cynicism, and highlysaturated and mediated attention, on the one hand; and on the other, the urgent need to engage participatory democracy through creative forms of “educational” and socially-conscious” new media that rival privately-produced gaming media? I will illustrate my argument for developing “sociological imagination” (Mills 1959) to counter “popular histories” (Barzun 1950) by examining the engagement of my website “Critical Media Literacy in Times of War.”


( I envisioned and collaboratively produced this site after September 11 to use webbased visual design to highlight how print news media offers contradictory stories about U.S. foreign policy in Iraq and Afghanistan. The website engages users in analysis of word choice, tone, headlines, and point of view with focus on differences between domestic and international print news regarding coverage of anti-war protests; civilian casualties; and effects of sanctions in Iraq. Critical Media Literacy in Times of War (named Media Literacy Link of the Month, Action Coalition for Media Education, February 2002; Web Site of the Day CounterPunch April 22, 2003; widely linked on sites ranging from Znet, Media Literacy Review, Fogler Library, University of Buffalo Library,, Middle Eastern Studies Association) illustrates one way to engage public citizenship through new media, and to analyze what Jacques Barzun in 1950 called “popular history: history as it exists in the minds of men…from the sources of mass media and school textbooks.” In this presentation, I argue the urgent need to develop what C. Wright Mills called the “sociological imagination,” and I analyze data regarding how students use and engage the website Critical Media Literacy in Times of War. I analyze data recently collected regarding how students engage this website and what kinds of literacy are fostered. I want to demonstrate how we can use digital media to engage students in interactive literacies that cultivate a process of questioning and of tolerating ambiguity. The goal of this site is not simply to expose people to information they didn’t know, but to engage people in rethinking how they have learned to look, to see and not see, to read and not read. Abstract No: 6 Tuesday: 2.15pm – 4.15pm Room 826

Petter Bae Brandtzæg. Tor Endestad. Jan Heim. Birgit Hertzberg Kaare. Leila Torgersen . University of Oslo, Norway Media technology and different patterns of use among children This study has charted the use of new media technology among Norwegian schoolchildren between seven and twelve years of age (2nd, 5th and 7th grade). 1112 children completed a form inquiring into their game playing habits, their use of computers, Internet, mobile phones and television. The main results of indicate that children use media technology in different ways. We found four typical patterns of use of media technologies among children: 1) The largest group, 40 percent of the children, are Disinterested in the sense that they make little use of new media technologies. Girls make up the majority of this group. 2) 25 percent of the children have an Entertainment focus, as they mainly spend a lot of time playing console games. 3) 12 percent have a Technological focus. These are highly competent computer users who indulge in creative activities such as programming, composing advanced music or manipulating images. They also design web pages, play pcgames and have the highest amount of new media in their rooms.


4) 23 percent have a Utility focus. These use new media instrumentally, as a tool. They gather information through the Internet, do their school work on a computer, use chatrooms and e-mail programmes and watch less television than the others. The most notable result is the recognition of the fact that children in this age do not employ the new media technologies to any significant extent, but also the large gap between boys and girls in media use. Abstract Number: 7 826 Tuesday: 2.15pm – 4.15pm Room

Thorbjorn Broddason, University of Iceland The acquisition and uses of new media among 10-15 year old Icelanders 19972003 In my paper I shall report some empirical findings from repeated questionnaire surveys in a long-term project called “Children and Television in Iceland 1968-2003”. The project includes all together six surveys. Main emphasis will be laid on the latest two (1997 and 2003). The purpose of the paper is to throw added light on questions regarding the ownership and uses of old and new media of communication among young people; both changes over time and differences within age-groups at a particular point in time. The time perspective is primarily 1997-2003, but in some comparisons I shall be able to look as far back as 1968. The focus will be on the extent to which the new media – in the hands of young users – are interacting with, merging with, engulfing, or pushing aside the more traditional media. Emerging changes in gender differences will be given special attention. More specifically, indicators and counter-indicators of a closure of the gender gap will be discussed and evaluated. This will be related to other activities that the young people engage in; their ideas of their own future; some attitude questions and even geographical differences. Special attention will be given to the very sharp and consistent long-term decline in the reading of books and newspapers which can be observed in my material. This, again, will be related to new kinds of reading.


Abstract 731





3:30 Room

Lee Burton, Education Manager, The Australian Children’s Television Foundation (ACTF) The KAHOOTZ Classroom: collaborations in constructing and deconstructing digital worlds. (Children and young people as media producers). The Australian Children’s Television Foundation (ACTF) has created a diverse, creative online community of young storytellers, designers, inventors, animators and artists. Participation in this educational community is facilitated by a unique set of 3D multimedia construction tools called Kahootz that allow students and teachers to create, exchange, inform and collaborate. Kahootz is used across the world, including Australia, New Zealand, the USA and the UK in a diverse, creative online community of children, young people and teachers. Within the community content and ideas are shared. Each child has a potential audience for their invention, story, artwork or composition. The power of Kahootz is not just in the creation of engaging and innovative content, it is in the shared stories, collaborations, incidental learning and knowledge transfer that occurs when you engage children to challenge each other. This presentation of Kahootz will demonstrate examples of creative collaborative content developed by 7-15 year-olds from across the world. The ACTF is a non-profit organisation that aims to enrich children’s lives through the production of engaging and educational media. Established in 1982, the ACTF has produced over 200 hours of television programs that are highly regarded nationally and internationally. ACTF programs like Round The Twist have sold to more than 100 countries. The television programs, teaching kits and Kahootz are used widely in educational settings. Abstract Number: 9 Thursday 4:00 – 5:30 TV studio

Lee Burton, Education Manager, ACTF Your next media lesson is only a click away! The Australian Children’s Television Foundation (ACTF) provides unique media and free online resources for educators and students. In this 90 minute workshop, participants will be taken on a journey through: • the Learning Centre online, with over 300 free searchable lesson plans, worksheets and study guides for pre-school to tertiary level in all subject areas, based on ACTF programs. • interactive online tutorials on scripting and producing live action and animation featuring production information on how books are transformed into film, as well as encouraging reluctant readers through book-TV tie-ins.


• the Resource Centre online, with extensive searchable resources about all aspects of media research and the media audience, regulation and censorship and with information about all relevant world organisations concerned with children, young people and the media. • video and film resources- how to teach concepts from many areas of the curriculum using ACTF media clips and programs. Participants will be provided with a choice of packs of materials from the ACTF to support their teaching about the media including a video clips’ resource of ACTF trailers and segments from programs and an accompanying activities book that focuses on key media concepts of narrative, audience, representations, media production and marketing. The ACTF is a non-profit organisation that aims to enrich children’s lives through the production of engaging and educational media. The television programs, films, teaching kits and Kahootz, a creative interactive multi-media program are used widely in educational settings. Abstract 736 Number: Wednesday: 10 11.00am – 1.00pm Room

Carol C. Thompson, Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania Ed Figueroa, Hopeworks, Jeff Putthoff, SJ, Hopeworks Hopeworks: Youth Identity, Youth Organisation and Technology With increasing interest in the role of digital technologies in education has come the hope, explicitly or implicitly contained in various youth programs, that technology will provide the means for healthy identity construction for disenfranchised youth. Video game production or Geographic Information Systems (GIS) mapping may indeed carry a high intellectual valence for youth and be crucial to engaging youth in activities that will stimulate their curiosity. However, digital technologies are themselves insufficient tools for identity construction; rather, they are a means toward apprenticeship in which younger youth learn from more experienced peers how to develop their skills and their self-respect. This paper traces the identity development in one youth over a year. A trainee, he works at a youth organisation (Hopeworks) in Camden, New Jersey (US), a poor city with few opportunities for youth. In their roles as apprentices and then as leaders passing along the culture of Hopeworks, the trainees grapple with new kinds of knowledge, the needs of customers, the social network in which they find themselves, and the global vectors of which they are a part. They simultaneously construct their own identities. Though the GIS technology is intellectually stimulating and provides the means for this trainee to alter his understanding of his city, we argue that identity shifts are equally a result of his relations with peers, mentors, the team he now leads, and various of the civic groups to whom he makes presentations. Abstract 822 Number: 11 Tuesday: 2.15pm – 4.15pm Room


Diane Carr and Carey Jewitt , Centre for the Study of Children Youth and Media, Institute of Education, University of London, UK Computer Games: Meaning, Gesture and Movement in Ico In this paper we explore the central character (avatar) of a particular computer game, Ico. In this game the eponymous hero and his rescued companion, Yorda, must escape from a maze-like fortress while defeating shadowy monsters and an elusive sorceress queen. Using social semiotics, self reported play, and player observation (children, and adults) we map out the various constituents of the game’s characters, and the play between a character’s ‘given’ traits, and his or her actualisation through play. In doing so we hope to shed light on the variety of pleasures and frustrations elicited via play, in response to the affordances of the game-as-text, and as shaped by the varied motivations of particular players. Our focus is on the player's realisation of the game, as it is the player who interprets and directs Ico (and, to an extent, Yorda’s) gestures and movements, who makes choices drawn from sets of possibilities (programmed affordances and constraints) that are manifested as actions. The player's influence over Ico is constrained within certain parameters, not everything is possible. Nonetheless the player's choices do shape the behaviour of the avatars; a programmed potential may be pronounced in one person’s actualisation through their game while barely relevant in another's. In short, playing the game 'produces' the Ico of the player. In turn the directed 'behaviour' of the avatar, brings forth and shapes (that is, mediates) the unfolding pleasures and motivation of the player. Abstract Number: 12 Tuesday: 2.15pm – 4.15pm Room 822

John Carroll and David Cameron, Charles Stuart University, Australia Playing the Game: Process Drama, Digital Role and Identity This paper explores the connection between the live role-based performance of Process Drama, and the mediated performance of online role-playing videogames. Identity formation within digital/virtual environments is a dominant theme in cyberculture studies. Equally, the adoption of alternate identities through performance is a key concept in Process Drama. Both activities allow participants to ‘become somebody else’. Both deal with the identity shifts possible within imagined environments. This mutability of identity provides a metaphor for considering the episodic nature of in-role performance and out-of-role reflection in both drama and videogames. The prevalence of this metaphor within popular culture texts suggests young peoples’ perceptions of performance, role and the individual are changing. They have already assimilated the concept of transformation into their worldview. They


increasingly inhabit worlds of mediated identity, conveyed by screens and enacted via the Internet and within videogames. The concept of enacted role, explored within the Process Drama field so thoroughly by Heathcote, Boal, Bolton and many others, is applied here to consider the dramatic possibilities of multiple identity play within drama and games environments. The increasing closeness of performance elements within both fields is seen as a response to the changing cultural forms being generated by mass media and developing digital media. This paper describes a reflexive qualitative analysis of the massively multiplayer online role-playing game Everquest in terms of dramatic performance and role distance, focusing on identity and learning outcomes. It provides a new theoretical connection between the two related educational fields of Process Drama and videogames.

Abstract Number: 13

Thursday 2:00 – 3:30

Room 822

Chitat Chan, Institute of Education, University of London ‘Constructing Creative Youth’: New Media Production in Contrasting Institutional Settings Recent research in media education has shown that media production offers a powerful means of enabling students to explore their self-identities. This paper aims to compare the way in which the institutional conditions of various media production settings have positioned the young people and the way in which the young people have positioned themselves. This is based on an ongoing research contrasting three different media production settings in Hong Kong, including the Creative Media Curriculum of St. Paul's Convent School, the Campus TV of Buddhist Wong Wan Tin College and a Youth Media Group called Easy-Film.Com. The analysis here will focus on the ‘subject-positions’ of the young people that are constructed in the ‘texts’ from various sources at various levels; including texts at the policy level (e.g. Government documents), texts at the pedagogical/organisational level (e.g. notes/writings on pedagogy) and texts at the learner level (e.g. interviews, ICQ, young people’s productions and commentaries). These various subject positions will be portrayed and compared. Based on this approach of analysis, ‘young people’s identity’ is perceived as an arena of power dynamics, the relationship between young people’s agency, technology and the various institutional structures can be explored.


Abstract Number: 14

Wednesday: 2:15 – 3:45

Room 728

Dr Chi-Kim Cheung, University of Hong Kong The Relevance of Media Education in the Teaching of Civic Education and Moral Education in Primary Schools in Hong Kong in the Age of New Media During the past few decades, the mass media in Hong Kong have moulded the environment in which its citizens now live. Today, people know what is happening around them through radio, television, newspapers and similar media. The impact of media has particularly affected our children. In this age of new media, children at an early age are exposed to media messages. What can we do when the mass media exert such a great influence on children, especially when these messages are seemed by many to ruin the civic and moral values of pupils? One proposal has been for the introduction of a new school subject: media education. This paper argues the importance of introducing media education in primary schools in Hong Kong, having regard to social change, recent education reform, the aims of education, and learning initiatives of primary students. Abstract Number: 15 Wednesday: 2:15 – 3:45 Room 731

Jinbong Choi, University of Minnesota , USA The Effects of Cellular Phone on the Interpersonal Communication of Different Generations. Despite the near ubiquity of cellular phone, the medium has received far less scholarly attention than it should deserve. This study begins with the purpose of fair repositioning of cellular phone in South Korean social communication. To accomplish this purpose, the gratification sought from cellular phone and the appropriateness of it as an interpersonal communication medium is studied. The related raw data is collected from an on-line survey process, and statistically analyzed. Through this study, I analyze the characteristics of gratification from cellular phone use. The result might include entertainment, sociability, and privacy as the gratification from cellular phone use. In addition, I examine the differences in the cellular phone usage between older and younger generations. I might expect that younger generations tend to have more gratification from cellular phone use and have a more positive attitude to cellular phone as an interpersonal communication medium. Particularly, in interpersonal communication, when the impending task is advice or request, young people might tend to perceive cellular phone usage more appropriate than elder people do. Thus, it is plausible to predict that the relative position of cellular phone is gradually more important in South Koreans’ social communication when the younger generation becomes the mainstream of Korean society.


Abstract Number: 16


2.15pm – 3.45pm

Room 736

Sue Cranmer, Institute of Education University of London Diverse uses: Comparisons of children’s internet use across families of different socio-economic backgrounds Many UK families have secured home internet access sold on the promise of the educational benefits for children. Yet, previous research into the educational value of other media, for instance, the television and home computer, have highlighted how mediation within families greatly impacts on children’s opportunities for learning. The findings in this paper are drawn from ongoing longitudinal research (with 17 families) exploring how families use the internet at home. General research questions include: How does the internet fit into the context of everyday family life? How are uses regulated and negotiated? How are gender issues played out in relation to the internet? This paper compares children’s internet use across families of different socioeconomic groups with access to the internet at home. Whilst many children are able to use email, surf the web and chat to their friends, some children also engage in less common uses such as writing web pages and video conferencing. Key themes of this paper include what aspects of family background facilitate these more diverse uses; how do socio-economic factors impact on the level and quality of access; what is the role of parental scaffolding in developing children’s activities? Abstract Number: 17 Tuesday: 2.15 – 4.15 Room 822

Beth Cross, University of Edinburgh, UK Split frame thinking and multiple scenario awareness: how boys’ game expertise reshapes possible structures of sense in a digital world. The paper takes a detailed look at how a group of 10-year-old boys mutually construct an evolving multi-linear scenario whilst playing a storytelling game in class, borrowing from a number of genres and forms of engagement in activities beyond the school walls to perform for each other in the class setting. Their playful production challenges standard means of representing and analysing transcript, necessitating a paradigm shift to a more visual form of discourse mapping. Discourse mapping is derived from Paulston’s (1997) work on social cartography and an adoption of a complex systems framework for understanding social interaction Cross (2003). Further ethnographic research in the classroom and follow-on group and individual in-depth interviews with specific boys are drawn upon to contextualise the discourse analysis. The paper also raises questions about the criteria teacher’s use to access language competence and the impact that the globalised circulation of children’s popular culture (Buckingham 2003, Lankshear and Knobel 2003,) has on children’s learning identities and practices, with implications for the continuing discussion on gendered learning styles.


Abstract Number: 18

Tuesday: 10.15am – 11.45am

Room 728

Julia Davies. The University of Sheffield, UK ‘D’ya like my new usr name?’ Teenagers doing identity through on-line Communities of Practice’ Teenagers’ use of digital technologies allows them a nomadic existence, offering opportunities to experiment with voice and identity. Digital technologies allow young people the chance to keep in perpetual contact, and to demonstrate they inhabit the same life rhythms as each other. This anchors ‘screenagers’ to a sense of community which Fernback refers to as , ‘a ‘virtual ideology’, which is collectivist in orientation’. In this presentation I draw on research looking at three different on-line communities. I consider the ways in which the lives of interactants are enriched by their Internet activities and at how they negotiate relationships and skills which benefit them in both their ‘off-line’ and ‘on-line’ worlds. Using discourse analysis and a multi-modal approach, (Kress and Van Leeuwen, 2001) I consider the way interactants make connections with others, presenting particular identities of themselves, sometimes in ways which are uniquely facilitated by the Internet, whilst at other times using ‘conventional’ discursive techniques. Abstract Number: 19 Tuesday: 4.45pm – 5.30pm Drama Studio (Level 1)

Suzanne de Castell. Simon Fraser University. Jennifer Jenson. York University Looking to play to learn: a multimodal study of informal learning The paper we propose draws upon a “multimodal”(Kress, 2003) study of learning in non-formal educational environments which prioritized the examination of nonlinguistic communicative forms (gesture, body positioning, facial expression, etc.). Between September 2002 and April 2004, an observation-based, ethnographic, multi-media supported study of educational communications was conducted at two informal educational sites in Canada: The Toronto Zoo, and the Vancouver Art Gallery. At the zoo, participant observation of a formalized educational program preceded extensive interviewing of zoo educators, animal care personnel and volunteers (interpreters), and both textual and video-based records of interviews, zoo educational activities, demonstrations, and visitor behaviours were compiled. At the Art Gallery, interviews and video-based documentation of visitor tours, docent training, and educational practice both in association with schools and generated from the gallery’s own educational program were recorded and compiled. For analysis, we developed a computer-based tool for mapping, convergently, gesture, behavior and linguistic utterances across place, object and person. This allowed us to more fully “view” whether and how these multiple communicative modes impacted teaching and learning In order to generate a ‘cognitive ethnography’ of teaching/learning in those settings, and more particularly to better identify where and


how learner attention, and therefore learner intelligence, was focused. Central to this analysis is an ‘economics of attention’ (Lanham, 1997; Lankshear and Knobel, 2003) which these sites differently supported, and we illustrate, multimodally, the role of “immersion” in learning, as enacted through communication channels that are primarily non-linguistic. More particularly, this study challenges the school’s “textual preferences” for prioritizing linguistic competence to the detriment of embodied competence, and in particular to the detriment of playful or play-based learning. We conclude by re-presenting examples of both data and analysis to illustrate and draw attention to a range of educationally significant ways the informal learning environments we studied scaffold competency along a demonstrably broader range of non-linguistic communicative engagements (attentional relations among place, objects, and people) in ways that might better support educational opportunities for a youth audience well-schooled in multimedia forms and practices.


Abstract Number: 20

Monday: 2.15 – 3.45pm

Room 822

Shanly Dixon. Concordia University, Montreal, Canada Social interaction in virtual game space The rapid pace of technological change sweeps across the world of children changing current concepts of how childhood should be defined. Contentions that childhood is disappearing proliferate as some childhood theorists suggest that children’s increasing exposure to previously withheld information and knowledge erases the boundaries which formerly separated childhood from adulthood. While acknowledging that unprecedented access to information may have changed the experience of childhood, it might be argued that the social artifact of childhood continues to exist. Messages and ideas within the spaces of technology and new media are experienced and interpreted uniquely by children and therefore examining these experiences offers insight into the growing media niche which children occupy. My project examines the ways in which technology and new media can influence and even create the spaces of childhood interaction. As media generated notions of public space as dangerous space lead to increasing privatization of space, virtual space becomes an alternative space for childhood play and social interaction. Tensions emerge as both risks and opportunities are depicted in the public play spaces of streets and playgrounds as well as in the virtual play spaces of cyberspace and video games. The methodology upon which my research is based is an ongoing two year ethnographic study of a group of children who play video games. Using participant observation and interviews, the ways in which the virtual space of the game might serve to shape the social interaction between the children is explored. Questions arise as to the degree to which the game serves as a vehicle for social interaction and the degree to which the action of the game shapes the relationships and social interactions of the players. Contradictions become apparent within the virtual space of the video game as opportunities for creativity emerge as children ‘play’ with experiences and identities that might not be possible in other childhood spaces. The virtual space of the video game is sometimes portrayed as a vast, autonomous play space in which children might create and enact individual fantasy adventures. However, the virtual space of the game is also often portrayed as a ‘dangerous space’ imbued with messages of consumption and violence and bounded by the limitations imposed by technology and design. As new game spaces emerge that become increasingly immersive and engaging, developing an understanding of the role of the game in producing spaces of interaction and shaping social interaction offers insight into the ways in which new technologies might serve to alter the experiences and spaces of childhood.


Abstract Number: 21

Tuesday: 10.15am – 11.45am

Room 728

Susan Driver, Wilfrid Laurier University – Brantford Campus, Canada Globalizing “Do it Yourself” Youth Cultures: virtually representing identities/communities in transition My paper will explore the creative expansion of youth oriented and produced websites, analyzing some specific developments of grassroots projects such as ezines, online communities and news groups created by for and about youth who have been historically marginalized within mainstream commercial mass media. I will focus on self defined “grrrls” challenging sexist media, and queer youth working to affirm their differences and challenge heteronormativity. My argument will address the process through which youth engage internet communications as interactive subjects in transition. I will explore overlapping boundaries between arts, community and activism on the Internet, tracing a comprehensive shift in the ways youth practice a politics of representation that refuses conventional divisions between public/private, individual/collective, personal/political, producer/consumer, creative/educative realms of communication. The transformative approaches adapted by youth internet projects effectively destabilize binary forms of meaningmaking through which youth make sense of their identities beyond reified social norms and ideals, as dynamically in-flux. I am interested in analyzing a few websites in-depth for the unique ways they design and utilize multi-media images/words as a process of self-representation and communication. This will involve a detailed interpretation of the visual and narrative styles that make-up counter-hegemonic youth cultures on the internet. Languages will be studied for how they generate participatory dialogues among youth on specific social issues affecting their lives locally. At the same time I am interested in examining common elements that link diverse internet sites together in term of content and form which suggests some global dimensions of new media alternatives. Abstract Number: 22 Tuesday: 4.45pm – 5.30pm Elvin Hall (Level 1)

Kirsten Drotner and Kim Christian Schroeder Children, young people and new media: Learning Materials: Black Box or Digital Dream? Both in public debate, academic research and pedagogical practice there is a keen awareness that media and ICT pose fundamental challenges to received notions of communication and learning. Indeed, this awareness can be seen as an acknowledgement that Media and ICT are constitutive to the development of contemporary societies, whether we term these information, knowledge or network societies. Our basic argument is this: learning materials – from text books and handouts to film, tv, CD-ROMs and the internet – are rapidly changing their roles into becoming central resources in mediatized learning processes. We need to deepen our


conceptual and empirical understanding of how different media materials interact in socio-cultural contexts and how they cross formal and informal learning sites in order to advance beyond dichotomic discourses that either deplore the demise of book learning or eulogize the bliss of online learning. Our presentation will outline two main traditions of research on learning materials, namely textbook research and e-learning research. Systematic textbook research dates back to the 1920s and has mainly focused on content and textual analyses with very little emphasis on textual practices in actual educational settings. For the past ten years, an expansion of the diverse field of e-learning research has implied an increased interest in the contexts, organisation and practices of digital learning, an interest that is rarely matched by a similar attention beting paid to systematic studies of the divergent mediatized materials of e-learning. Based on what we see as the respective assets and limitations of the two traditions, we will argue for a third approach to studying learning materials in complex mediatized environments, addressing conceptual as well as methodological questions. In so doing, we draw on empirical projects developed at the newly established interdisciplinary research centre DREAM (Danish Research Centre on Education and Advanced Media Materials).

Abstract Number: 23

Tuesday: 10.15am – 11.45am

Room 736

Heinz Moser and Katharina Ernst Media and Processes of Identity Formation in the Context of Migration Our paper's focus is on the relationship between the media and migration. In a globalized media society, the media (e.g. journals, SMS, satellite-television, internet) allow transnational communication and information and also access to presentations of culturally different social worlds. Thus the experience of diasporic socialisation today can mean to live simultaneously in two culturally different social worlds. Children growing up in this setting use the media in their oscillating between different cultural settings, developing «hybrid identities». Future models of integration have to take into account these developments. We present first results of a project on media and migration, which is supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation. The general aim of the project is to analyse the question of identity formation with media in an intergenerational study of Turkish immigrants. The focus is on the two questions: – To what extent is media use (mainly mass media and ICT, including access, possession, favourite programmes etc.) determined by characteristics of the cultural background? – What role do media and ICT play in the formation of identity for the intergenerational setting of immigrant life? We will offer primary results by presenting data of interviews with some focus groups and some findings of a broader survey we conduct in schools of the canton Zürich.


Abstract Number: 24

Thursday: 2:00 – 3:30

Room 736

Keri Facer, NESTA Futurelab & Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol Designing education for the ‘gaming generation’ In educational research, policy and practice communities there is increasing interest in the potential educational benefits of computer games play. Children’s engagement and self-motivated approaches to games play outside school and the perception that they are learning skills and competencies particularly valued in ‘information economies’ has led to calls to redesign education for a gaming generation. These ‘redesigns’ are often focused specifically on the adoption of mainstream games within the curriculum, or on the design of new games for education. The paper will describe two projects recently completed at NESTA Futurelab: Savannah and Astroversity. Astroversity (a collaboration with ICDC, Liverpool John Moore’s University and Criterion) is a three player collaborative game intended to support problem solving and scientific enquiry skills within an outer space disaster scenario. Savannah (a collaboration with Hewlett Packard, University of Bristol, BBC Natural History Unit and the MRL, Nottingham University) is a mobile gaming environment, which enables children to act ‘as lions’ in a virtual Savannah in order to explore animal behaviour and habitat. This paper will explore some of the key themes emerging from these projects and other research in this area, and ask whether the lessons to be learnt from children’s computer gaming lead necessarily to the conclusion that we should be developing games software for learning, or whether it raises more fundamental questions about how we organise schooling and construct children’s relationships with knowledge within it. Abstract Number: 25 Monday: 2.15pm – 3.45pm Room 728

JoEllen Fisherkeller. Culture and Communication/Education, New York University. Melissa Phillips. COGO LLC What do girls really want? Investigating young adolescent females_ use of cellphones and web-based communication. This paper will present exploratory research on early adolescent girls_ responses to and interactions with cellphone, web-based, and educational television media that are being developed to engage 10-14 year old girls in communicating with their peers about marine life in general, and dolphins in particular. In this session, JoEllen Fisherkeller (of New York University) and Melissa Phillips (of COGO LLC) will discuss formative research on a project named COGO, a multi-platform entertainment property targeting the 1014 year old (termed Œtween_ by marketers) female population who are, or who wish to be, connecting with peers as well as knowledgeable adults via some form of communication. Educational and communication research reveals that girls prefer connecting primarily with peers or


with knowledgeable adults in either face-to-face or land-line-based telephone communications. Now, girls who desire these kinds of communication exchanges, and who have access to new digital technologies, can interact in meaningful ways via such forms as IM (instant messaging) online, live mobile phone conversations, and a variety of messaging, mailing, and digitally-based communication transactions, using technologies such as cellphone, internet and web-based resources. Project COGO plays on key interests of pre-adolescent and adolescent girls,for whom communication is both informative about content but also a form of interaction. The premise of the project engages girls in communicating with a group of peers and actual marine life specialists (who are part of the project) about "virtual dolphin" as well as real world dolphin communication patterns and marine habitats. COGO first emerges on the web with the launching of a 13-yr old girl character’s personal web video journal. She has cracked the code on how to communicate with dolphins, realizes that she needs help, and invites her peers to join in and figure out what they have to say. Each player then meets and interacts with her own unique virtual dolphin guide, and along with peers, develops an iconic language for communicating with virtual dolphins to learn about marine living. For this session, Fisherkeller and Phillips will present analyses of a series of focus group discussions and product pilots involving 10-14 year old girls in the New York and London areas who are contributing to the design of the project. The presenters will be concerned with the implications these analyses hold for researchers, educators, media producers, and adolescent girls. Abstract Number: 26 Tuesday: 2.15pm – 4.15pm Room 826

Flemming Hansen, Department of Marketing, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark The development of children’s use of new media 1999-2003 in Denmark In the summer of 2000, Center for Marketing Communication (CMC), in corporation with Gallup/TNS’ annual children/youth media index, were for the first time able to place a number of questions on children’s relationship to new media. This data collection was repeated in 2003. We find that children receive pocket money, they receive gifts from family and others on birthdays, etc., and they make their own money at a very early age. Children are saving money for special purposes such as computer equipment, mobile telephones, a television, a stereo, PC equipment, etc. Also, the children report that they have significant influence on the family purchases such as television sets, PC’s, printers, game-boxes and other durables. Children and young people learn about new media and brands through personal use, from observing use among parents and friends, from participating in shopping situations and from mass media. The number of known brands is high. This brand awareness is established at an increasingly earlier age. Not only do children and youngsters have high brand


awareness. For many electronic products, their knowledge may be as great as, or greater than that of, their parents’. Some general points are: • Children are active in contemporary Denmark; they are busy with school, friends, sport, work, duties, entertainment and shopping. • From an early age, they have their own money and savings, and they become more and more aware of money-related issues as they mature. • They exert considerable influence of all aspects of family consumption, not the least in connection with new media. • As they grow older, they make their own purchases, influence shopping, and develop preferences for brands, especially when it comes to electronic products. Abstract Number: 27 Thursday: 10:30 – 12:30 Room 736

Robert Fox, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, China Digital technology, Hong Kong education and the SARS epidemic Hong Kong was caught in the deadly grip a virus in March/April 2003 after the first case of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) was brought to Hong Kong by a visiting mainland Chinese doctor. SARS then spread to other countries and fears of a pandemic were openly reported throughout the world. In order to combat the impact and spread of SARS and to appease the public and parents of children, all face-to-face classes were suspended. The main local English newspaper, South China Morning Post reported that 'schools may be closed but learning can continue, with lessons posted on school websites' (12 April, 2003). The challenge to take advantage of digital technology to support continued student learning was taken up by many schools. In some instances, the SARS-led closure of classes led to teachers re-thinking their teaching and providing students new opportunities to work through curricula activities. In other instances, teachers reported that they recorded their teaching 'lectures' and uploaded them online. In others instances, students took control and used the technology available to provide themselves with an alternative education. In one instance, as an "April Fool" a 14 year old boy hacked into the main Chinese newspaper and posted a fake story stating that the government would soon declare Hong Kong an "infected port" and thus be cut off from the world. This resulted in widespread panic with thousands of anxious residents buying out supermarket food supplies. This paper explores the immediate and longer term impact of SARS on Hong Kong education. Abstract Number: 28 Thursday: 10:30-12:30 Room 676

Pete Fraser, Long Road Sixth Form College, Cambridge, UK Responses to online video work: an analysis of the iCritique programme and its community This workshop will seek to examine the uses made by students and other visitors of the website which features a large number of examples of student video work made by Media and Film students at a Cambridge sixth form


college. The site has been live for over a year and work is regularly added to it. Initially the program, iCritique, created by Steve O'Hear of Weekend Arts College, was designed to act as a place to both display the videos and enable feedback from community members. In practice, much of the feedback has been at a fairly low level of banter and it could be argued that the site has failed to live up to expectations. However, the enormous amount of hits it has received (at times exceeding monthly bandwidth, to our cost!) suggests that its 'silent use' is considerable. Analysis of the site logs reveal quite interesting patterns of usage which I thought worth exploring in further research with our students. Access to students from other colleges has been encouraged by the inclusion of showcase video material from around the country. This too raises interesting questions about how visitors and exhibitors read the videos and the comments and the social uses they make of it all. In the workshop, I shall set out a brief history of the site, present some qualitative and quantitative research findings and open them up to discussion and offer participants an opportunity to view the site. Abstract Number: 29 Tuesday: 10.15am – 11.45am Room 826

Julie Frechette, Worcester State College, USA Manufacturing Cyber-Consent: Profiting from Cyber-Paranoia through the Marketing and Advertising of “Safe-sites.” Although government regulation of the Internet has been decried as undercutting free speech, the control of Internet content through capitalist gateways--namely profit-driven software companies--has gone largely uncriticized. In this presentation, I argue that this discursive trend manufactures consent through a hegemonic force neglecting to confront the invasion of online advertising or marketing strategies directed at children. This study suggests that “inappropriate content” (i.e. nudity, pornography, obscenities) constitutes a cultural currency through which concerns and responses to the Internet have been articulated within the mainstream. By examining the rhetorical and financial investments of the telecommunications business sector, I contend that the rhetorical elements creating “cyber-safety” concerns within the mainstream attempt to reach the consent of parents and educators by asking them to see some Internet content as value-ladden (i.e. sexuality, trigger words, or adult content), while disguising the interests and authority of profitable computer software and hardware industries (i.e. advertising and marketing). In the age of electronic information overload, the Internet supported classroom must incorporate media literacy in order to help students become critical citizens. Unlike measures to block or filter online information, students need an empowerment approach that will enable them analyze, evaluate, and judge the information they receive. Although most online “safety measures” neglect to confront the emerging invasion of advertising / marketing directed to children and youth, media literacy in cyberspace demands such scrutiny. Accordingly, I will argue that we must explore


the means through which technological access is deployed in order to discover what it means to be literate in the information age.

Abstract Number: 30

Tuesday: 10.15am – 11.45am

Room 736

Children and new media uses for social inclusion: a case study in Barcelona Iolanda Garcia & Silvia Lombarte, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of new information and communication technologies on children and teenagers’ everyday life. This analysis is focussed on developed countries in the context of the information society. We are talking therefore about an impact affecting not only the high classes but also the more deprived areas of these societies. To start with, we explore how children have integrated new media in their leisure time and in their social dynamics. Next, we introduce the present debate about the digital divide and we discuss how lack of access to new media can affect children in their process of formation and socialisation. The last part of this paper reports a case study developed in a neighbourhood of Barcelona. The experience we describe is based on the potential of new media leading to social inclusion of children and teenagers from deprived areas. Our intention is to analyse how the introduction or the facilitation of access to new technologies may change some of the conditions of social vulnerability situations. The paper concludes that access to new technologies can provide youngsters with motivating opportunities to the development of some necessary competencies in the actual society. In this sense, new technologies may activate processes of communication and social participation. However, they are not at all an automatic way to social inclusion. Abstract Number: 31 Monday: 2.15pm – 3.45pm Room 822

Seth Giddings, School of Cultural Studies, University of the West of England Circuits: a video essay on virtual and actual play This presentation will be an introduction to, and screening of, a video essay examining continuities in, and transformations of, children's play through computer games. Documenting two young boys' engagement with the simulated environments and gameplay of Lego Racers 2 both on and off screen, the video essay explores how the everyday playing of this computer game on the one hand capitalises on wellestablished strategies of accumulation through cross-media licensing and the positioning of children as consuming subjects, whilst on the other hand these


strategies are exceeded through semiotic and performative play. A number of circuits of signification and playful activity are identified: between game rules and frameworks and emergent, exploratory play in the computer game; and between play with simulated action / space and play between children in actual space; between play with virtual toys and play with actual toys; between software and bodies. The video essay questions conceptual oppositions between game and player, rulebased and emergent play, cyberspace and everyday space, old media and new media, subjects and objects. Abstract Number: 32 Wednesday: 11.00 – 1.00 Room 736

Simon Goodrich, Thornbury Darebin College, Australia Switching on to learning through sound – literacies for the 21st century – the example of 90.7 SYN FM. 90.7 SYN FM, is a metropolitan-wide full time youth community broadcaster based in Melbourne, Australia. It is the only station of its kind in the world. The station is entirely presented and managed by people between twelve and twenty-six, and over half the presenters are under the age of eighteen. The station started broadcasting in January 2003 and since then over 1600 young people have presented live to air. The organisation hosts its own television programs on community television, is creating a state-wide internet portal as well as a magazine made by its participants. The ethos of the station is “creators not consumers” and this message has been a key to the renaissance of youth media creation in Australia over the last three years. Over 1000 secondary school students at fifty-nine schools have used SYN FM as part of their curriculum through English, Geography, History, Drama, Music, Media and more. The station has proved most successful with young people from “at risk” backgrounds including juveniles in custody, disadvantaged, indigenous, refugee and emerging communities. The presentation will demonstrate how the organisation has created these media publication points for young people and how these can be replicated in different locations and contexts, especially with youth “at risk”. Simon Goodrich, 24, has been Station Manager and President of SYN FM and currently is creating a multimedia based Centre for Integrated Learning with disadvantaged schools in the northern suburbs of Melbourne.


Abstract Number: 33

Monday: 2:15pm - 3:45pm

Room 731

Ian C. Grant, University of Edinburgh, UK Young Peoples’ Relationship with Digital Media: The Good, The Bad, and the (Occasionally) Ugly This paper presents findings from a study comparing young peoples’ relationships with ‘new’ digital and more ‘traditional’ forms of media. The study explored naturalistic relationships emerging in the everyday lives of older adolescent teenagers, aged 13-17. The study sought to explore relationships in different socialised contexts and across different times of the week outside school hours. Grounded in interpretive epistemology, the study utilised multiple methods of inquiry to encourage a more holistic picture of young peoples’ multi-media experiences, rooted in their daily lifestyles. Self-completion questionnaires and diaries combined with thirty mini focus groups spread across three contrasting school types. Participants were asked to complete photo diaries of a ‘week in their lives’. Resulting photographs were used as the basis for phenomenologically informed discussions using autodriving techniques (Heisley 1991). This encouraged young people to provide greater context and meaning to media consumption through discussions of everyday experiences. The findings suggest that although the internet is being assimilated into the lives of young people (Livingstone 2002), it by no means dominates in the manner argued by some social commentators (Tapscott 1998). The study found financial, temporal, social, logistical and emotional barriers preventing young people from embracing the internet with unreserved enthusiasm. One aspect that dominated experiences, cutting across diverse social contexts, was the intensity of concerns raised over commercial intrusion experienced. This theme highlighted the growing conflict between marketing practitioners seeking to harness digital media for targeted communication and the uses of digital media by young people for social and communication purposes. Abstract Number: 34 Tuesday: 10.15am – 11.45am Room 826

Nick Hine, Telenor Research & Development, Norway Children – Masters of Technology? Children (12 years and younger) are becoming an increasingly significant consumer group for advanced computing and communications services. In some cases, children as young as three or four are using ICT products. The products are far too often designed for the ‘generic user’, i.e. adults. Furthermore, children are increasingly dependent on the PC, Internet and mobile telephones in order to achieve their educational goals, be entertained and interact with friends and family. The right to protection from harmful influences, abuse and exploitation, and the right to participate fully in family, cultural and social life as specified in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child are all directly linked to the ICT accessibility issues.


Building on recent findings from the work of ETSI Specialist Task Force 201, this paper confronts the myth that children are ‘Masters of Technology’, uncovering various misconceptions associated with children and ICT use and replacing them with empirical findings and specific concerns recently expressed in public debate. The paper provides an overview of accessibility issues as they apply to mobile telephones and services and general Internet access. Major accessibility and use issues that are of particular relevance (but not necessarily unique) to children under 12 are covered in relation to five parameters: (1) the location and context of use, (2) the physical qualities of required interaction, (3) the operating characteristics of the system the child interacts with, (4) the characteristics and demands made at the service level and, finally, (5) service content. Finally, a set of recommendations is presented. Abstract Number: 35 Thursday: 10:30 – 12:30 Room 736

Bill Holderness, UPE, South Africa Using New Media to Support Remote Schools in Rural Africa South African society currently experiences major digital divisions relating to historical, socio-economic and generational factors, and to the degree of urbanization and access to resources (e.g. electricity). The gap grows wider as industrialised nations are able to accelerate their development faster than rural Africa. This has significant implications for the economic potential of a “developing” continent. The paper considers the challenge of equipping educators and learners in remote, rural, non-electrified schools and homes with basic technological knowledge and competencies. It reports on past initiatives and current efforts to utilize new media to reach educators with limited access to key information and educational opportunities. Such approaches have included television, study guides, satellite lectures, video tutorials and, for those who have access to electricity and computers, the internet. Course content has been designed to impact on the effectiveness of the schools and communities they serve, on the lives and performance of the educators, and on the quality of education experienced by the children. Through such media, educators have been exposed to key knowledge and varieties of formal and informal methodologies. For example, the University of London based Child-to-Child Project promotes an appropriate approach to linking schools and communities in mutually beneficial ways. It provides a means of equipping childheaded homes and of caring effectively for younger siblings and households. Games and interaction have proved most successful in this form of learning. This paper ends by looking forward to potential project partnerships seeking to address educational gaps and digital divides in sub-Saharan Africa.


Abstract Number: 36

Wednesday: 2:15 – 3:45

Room 731

Antonia Ivaldi, Loughborough University Dynamics of participation and exclusion in young people’s mobile phone use Recent research exploring young people and mobile phones has suggested that their main use of the phone is for private communication with friends, and in establishing and maintaining social networks. In addition, the mobile is used to symbolize the individual’s popularity and image. However, few studies have been conducted with large numbers of young people that have explored their everyday use of mobile phones in a variety of social situations. The aim of the study is to examine the dynamics of participation and exclusion in young people’s mobile phone use. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 69 children and young people between the ages of 6-18, who were asked about their general attitudes towards mobile phone use, their reasons for acquisition, and types of use. They were also asked to complete a 7-day diary, which recorded the type of mobile phone activity, and their location at the time of usage. Drawing on the cross-sectional and in-depth data from the interviews and diaries, the analyses will explore the social differentiation of youth and mobile phone use. This unique study allows us to explore the young people’s experience within the context of their household situation. In addition, it focuses on young people’s mobile phone use in relation to other new technologies. Previous research has yet to draw on such large-scale and cross-sectional data from young people. Similarly, it has yet to explore the implications that ownership and non-ownership of a mobile has on young people’s developing and changing social and personal identities. Abstract Number: 37 Thursday 2:00 – 3:30 Room 822

Media Production as a way of knowing Stefán Jökulsson, University of Iceland My paper has to do with my Ph.D. research (University of Iceland) in the field of media education. I have focused on media production as a way of knowing or understanding and hence I have interviewed media producers, designers, artists, scientists, teachers and students who have used various media as tools in their meaning-making. I have asked them about their ways of working, thinking and talking about their projects and inquired into the kinds of knowledge and skills they feel they have acquired in the process of production. In the paper I will relate my findings to my key research question: How can media literacy be conceptualized and how or to what extent does media production relate to or enhance such “literacy”? Several arguments in favour of students’ media production have been put forward but my findings seems to provide additional support. For example, producing


material – seeking content of some kind, recreating it and communicating it – seems the same as learning it or understanding it. It seems that some students learn more by producing their own material than studying material which others have made. This learning or understanding is brought about by interacting with the available rawmaterial: communicating with it, as it were, and talking to others about it. In addition to the content learned this way, there are indications that students learn best about some aspects of communication, including interpersonal and group communication, as producers of media material. Abstract Number: 38 Wednesday: 2:15 – 3:45 Room 736

Alexandra Klein, University of Bielefeld, Germany Reflecting “Voice Divide”: Being heard and being silenced in net-based Social Support Pedagogical and sociological studies investigating “digital divide” as an analytical focus on different levels of divide insist that the internet is no space beyond ‘social reality’. Rather the different modes of utilisation structuring the internet as social space are a specific contextualised actualisation of the latter. Also, empirical and theoretical results concerning forms and processes of networking and community building suggest that communication and information processes provided through different services densify to the resource ‘social support’. For some years a differentiated range of counselling offers is established especially. Thus, the ways teenagers of different social origins get access to net based social support is to be examined with reference to social work and the task of compensating the reproduction of (medial) disadvantages. Referring to the phenomena of ‘digital inequality’ (DiMaggio & Hargittai) it seems to be necessary to widen the perspective on issues concerning the digital divide: Utilizing the concept of Albert O. Hirschman a core in-use dimension of digital division rather than divide may appropriately be analyzed as ‘Voice Divide’ referring not only to technical and ‘formal’ but ’effective’ social access to the various types of net-based social support. Therefore a theoretical frame for analysing is suggested and related to some empirical results concerning modes of user participation respectively interest articulation in professional counselling arrangements. This form of analysing seems to point out conditions precedent to the democratic quality of netbased youth welfare. Abstract Number: 39 Wednesday: 2:15 – 3:45 Room 736

Nadia Kutscher / Hans-Uwe Otto, Bielefeld/Germany Social Inequalities in the Virtual Space – Implications for informal education and formative appropriation online With new technologies entering every sphere of everyday life, the gap between those who are able to seize the chances of getting a broad range of information and communication and those who are not is widening. This has consequences for


effective access to formative resources in the virtual space. Recent studies show that schools are not able to bridge social gaps and that only providing material such as computers does not make people literate in a sense that their social origin does not matter for their chances of use. The informal sector (family, peers …) is the priority field in which people are being shaped for their educational future. In the context of informal education and online media, educational processes do not only concentrate on dealing with testable curricular knowledge but mediate competences and abilities in social interaction as well as identity and engagement in civil society. As the internet has become an important medium, its effects on youth from different social strata and their access to and use of education have to be examined. Thus, the central question is what characterizes informal processes of education (in German: informelle Bildung) and what user requirements are to be met regarding different social groups presupposed to construct the online offer in an addresseeoriented and self-regulated way. The paper will present results of the research of the CCIE on social differences in online use of youth and point out questions and quality criteria connected with social disadvantages in the informal field of education online. Abstract Number: 40 Monday: 2.15pm to 3.45pm Room 822

Margaret Mackey, School of Library and Information Studies, University of Alberta Reading Games: Narrative Choice, Interpretation, Strategy, and Play Can a computer game be a narrative, or is it strictly a game? Do game players make use of literary approaches and strategies? This session will present an exploration of the computer game Black & White from the perspectives of nine players who were recorded as they played. It will investigate aspects of game processing behaviours, including issues of structure and purpose, frustration and interruption, competence and experimentation, training and understanding. The players of this game were presented with significant choices and their play-making decisions had an actual (rather than cosmetic) impact on the development of the plot; the details of their different decisions open a window onto the complexity of this form of fictional world. Drawing on rapidly expanding theories of digital narrative and game play, this session will explore different instantiations of a common set of potentials. Players made decisions and pursued strategies that were sometimes individual and sometimes common to many; the implications of these interpretive approaches will be analyzed in light of questions concerning games, simulations, and stories. The significance of player immersion within the world of the story itself versus engagement with the larger construction of the game will be investigated within the framework of this game and these players, and the implications for a broader understanding of the nature of narrative games will be pursued.


Abstract Number: 41

Tuesday: 2.15pm – 4.15pm

Room 736

Krystina S. Madej, Simon Fraser University Surrey, Vancouver, Canada Exploring meaning construction within the digital environment. Stories are a way of knowing and making sense of the world. Narratives help children develop a worldview for themselves by providing a means for shaping experience and putting life events in context of the wider world. First presented orally, these narratives, from the 1450s onward, were passed on through printed books. Print narratives for children evolved over 400 years from teaching texts to first didactic then entertaining fiction. In the 1900s films, then television, and video took print narratives and presented them to children through new immersive and engaging devices. The interpretation of older narratives through new media presented opportunities for revisiting the worldviews these narratives provided and to remediated them in light of the times. Today, digital media (computers and gaming platforms) are proving to have extraordinary engagement value for children. The combination of text, static and moving images, and sound, that create a digital narrative and the interface devices that engage children with this narrative are particularly powerful in providing an enculturating experience. The perceived engagement value of digital media has increased the effort put into making digital narratives either or both educational and entertaining and this has submerged the importance of narrative as a constructor of meaning. Similar types of emphasis on education and on entertainment have occurred in the evolution of narrative in other media, such as print. This paper explores how meaning construction in narratives is evolving within the digital environment using as a historical comparison, its evolution in print narrative. Abstract Number: 42 Wednesday: 11.00am – 1.00pm Room 736

Helen Manchester and Sue Ralph, The University of Manchester, Faculty of Education New Media Production and Literacies: a Case Study in a Socially Excluded Community. This paper presents findings from a case study conducted as a pilot for a larger scale piece of ESRC funded research which has just begun. The research will examine projects working with digital technologies in socially excluded community settings. It will look at how participants develop literacies through involvement in this kind of project and why and how they don’t. Coming out of this will be some exploration of how we can enable facilitators of such projects to develop participants’ literacies as much as is possible through an examination of pedagogies adopted and their successes. This paper presents a case study of a project running with a group of young people in a ‘disadvantaged’ urban community in the North West of England. The project is involved in the design, scripting, researching and production of a video and an


interactive television programme to be broadcast on the Internet through a live webcasting facility. This particular case study was conducted with a project working with a group of young people with learning difficulties who are all in care or leaving care in the Old Trafford area of Manchester. The project was part of the ‘Lets Go Global’ initiative, a new community TV Channel broadcast on the Internet through Abstract Number: 43 Tuesday: 2.15pm – 4.15pm Room 822

Martin Oliver and Caroline Pelletier, Institute of Education, University of London, UK Activity theory and learning from digital games: implications for game design Games studies to date has focused more on the analysis of games as texts than on the agency of players. This paper puts forward a model for analysing game playing which uses activity theory as a way of striking a balance between structure and agency. Our aim is to clarify the educational dimension of game playing practice (how players learn to play games) and consequently establish principles of game design. By looking at the playing of digital games in terms of a socially-defined learning system, we will also contribute to the debate on the value of games in education. Activity theory takes as its unit of analysis people’s actions within a social context. These are analysed in terms of the tools that subjects (e.g. game players) use to achieve objectives within the context of a community with its own rules and division of labour. The analysis can be undertaken at different levels of granularity, considering activities (‘high-level’, general actions), actions (instances of intentional action), and operations (routine procedures usually carried out instinctively). This definition of learning in game playing provides a model for the systematic analysis of gaming within context, and we will report on a small qualitative study of game play involving a teenager. Abstract Number: 44 Tuesday: 2.15pm – 4.15pm Room 736

Pam Martin, Murdoch University, Australia Playing Games with Interactivity Some would argue that issues surrounding interactive media have limited relevance to very young children. The difficulties that one or two-year-old children have manipulating input devices may lead one to assume that these new media are not yet a significant part of very young children’s lives, and consequently not worthy of research, yet increasingly media are being designed for ever younger consumers.


To date, infants and toddlers have largely been peripheral to media and communication studies vis a vis children. All too often, despite the specificities of very young children’s experiences and understandings of media, media studies research extrapolates its conclusions from the study of older children and then applies these analyses to children generally, as if distinctions of age and maturity are inconsequential. This paper, which represents the rationale for my doctoral thesis, argues that without taking account of the specific ways in which media saturation may intervene in very young children’s experiences, and the possible implications for children’s subsequent social, emotional and cognitive development, research into children and the media neglects one of the most fundamental tenets of child psychology. That is, the importance of early childhood experience to the development of our selves, as adult social agents. I argue that it is vital to recognize that, in part, children learn patterns of interactivity from their engagement with media technologies in domestic environments: ways of relating to others, which may have significant implications for their development as social and media literate beings. Abstract Number: 45 Thursday: 2:00 – 3:30 Room 736

Angela McFarlane, Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol, UK Playing to learn or learning to play – the potential of gaming in school "Games bring together the rarely associated elements of play, laughter, and learning which bring joy to learning. Why not make learning in our schools joyful? [Powers 1994, p. 235]" Our paper discusses the role and potential of computer and video games (those designed purely for fun, and not for implicit or explicit educational purposes) for learning in formal contexts such as schools. We look at the range of contemporary and emerging digital gaming technologies and software available, and briefly comment on the embedded learning models that lead players to persist and succeed at highly complex tasks. Particular attention is given to the role of other people in the gameplay process, such as other children and teachers. We look especially at the potential for learning (and whether it is likely to be realised) offered by social interaction through multiplayer gameplay offered by online and mobile devices such as linked handheld gaming consoles. This paper springs from the authors experience of surveys of games use in school and interviews with teachers. The analysis offered is based on an extensive evaluation of various genres of games, and the potential learning opportunities they offer and a comparison of this with the types of learning, and evidence of that learning, valued in the formal context of school.


Abstract Number: 46

Tuesday: 4.45 – 5.30

Nunn Hall (Level 4)

Michele Polak, Miami University, USA “It’s a Gurl Thing: Community vs. Commodity in Girl-Focused Netspace” There has been a proliferation of websites designed for girls in the last five years by corporations aimed at selling to the tween and teen generation of girls. Companyowned and created websites have found audience in the rising trend of “gurls”, the computer savvy girl that surfs the net with avid familiarity. With such websites available for gurls, finding girl-only space online has been a great benefit to community building. These websites offer gurls advice, information, and a netspace to claim as their own. What is also prevalent, however, is product. Most of the websites created for gurls by corporations exist to promote company-produced products. Such websites are rhetorically designed in ways to cater to this generation of girls, ones with spending power. The visual design with such websites is traditionally girl-designated while enforcing the rhetoric of the site’s commoditydriven purpose. This girl-focused netspace is not limited to commodity rhetoric, however, as gurl-created websites replace the presence of commodity with community. Here, gurls have designed their own websites, shifting site content to include community in a text that is written in the familiar language gurls utilize in online forums such as chat rooms and message boards. This shift from commodity to community may prove that girls of this digital generation are more rhetorically aware than many media creators give them credit. This presentation will define the girl-focused netspace and how both community and commodity rhetorically create such space. Abstract Number: 47 Thursday: 2:00 – 3:30 Room 731

Clodagh Miskelly, University of the West of England. Tony Dowmunt, APT Films and Goldsmiths’ College. l8r – Fictional Choices and Real Lives – interactive drama on the web Does the fictional online and video environment of 'l8r' (and the virtual choice-making and participation that it entails) raise young people's consciousness about decisions they have to make in their 'real' lives? l8r is an online and video-drama project that aims to help young people realise the choices they face in relation to sexual health and relationships and other life-skills issues. The resource, made by Hi8us South, is used across England in mainstream educational and youth work settings as well as with “hard-to reach” young people. The video element shows the relationships of 6 teenage characters and each episode ends with a dilemma for one character. Viewers then go to the website ( where they can vote on what the character should do as well as advise the characters by posting messages to an online forum and through live chat sessions. The characters reply to these messages. Young people also discuss and share their own experiences and trained peer mentors run informal advice sessions on the site. The website also has a “neighbourhood” with a café, advice centre and the characters’ bedrooms.


l8r involves particular challenges in maintaining interest and dialogue through developing the characters and different narrative threads. We will discuss how young people use this web-based participatory drama to reflect on personal and social issues and choices as well as how young people make use of the web forum to discuss the characters’ and their own experiences. For further information about l8r contact John White – Abstract Number: 48 Thursday: 2:00 – 3:30 Room 731

Roxana Morduchowicz, Buenos Aires University, Argentina National Media Education Program in Argentina Media Education in Latin America works on one main direction: to strengthen democracy. In Latin America, students need to believe that change is possible and that they may have some role to play. The future of media education has to be built around the recognition that media education is about the real world in which we all live and upon which the students may have a democratic impact. Media education in Latin America must be a space for a critical analysis and a site that allows students to move beyond the school towards their engagement in public life. Programs developed: The School Makes TV Invites 11 /12-year-old students to write a story. Six stories are produced as “advertisement campaign” and shown on all TV channels for a month. School, camera… action Invites 13 / 14-year-old students to write a story. Three stories are produced as short films and shown on all cinemas during two weeks. Taking pictures Invites 15 year-old students to build a visual story by taking pictures. Twenty-four stories are exhibited in the National Art Museum during two weeks. Moments of Radio Invites primary schools in rural areas to write a story. Twenty-four stories are broadcast on all AM and FM radio stations for a month. Journalists for a Day Invites 16 / 17-year-old students to write an in-depth report. The first Sunday in December, 90 newspapers publish 90 reports written by the students. The School Goes to the Cinema Allows 13 and 14 years old students from very poor neighbourhoods to go to the cinema and see Argentine films. Professionals who took part in the films talk with the students about the way the film was made.


Abstract Number: 49

Wednesday: 2:15 – 3:45

Room 728

Tobias Olsson, Lund and Vaxjoe University, Sweden Preparing for the future: Calculated Media Use Among Young, Active Citizens By now, a considerable amount of attention has been paid to the notion of the active audience. However, this has been very much a theoretical debate. As such it has often been kept at a great distance from its subjects, the audiences themselves. This paper aims at bringing an empirical contribution to the debate, focusing on a very specific set of the media users/audiences – young citizens (16 to 19 years of age) who are engaged in youth organizations affiliated with the established political parties in Sweden. Their media use – in general – and their use of the new ICTs – in particular – perhaps provokes the invention of a new concept: the hyperactive audience. The young, politically active citizens’ use of their media environment tends to be extremely calculated. First, they invest their time in the media in order to learn for their political activity. For instance, they watch TV-debates to learn how to conduct debates themselves and read the newspaper to learn new arguments. Not the least, some of them interact in public spheres on the internet to try out and develop their own political points of view. Second, they show a great awareness with respect to the potential biases of the media. The empirical results in this paper are preliminary results from the Swedish project “Young Citizens, ICTs and Learning”. The project uses qualitative methods for the collection of data and analysis; some 20 young, active citizens are included in this specific study. Abstract Number: 50 Thursday 4:00 – 5:30 Room 728

Barney Oram Videogames in the classroom: how commercial videogames can be used in Media Studies This workshop will seek to examine how commercially produced videogames can be used in the Media Studies classroom. Over the past academic year students at a Cambridge sixth form college have been textually analysing videogames. This is in response to the topic being available on an A-Level syllabus and the belief that the topic would engage students. How have the students felt about studying videogames and how has the topic been taught? The workshop will provide an opportunity to consider the implications of teaching the topic and its impact on the future of Media Studies. There will be an opportunity for participants to play a cross section of the games chosen by students as texts.


Abstract Number: 51

Thursday: 2:00 – 3:30

Room 728

Karen Orr Vered, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia Edutainment: Scaffolding Knowledge from Consumption to Production in Children's Movie Making If "Edutainment" signals a notional space between education and entertainment, the metaphor can be usefully applied to understand the social space of After-school Care. Like Edutainment, After-school Care blends elements from two distinct spheres, home and classroom, in its creation of a distinct hybrid space. Elsewhere I have used the term 'intermediary space' to characterise After-school Care and its relationship to the social spaces of home and classroom. (1) As my research and reflection on After-school Care have developed, I have discovered that it is also a space where Edutainment can flourish. Media production in After-school Care offers an interesting case of Edutainment in action. In making movies, children learn about media production and media products in a process that allows them to apply their considerable knowledge as fans and consumers to unique production projects. Rather than arguing that consumption is one type of activity and production another, I will discuss how children integrate the two in media production. When children draw upon their consumer and fan practices to make movies they are essentially demonstrating the practice of knowledge scaffolding. Informing production activities with knowledge gained through consumer and fan practices, like the notion of Edutainment, uses entertainment as a means to education. I will present a case study of an after-school movie-making workshop that is now in its third year. Participation in the program has grown with each offering and the school's administration endorses and supports the recreational program in a variety of ways. (1) Vered, 2001, 'Intermediary Space and Media Competency: Children's Media Play in Out of School Hours Care,' in Simile: Studies in Media and Information Literacy Education Vol.1 Issue 2 (May) Abstract Number: 52 Monday: 2.15pm – 3.45pm Room 826

Ilona Parkansky, Tisch School of the Arts, New York University. In collaboration with Professor JoEllen Fisherkeller, Steinhardt School of Education, New York University, Professor Marianne Petit, Interactive Telecommunications Program, New York University, and Meghan McDermott, Global Action Project. Youth Speak Out by Looking Into “New Media”: Finding a New Voice for Youth Using Design-Centered Learning and Multimedia Composition Tools. Global Action Project (GAP) is a New York City based youth media organization whose previous programs have focused on youth expression, social activism and


technical skills development through documentary and video production. This paper will report on a new program, instituted by GAP in the last two years, which offers inner city youth the same outlet for personal expression, public voice and technology training through the medium of interactive, digital and multimedia design and storytelling. This paper will assess the potential viability of this new interactive media program, which is a product of GAP’s current program model and teaching methodology. It will look at the implications of using newly introduced digital multimedia formats, including web, CD-Rom, streaming media and digital animation, a genre of expressive and informative composition for which standards for aesthetics, composition and frame, are still being developed. As students spend more time playing video games, conversing on cell phones, researching on the internet, and chatting with peers, it is imperative to work toward defining a model in which the current communications paradigm shift can be used as a catalyst for learning. Exploring the implications on students and teachers, addressing evolving literacies, and investigating ways in which student-produced media can help individuals can cope with the ever more image saturated world around them. The central issues of the paper is a practical evaluation of the program, named ‘the SYTE’, as a means for building toward a new model for youth-produced media in the area of interactive telecommunications. The goal is to make the community of media literacy trainers aware of current efforts which, building off of previously successful models, are working to indoctrinate new media production as an educational, fun, and achievable option for new and developing programs sponsored by organizations such as GAP, which have previously focused solely on video production. The site for the project is New York City, and participating students are a group of 12 male and female youth between the ages of 15 and 18, representing three Manhattan area high schools. One school is located in Harlem on the West Side of the City, the other is located in Downtown Manhattan, and the last is located on the Upper East Side. Workshop sessions are held at the spacious loft offices of GAP, which has been in operation, successfully producing and distributing award winning youth-produced media since 1991. Students travel to GAP for weekly three-hour workshop sessions with a trained facilitator. During the course of the year they are required to participate in two public screenings, and additionally submit their work to several youth media distribution agencies for potential dissemination. Program goals include the production creative, expressive and informative media, as well as promotion and outreach. Youth are required to create workshops in support of the media they produce, and make efforts to distribute the media along with workshop materials, including curriculum and screening guides.


Abstract Number: 53

Thursday: 2:00 – 3:30

Room 728

Pedro Hernández-Ramos, Santa Clara University, USA Teachers Learning To “Do” Video: Aim, Shoot, Ready! This presentation describes an intensive workshop designed to introduce preservice teachers to digital video in two or three hours, in the context of an instructional technology course or as a stand-alone activity. Acknowledging time constraints in most real-life instructional situations, this format takes novices with no or very limited knowledge of video making to the point where they have experienced most of the steps involved in crafting a finished (though perhaps unpolished) digital video. Conversations at the beginning introduce project-based collaborative learning as the pedagogical context for digital video production, and the value of supporting a sense of creativity in students to promote deeper engagement with subject matter through hands-on activities involving a variety of learning modalities as opposed to predominantly passive reading and listening. Working in groups of 2-4 students, each student is required to operate the camera and to be on camera during the 2030 minutes allowed for video capture. Little planning time is given in order to encourage creativity and a playful attitude. Groups are left to work largely on their own to meet the requirements to add titles, transitions, and sound effects to their movie—although the instructor is on hand to offer support when needed. A “movie fest” allows groups to show off their work to their peers and gain a real sense of accomplishment. Possible extensions include using time-lapse video and stopmotion animation as alternative or complementary activities that rely on the core set of skills acquired in this workshop. Abstract Number: 54 Tuesday: 12.15pm – 1.00pm Nunn Hall – Level 4

Daniela Sime, Lydia Plowman (absent), Alan Prout (absent), University of Stirling I control my toys: I tell them what to do.’ Interactive toys and children’s family and peer relationships This paper reports a small-scale study ‘The technologisation of childhood?’ which was conducted in 2003 with seven households with children aged from four to eleven years old. Our focus is on children’s perceptions of the roles that digital toys play in their life and we address the argument that digital toys may have a potentially damaging effect on children’s development and social relationships. Our findings suggest that neither parents nor children perceive digital toys as a threat to family life or to children’s learning and development. On the contrary, children are shown to be in control at most times in deciding how to employ these technologies in their play and learning and in their family and peer relationships. Children are often seen to use digital toys as a means of engaging other family members or peers in interactions and the toys thus become facilitators of social relationships. Membership of a group of peers is often conditioned by children’s ownership of a particular toy. In these circumstances, children can become


determined to influence the adults’ buying decisions. Based on discussions with children, they feel comfortably in control when deciding if and how to play with these toys either alone or when interacting with other children or adults at home. This exploratory play may be in contrast to the limited control that children have over their activities with technologies at school. Abstract Number: 55 Monday: 2.15pm – 3.45pm Room 736

Andrea L. Press, Institute of Communications Research, University of Illinois Tracing the Everyday Nature of the Digital Divide This paper will focus on the experiences of a small group of American teenagers as they use the Internet in their daily lives. I attempt to determine the classed dimensions of these experiences by combining ethnographic and interviewing methods to study the way teens use the Internet at school, work, and in the home. I argue that the widespread use of Internet technology among American teenagers actually increases inequality between teens and young people of different social classes. In this talk I illustrate this thesis with material from the daily lives of teenagers. Abstract Number: 56 Tuesday: 10.15am – 11.45am Room 822

“Everyday Domestic Internet Experiences of Canadian Children and Youth” Leslie Regan Shade, Concordia University, Montreal This paper will present results from Children, Youth and New Media in the Home, a research project funded by the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)(2002-05). The research has several objectives, including a comparative international literature review of ethical and policy issues; identification of best practices for designing new media products and services for children and young people; and an examination of children and young people's online environments, through several qualitative based studies. The paper/presentation will focus upon the latter objective. The second year of this three-year project has concentrated on interviewing a diverse range of children and youth (aged 6-17) in their homes (in Montreal, Ottawa, and Windsor, ON) about their everyday Internet experience (and, in some instances, their use of videogames). This paper/presentation will thus consolidate the thematic findings of approximately 30 Canadian children and youth that have been interviewed about their everyday Internet use. Interview questions have focused on access, lifestyle, competition, uses, social change, commercialization, and privacy issues. Using these themes as a template, the voices of children and youth will be used to illustrate how they use the Internet in their everyday lives, and what they think about issues such as online commercialization and privacy


Abstract Number: 57

Wednesday: 2:15 – 3:45

Room 822

Susan Roberts, Macquarie University A jump-start in learning? Young children’s use of CDRom technology The titles of many educational CDRoms available for young children rely heavily on metaphors of transformation and success. Children, it is claimed, will acquire coveted learning skills as they enjoy screen friendships with characters who will guide them up the learning ladder. These are strong claims to put before an audience of educators and carers. But there is little empirical data to support (or refute) such claims. In this study, we set out to explore how young children actually use CDRom learning software. We invited ten children in the four to five year old age range to play with two ‘work and play’ CDRoms (Downes et al 2001). We chose two packages which differed radically in both pedagogy and design, and the children were supported in their playing by a research assistant who knew them well. We used an interactive whiteboard as a large visual display helped these children focus on the game and it also allowed us to record each child's choices for subsequent analysis. In addition, we taperecorded the children's comments and observed each session. When we analysed the children's answers at the predetermined key learning moments, we found little evidence to support software makers' claims of success and transformation. However, we did observe the children growing more confident with the technology, especially when playing with the pedagogically less behaviouristic Leaps and Bounds. (Design features of this package also include elements which help the child do things that would not be possible in any other medium.) ICT is part of the young child's world but we are still exploring how best to use it to support their learning. Abstract Number: 58 Monday: 2.15pm – 3.45pm Room 728

Effectiveness of strategies to include girls in ICTs Els Rommes. Assistant Professor Gender, ICTs and Pedagogics, Nijmegen University Although there hardly seem to be any gender differences anymore in the use of digital media, different kinds of use still have strong gender connotations, e.g. chat and word processing as feminine and programming and playing as masculine. Moreover, educational institutions and companies have problems finding enough boys and especially girls that are interested in following a career in computing. Statistics show that in the last five years, the already-low percentage of girls choosing computer science has dropped and in the Netherlands, the percentage is even lower than in most European countries. Where does this bad image of computing come from and by what kind of inclusion initiatives may it be changed? To answer these questions, (focus group) interviews are held with teenagers. Questions that will be targeted are from where do teenagers get their bad impression


of computers? How ‘sexy’ are which uses of ICTs for girls and boys and to what extend are computers, mobile phones and electronic games perceived as ‘technology’? To what extend does heteronormativity affect the sudden drop of interest of girls in technology during their puberty? And how may inclusion initiatives such as special courses for girls only, positive images of ICTs in popular movies and special projects at school affect these images? This paper builds on the results of a large European research project ‘Strategies of Inclusion of Gender in the Information Society’. In this project, initiatives to include women in the information society and their effects have been studied in five European countries. The initiatives that targeted girls, e.g. by developing games for girls or by organizing events and role-model days to change the image girls have of a career in ICTs, will be reviewed and expanded with results of research on various Dutch initiatives. Abstract Number: 59 Thursday: 10:30 – 12:30 Room 736

Rocío Rueda Ortiz, Central University, Bogotá-Colombia Digital divides in developing countries. The case of public schools in Colombia Based on a study done in the city of Bogotá, Colombia, where we investigated how gender differences, social class, access and use of technologies, and educational models are generating a technical culture about the use of computers by young people and teachers at secondary schools, I will develop this paper in three parts. In first place, the importance of inventing theories and new metaphors to understand the new technological world because we are using those which come from literacy and linear models and technologies, creating confusion and misunderstood. I think it is possible from deconstruction theory. In second place, we need to create new educational models connected with computer use, understanding its new logics and the communicative changes and chances that it offer us, especially we would like to explain our experience through the use of hypertext language to create hyperstories with young people. In the third place, but not least, we believe in the importance to assume the political dimension of technologies, which means, we need to promote a public forum, a technodemocracy that ensures people participate in taking decisions on which technology adopt and what kind of technosocial relations of power and justice we decide for societies and developing countries. Abstract Number: 60 Tuesday: 10.15am – 11.45am Room 728

Lois Ann Scheidt, Doctoral Student, School of Library and Information Science, Indiana University, USA Adolescent Diary Blogs and the Unseen Audience Dairies have traditionally been used "as a spiritual exercise, personal therapy tool, and literary production" (Mcneill, 2003, p. 29). While there is much variance between examples, most dairies display such trademark features as dated entries focusing on


the diarist's experiences and interests, tone that can run from confidential to confessional, and a concern with the everyday details of the writers own life (Mcneill, 2003, p. 45). Unlike the paper-based adolescent diary of previous generations that primarily served as personal archives, in monologue, for thoughts and daily activities, blogs are publicly accessible spaces where adolescents can target their words to a variety of different external audiences in spaces that allow the writer to develop active dialogues with their audience. In these spaces the "time-worn assumptions that the diary is kept only for the diarist and that it is an intensively secretive and private enterprise are unworkable" (Bunkers, 2001). Clues to their idealized or known audiences can be found in the narratives the diarists' create. Langellier (1998, p. 210) postulates five types of audiences for narrative performances, audience as: witnesses to the experiences reported upon in the story, therapists and emotional supporters of the storyteller, cultural critics commenting on the events that produced the story, narrative analysts of the systems of discourse embedded in the narrative, and passive observer. This paper looks at the types of adolescent diary blogs currently posted on the web and applies Langellier's five definitions of audience to the implied and explicit audiences of adolescent diary blogs. Abstract Number: 61 Wednesday: 11.00am – 1.00pm Room 736

Ryan Sengara. Redfern Kids Connect, Centre for Cultural Research, University of Western Sydney Redfern Kids Connect – A community ICT project bridging the digital and cultural divide The Redfern Kids Connect project is a volunteer based community project in Sydney, Australia, bridging the digital and cultural divide between kids in the troubled Redfern-Waterloo neighbourhood and the wider community. The project, started in March 2002, involves volunteers from different walks of life playing with kids on a small computer network and in other activities. The project takes a drop-in format with kids attending on their own accord. Kids range in ages between 5 and 15. As the project has progressed, volunteers have observed complex social and ICT issues arising out of the sessions as relationships have formed between kids and with volunteers and new ICT activities have been explored. This paper will describe the Redfern Kids Connect project in practical detail, including descriptions of ICT activities and their outcomes, the conceptual framework being used to address issues raised by the project, and some key learnings to date. The environment at each session is very informal. Kids are free to direct their own use of the computers with the help of volunteers. Common ICT activities worked on in the session include Internet surfing, downloading and viewing of streaming audio and video, webpage building, online games and network games. A new session, involving digital photography and video is being launched in the first months of 2004. These activities are combined with outdoor activities when resources allow.


The most significant finding to date is that the social outcomes of bringing vastly different groups together, by working with new media, is staggering. Concepts such as social capital (Putnam, Cox), development of critical thought (Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Freire), a revised definition of the digital divide to encompass social factors (Warschauer), the social downfalls of ICT use, and volunteer motivation are applied to our work in varying degrees. Abstract Number: 62 Tuesday: 2.15pm – 4.15pm Room 826

Mahmood Shahabi, University of Allameh Tabatabaei, Tehran (Iran) Uses and Gratifications of Satellite Television viewing amongst Tehran’s young people Despite its official ban since 1995, the surreptitious satellite television viewing still is popular amongst a great number of Iranian (young) people. Satellite television has been in the heart of the national fear of a new ‘western cultural invasion’. Satellite debate has been as hot as video debate among the Iranian people, the national media, and the government. While the Iranian satellite television viewers may be motivated by a plurality of motives, they have been ‘read’ in a reductionist way (both by their admirers and detractors, whether in hope or in anxiety) as an expression of passive and individualized resistance against the official culture. By the same token, they have been considered as part of the cultural imperialism process by the Iranian authorities and the official media. In all controversies and debates over satellite television, the viewers themselves have rarely been approached to comment on their communication experience. The present paper has provided an opportunity for Iranian young people to have their say in this regard. Framed in the 'uses and gratifications' theory, and based on a 2004 survey of a snowballed sample of 300 satellite television viewers in Tehran, this paper describes the extent of the satellite television viewing, its viewing context, and the channels and materials preferred. It also shows the motives behind satellite television viewing. The paper also explores the sources of variation in the uses of satellite television for fulfilling cognitive and affective needs. Abstract Number: 63 Karon Sherarts, USA The Stories Behind the Images: Immigrant Youth as Producers and New Americans Migration and immigration are global phenomenon. Many immigrants to the United States experience the proliferation of media images, the dominant story-telling mediums of mainstream culture, for the first time in their lives. Young immigrants often respond to this encounter with interest - accepting the media images, or challenging these mainstream images by creating their own. Monday: 2.15pm to 3.45pm Room 826


The Stories Behind the Images, considers the dimensions of the social and cultural world that recent immigrant youth (ages 10 to 18) construct in their media productions. The youth, now living in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, are from diverse origins and cultures (Africa, Mexico, Jamaica, and Southeast Asia). A constructivist approach, blending aesthetics, technical skills and reflection, was used to teach them digital media as tools for personal and creative work. A series of digital photographs (with text and/or Adobe PhotoShop manipulation) will be presented and analyzed (as will, if time permits, video) in terms of: 1. Learning context; 2. Patterns and unique attributes in the works' (a) content (e.g. identity, family, conflicting expectations ,racism) and (b) visual elements; 3. Youth reflections on their creative process and the content of their final work; 4. Viewer and intercultural interpretations. In conclusion, media by immigrant youth will be framed as "interventions" that posit alternatives to the representations transmitted by American commercial media. As such, youth productions are a means of empowerment and communication within immigrant communities (in the USA and elsewhere) and can serve as a catalyst for generative dialogue with non-immigrant populations. Abstract Number: 64 Tuesday: 2.15pm – 4.15pm Room 736

Lydia Plowman; Daniela Sime, Institute of Education, University of Stirling. A car or a computer? Social differences in ICT at home for young children Already at a disadvantage? Investigates the impact of socio-economic disadvantage on pre-school children’s development of ICT competences at home. It was funded by a BECTA bursary, and the research was conducted by a team of researchers from the Institute of Education at the University of Stirling. The research took place between August 2003 and March 2004, and involved: a survey of over 400 parents whose children were attending eight nurseries in central Scotland; case studies of eight ‘disadvantaged’ and eight ‘more advantaged’ children, aged three to five; and interviews with staff in four primary schools linked to the nurseries. Already at a disadvantage? Also draws on data collected from a concurrent linked study, Interplay, funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC), as part of the Teaching and Learning Research Programme (TLRP). Interplay focuses on children’s developing ICT competences in pre-school settings. This paper reports on three aspects of the findings: the ICT competences young children are developing at home; the impact of socio-economic disadvantage on these developing competences; and the links between children’s home experiences and pre-school and primary practice. The paper will focus on discussing the three types of ICT competence (technical, cultural and learning) that pre-school children develop at home, the factors that affect the acquisition of these competences and


the importance of children’s differentiated home experiences in relation to the use of ICT for their transition to primary school. Abstract Number: 65 Tuesday: 10.15am to 11.45am Room 822

Ulrika Sjöberg, Halmstad University, Sweden ‘Being a young media user – the uses of screen-based media in everyday life’ The paper ‘Being a young media user – the uses of screen-based media in everyday life’ wants to enlighten some issues of special interest when discussing the complex relationship between media and everyday life among Swedish younger adolescents1. Media use, its social, cultural, symbolic spheres, is integrated in daily activities, becoming a ritual element and providing continuity/structure. Daily life is in turn affecting media use, for example, its specific use in the home and the meanings associated to a certain media text. In order to grasp the complex relationship between young people’s use of screenbased media (television, computer games, internet) and daily life the paper puts its focus on three themes (1) fabric of daily life, (2) the ecology of media and (3) mediated experiences. The first theme involves issues such as bedroom culture, social arrangements of media use, and different types of access. The ecology of media looks at how traditional and “new” media fulfil different functions for young people in daily life. Young people are increasingly extending their lived experiences of immediate events with mediated ones through the media, such as games, soaps, and chatrooms. The latter serves as an additional arena for experimenting and trying out different presentations of ones self, and is reflected in the third theme ‘mediated experiences’. Abstract Number: 66 Monday: 2.15pm – 4.15pm Room 736

Solange Jobim e Souza, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and Raquel Gonçalves Salgado, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Brazil Yugioh: Playing with cards, cartoons and identities The aim of this work is to discuss the relationship between Yugioh cartoon and Yugioh trading card game and how children create their identities and social practices through this relationship. The main narrative of the cartoon is a card game based on a monsters duel similar to the trading card game. Our focus is to understand how preschool children play the game, by acting out the cartoon characters and recreating the duel situations they watch on it. Although Yugioh card game has its official rules, the children play it considering the rules and strategies they learn when they watch the cartoon, which is a kind of instructions manual of the game that teaches the children how to behaviour and to deal with different types of cards during the game.


When the children bring to the game what they watch on the cartoon, they are shifting identities through the cartoon texts. The relationship between the cartoon and the game has also affected children’s play culture (Brougère), whereas children have created other play customs and rules, such as to apply Yugioh card game’s rules to other games and to collect cards in search of the rarest card in order to be the most powerful player. The cartoon and the card game have not only taught children to play, but to be a player. The relationship between the cartoon, the game and the cards is a network that offers children the possibility of challenging themselves, arouses learning processes and constitutes their subjectivity. Abstract Number: 67 Monday: 2:15pm – 3:45pm Room 728

Candis Steenbergen, Concordia University, Canada “Britney Spear-ing the Digital Generation” Catherine Driscoll has noted the importance of the “figure of the girl” as “an image of change, crisis, and personal and cultural tensions” that dominated discourses surrounding the self and identity. She asks, “at the turn of the century, is there any reason to think the next century will not prioritize this conjunction of adolescence and femininity in conversations about power, complicity, ideology, change, culture, authenticity, and selfhood? (2000:305) Since her emergence in 1999, Britney Spears has sparked more moral panics around girls and their bodies, sexualities, relationships and dress than any other pop personality. Googling “Britney Spears” returns approximately 4,270,000 hits: onethird of which are fan sites (official and unofficial), one-third consumer-based product sites, and one-third porn. While her name has consistently been the number one keyword searched on the web for five consecutive years, her digital presence has, surprisingly, yet to be examined in detail. This presentation will examine girls’ web searching activities and describe a variety of potential scenarios resulting from searching the web in search of the ever-popular—and controversial—Britney Spears. What territories are girls and ‘tweens navigating in quest of their idol? What figure of the girl emerges? What impact does this have on issues of body, identity and empowerment? Themes that will be addressed include: gender, generational perspectives on moral panics, sexualities and consumption. Abstract Number: 68 Wednesday: 11:00 – 1:00 Room 736

Keri Facer. NESTA Futurelab. Rosamund Sutherland, Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol From isolation to community? : children’s learning with computers in the home from 1998-2004 This paper will draw on an interdisciplinary programme of research into young people’s use of computers in the home conducted at the Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol over the last six years. The research programme,


comprising ESRC funded ScreenPlay and InterActive Education Projects and the DFES/BECTA funded Evaluation of the National Grid for Learning, includes questionnaire surveys of ownership, access and use of computers in the home completed by over 6000 children, and detailed case studies of over 30 familes’ use of home computers. These projects have brought together the disciplines of media/cultural studies, sociocultural psychology and sociology of education to ask: 1. What is the extent and nature of the ‘digital divide’ as experienced by young people today? 2. How are young people’s approaches to learning being transformed by sustained use of digital technologies in the home? 3. How are digital technologies mobilised in young people’s identity work? 4. What are the implications for formal educational settings of young people’s out of school uses of these technologies? When the first project (ScreenPlay) commenced in 1998, the large majority of children reported using stand-alone computers in the home, although a small number of early adopters were making use of the new connectivity offered by the internet. By 2003, however, as one child described it in a recent group interview for the InterActive Project ‘having a computer without the internet is like having a brain without a spinal cord’. Connectivity and communication via the internet using computers, mobile phones and handheld computers is today seen as a pre-requisite of digital culture by many young people. The focus for this paper, therefore, will be to explore the four questions above with a particular focus on the shift from stand-alone computing to always-on connectivity via a range of different devices. The paper will explore, by comparing findings from the early stages of the research with the most recent results from 2003-4, how questions of increasing connectivity and mobility have impacted on our understanding of the digital divide, of children’s learning, and of children’s digital identities. Finally, the paper will go on to discuss the implications of these out of school practices with connected and mobile devices for the use of digital technologies for learning in schools. Abstract Number: 69 Wednesday: 2:15 – 3:45 Room 736

Hassan Syed, The Community College of the Cayman Islands “The impact of digital technology in the Caribbean and the future course of action being envisaged by the stake holders – An over view in the light of digital divide” The march towards the 21st century’s technological advancements has been slow for the Caribbean. The resultant effects are the digital divide across various segments of the society. The digital divide in the region can no longer be defined only in terms of limited access to hardware, software, and networks, but rather, one that is also


driven by limited literacy levels and a lack of the cognitive skills needed to make effective use of these technologies. If access and technology skills are indeed only a part of a digital divide, what we also critically need in the region is data to help us understand the digital divide in terms of literacy and effective performance — that is, the extent to which our students and workers have been able to use and successfully integrate technology into their lives and work. Policies to address the digital divide, like any social problem, require policy makers to make difficult decisions about the allocation of finite resources, therefore the lack of tangible data to support the policy in terms of focus on hardware and access is all the more alarming. Greater resources are being allocated to investments such as infrastructure and the deployment of computers and Internet access in schools, libraries, and community technology centers. In comparison to access, fewer government resources are being devoted to creating new training and education curricula and measuring and understanding their effectiveness. The strategies developed over the last decade by the governments, the educators, and the business sector in the region to address this divide have been focused on hardware and access to networks such as the Internet. These efforts have been instrumental in addressing some of these issues and they need to continue but serious gaps still exist. The paper explores the present focus of the region in terms of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), the role of ICT in education at various levels and proposes changes in policy makers’ focus and strategies and endeavors to define a new notion of the digital divide. The paper also stresses on the notion that continued deployment of hardware needs to be complimented by a focus on those without an ability to manage, integrate, and evaluate information in the knowledge society. Abstract Number: 70 Thursday: 10:30 – 12:30 Room 736

Eduardo Terrén, University of Coruña, Spain "Growing digital: The Internet and New Communication Media challenge to traditional schooling". The age in which we are living nowadays is characterized by a high speed of innovation in the development of information and communication technologies. As far as both information and communication are basic components of the cultural transmission process underlying any kind of social life, social institutions concerned with this process are also affected. It is widely accepted and reported that the widespread use of new technologies of communications within informational capitalism has involved educational system mainly in two ways. One is related to the output of the system in relation to the new labour market demands. The other is related to the introduction of Internet and new communication media in the classroom practice. Although these are two important effects of rapid technological change we are facing, more reflection is needed concerning the impact of informational society in


the transformation of the very sense of cultural transmission traditionally embedded in modern schooling as the traditional setting of teaching and learning. And this is something else than buying computers for school, moreover if they are to support the traditional role of the teachers. For more than 200 years, modern mass-schooling has been the major socialising institution charged with preparing young people for future. Although people have always learned from many sources, most of current parents and teachers have grown with the idea that the school was the real place where to learn. In a "learning society", things are not so any longer: individuals require a fundamentally different type of "knowledgeability" and socialization has become a much more complex process. It is essential, then, to rethink the process of learning going beyond the traditional approach based on the acquisition of pre-existing knowledge and to recontextualize learning theorizing the ways new information and communication technologies are transforming knowledge, culture and patterns of socialization. My contribution seeks to explore a theoretical framework enabling to grasp these transformations from a sociological point of view. Knowledge, culture and socialization will be the three dimensions considered in the model. Changes emerging in each one of them are creating the new learning environment challenging traditional modern schooling. The price of not being able to face this challenge is to keep seeing the ongoing gap between school and society. Abstract Number: 71 Monday: 2.15pm – 3.45pm Room 736

Victor Thiessen, Dalhousie University, Canada and E. Dianne Looker, Acadia University, Canada Digital Divides and capital conversion: Home and school access to Information and communication Technology (ICT) in the development of young Canadian’s human capital This paper examines a large (N = 28,000), nationally-representative survey of Canadian 15-year-olds who participated in cycle 1 (2000) of the PISA survey which has detailed information about types of ICT use, levels of competence and comfort with ICT and other technologies, in addition to assessments of language and mathematics achievement. As is true in other countries, Canada has invested heavily in ICT in schools, providing virtually universal access to ICT. Nevertheless there remain significant socio-economic, differences in use of, and competence in ICT. The analysis explores some of the underlying dynamics that facilitate or impede the development of ICT skills. Three questions concern us. First, what role do parents play in their children’s use of ICT besides providing—or failing to provide—access to ICT? Specifically, once home ICT resources are held constant, does parental education affect the frequency and pattern of their children’s use of ICT? Second, does use of ICT facilitate desired educational outcomes, such as higher reading achievement? Certainly that is one of the main rationales for the heavy government


investment in ICT for schools and communities. Third, are the (presumed) academic benefits of ICT use distributed equally to children of all social classes, or are the benefits larger for children coming from homes where parents are better educated? That is, are children from more advantaged homes better able to apply their computer skills to improve their academic performance? Data from the PISA survey allow us to provide some answers to these questions. Abstract Number: 72 Thursday: 10:30 – 12:30 Room 822

Siobhan Thomas, Institute of Education Pervasive Learning: Transforming the digital world into an "always on" playable learning space All the world's a game or is all the game the world? This workshop will explore concepts of pervasive learning, looking specifically at the design of pervasive learning games. Pervasive learning is learning that uses technology that is omnipresent (pervasive) in a learner’s everyday life. Pervasive learning is not isolated to a single geographic location such as a classroom; instead, it happens anywhere at any time. Technology commonly associated with pervasive computing includes handheld computers, mobile phones, smart cards, sensors, global positioning systems, etc.— i.e. anything that allows a learner to access and exchange information while on the move — but pervasive learning does not need to be restricted to the use of mobile or locationbased technologies. The idea of pervasive learning is to create a network of devices, people, and situations that allow complex learning experiences to play out. In the first half of the workshop we will examine pervasive learning theory. Examples of pervasive learning projects will be presented and analysed in order to gain a practical understanding of what pervasive learning is and how pervasive learning spaces can be defined — and designed. In the second half of the session, participants will discuss ideas for future pervasive learning projects and design a conceptual framework for pervasive learning spaces of their own. Abstract Number: 73 Tuesday: 10.15am – 11.45am Room 822

Vebjørg Tingstad, Norwegian Centre for Child Research Childhood, media and cultural globalization: The on-line chat room as a space for children's social practices While much has been written about the Internet as a dangerous medium, communication in online chat rooms demonstrates a complexity in the ways children (11-14 years of age) use the new medium. Findings based on an empirical study imply that online chat has codes and conventions, which both resemble and differ from face-to-face communication or play. Chat is spontaneous, chaotic, fast, transient, anonymous, humoristic, hostile and friendly. Chatters are included in


communities of practice, which are about understanding oneself and what lies ahead. This written masquerade includes challenges of how to present and protect oneself, how to maintain recognition and anonymity, closeness and distance. Exploring age and gender, making oneself visible, creating boundaries and calibrating oneself are some of the most characteristic features of this communication. Theoretically, the present study is anchored in the international sociology of childhood, which emphasises childhood as a social construction and children as active participants, not just as passive receivers of culture, upbringing and teaching. The study is, however, critical to popular images of children as inherently competent. The paper discusses the concepts of disembedding ; processes where social relations are detached from local contexts and reflexivity; social practices which are constantly examined and transformed in light of information about these practices (Giddens 1990, 1991). This paper intends to reflect upon how children have become participants in a new social arena, which provides possibilities both for community shaping and individual exposure. Abstract Number: 74 Wednesday: 11:00 – 1:00 Room 736

Birgitte Tufte. Jeanette Rasmussen. Business School, Denmark Media Culture – School Culture Partners or Competitors …? The media patterns are changing all over the world. TV still plays the biggest role, even though the use of the Internet is continually increasing. Children are extremely competent media users “clicking” from one media to another, in a goal-oriented search, and they use the media close at hand; print media, TV, the Internet or the mobile phone. The paper will present up to date figures regarding the development of children’s use of media – with focus on new media. The paper will discuss the relationship between the media culture of the children and young people and the culture of the school, as well as the generation gap. There is a contrast between children and adults when it comes to media competence, which seems to be due to various reasons. Firstly, media convergence is taking place, and secondly, children use the media in a converging way. Another perspective is that the market forces to an increasing degree control the media content. Focus will be put on the role of the global and commercial media culture in the daily lives of Danish children in relation to the culture of the school i.e.: How can the teacher cope with the fact that the commercial media address children as consumers whereas the school is based on ideas of raising the child to become a competent citizen in a democracy ? Results from a just finished Internet and Media development project which has taken place in Denmark from 2002-2004 will be presented and discussed.


Abstract Number: 75

Tuesday: 12.15pm – 1.00pm

Clark Hall – Level 3

Gill Valentine. University of Sheffield and Sarah Holloway. Loughborough University The digital generation?: children, ICT and the everyday nature of social exclusion In this paper we explore the potentially inclusionary and exclusionary implications of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) for children through an examination of ICT policies and practices within UK schools. We begin by outlining the rhetoric of inclusion evident in UK Government policy and by reflecting on how these discourses are mobilised in three case study schools. We then go onto consider issues of social exclusion, demonstrating that both material and social factors can prevent access to appropriate computer technology. In particular, we emphasise the importance of the way that children negotiate the meanings and use of computers through their everyday practices within the classroom. The paper concludes by arguing that only when we recognise that children’s use of computers is not only about the broad scale distribution of resources but also their everyday social relations can we hope to institute policies which promote an inclusive ‘Information Society’. Abstract Number: 76 Monday: 2.15pm – 3.45pm Room 731

David Vanecek and Dana Deobrovska ICT and their impact on the young generation in new EU member countries. This paper presents selected research results. The research deals with the state of computer lessons in secondary schools in the Czech Republic. The main goal of the research is to answer some important questions – such as, for example, are teachers able to keep up with technical developments? Are the secondary schools flexible in implementing computer technology? Is computer technology taught at all secondary schools? The research is primarily experimental, analyzins current conditions and including methodological aspects Abstract Number: 77 Tuesday: 12.15pm – 1.00pm Elvin Hall – Level 1

Valerie Walkerdine, Cardiff University, UK ‘Remember not to die’ – young girls and video games In this paper, I will argue that video games are one site for the performance of contemporary masculinity. In the light of this I examine how we might understand what at first appears as the ambivalent relation of many young girls to video games. The data for this paper comes from an Australian Research Council funded study of children in Sydney aged between 8 and 11 playing video games, together with interviews with the children and their parents. After reviewing current approaches to girls and video and computer games, I conclude that attempts to produce games for


girls are approaching the issue of the relation of girls to games in a way which fails to confront some major issues facing girls when playing games. If games provide a site for the performance of masculinity, it follows that the performance of femininity in relation to games is deeply problematic. How then do girls manage to display femininity while trying to win, if winning means performing masculinity? With reference to examples drawn from the project data, I argue that the double task of performing masculinity and femininity at the same time, while central to the management of contemporary femininity itself, places girls in what is an almost impossible position which results in a number of practices for managing this contradiction. It is these practices which the paper sets out to explore. Abstract Number: 78 Monday: 2.15pm to 3.45pm Room 731

Laura Wehr, University of Basel, Switzerland Censorship or Consumer Empowerment? Children, new media and time use The fact that children are spending a lot of time on various kinds of digital media makes parents and teachers anxious about possible negative effects. This concern was partly raised by the PISA study which brought disappointing results for the Western industrialized nations which in turn were frequently connected to the increasing use of new media by children. On the other hand, the appropriate media use is seen as conducive to the promotion of childish communication skills. There is a lively discussion on the social effectiveness of digital media particularly with regard to children; the slogans in question here are networking versus social isolation. Prior to any discussion of the potentials of media, though, there is the question on the importance of TV, Computer games and cell phones in the lives of children. Apart from the hard facts, i.e. the number of hours spent on watching TV, a further question is how children themselves perceive their „media time“, in quantity as well as in quality. Examination of the media use of children should also be taking into account the young consumers’ school and family lives. To which degree do conflicts arise between children and grown-ups regarding the „appropriate“ amount of media use? Are children given free use of their time („empowerment“), or do parents react very constrainingly („censorship“)? The paper will examine the temporal practices, strategies and perceptions of 8-to-14year-olds in their media use. It is based on round-table discussions and interviews with children living in a small Swiss town.


Abstract Number: 79 ML White

Thursday 2:00 – 3:30

Room 736

From school to Spielberg: a digital film club ‘Digi-club’ is the name given to Charles Edward Brookes’ (CEB) Gifted and Talented filmmaking club. The club developed after a BFI education initiative called Cineclub (set up by Julia Andrews and now run by her as Cineclub UK) and had two aims: to give students experience viewing a range of film texts and to allow students to produce short films that would be shown on the big screen. After working with the BFI on the first film CEB decided to go it alone. At Digi-club students focus on the process of filmmaking and the digital competencies needed to produce ‘good’ short films. The students work together, in self selected groups, to plan, produce and edit their own films and tell their own stories. CEB is a Media Arts college and students are able to work with the latest digital video equipment and software. Media Arts funding and the commitment of the leadership team to media production and creativity make this possible. Digi-club meets formally once a week and students are working on their second film. An important part of the filmmaking process is the sharing of ideas and critical thinking skills, which develop throughout each project. Students are given choices and choose the roles they want to play in each film. The dual emphasis on film viewing and film production is used to promote the ‘reading and writing’ of students media literacy skills. This paper tells the story of Digi-club and asks where the place of filmmaking is within the school context and how it can be further developed. Abstract Number: 80 Thursday 4:00 – 5:30 Room 676

Simon Widdowson, Nottingham Trent University Creating writers for the future – developing new forms of digital writing with children. Kids on the Net is a website that has over 16 million hits a year from children in school, at home and elsewhere. We have six years of experience of bringing children together creatively in a virtual environment. The website allows children to take part in a variety of online projects and discussions, as well as submitting their own pieces of creative writing, both traditional and in digital forms. During workshops with schools and other groups we show educators and children how to use new technologies in exciting ways. A recent development on the site has been the eTeachers’ Portal that provides resources for teachers, demonstrating how to use Kids on the Net to develop children’s reading and writing using ICT.


The Nesta funded Writers for the Future project explores innovative ways of writing using the internet, and provides criteria for best practice in the emerging genre of new media writing. Simon Widdowson is the Digital Teacher-in-Residence, working with writer Helen Whitehead of Kids on the Net. In 2004 we introduced innovative pilot projects into schools, involving the development of new media writing within the literacy curriculum. In the workshop we will demonstrate our pilot projects to develop new media writing in Key Stage 2: Dragonsville and Adventure Island, and give participants hands-on experience of how Kids on the Net, Dragonsville and Adventure Island templates in particular, can be used in the Key Stage 2 classroom to enhance literacy teaching. URLs: Kids on the Net eTeachersPortal: Abstract Number: 81 Wednesday: 2:15 – 3:45 Room 731

Sueila Pedrozo, Alliance Corporate Education, Brazil and Terhi-Anna Wilska, Finnish Youth Research Network, Helsinki, Finland Mobile Phones and Young People's Consumer Identities: A Comparative Study Between Finland and Brazil This article investigates new definitions of the self and identity vis-à-vis the digital media and consumption styles among young people. The research is based on an empirical survey conducted in Finland in 2001 and recently re-done in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The research was done among students from private and public schools. It aims to map young people’s use of and attitudes towards digital technology, consumption and consumerism. The main research problem of this study is how the new media, particularly the mobile phone and the Internet, relate to young people’s consumer identities in two very different countries. Finland is ahead of most other countries in the innovation/diffusion of mobile phones and socio-economic differences are not as obvious as they are in Brazil. Thus, equal access to the new technology is widespread. In Brazil, digital exclusion is predominant due to social inequalities in income distribution, housing and education. The results show that young people’s mobile phone use styles are surprisingly similar in both countries except for the poorest students in Brazil. It is obvious, and not surprising that the “digital divide” exists there. This is probably why in Brazil social and demographic factors explain young people’s attitudes towards information and communication technology better than consumer identities do. In Finland, young people’s attitudes towards ICT are quite consistent with perceived consumption styles, and socio-economic factors have less impact. However, gender division in the attitudes towards ICT is less traditional in Brazil than it is in Finland, which is a bit surprising. Abstract Number: 82 Wednesday: 2:15 – 3:45 Room 822


Alison Woodiwiss, Institute of Education, University of London, UK Toy or Tool: domestic perceptions of educational multimedia Parents have come under mounting pressure to provide educational experiences within the home. This is partly as a response to burgeoning formal assessment and testing in schools and partly because of public discourse which has constructed the home as a new site of education and emphasised the concept of ‘life long learning’. This paper presents some of the findings of a research project into the perceptions and uses of educational multimedia. It argues that parent’s perceptions are dominated by public discourses which locate the domestic computer at the heart of the digital revolution, primarily as a ‘tool’ to ‘prepare’ their children for ‘future’ work. Fun and games are essentially ‘delivery methods’ whereby skills are transmitted to their children; however these fun and games are devalued by parents as the child progresses educationally. Young people, on the other hand, have a far more ambiguous relationship towards domestic computing. Their perceptions are not confined by wider public discourses; rather they are influenced by the many different elements which constitute their worlds, both formal and informal. In their early years, they predominantly perceive the computer as a ‘toy’ and their talk and patterns of use reflect this. As they grow older the computer is used to fulfil different needs. It still functions as a leisure ‘toy’, one which is used to reinforce and reemphasis their ‘local’ identities, particularly in relation to their peer groups. However, young people simultaneously embrace the ‘tool’ function of the computer, reflecting in their practices those wider public discourses which have been assimilated and transferred by parents. Abstract Number: 83 Thursday 2:00 – 3:30 Room 822

Melda N. Yildiz, William Paterson University, USA Role of Media Production in Developing Media Literacy Skills: Semiotics and Multicultural Perspective Although media production is considered to be a time consuming, difficult, and expensive process, educators need to integrate media literacy and media production into their curriculum in order to prepare new generation for media-rich culture. Rather than just being technical or peripheral, media production must be simple and central to the learning process. This paper presentation promotes media literacy skills through media production techniques, describes K-12 teachers' reactions and experiences with media, and showcases their projects. It is based on a qualitative research conducted in eight classes and investigated over one hundred educators in seven different states. The study explored the wide range of meanings participants associate with media education; the impact of video production activities on their understanding of media; and the ways in which they integrated multicultural education in their video projects.


In this participatory paper presentation, we will discuss strategies for integrating media literacy and media production into the curriculum, offer creative suggestions for producing video in the classroom with minimal resources and equipment, and showcase the students' video and multimedia projects and describe their experiences with media. In conclusion, the main goal of this presentation is to draw on the natural links between media education and communication. We will explore how a critical approach to the study of new media combines knowledge, reflection, and action; promotes educational equity; and prepares new generation to be socially responsible members of a multicultural, democratic society. Abstract Number: 84 Tuesday: 10.15am – 11.45am Room 826

Ruth Zanker, The New Zealand Broadcasting School, Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, New Zealand Growing a Kiwi kids media intranet: Carving out a digital civic commons in a small nation The research question addressed in this paper is: Is it possible to carve out civic media space for young people in the highly privatized digital environment of New Zealand? This presentation describes an attempt to create a NZ/South Pacific young persons’ media clearinghouse portal. The challenges faced will be familiar to activist/scholars from other small or poor nations. New Zealand is one of the smallest and most open economies in the OECD. It is experiencing the brunt of intensifying policing of trans-national and cross-platform first world intellectual, creative and commercial property rights in the wake of GATT and TRIPS. This includes the policing of IP generated by wealthy public service investment in children’s production and advocacy web-sites. The team (a scholar who researches young people’s media provision and a librarian interested in the potential of metadata to translate across portals) designed a DVD illustrating the benefits of a pilot media portal to potential media industry and regulator investors whilst also demonstrating the benefits of editorial independence for the research team. This ‘media’ portal is being designed as simply one of many future ways into an evolving ‘local civic space’, a ‘Four million person Kiwi intranet’, united by metadata. Abstract Number: 85 Wednesday: 11:00 – 1:00 Room 736

Saeed Zokaei, Department of Sociology, Allameh University,Tehran-Iran Youth and Virtual leisure: an Iranian Experience Iranian youth are increasingly embarking on new media and particularly the internet to make up for the shortages the public sphere poses for leisure and entertainment. Internet chat rooms have provided many youth with the opportunity to follow their romantic adventures on virtual space and to avert the possible normative sanctions they might face in public sphere.


Survey results on a sample of 250 young people aged 15 to 29 in Tehran coffee nets indicate that using chat rooms are the major pastimes for young people both at home and in coffee nets. Online chats have in particular been crucial in empowering girls to deal with their romantic involvements and to get a better understanding of the opposite sex. Although this access is not yet equally available to young people of lower classes and those living in smaller towns, it has already challenged the dominant normative values regarding contacts between boys and girls and has therefore created a new habitus crossing class and locational boundaries. This experience has implications for young people’s interactions with their families and with their community. Abstract Number: 86 Thursday: 2:00 – 3:30 Room 728

John Potter, Goldsmiths College, University of London “Me and him is close” – Creativity, Media literacy and pedagogy in a digital video editing project This paper is an account of a digital video editing project with a group of 10 and 11 year old children in transition between primary and secondary school phases in their education. Videos were made by the children in order to commemorate, preserve and record their vision of themselves at a particular staging post in their lives. Areas of theoretical background are mapped out and discussed, in particular, the notion of “creativity”,“Media literacy” and pedagogy as it applies to work in new media. Frameworks for analysing the media texts produced were drawn from emerging theories of moving image literacy (Burn and Parker 2003), multimodal literacy(Kress and Van Leeuwen 2001), from studies of ICT in Education (Loveless and Ellis 2001; Loveless 2002) and from some relevant literature around young people’s media productions (Sefton-Green and Sinker 2000; Buckingham 2003) Reflections on the processes involved in the productions were provided by the children themselves in recorded interviews which unravelled decisions, processes and collaborative working practices. The discussion was contextualised by examining key moments in these processes. The paper analysed how the productions created sophisticated layers of meaning from popular cultural reference points, associated school memories, the children’s sense of their own identity and their own developing awareness of moving image literacy. A study of one video in the project has already outlined how the process worked for a media text produced by two young filmmakers (Potter 2004). This paper sought to build on this work and broaden the evidence base in order to discuss ways in which the children chose to represent aspects of their identity in terms of narrative, voice, memory. The study concluded with an exploration of a developing pedagogy around work with moving images with children. The following are key questions which emerge from the study: Is there a need to structure engagement and understanding of media


literacy from the earliest years of interaction with the newly available digital video editing technology? Can the existing curriculum accommodate work of this nature within its formally organised structures or do specific alternative models need to be put in place in order for the young people to function as producers of media texts? What does this mean for the ways in which the curriculum is structured and negotiated in practice? Does the use of digital video editing suggest curriculum structures which move the locus of control towards young media producers? Finally, are there implications for teacher education and digital media in the curriculum? This experience has implications for young people's interactions both with their families and with their community. Abstract Number: 87 Thursday 4:00 – 5:30 Room 414

Jill Elsworth, Queensland University of Technology, Australia Practical Pedagogy: Switching on the games generation learner to the task of learning multi-literacies in the classroom. This workshop presents proven teacher-learner negotiated pedagogical practices using interactive technology to teach critical thinking in a range of multi-literacy texts at the elementary school level. These practices have been developed in Australian classrooms with the purpose to switch on and educate the games generation learner in understanding multi-literacy texts. The presenter will demonstrate the process for developing these strategies prior to the participants actively developing their own strategies in small groups. Participants will be encouraged to work in small groups of 3 or 4 to plan a teaching/learning strategy appropriate for the teaching of a multiliteracy text using interactive games software as a catalyst/motivating agent in the learning episode. All participants will depart the workshop with practical teaching strategies to enhance their own pedagogical practices in the teaching of literacy. These practices have been developed based on the challenge presented in the Education Queensland document ‘Literate Futures’ (Luke & Freebody, 2000) for teachers to understand the learning styles of their students in a multi-literate world. Today the interactive learner is demanding more fun, higher level thinking, understanding of the application to technology and interactivity from the learning of literacy within the everyday classroom environment and not to be ‘powered down’ (Prensky, 2001) by prevailing pedagogical practices. This workshop will also include a demonstration of some interactive curriculum based learning tools developed for Australian teachers in their plight to switch-on the digital learner to life-long learning.


Abstract Number: 88


2.15pm – 4.15pm

Room: 731

Carmen Cruz, Ana Belén García-Varela, Pilar Lacasa, Rut Martinez-Borda, Laura Méndez Amalia Reina, Raquel Vélez (University of Alcalá, Spain) SYMPOSIUM: LEARNING TO BE CITIZENS IN A DIGITAL WORLD Overview of symposium: Everyday life takes place onscreen. Children develop in the constant presence of video, computers and cameras. We live in a global village, in which the presence of both new and all “old” media is claiming to develop new literacies in both formal and informal contexts. This symposium will explore how children learn to be citizens in a digital world by designing educational settings in which new and old technologies are used as educational tools Adopting an ethnographic, action research and socio-cultural approach in our research, we play the role of participant observers working in extra-curricular workshops or in classrooms, sharing with teachers the task of introducing children to multiple forms of literacy, related to the use of technologies and mass media. From our perspective, citizens of a digital world need to be not merely “consumers” but also “producers”. In such a context, one principal question is of particular interest to us: How can new media help to “build” a new childhood and, consequently, a new citizenship? The aim of this session is to explore how new technologies from outside the school can coexist with traditional teaching methods in the classroom and help to create new educational settings capable of developing new forms of literacy. The first paper discusses how new media can be present in educational settings in order to introduce children to new literacies. We thereafter focus on specific practices that take place in these settings:“Media and conversation”, “Understanding new media and critical discussiona and “Supporting creativity” To sum up, and bearing in mind the relationship between new citizenship and new media, we believe that, as new citizens of a digital world, children should be creative and critical people involved in a continuous process of dialogue with such media. Carmen Cruz, Pilar Lacasa, Amalia Reina. University of Alcalá, Spain Paper 1. New media in educational settings: sharing a voice We have been working during for almost ten years on the design and development, from an ethnographic and socio-cultural perspective, of various educational multimedia settings not only in school workshops but also in extra-curricular learning experiences. We supposed that situations of verbal exchange, mediated by oral channels, writings and audiovisual, as present in new or already consolidated technologies, implied the participation in a cultural dimension through the use of codes that are present in the community and which transcend individuality (Buckingham, 2003; Cole, 1996). In this presentation, we will explore some of the questions related to the design of these innovative workshops, in which the school ceases to be a formal environment of education and becomes an educational place where children and adults talk and take part in a community of practice that takes place beyond the walls of the school.


