# SYSTEMS, MODELS & SIMULATION

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BASIC DEFINITIONS
SAAD HAJ BAKRY, PhD, CEng, FIEE

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Systems, Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions

OBJECTIVES / CONTENTS
SYSTEMS:
Definitions Architecture Examples System Studies MODELS: Types / Definitions
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SIMULATION:

Suggested Work

Systems, Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions

Systems

DEFINITION: 1/2
Simple Definition
[1]:

Schmidt & Taylor [2]:
A collection of entities “e.g. people or machines” that act and interact together toward the accomplishment of some logical end.

An aggregation or assemblage of objects joined in some regular interaction or interdependence.
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Systems. Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions Systems DEFINITION: 2/2 ISO / IBM [3]: A collection of men. Saad Haj Bakry . 4 IEEE Computer Dictionary [4]: A collection of components organized to accomplish a specific function or a set of functions. machines. and methods organized to accomplish a set of specific functions.

Systems. Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions Systems CONSIDERING STUDY OBJECTIVES System according to “Study Objectives” Reference 2 Examples Network Exchange: All links & total traffic One two directional link and two way traffic. “the System” for one study may be a “subset” of “the System” of another study 5 . One directional link with one way traffic Saad Haj Bakry What is meant by “the System” depends on the “objectives” of a particular “study”.

Systems. Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions Systems SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE Open boundary System Environment Using References 1 & 2 Exogenous Endogenous Closed Continuous / Discrete Entity Attribute System Entity Attribute Activity Deterministic / Stochastic Structure Attribute Activity System State: function of time Saad Haj Bakry 6 .

and activities” at any State point in time (relative to Study Objectives) Saad Haj Bakry 7 . Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions Systems BASIC COMPONENTS Entity Attribute Activity An object “component” in the Reference 1 system A property of an entity A process that cause changes in the system Description of system “entities.Systems. System attributes.

Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions Systems BOUNDARIES System Boundary System Environment Endogenous Activities Exogenous Activities Open System Boundary between the system and Reference 1 its environment Changes occurring outside the system are said to occur in the system environment Activities occurring within the system. and affect the system A system with exogenous activities A system with no exogenous activities Saad Haj Bakry Closed System 8 . Activities occurring in the system environment.Systems.

Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions Systems CHANGE: 1/2 System Definition Examples • Digital signals • Integer Variables • Number of people • Analog Signals • Temperature • Speed Instantaneous Discrete changes at Variables separated points Using References 1 & 2 in time Continuous Continuous change with Variables respect to time.Systems. Systems Combination: Predominantly (Discrete / Continuous) Saad Haj Bakry 9 .

Systems. Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions Systems CHANGE: 2/2 System Deterministic Activities Using References 1 & 2 Definition Outcome can be described completely in terms of the input Random: Occurrence / Outcome Examples System monitoring System failures Stochastic Activities System Activities Combination: Predominantly (Deterministic / Stochastic) Saad Haj Bakry 10 .

Systems. Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions Systems EXAMPLES System Using Reference 1 Examples Entities Messages Cars Customers Customers Generators Distribution Wires 11 Attributes Length / Priority Speed Balance Shopping List Power Voltage Activities Send / Receive Driving Withdrawal Payment Rotation Power Supply Saad Haj Bakry E-Mail Traffic Bank Supermarket Power Generation Power Distribution .

Systems. • The system exists • Can be operated under different conditions Advantages Desirable: No study validation is needed Rarely feasible: costly / disruptive 12 Flexibility & Lower Cost: especially with Computers Problems “Validity” problem Saad Haj Bakry . Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions Systems SYSTEM STUDIES: 1/3 Method of Study Use Using References 1 & 2 Experiment with the “actual system” Experiment with a “model” of the actual system • The system does not exist: planning / design • Working with the actual system is not feasible.

