This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

David C. Dobson January 7, 2003

1

Furthermore. or even just a set of numbers. or essentially any other system whose behaviors can be observed.Mathematical Modeling 2 1 Introduction to modeling Roughly de ned. In this description. Generally speaking. Scientists use mathematics to describe real phenomena. or understand certain real-world systems through mathematical modeling provides a distinct competitive advantage. a geometric or algebraic structure. just as in pure science. a mathematical object could be a system of equations. and so on. 1. To predict or simulate. mathematical models play an increasingly important role in science. The term real-world system could refer to a physical system. a social sytem. but most are related in some way to the following two: To gain understanding. it is clear that an improved ability to simulate. Examples: the stock market. drug e cacy in humans. It should be apparent that much of modern science involves mathematical modeling. semiconductor manufacturing. Very often we wish to know what a realworld system will do in the future. From a business perspective. an algorithm. oil production. extinction of species. in the process of building the model we nd out which factors are most important in the system. Examples include nuclear reactor design. weather prediction. space ight. The old adage mathematics is the language of science" is really true. if we have a mathematical model which accurately re ects some behavior of a real-world system of interest. a nancial system. or impossible to experiment directly with the system. and how di erent parts of the system are related. aircraft design. a stochastic process. As computers become cheaper and powerful and their use becomes more widespread. an ecological system. impractical.1 Why model? What is the motivation behind mathematical modeling? There are of course many speci c reasons. and in fact much of this activity constitutes mathematical modeling. we can often gain improved understanding of that system through analysis of the model. predict. mathematical modeling is the process of constructing mathematical objects whose behaviors or properties correspond in some way to a particular real-world system. as computing power becomes . Furthermore. but it is expensive.

2 The modeling process So modeling is important. di erent people may come up with di erent models for the same system. And it is much more representative of how things are done in the real world" even in mathematical research. exibility. Since everyone has a di erent knowledge base. In modeling on the other hand. How does one do it? Unfortunately. which we are asked to solve completely. it is done. 1. It is very important to understand at the outset that for any real system. This statement can be challenged. but since there is not yet a Theory of Everything". it can be asserted that no existing mathematical model provides a perfectly accurate and complete picture of reality. One is always faced with tradeo s between accuracy. Modeling is sometimes viewed as an art. and a unique way of looking at problems. 1 . there is no perfect" model1. Usually in a mathematics text we nd very precise and explicit problems. cost. but when we nally nish a problem. we are faced with unclearly stated and ambiguous problems which we can never hope to solve completely! It may sound awful but actually it can be a lot of fun.Mathematical Modeling 3 cheaper. There is usually plenty of room for argument about which model is best". at least in the context of the traditional mathematical curriculum. but perfect" is meant here in a strict sense. there is no de nite algorithm" to construct a mathematical model that will work in all situations. modeling becomes an increasingly cost-e ective alternative to direct experimentation. It involves taking whatever knowledge you may have of mathematics and of the system of interest and using that knowledge to create something. Note that this situation is much di erent than what we normally encounter when we solve purely mathematical problems. One may object with possible counterexamples from physics. a preferred bag of tricks. Increasing the accuracy of a model generally increases cost and decreases exibility. We may have to struggle to nd a solution. The goal in creating a model is usually to obtain a su ciently accurate" and exible model at a low cost.

or integral equations. the better. The goal is then to assemble these submodels" to represent the whole system of interest. general knowledge about how it works. A model may consist of algebraic. One of the most useful ways to view modeling is as a process. . geometrical structures. neglecting factors known to in uence the system. This could represent quantitative measurements of the system of interest. In any case we need some information pertaining to the system. The starting point is the bubble in the upper left-hand corner. From that information we proceed to formulate. stochastic processes. or construct. Notice that the gure represents a loop. as illustrated in Figure 1. di erential. and making assumptions which may or may not be correct. real world data. Constructing a model requires: A clear picture of the goal of the modeling exercise. and how accurately do you need to do it? An picture of the key factors involved in the system and how they relate to each other.1. a model.Mathematical Modeling formulation Real world data Model 4 test analysis Predictions or Explanations interpretation Mathematical results Figure 1: Schematic ow of modeling process. Exactly which aspects of the system do you wish to understand or predict. This often requires taking a greatly simpli ed view of the system. The following situations are very common in modeling: Good models already exist for parts of the system. or an iterative process. or both. usually the more information. etc.

