Approaches of management - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Approaches of management
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Schools of Management Thought Koont Z, O’Donnell and Weichrich have identified different approaches of management.

1 Limitations 2 Human Behaviour Approach 2.1 Terms 2.2 Theme 2.3 Divisions 2.4 Features 2.5 Uses 2.6 Limitations 3 Social System Approach 3.1 Theme 3.2 Features 3.3 Uses 3.4 Limitations 4 Socio-Technical Systems Approach 4.1 Contributors 4.2 Features 4.3 Uses 4.4 Limitations 5 Decision Theory Approach 5.1 Features 5.2 Uses 5.3 Limitations 6 Management Science Approach 6.1 Features 6.2 Uses 6.3 Limitations 7 Systems Approach 7.1 Features 7.2 Features of Management as System 7.3 Limitations 8 Contingency or Situational Approach 8.1 Features 8.2 Limitations 9 Operational Approach 9.1 Features 9.2 Limitations

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a sociologist and later Chester Barnard.A. => individual Psychology Group B.A. => Social Psychology and Organizational Behaviour. Features As management is the process of getting things done by people. Motivation. 2 of 6 4/14/2013 6:50 AM .org/wiki/Approaches_of_management Limitations Since based on cases and past experiences.Approaches of management . Emphasis is put on increasing productivity through motivation and good human relations. Limitations Managers can be better placed by understanding human behaviour but equating management with human behaviour is untenable. Social System Approach The real pioneer of this approach is Vilfredo Pareto. participative management and group dynamics are the central core of this approach. Human Behaviour Approach Terms Human Relations. Theme It bears the existing and newly developed theories and methods of the relevant social sciences upon the study of human behavior ranging from personality dynamics of individuals to the relations of culture. it has not contributed anything fundamental to the development of management as a discipline because of contradictions in various management experiences. An individual’s behaviour is not determined by organization factors alone but also by his attitude. leadership. Leadership or Behavioural Science Approach.Wikipedia. 1) Management is not based on precedents 2) Situations can not be exactly identical. Hence these factors must be taken into account.wikipedia. managers should understand human behaviour. Divisions Interpersonal B. communication. pressure. The proposition that a successful technique applied in the past will be good for future is untenable. conflicts of cultural environment etc. Uses It suggests how the knowledge of human behaviour can be used in making people more effective in the organization. the free encyclopedia http://en.

England and Emery and Rice. efforts should be made for establishing harmony between goals of the organization and the various groups therein. procedures etc. a cooperative system of management can be developed only by understanding the behaviour of people in groups.Really? Features The socio-technical systems approach of management views an organization as a combination of 2 systems – a social system and a technical system. Relationships exist among the external as well as internal environment of the organization. For example. Cooperation among group members is necessary for the achievement of organization objectives. The real pattern of behaviour in the organization is determined by the interaction of two. Social systems of the organization is governed by social laws as well as by psychological forces.Saddam khan and Bamforth of Tavistock Institute of Human Relations. Due to interaction of social and technical systems. rules. Limitations It spreads the boundary and application of management beyond the true concept of organization. principles and techniques that are important to management. the free encyclopedia http://en. Features Organization is a social system. There may be many groups which may not be truly called organization and hence no question of management. Thus organization of an organization situation within the framework of socio-technical system involves scrutinizing of the specific technology used. For effective management. Uses It has real significance to the practising manager in the sense that managers operate in social system and the organization is likely to succeed if the demands of the society in which it operates are fully recognized. Uses 3 of 6 4/14/2013 6:50 AM .Wikipedia.Approaches of management . technical aspects of the work are modified by social aspects. Technical systems consists of technological forces operating in the organization like physical setting of work. the way in which patterns are organized.wikipedia. the formal structuring of interpersonal interactions and the informal patterns emerging in the work group. This approach is broader than management and in practice it tends to overlook many management concepts. a system of cultural relationships. For achieving organization goals. Socio-Technical Systems Approach Contributors The contributors are Theme Organization is essentially a cultural system composed of people who work in cooperation.