Systems. The application of “other systems”. Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions Systems SYSTEM STUDIES: 2/3 System Analysis: ISO Reference 5 Operations Research / Analysis: IBM / ISO Reference 3 “information requirements” and “processes” of the system and how these “relate” to each other and to any A systematic “investigation” of a real or planned system to determine the “scientific methods” to the solution of “complex problems” concerning the optional “allocation” of available “resources”. Saad Haj Bakry 13 .

The “design” of complex “interconnection” of many “elements” (a “system”) to maximize an agreed upon measure of “Optimization” in which adjustable elements are set at values that give the best possible performance.Systems. Saad Haj Bakry 14 . “system performance”. Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions Systems SYSTEM STUDIES: 3/3 Systems Engineering Definition Reference 6 The Two Parts “Modeling” in which each element of the system and the criterion for measuring performance is described.

or other characteristics” of a “real-world process. or idealization” of A “mathematical” or “physical” “representation” of the “system relationships” Saad Haj Bakry 15 . operation. Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions Models DEFINITIONS Models: IEEE Definitions An “approximation. behavior.Systems. concept or system” selected aspects of the representation. Reference 4 Reference 7 “structure.

Systems. Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions Models TYPES OF MODELS Static MODELS Using References 1 & 2 Dynamic Mathematical Models Physical Numerical Methods Models Analytical Methods Algorithms / Simulation Heuristics Saad Haj Bakry 16 .

Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions Models STATIC V. DYNAMIC Static Models Using References 1 & 2 Dynamic Models System representation considers System representation at a “particular time” Time plays no role: “changes over time” System is “time independent” System is “not in balance” “in balance” Saad Haj Bakry 17 .Systems.

Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions Models PHYSICAL V.Systems. MATHEMATICAL Physical Models Using References 1 & 2 Mathematical Models “Attributes” of system “entities” are represented by “variables”. and “activities” are represented by “functions”. mechanical. time Saad Haj Bakry 18 . hydraulic” or other physical representation of the system” A simple model: “moving car” distance = speed . System representation by “physical means” “Electrical.

Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions Models ANALYTICAL V. NUMERICAL Analytical Methods Using References 1 & 2 Numerical Methods Investigating “models” / solving “equations”: using “deductive reasoning” of “mathematical theory” e.Systems.g.: “Simple” models / Models represented by Investigating / solving “models”: using the “computational procedures” “differential equations” “numerical tables” “numerical methods” Saad Haj Bakry Developing / using computed using 19 .

g.Systems. For (near) Optimal Solutions: e. Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions Models ALGORITHMS & HEURISTICS Algorithm Reference 5 Heuristic Reference 5 A “finite ordered set “solving problems” of well defined rules” (sophisticated) in which an for the “solution of a evaluation is made of the progress problem” towards an “acceptable” final “To order” is to place items in an “arrangement” in accordance of result using a series of “approximation” results. for example by a process guided by An “exploratory method” of “trial and error”. genetic algorithms / neural networks Saad Haj Bakry 20 . “specified rules”.

Systems. Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions Simulation SIMULATION: 1/2 Using A “numerical computers computation “to imitate” technique” the “operations” used with of various “mathematical “real world models” systems” Saad Haj Bakry Reference1 Reference 2 21 .

Saad Haj Bakry The use of a “data Simulation = Emulation A “model” that accepts the same “input” and produces the same “output” as a given “system” 22 “behavioral characteristics” . Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions Simulation SIMULATION: 2/2 IEEE Reference 4 ISO Reference 5 A “model” that “behaves” or “operate” like a given “system” when provided by a set of controlled input.Systems. processing system” to represent selected of a physical or abstract “system”.

“Simple systems” can be “manipulated” by “hand calculations”. Simulation Use “digital computers” 23 Reference 2 Saad Haj Bakry ..Systems. “Real time systems” are “too complicated” for this manupulations. An “instantaneous occurrence” that may change the “state of the system”. Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions Simulation DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION Use Characteristics Event Problem For “discrete systems” The “state variables” “change instantaneously” at “separate points in time” driven by “events”.

Started in World War 2 “Simulation studies that use “uniform random numbers” [U(0.1)]”: Restrictive definition.Systems. but of limited use “Any simulation study Use. Saad Haj Bakry . but of wider use. Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions Simulation MONTE CARLO SIMULATION Definition using random numbers”: General definition. Reference 2 24 For the “restrictive definition”: Generally “static simulation”: passage of time plays no substantive role.

Systems. and give values for the change of the “state variables” Saad Haj Bakry 25 . Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions Simulation CONTINUOUS SIMULATION Use Characteristics For “continuous systems” The “state variables” “change continuously” with “time” equations” give the Mathematical “Differential relationships for the Representation “rate of change” Only “simple differential equations” can be “solved” (finding the values of Problem the state variables) analytically Simulation Reference 2 Using “numerical analysis techniques” to “integrate the equations”.

“occur” or to be May cause the “scheduled” relationship governing a “continuous state at a certain variable” to change at a“threshold value”. “particular time” Reference 2 Saad Haj Bakry 26 .Systems. Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions Simulation DISCRETE / CONTINUOUS SIMULATION Discrete Event Continuous State Variable May cause a “discrete May cause a change” in the value of a “discrete event” to “continuous state variable”.

presented and used Saad Haj Bakry 27 . Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions Simulation STEPS OF A SIMULATION STUDY Objectives & Problem Formulation No Model Definition Pilot Runs Model Validatio n No Yes Programmed Model Valid Yes Programming Appropriate level of detail.Systems. Production Runs Analysis of Results Results Design Experiment Results should be documented.

with runs” are needed for “stochastic elements” each “set of conditions”. Reference 2 Saad Haj Bakry 28 . consuming” Studying systems over “a long time scale” (time compression) “Valid analytical Checking the “validity” of models” are preferred “assumptions” for “analytical over simulation.Systems. “Performance evaluations” of systems (existing being planned / “Simulation” is designed) under “different “expensive” and “time conditions / experiments”. Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions Simulation ADVANTAGES / DISADVANTAGES Use for: Problems: Investigation / alternative design One or more “simulation of “real world systems”. models”.

Systems. fast food restaurants. Determining ordering policies for inventory systems. subways. 29 Reference 2 Designing and operating transportation systems: e. Evaluating logistic requirements: e.g. in military systems. ports. Saad Haj Bakry .g.g. call centers. post offices. airports. Analyzing financial or economic systems. Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions Simulation USE OF SIMULATION: 1/2 Management & Services Reengineering of business processes Design of service organizations: e. hospitals. freeways.

and Computer systems. Other applications Saad Haj Bakry Evaluating military weapons systems. Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions Simulation USE OF SIMULATION: 2/2 Design Evaluations & Manufacturing Determining requirements (HW/ SW) for: Information networks (protocols).Systems. 30 . Reference 2 Designing and analyzing manufacturing systems.

Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions SUGGESTED WORK Issue Systems Requirements Define real life systems. How to study systems Define models / investigations / examples. with examples.Systems. Models Simulation Define and analyze simulation Saad Haj Bakry 31 .

Models & Simulation: Basic Definitions REFERENCES Seq. 2000 IBM. TC97. Parker (Editor Title System Simulation Simulation Modeling and Analysis IBM Data Processing Glossary Computer Dictionary Dictionary of Computer Science: The Standardized Vocabulary Encyclopedia of Science & Technology IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms 32 Publication Prentice-Hall. others IEEE Standard 610 ISO / IEC 2382: Information Technology Vocabulary S.SC1. David Kelton IBM / ISO. DP Vocabulary. American Dictionary of IP.Systems.P. 1991 5 6 ISO/AFNOR 1997 McGraw Hill. 1977 IEEE. 1984 7 ANSI / IEEE Std 100-1984 IEEE. 1984 Saad Haj Bakry . 1978 McGraw-Hill. 1 2 3 4 Authors / References Geoffrey Gordon Averill M. Law W.