In accordance with these aims and the theoretical framework adopted, and paying attention to the contributions of the participants, our data have allowed us to identify the following specially relevant moments in relation to the redefinition of the design of these multimedia educational settings: a) programming meetings of the research team, b) programming meetings involving the participant researcher and the teacher, c) situations of immediate decision-making on the part of the adults in the workshop and d) moments in which the children, with their contributions, re-define the design and subsequent development of the programming. We will discuss different examples of each one of these situations, attempting to identify their repercussions within the process and results of the design of the multimedia educational setting. Rut Martinez-Borda and Raquel Vélez, University of Alcalá, Spain Paper 2. Media and conversations: constructing narratives on a web page This presentation aims to explore how adults and children turn into issuers as well as active recipients of media content. In this study, therefore, we associate the concept of technology with new literacies and consider not only the physical aspects of the tools available but also the information-mediating relationships between persons and the knowledge that they generate from the above-mentioned interaction. We must also bear in mind that a critical approach to mass media presumes that a dialogue takes place with them, and we believe that understanding media content is not merely a passive process but also an act of dialogue, a “response to a sign with other signs”. We consider media speech as a tool of thought, a form of discourse capable of contributing to the development of psychological processes. Our data come from a writing and audio-visual methods workshop held in an elementary Spanish school, in which the researchers acted as participant observers. The workshop consisted of five two-hour sessions, during which the pupils chose two television programmes that they watched at home, in order to tell other children what they thought of the programmes by means of a web page. Our preliminary conclusions show that in the course of the workshop children generated new knowledge and meanings, supported by the strategies of the adults. The children moved from playing a passive role to creating an active auditorium for two parallel routes: one based on descriptions and another on the discussions carried on by the children after the showing of the programmes. Only when children stop being mere recipients and begin to be aware of what it means to be creators of the messages do they begin to develop the capacity for dialogue needed by every citizen of the digital world. Ana Belén García-Varela and Héctor Del-Castillo, University of Alcalá Paper 3. Understanding new media through critical discussion: new ways of citizenship in a digital world The process of giving meaning to media content is produced in relation to specific social practices and, partially, with spoken language. Support which adults can provide via dialogue also helps to generate reflection in children and makes tasks more meaningful. The process of making meaning help children to approach new media critically and become creative and dialogic citizens. These new ways of citizenship require children to be competent in the use of new technologies and in their understanding of new media. Thus, media literacy involves children as both issuers and recipients of media content: they need to become both consumers and producers.


From this perspective, we explore educational settings that consider the social processes of participation as interventions of the participants within a context of critical discussion in which children are working on the construction of a web site. Data were obtained in a multimedia extra-curricular learning experience that took place in a secondary education Spanish school. Writing as a group, and negotiating during their dialogue, the participants generated a collective web site aimed at a common audience. Our findings show how educational settings change progressively in the context of critical discussion when we focus on the process of making meaning by approaching new media critically. The process of creating web pages in the situation described above depends on the shared construction of meanings among the participants. Writing on the Internet about the media both facilitates multiple dialogues and provides opportunities for children to become critical citizens. Reyes Hernández, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid. Laura Méndez UNED & Soraya Sánchez. Universidad de Alcalá Paper 4. Supporting creativity in multimedia settings Concepts such as “new citizens”, “new media” or “multiple literacies” have drawn a perspective of “constructed” knowing that integrates various modes of thinking over the more traditional and prevalent separate mode of knowing. This paper aims to explore changes in creative strategies that are produced in a natural educational setting in which multimedia technologies are present. We observe how children of the “digital generation” generate new ways of thinking through the analysis of television programmes and creation of a web page. We also explore how adults support this process by working with children at the zone of proximal development. A writing and audio-visual methods workshop was held in an elementary school. The workshop consisted of five two-hour sessions and the pupils chose the television programmes that they watch at home in order to tell other children, via a web page, what they thought of these series. All the information was audio- and video-recorded. The creative process was analysed along two dimensions; flexibility and originality, from an ethnographic action-research perspective. The results show us how children and adults can collaborate in a creative process in a digital workshop. We offer examples of the presence of creative thought by presenting specific conversations in which originality and flexibility were present. The latter was initially regarded as a more elementary process. It was related to the type of task being undertaken, such as designing parts of a web page, and to how children construct written and audio-visual texts during a critical discussion in largeand small-group situations.


Abstract Number: 89

Thursday: 10:30 – 12:30

Room 728

Victoria Carrington (University of Plymouth), Jackie Marsh (University of Sheffield), Guy Merchant (Sheffield Hallam University), Kate Pahl (University of Sheffield). Symposium: The great divide? Literacy, new media and learning in homes and schools Overview of symposium: Despite growing evidence that children are engaged in a wide range of literacy practices in out-of-school settings which involve new technologies, there is still little evidence that the skills, knowledge and understanding developed in these practices are built upon in any meaningful way in the majority of schools. The papers in this symposium explore this central theme in varied ways. The nature of children’s changing literacy practices in the digital age is examined and contrasted with the versions of literacy offered within a school context. The symposium will engage with current debates about the nature of literacy itself and explore the tensions between traditional definitions of literacy and the kinds of knowledge and skills developed in communicative practices that utilise digital technologies. In addition, the symposium will explore the affordances of some of the texts that children encounter in out-ofschool settings in order to develop understanding of the nature of such material and how it can inform the schooled literacy curriculum. Finally, examples of pedagogies which build upon children’s informal experiences of digital technologies are analysed and ways in which such work can draw successfully on previous learning outlined. The symposium will thus focus throughout on the relationship between informal and formal literacy learning in the new media age and will explore issues of curriculum and pedagogy in contemporary educational contexts in the early and primary years. Victoria Carrington, University of Plymouth, UK The changing textual landscapes of childhood The textual worlds and relationships of children have traditionally been understood as embedded in larger narratives around family, childhood, schooling, ‘readiness’ and the ‘basics’. These narratives, in turn, dictated the textual and literate experiences of childhood. A clear delineation between formal and informal literacy learning was observed: it was expected that children would be exposed to appropriate informal ‘readiness’ activities in the home in preparation for the ‘formal’ literacy teaching of school. Moreover, particular types and patterns of informal literacy learning were anticipated—oral story reading, alphabet knowledge, prewriting activities, and a certain orientation to adult-child authority around text. This text was understood to be print based and static. However, the rapid emergence and dissemination of new communications technologies have begun to have significant consequences. The textual landscapes in which contemporary children are developing and deploying particular skills, knowledge and sense of self are increasingly comprised of the texts of new technologies and popular culture. Using examples drawn from new media and popular culture, this paper will describe the types of literate practices, skills and knowledge that children are developing as they engage with new media, with particular attention to the potential for increased


agency and participation that follow. Having outlined some of the parameters of these new textual landscapes, it will then discuss the tensions that potentially arise as these new literate identities and practices confront the older models of literacy and text still embedded in much of contemporary school curricula and pedagogy. Jackie Marsh, University of Sheffield, UK Moving stories: Digital animation in the nursery The communication, language and literacy strand of the Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage in England is embedded in a traditional model that privileges printbased texts. This approach ignores the extensive experience young children now have of communication, language and literacy practices that are related to new technologies. Within many early years settings, children’s previous learning with new technologies outside of school contexts is largely discounted, yet such learning is central to children’s communicative practices. This paper outlines a research project in which 3- and 4-year-old children in one nursery engaged with editing software to create short animated films. Qualitative data were collected over the period of ten months as children were observed (using field notes and video camera) planning and producing the films. This paper analyses the skills, knowledge and understanding developed throughout the project, in particular children’s understanding of the processes of transduction, the affordances offered by different media and the principles of stop-motion animation. It is suggested that activities focused on the communicative practices mediated by new technologies can provide children with opportunities to draw on their ‘funds of knowledge’ (Moll et al. 1992) in meaningful ways and that this process demands different kinds of models of curriculum, pedagogy and assessment than those traditionally offered in many early years settings. Guy Merchant, Sheffield Hallam University, UK Barbie meets Bob the Builder at the Workstation: Young children's writing on screen Young children in the UK and elsewhere are growing up in an environment in which writing on screen co-exists with more traditional print-based text. Their first hand experience of new communications technology is often under-estimated (Marsh and Thompson, 2001) and receives little recognition in curriculum documentation (DfEE/QCA, 2000). Extant literature on 'emergent literacy' is almost exclusively concerned with paper-based practices. This presentation is based on observations of young children interacting with new writing tools in early years settings and shows what young children know about new technology. Phenomena such as textmessaging, selecting menus on cable television and exchanging e-mails are all forms of 'new writing' - writing with new technology - writing that is characterised by the use of the screen. This writing uses new surfaces and media, new tools and instruments, and involves new ways of handling and using these tools. These changing writing practices have become an integral part of children's literacy development and encourage us to re-conceptualise how educational views of 'emergent literacy' are presented. Data gathered through observation of young children in early years settings are used to illustrate how children's use of screenbased technology is interwoven with their experience of popular culture and their participation in literacy events that involve screen-based text. The role of play and experimentation and the processes that lead to text production are analysed in this


work. Issues concerning resource provision and the use of space in early years settings are also explored. Kate Pahl, University of Sheffield, UK The semiotic affordances of digital culture in children's home communicative practices This presentation will examine the affordances presented by digitised media such as console games, PlayStation and satellite television programmes, in constructing children’s out-of-school communicative practices. The presentation will draw on data from three London homes from Turkish, Sikh and Irish heritage. It will argue that a focus on timescales and kinetic design enables a more nuanced account of the affordances of digitised culture for the purposes of text-making. Children’s use of digitised culture is constructed in part by the alternative timescales offered by games playing and by the design elements present within the games. This enables children to construct alternative narrative spaces, which can be developed in texts created in the home. Drawing on work by Lemke (2000) and van Leeuwen (in press) this presentation will argue for a theoretical account of children’s out-of school communicative practices that focuses on the semiotic affordances of digitised culture in relation to timescales. The activity of games playing is contrasted with the timescales of the dispositions and habitus of the home (Bourdieu 1990). Particular narratives within homes, such as narratives of migration, can be found placed alongside narratives from console games within children’s texts. Complex hybrid texts can then be analysed using the frame of timescales and in relation to the semiotic affordances provided by digitised media. This analysis can then be applied to texts as they cross sites and go to school. The implications for school pedagogy will be considered and instances of home-school crossings will be explored. Abstract Number: 90 Thursday: 10:30 – 12:30 Room 731

Bridget Somekh, Diane Mavers, Cathy Lewin, Matthew Pearson, Institute of Education, Manchester Metropolitan University Symposium: Creative Engagement with ICT: Explorations in New Media, Schools and (In)formal Learning Overview of symposium: This session presents recent and current work of the Centre for ICT, Pedagogy and Learning at MMU in relation to young people’s engagement with ICT, at home and at school. The work of the Centre is underpinned by socio-cultural research methods, drawing on post-Vygotskian theories of learning, looking particularly at ways in which various kinds of new media mediate human activity and have the possibility of transforming social practices such as schooling. In a series of projects over the last four years we have adopted an increasingly collaborative approach, working with teacher-researchers and pupil-researchers. This symposium focuses on research into innovative pedagogies and informal learning, in which the affordances of ICT have been at least partially successful in disrupting the traditional pedagogies inherent in the culture and structures of schooling. Cathy Lewin looks at children’s informal learning when using an ‘edutainment’ web-site either in school computer clubs or at home, and is based on the Evaluation of the GridClub Educational


Service (DfES/Becta, 2001-02). Diane Mavers presents a detailed analysis of children’s engagement with animation software, drawing upon a focused study carried out within the ICT Test Bed Evaluation (DfES/Becta, 2003-06). Bridget Somekh and Matthew Pearson present two papers, the first on strategies for developing innovative pedagogies with ICT, the second on the role of pupilresearchers as ‘insider experts’ in making learning with ICT at school more like their ICT experiences at home, both drawing on the Pedagogies with E-Learning Resources Project (funded by the GTC and supported by UCLES, 2003-06). Cathy Lewin, The Manchester Metropolitan University Supporting formal and informal learning for 7-11 year old children in an educational online environment: complementary or conflicting? GridClub is a DfES educational online environment for children aged 7-11 in the UK. The environment is comprised of two areas: a publicly accessible portal with a range of activities and ‘edutainment’ games, and a closed community located in with adult ‘mediation’. One guiding principle behind GridClub is to support ‘informal learning’ in the home (and in school) through children communicating with peers and sharing common interests. However, the objectives for the environment as specified by the DfES also relate to supporting formal school-based learning and as such many activities are underpinned by National Curriculum objectives for this age range. Can such an environment with competing aims successfully support informal learning and to what extent? In the light of current debates on the relationship between informal and formal learning (see for example, Sefton-Greene, 2003), the tensions arising in this environment will be explored and discussed. This paper will draw on data from two surveys: a paper-based survey on leisure pursuits and Internet use in general and an online survey on children’s use of GridClub. In addition, an analysis of pupils’ participation in the closed community area of GridClub will be considered together with the underlying pedagogies and design principles upon which the environment is based. Children are discerning users of technologies. The language used in many activities on the GridClub portal together with information for teachers and parents, and a need to register for access to the closed environment through the school (for security reasons) signal a close relationship with school and formal learning. This clearly affects children’s perceptions regarding the underlying objectives of the site which in turn has an impact on which activities and features are most popular if use is selfdirected. Home use is also affected by competing online environments relating to popular youth culture such as children’s television programmes and computer games, as well as other factors such as family rules about use of the Internet. For some children, the site facilitates ICT skills development and this is arguably a kind of informal learning. However, whilst the site provides high quality resources and activities to support school-related work from school or home, the extent to which the site is truly being used to support informal learning is less clear. Diane Mavers, Manchester Metropolitan University Remaking movement: how six-year-olds conceptualize the mode of animation How do children conceptualize animation? This paper explores how six-year-olds understand the process of creating an animation through their collaborative design of


a computer-based sequence and subsequent peer tutoring. Planning a story through small-world play and a series of events as drawing and writing in a storyboard were a preparation for thinking through the detail of specific movements and actions within scenes and then for each frame. In their animations, these six-year-old children made meaning without words. Actions expressed interpersonal and affective relationships between characters, narrative sequence as plot and continuity as flow. Creating animation required analysis of the spatiality of movement and imagination of the effects of manipulating temporality. The children had to understand the relationship between production time in the breaking down of movements into smaller units and playback time as the electronic outcome. Learning rules, procedures and a new metalanguage were not merely memorization and replication in response to teacher instruction but rather became integrated in the multimodal process of design and production, as well as their conceptualization of animation. The children’s learning as they engaged with this new mode entailed experimentation, creativity, problem solving, taking responsibility and reflection on outcomes. This paper draws on work undertaken within the Evaluation of the ICT Test Bed Project Bridget Somekh and Matthew Pearson, The Manchester Metropolitan University Developing Pedagogical Frameworks for transformative learning Despite considerable investment in recent years, ICT in schools in the UK is still often seen as a skills based issue, and good practice in ICT is taken to mean developing skills and competence in the technical mastery of technologies. This skills based paradigm of ICT effectively creates ICT as a discrete subject within the broader curriculum, allowing other curriculum areas to remain relatively unaffected by the transformations which technology is effecting in other social institutions. This paper reports on the first year of an action research project that is investigating how innovative pedagogies with ICT can transform young people’s learning. The aim of the research is to cast pupils in the role of ‘active citizens’, learning creatively, engaging with powerful ideas and reflecting on their own learning. Pedagogical frameworks are strategies to plan learning activities/events which integrate the transformative potential of new technologies into the curriculum. The frameworks transcend traditional lesson planning formats because they represent modes of learning with technology in diverse ways. The frameworks incorporate theories about learning underpinned by Vygotskian psychology, such as communities of practice and activity theory. Examples from the development work carried out by the teacher-researchers and pupil-researchers, and analyses of the motivation and learning of the larger number of young people engaging with the project as part of their normal schooling are discussed. The outcomes are grounded in evidence from a rich data set of classroom observations, digital video, still images, and children’s original work produced on computers. Matthew Pearson and Bridget Somekh, Centre for ICT, Pedagogy and Learning The Manchester Metropolitan University Activity and Agency: Engaging young people in ICT Research This paper reports on the way in which pupils in four Manchester schools have participated as co-researchers in a project which is developing innovative pedagogies with e-learning resources. Despite recent investments in technology, the routines and inherently conservative nature of formal schooling act to thwart


innovation and the development of creativity. This project adopts an action-research approach to identify and address the barriers to radical change. A key strategy is the inclusion in the research team of a small group of children, aged 8-14, with very high levels of ICT expertise. Their role has been that of ‘insider-experts’ who understand the high levels of motivation and creativity characteristic of their own use of ICT at home; and who have engaged with their teachers and the university-based researchers in developing new pedagogical approaches to using ICT in the curriculum. Their work has been located within an overall approach that has attempted to use ICT as a means of broadening the context of learning to encompass home, virtual environments and popular culture. This paper adopts a neo-Vygotskian perspective on technology use where new technologies are seen as mediating tools which create novel modes of cognition. This paper argues that transformative learning opportunities are only created when schools take full account of the agency of their learners, and allow them to engage with ICT as autonomous and self-sufficient learners. Abstract Number: 91 Wednesday: 11.00am – 1.00pm Room 731

Christine Bachen & Chad Raphael (Santa Clara University, USA), Kathryn Montgomery (American University, USA) Symposium: The Use of New Media for Civic Engagement Overview of symposium: Several major western democracies are confronting crises of youth civic participation. In the USA, although many young people continue to volunteer in community organizations, fewer are voting than in past generations of youth, and a majority neither volunteer nor vote. How can the capabilities of new media be used to help increase young people’s participation in politics and strengthen their ties within civil society? This question has gained in urgency in policy circles, scholarly discussion, and educational practice over the past decade. Several research traditions can help shed light on the answers. This panel draws lessons for civic media designers and educators from recent research on how children and youth are socialized into politics, how gender helps shape our orientation to technology, and how the World Wide Web is currently being used to engage young people in civic life. Panelists will present original data from recent content analyses of civic Web sites, and will offer recommendations for future research and practice with new media for civic engagement. This panel will inform scholars, media designers and teachers about the conference themes of new media, schools and informal learning about civic life. Christine Bachen & Chad Raphael, Santa Clara University, USA Paper # 1: New Media and Political Socialization This paper discusses how the literature on media’s role in the political socialization of children and youth can inform the study, design and use of new civic media. The authors draw insights from the fields of communication, political science and education to illuminate what are likely to be the most and least successful strategies for using digital media for civic education and engagement in school and family settings. Special attention is paid to different media’s contributions to young


people’s understanding of civic life, their participation in it, and the role of media in stimulating family and peer communication about politics. In addition, the paper offers an agenda for additional research that is most needed on how the World Wide Web and educational software can be used to increase young people’s civic engagement. Among the recommendations offered are to broaden our definitions of civic engagement beyond traditional tests of political knowledge and voting to include civic skills (such as deliberation) and experiences (such as community service and other “pre-political” activities). We also discuss the need for research to differentiate between visions of citizenship found in media, from mainstream and individualistic models of “character education” to more radical and social models of activism and organizing. We address the need to appreciate recent research that underscores ways in which children play active roles in their civic development, rather than conceiving of young people as passive recipients’ of values inherited from media, teachers or parents. In addition, we consider political socialization and new media research within a cognitive and social developmental perspective, offering an analysis of the types of content and formats of new media that best correspond to the developmental abilities of young people at various stages. Finally, we argue that researchers (along with designers and educators) need to explore new media’s ability to focus children’s attention on policy questions raised by the media themselves – such as privacy, access to culture, and freedom of expression – which are especially keenly felt by children. Chad Raphael and Christine Bachen (Santa Clara University, USA) Paper # 2: New Media and Gender Girls face several specific barriers to using new media for civic purposes. Traditionally, both technological and political leadership have been perceived as masculine spheres, in which women continue to be dramatically under-represented. Although in some developed countries girls have gained parity with boys in using the Internet for communication and school work, recent studies still show girls express less confidence and interest in their computing, and that females are still less likely to explore computer programming and system design. The gender gap in programming can frustrate full political representation of women’s perspectives because the design of computer systems not only influences how politics are conducted online, but raises policy issues of their own about access, privacy and inclusion. How can we ensure that new civic media are gender-inclusive? Drawing on the literature in communication, political science and education, this paper argues that four dimensions of media design are most important for inclusiveness. These include the learning styles appealed to through the design, the leadership styles reflected in the female and male media models or implicit in the tasks undertaken by the media users, the play preferences to which the media appeal, and the range of civic roles offered girls through the content. We discuss how prior research assesses the extent to which existing Web sites and educational software are open to girls of various ages across all four dimensions. We also discuss the implications of the context in which these new civic media are used, whether in school or at home. The paper also offers an agenda for additional research on these dimensions of inclusive design that can inform scholars, media producers and teachers about how


the World Wide Web and educational software can be used to increase girls’ civic engagement. We pay special attention to possibilities for designing and evaluating new media that engage girls with issues of media policy and the impact of media on community. Kathryn Montgomery (American University, USA) Paper # 3: The Civic Web: A Study of Youth Sites A civic movement—created for and sometimes by young people—has been quietly taking root on the Internet. Hundreds of Web sites have been created to encourage and facilitate youth civic engagement. These sites are part of an emerging genre on the Internet that could loosely be called “youth civic culture.” This paper reports findings from a content analysis of over 300 civic Web sites, as well as in-depth interviews with some of their designers. This research lays the groundwork for a formulation of practice and policy of providing youth with resources—including opportunities to participate in the production of civic content itself—that can help young people develop into competent and responsible citizens. The study first maps the landscape of the online youth civic sector, giving an overview of the kinds of organizations and individuals involved in these efforts, their various goals and missions, and the ways in which they seek to engage young people in civic activities. Then, the work examines the various ways this sector is taking advantage of the special features of the Internet and digital communication, and how these features might play a role in the larger goal of fostering civic engagement. The study goes on to identify key trends, the challenges confronting the youth civic online community, and the key issues raised by these efforts. The research also explores whether these little-understood civic and political Internetbased activities by youth could help to reverse declines in civic and political engagement. The paper concludes with a series of recommendations, both for further study and for maximizing the use and the effectiveness of the wealth of civic content for youth that can be found online. How can youth civic Web sites best apply the interactivity that lies at the heart of the Internet? How can non-profit organizations—the major producers of these sites—reach youth with more potent civic messages? If we think civic Web sites can increase civic engagement, can their impact be measured?


Abstract Number: 92

Tuesday: 10.15am - 11.45am

Room 731

Regina de Assis (MULTIRIO), Solange Jobim e Souza (Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro), and Marcos Silva Ozório (absent), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Symposium: Achieving meaningful knowledge and values in Brazilian public schools through new media Overview of symposium: This symposium intends to present three different case studies, about products developed for Television and Videos, by researchers, educators and media people at MULTIRIO, The Municipal Multimedia Company of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. MULTIRIO is a public producer company which aims at the 700.000 children and adolescents, as well as their 37.000 teachers, in the 1044 Public Early Childhood and Elementary Municipal Schools of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The case studies will be presented by Professors Regina de Assis, EdD, Solange Jobim e Souza, DSc and Mr. Marcos Ozório, EdM, who are educators, researchers and producers at MULTIRIO. Regina de Assis will present a case study based on the research and production process, with children from two different public schools located in depressed and violent environments in the urban context. This process led to the production of two animation films for television, done with the children, depicting their own symbolic views, of how they see and interpret violence in the family, school and the neighbourhood, and how they see the possibilities for overcoming it. Solange Jobim e Souza will present a case study about the episode " O Curupira " from the cartoon series " I swear I saw it ", dealing with the mythical entities of Brazilian folk tales, revisited by early childhood and elementary public school children, working in an intergenerational group, with their teacher, the media animators and the researchers. Marcos Ozório will present a case study about the television program " Speaking Freely ", produced with adolescents from the elementary public schools, working through focus groups and interacting with a psychoanalist, a psychologist, an anthropologist, teachers and the media people. Regina de Assis, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, State University of Rio de Janeiro; MULTIRIO, the Municipal Multimedia Company of Rio de Janeiro "Cartas Animadas pela Paz/ Animated Letters for Peace: Peace in Jacarezinho and Simply Acarí". Children interpret and express their visions about violence, through TV animation products . The purpose of this paper is to report the research/production process, with two elementary public school children, living and studying in depressed and violent environments in the urban context. Through the work of a team integrated by teachers, researchers, professional animators and other media people, who worked with the students in animation workshops in the schools, at MULTIRIO and other sites of the City , children were able to express, by several ways, how they saw and interpreted their violent environment, and ways of overcoming the situation. The team attitude and methodology of eliciting children´s diverse forms of expression, and the intense interaction among all, motivating their sincere and


legitimate narratives about their symbolic universes, allowed for the production of two short animation pieces for TV. The issues of values, conflicts and affective behaviour were extensively presented through the different forms of narrative. One of the two products , " Peace in Jacarezinho " received the Ottawa Animation Festival 2003 Prize, for Children´s Animated Films, for its quality and ability to document violent problems involving children and the possible solutions, from their viewpoint. Children have participated in the creation and development of arguments, scriptwriting and designing, as well as in the sound and image editions. Because their teachers were also involved in the process, the outcomes for the schools were very strong, because the products, influenced discussions and new pedagogical activities integrated by the curriculum, to improve children´s understanding and interaction with their family, neighbourhood and school environments, about their values and affective behavior. Solange Jobim e Souza, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro “Juro que vi....” Brazilian legends. Adults and young children as producers of cartoons films The aim of this paper is to report the process of creation of a series of cartoons about Brazilian legends, named “Juro que Vi”. This process of creation was only possible because there was an interactive work among producers, researchers and a team of ten public school children aged from 5 to 11 years old. This project believes that any child always has something to say in relation to any cultural product that is aimed for their entertainment. Usually children are seen as consumers and not as creators of those products. During the project development, we realized that nowadays the education of children is much more dependent on TV, Internet, videogames, and other medias, than by the school and family. Because of that, our strategy was to approach the children in order to understand better their ways of feeling, watching and acting. This made possible the transformation of the dialogue in a new form of creation of cultural products directed to children. Marcos Silva Ozório " Speaking Freely/ Abrindo o Verbo " , TV talk show with adolescents produced with their participation This paper intends to discuss the research and production process of " Speaking Freely ", a TV program for adolescents, produced with them. Through the work with focus groups of elementary public schools adolescents, their viewpoints and fresh approaches to current issues, meaningful to them, were acknowledged and used as the starting point to create basic arguments and scripts for the programs. The focus groups were integrated by 8 to 10 students, who met weekly with a psychologist, a psychoanalyst, and anthropologist, teachers and media people. Through a constant dialogue, the research/production team was able to understand the attitudes, expectations, preferences, needs, feelings, values, different forms of expression from several social contexts. The weekly meetings at MULTIRIO ensued discussions and group dynamics which defined themes and sub/themes for the programs, guided the scriptwriters and the director , influenced the choices of


musical clippings and documentary excerpts, and the decisions about guests to be invited, as specialists in a given topic. The students proved to be much more mature and reflexive as the programs progressed, and expressed an increased self esteem. The programs are widely seem in the city and by the schools, guaranteeing a youthful, original identity, very far from the standards of mass culture for television. Abstract Number: 93 Wednesday: 11.00am – 1.00pm Room 728

Liesbeth de Block (Institute of Education, UK), Ingegerd Rydin (Halmstad University, Sweden), Antonella Passani (CENSIS, Italy), Maria Leonida (SAGAS, MEDIA Programme, Greece) Symposium: Digital Generations in Migration: revealing migration through visual communication Overview of symposium: This panel will present different aspects of a European funded research project, CHICAM, Children in Communication about Migration. The project set up six media clubs across Europe in which refugee and migrant children made videos about aspects of their lives and exchanged them on the internet. The aim was to explore ways in which particular groups of children could use new media technologies to represent their experiences and influence policy. In this session we will not be focusing on the research results as such but rather discuss aspects of the processes of research and of using visual communications in research. The project has raised several important questions about intercultural communication via the internet, about media production as a vehicle for personal expression and identity formation, about using new media technologies with excluded youth (in this case refugee and migrant children), about how children conceptualise and become an audience for peer productions and about using media production as a research tool with children. We will be showing and discussing videos made by the children in the project. Liesbeth de Block, Institute of Education, UK What’s really happening here? Exploring digital narratives of migration. Digital technologies are opening up new approaches to research, enabling them to participate in new ways in research processes. In this presentation I will be discussing how we then analyse such data. I will be looking at one production made in a European funded research project (Children in Communication about Migration, CHICAM) which aimed to explore ways in which refugee and migrants children could use new media technologies to represent their experiences and influence policy. I will follow the production through from conception to production to reception by other children locally and through the project intranet and discuss the ways in which it reveals both overt and hidden narratives of migration. Ingegerd Rydin Which language speaks global? Intercultural communication through youth culture This paper deals with migrant children (teenagers) media work. It focuses on the Swedish part of the Chicam project and more specifically on how children integrate and express their cultural experiences in media productions. It elucidates how


children’s “cultural worlds” are converging into so called hybrid cultures, a term suggested by the cultural theorist Néstor García Canclini and which captures the merge of past and present, local and global and looks upon it as a continuous process. The paper draws attention to the communicative processes that are taking place when children of different ethnicity and from different countries communicate in a web-based intranet. From a reflection of the various productions exchanged on the intranet and the comments children made on a chat site (within the intranet) and in discussions within the media clubs, it will be argued that children seem to have a preference for spontaneous and "unplanned" productions as opposed to adultguided productions, for example specially designed tasks such as fictions. The children’s preferences also seem to favour personal and subjective presentations, i.e. productions that are more direct and appear to be expressions of identity formation and self -representation. In other words, it seems as if communication is easier established when children themselves set the agenda and speak with their own “voices”. However, communication is facilitated by a common frame of reference such as global youth culture, global music or television genres. The paper presentation will be illustrated by video clips from children’s own productions. The findings and reflections of this paper may hopefully have relevance for future media education work. Maria Leonida, SAGAS, MEDIA Programme “Family Patterns” Playing with documentary in the computer This presentation aims to show "Family Patterns", an interactive experimental work and discuss its possible uses with young audiences. When designing "Family Patterns" we wanted to combine the texture of documentary with the computer’s ability to create patterns and break linear storytelling. We used elements of a real story -the everyday routine of a family during one morning- discussing what is the necessary portion of linear storytelling that an audience needs. We divided action in small bits, creating thus many possible starts and endings. Controlling content through the computer, we built a net of impressions through which the user can browse, intrigued each time by curiosity on the characters, actions or details and enjoy these fragments of life. Family Patterns and young users Although “Family Patterns” was not particularly made for young audiences or for educational purposes some teachers saw in it a play and learning value. The patterns have a strong but simple visual effect and they create a light mood. Its form lends itself to presenting and exploring a variety of contexts while the system allows for each player to run through the material at his/hers own pace. In addition, its fragmented documentary style lends itself for producing material with children as producers. Children can provide each their own vision of e.g. a subject, location, experience etc and come together to produce a collective work where they will investigate different paths. Antonella Passani, CENSIS, Italy Visual Bodies This paper deals with the use of media education in surpassing what we can call “naive-interculturalism”. Through the presentation of video produced by the Italian students involved in the project we will describe how the influence of adults plays a role in the self-description of children. A comparison will be made between


spontaneous and "unplanned" productions and adult-guided productions. In spontaneous videos the relevance of body language, dress codes and symbolic communication seems to be crucial. The body becomes a surface on which children write different narratives, through which they express an on-going process of identity building. Children seem to be well aware of adult expectations in the field of identitypresentation and they are able to adapt to adult’s wishes. Identity becomes a more problematic and sensitive subject when children are able to express it in a less oriented way. Through media education, then, it is possible to multiply the possibility of self-expression and understand the limits contained in a naive intercultural approach that tries to simplify the question.

Abstract Number: 94

Tuesday: 2.15pm – 4.15pm

Room 728

Claudia Mitchell (University of Natal, South Africa), Jacqueline Reid-Walsh (Bishop’s University, Canada), Grace Sokoya (University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun-state, Nigeria), Sandra Weber (Concordia University, Canada), Rebekah Willett (Institute of Education, University of London) Symposium: Girls, Digital Technology and Popular Culture: From Play to Policy This symposium will present finding from an ongoing study which examines the knowledge of digital technology that Canadian, British and Nigerian pre-teen and teenage girls are acquiring through computer play on and off the Internet. We will pay particular attention to digital literacy that includes technical knowledge, social uses of technology, and moral and ethical decision-making. The Canadian section consists of a case study, focusing on the way a nine-year old girl interacts with various forms of digital technology in her daily life. This is complemented by a study of websites created by or aimed at tweenage girls. The British study presents data from a focus group in which girls age 11-12 discuss and create websites. The focus of this study is how the tweenager is constructed through discursive practices apparent on the web. Finally the Nigerian component of the symposium looks at a study in a cybercafe in which teen girls are researching educational websites which focus on issues around sexuality, relationships and HIV/AIDS


Just Julia: A case study of technology in the everyday lives of girls Sandra J. Weber, Concordia University, with Julia Weber The lives of tweens (formerly known as pre-teens) increasingly include a digital dimension to both everyday life and peer culture, one that can involve various combinations of computers, digital telephones, MP3 players, game boxes, software, video, digital cameras, and, of course, the internet. My niece Julia, nine and a half years old (almost ten), became acquainted with things digital long before she ever heard of the word “tweens”— a term she stumbled across only recently while browsing the internet. When asked what she thinks of the term tween and whether she would like to be labeled as such, Julia replies that she likes it a lot. It suits her, she says, because it acknowledges what she feels to be true about herself—that she is no longer a child (something she adamantly asserts), but she is not yet accepted by nor does she feel part of the “big kids’, the teenagers whose ranks include her older brother. Through a lens provided by Julia (who helped me write this paper) and her friends, I will examine girls’ everyday leisure time use of digital technology in order to highlight points of disjuncture and conjuncture between Girl Studies and girl’s lives, between adult and youth perspectives, and between girls’ evolving embodied identities and the vicissitudes of pop culture and consumerism. Parentchild relationships and peer interactions emerge as additional key elements of identity processes in the case of Julia. This case study is part of a much larger international project on girls’ lives and girlhood cultures I am heading up called Digital Girls: From Play to Policy involving researchers and girls in Britain, Canada, and South Africa. Tween girls websites as digital visual culture: interactivity as virtual touch and motion Jacqueline Reid-Walsh, Bishop’s University This paper examines several web-sites directed towards, or produced by girls, particularly tween-age girls, in terms of their interactivity. The aim is to explore whether their appeal may be based in part on the impression of touch and motion. The method is textual analysis grounded in observation of two tween girls’ play with cd roms and websites directed towards them or appropriated by them in order to ascertain what aspects are appealing. The formal analysis will consider components like decoration (static and kinetic), hyper-links, multimedia clips, and the guest-book. Particular questions concern whether these websites appeal to the girl user due to an evocation of an illusion of touch and/ or motion through space. With the girlproduced sites the standard features of webpage programs will be considered, for example, how hyperlinks may easily add a dynamic quality to a site and how the insertion of a guestbook may create a different mode of communication than email or chat. The paper is informed by theoretical work from two areas: (new) media education and (digital) visual culture. In the first area, writers such as Julian SeftonGreen, David Buckingham, Diane Carr, Andrew Burn and David Parker, are used, while in the second the theoretical perspectives of Andrew Darley and earlier thinkers such as Walter Benjamin are employed.


Constructing the digital tween: market discourse and girls’ interests Rebekah Willett, Institute of Education, University of London This paper looks at British girls’ perceptions of the tween audience, particularly as constructed by new media. The paper centres on an analysis of data collected from a focus group of 11-12 year old girls in which the girls researched, discussed and designed websites targeted for tweens. The paper starts with a textual analysis of websites aimed specifically at tweens, and contrasts that with an analysis of the websites tweens actually use. The paper also discusses the more formal activities which were conducted with the focus group, including researching and designing the ideal website for tweens. The focus is on the different ways distinct social identities are constructed for and by tweens and how tweens interact with those constructions. The Abeokuta Cyber-Girls Project: What do Girls Want? Grace Sokoya, University of Agriculture, Nigeria. Claudia Mitchell, University of KwaZuluNatal, South Africa. The Abeokuta cyber-girls project set out to assess tweens and teenage girls’ access to, usage of the Internet, and their favourite websites. Twelve girls from nine families participated in the study. These include 8 girls within the age range of 10-13, 2 fifteen year-olds, and 2 twenty year-olds. Data were collected through interactive teaching and learning sessions on and off the Internet, focus group discussions, individual journal entries, random observations, and visual-images. The study explored favourite websites of the participating girls, with a view to discovering what the girls want in a website. Findings of the study reveal the girls’ desire for knowledge about their sexuality and the potentials of how the Internet could be employed as a medium of sexuality education targeting tweens and teenage girls in Nigeria; notwithstanding the socio-cultural factors militating against sexuality education for young girls in Nigeria.


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