This approach covers decision-making. mathematical tools. the free encyclopedia http://en. adequate consideration should be given to technology as well as informal interactions of people. Uses It has contributed significantly in developing orderly thinking in management which has provided 4 of 6 4/14/2013 6:50 AM . Management Science Approach It is known as Mathematical or Quantitative Measurement Approach. systems analysis and some aspects of human behaviour. Organization can be treated as a combination of various decision centres. Operations research. social and psychological aspects of decision-makers.wikipedia. incentives. All factors affecting decision-making are the subject matter of study of management. Quality of decision affects the organization effectiveness. are the basic methodologies to solve managerial problems. models etc. This vital aspect cannot be denied but management is more than mere decision-making.Wikipedia. Features Management is regarded as the problem-solving mechanism with the help of mathematical tools and techniques. Thus every managerial activity can be quantified. Decision-making is vital in every school of management. Limitations Decision Theory Approach Features Management is essentially decision-making. Limitations This approach does not take the total view of management. reactions of the individuals to group and analysis of human values write stated objectives. Management problems can be described in terms of mathematical symbols and data. simulation. The level and importance of organization members are determined on the basis of importance of decisions. which they make. Decision theorists have grappled with decisions pertaining to diagnosis and the resulting prescriptions for improving communication.Approaches of management . Members of the organization are decision-makers and problems solvers. Besides processes and techniques in decision making factors affecting decisions are information systems. Uses It demonstrates how managers can discharge their functions effectively and for this approach it provides various While analysing management problems of getting things done by people.

Features Management action is contingent on certain action outside the system or subsystem as the case may be. Features A system is basically a combination of parts. Each part may have various sub-parts. an assemblage or combination of things or parts forming a complex unitary whole. Managerial activities are not really capable of being quantified because of involvement of human beings who are governed by many irrational factors also. games theory.Wikipedia. This approach is a fast developing area in analysing and understanding exactness in management discipline. An organization is a system of mutually dependent parts. subsystems. have provided more exactness in solving managerial problems. waiting line theory etc. simulation. Limitations It is very difficult to call a separate school of management because it does not provide the answer for total managerial problems. Various Mathematical tools like sampling. Features of Management as System Management is regarded as a system and it is taken in the following ways.wikipedia.This attempts to integrate all the management approaches. Organizational action should be based on the behaviour of action outside the system so that organization 5 of 6 4/14/2013 6:50 AM . Contingency or Situational Approach it is the most recent development in the field of management. the free encyclopedia http://en. time series analysis. more expertise and technical skills are required to formulate mathematical models Systems Approach System is defined as “An organized or complex whole. linear programming. each of which may include many subsystems. Limitations It is considered as an Abstract Approach and Lack of Universality in it. Management as a Social System Management as Open System Adaptive Dynamic Probabilistic Multilevel and Multidimensional Multivariable An integral approach Multidisciplinary.Approaches of management .

staffing. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. People substitute leading for directing.Approaches of management .php?title=Approaches_of_management&oldid=549489695" Categories: Management science This page was last modified on 9 April 2013 at 10:40. Limitations Criticisms of Operational Approach are as Various terms used in this approach are not commonly shared. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Operational Approach Also known as Management Process Approach Features Management is the study of what managers do. This central core of management is unique and is not found in other activities. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. It emphasises on management functions and various concepts and principles involved in performing these functions. The conceptual framework of management can be constructed on the basis of the analysis of management process and identification of management principles. Management functions differ from author to author. Inc. directing and controlling. The central core of managing revolves around planning. By using this site. organizing. no action can be universal. Management functions are universal irrespective of the type of organizational or level of management in an should be integrated with the environment. the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia. It varies from situation to situation. Operational Approach emphasises static conditions whereas the organizations have to function in dynamic conditions. Complex Difficult emprical testing Reactive not Proactive. 6 of 6 4/14/2013 6:50 AM . The basic tenets of operational management that is various managerial functions are not universally accepted. Limitations Inadequate literature..wikipedia. Example. though there may be differences on emphasis on a particular function in a particular organization or at particular level. Retrieved from "http://en. Because of the specific organization – environment relationship. additional terms may apply. a non-profit organization. It claims universality or management principles while management differs from organization to organization and from level to level.