but it is usually not feasible to solve the equations in full generality. Obtain data. 3. which has been the foundation of scienti c research for hundreds of years. where the Navier Stokes equations are capable of modeling an extremely wide range of uid ow problems. . Since the model is supposed to somehow represent the real system. Formulate a hypothesis. but it must be done if the results are to be of any use. Develop a method to test hypothesis. The goal is then to simplify or make approximations to the general model which will still re ect the behavior of the particular system of interest. government reports. the loop is iterated again with a revised formulation. In very lucky cases you may even nd software which can be used for your problem. The scienti c method goes something like this: 1. 4. predictions. results could be in the form of statisical information. but for example in the case of stochastic models. but it is very di cult to compute with or analyze the general model. It is often astounding how much information and previous modeling work one can uncover by searching the scienti c literature.Mathematical Modeling 5 Good models already exist for a di erent system. and so on. The description above of the modeling process should remind you of scienti c method. If the observations do not agree su ciently well with predictions from the model. one generally needs to do some analysis or computation to make it produce results. Interpretation of the results should lead to predictions or explanations about the real system. Once a model is constructed. This is not always a trivial step. new results. A general model exists which includes the system of interest as a special case. The results are often approximate solutions to the equations of interest. Situations like this occur often in uid dynamics. it should be possible to interpret results from the model in terms of observable properties of the system. which can then be tested against real observations to determine the effectiveness of the model. The three situations above illustrate the importance of proper background research in modeling. the internet. and so on. which can be translated or modi ed to apply to the system of interest. 2. Make general observations of phenomena. One of the greatest virtues of mathematics is its generality.

the goal may be simply to obtain something which can produce answers close enough" for a particular purpose.Mathematical Modeling 6 5. In this course. . our goal will be to learn by way of direct experience. something about the process of mathematical modeling. where the hypothesis is a mathematical model. Attempt to con rm or deny hypothesis. with the clear understanding that important features of the system may have been neglected. Test hypothesis against data. In nonscienti c applications. 6. mathematical modeling can also be used in situations outside of scienti c research. However as we discussed above. Mathematical models are often used in this context.

- UnitT7-YMS singh
- Som_r_k_bansal
- Orbital Motion
- Theory of Machines
- Mechanisms NewSJ
- shape.pdf
- Ijes Paper
- ICMIE Paper
- QBTdNPhRules
- Unit 2
- IC Engines
- Flight Instruction Manual
- Basic Rc Model Design Parameters
- Balsa Glider Construction
- Question Bank Afm11
- Recent Advances in Building AC
- P2
- xflr
- S Macci Thesis 1992
- Volts and Amps for Dummies
- Vor
- Servomechanism
- Dme
- Lecture9_ModelSim

Math

Math

- Mathmatical Modelling
- Lecture 4 Mathematical Modelling
- Mathematical model
- Impact of ICR (Study Conducted by RIE + Testimonials)
- Articulo 3
- Inspiration
- System Modelling Course
- Guide to Mathematical Modelling
- Mathematical Modelling
- DARPA-BAA-08-65
- Foundation Mathematics
- 12 Rodríguez
- Powerpoint Early Years and Year 1
- Lesson Plan
- Problems
- Mathematical Explanation
- Scrap
- Article
- Women in Mathematics
- MATHEMATICAL COMBINATORICS (INTERNATIONAL BOOK SERIES), Volume 3 / 2014
- vaish
- discrete math
- The Motives behind Cantor’s Set Theory
- Chapter 1
- (1)Formal Systems as a Physical Objects
- A Conversation with Dr. Liping Ma.docx
- Week+8+Math+Project+4+Assignment
- BookNews-Sept2005
- Chapter I
- 3rd Year Course Outline

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd