This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Motivation: Concept, Theories of Maslow, Herzberg, McCelland, Porter & Lawler Model, Application of Motivation concept. Foundations of Group Behavior: Group formation, development and structure, group processes, Group Decision-Making techniques, work teams. Interpersonal Skills: Transactional Analysis, Life Positions, Johari Window. Leadership: Concept, Theories, Styles and their application
HAND BOOK CONTENTS
Chapter 2.1: Motivation
Meaning and Definition of Motivation Types of Motivation Steps in Motivation Theories of Motivation Need/Content Theories of Work Motivation Maslow’s Need Priority Model Herzberg’s Motivation – Maintenance Model/Two Factor Theory Maslow Model vs. Herzberg Model Mc Clelland’s Needs Theory of Motivation Alderfers ERG Theory Process Theories of Work Motivation Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of Motivation Porter-Lawler Model Goal-Setting Theory Equity Theory of Work Motivation Other Theories of Motivation Theory X and Theory Y Theory Z Application of Motivation Concept
Chapter 2.2: Foundation of Group Behavior
Group Meaning and Definition Types of Groups Group Formation Theories of Group Formation Why do People Join Groups? Phases in Group Development Determinants of Group Behavior Group Structure Group Composition Group Decision-Making Group Decision-Making Techniques Work Team Meaning and Definition of Team Team vs. Group Stages of Team Development
Chapter 2.3: Interpersonal Skills
Interpersonal Behavior Concept of Interpersonal Behavior Interpersonal Relationships The Johari Window Transactional Analysis (TA) Life Positions Applications of Transaction Analysis (TA)
Chapter 2.4: Leadership
Meaning and Definition of Leadership Nature of Leadership Importance/ Function of Leadership Components of Leadership Leadership Styles and Their Application Theories/Approaches of Leadership Most Recent Approaches to Leadership
B - 76
Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior)
Meaning and Definition of Motivation
‘Motivation’ is derived from the word ‘motive’. Motive refers to the needs, wants, drives, impulses within individuals. Motivation may be defined as the process of stimulating people to action, to accomplish desired goals. It involves arousing needs and desires in people to initiate and direct their behavior in a purposive manner. According to Likert, “it is the core of management which shows that every human being gives him a sense of worth in face-to-face groups which are most important to him. A supervisor should strive to treat individuals with dignity and recognition of their personal worth.” According to S. P. Robbins, “Motivation is the willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organizational goals, conditioned by the effort and ability to satisfy some individual need.” According to Dalton E. McFarland, “Motivation refers to the way in which urges, drives, desires, aspirations, strivings or needs direct, control or explain the behavior of human beings.” Motivation is a psychological phenomenon, which arises from the feeling of needs and wants of individuals. It causes goal directed behavior. Motivation can be described as the driving force within individuals that impels them to action. This driving force is produced by a state of tension, which exists as the result of an unfulfilled need. Individuals strive—both consciously and subconsciously—to reduce this tension through behavior that they anticipate will fulfill their needs and thus relieve them of the stress they feel. The specific goals they select and the patterns of action they undertake to achieve their goals are the results of individual thinking and learning. Figure below presents a model of the motivational process. It portrays motivation as a state of need induced tension that exerts a “push” on the individual to engage in behavior that he or she expects will gratify a need and thus reduce the tension.
Learning Unfulfilled Needs, wants, and desires Tension Drive Behavior Goal or need fulfillment
Cognitive processes Tension reduction Model of the Motivation Process
Characteristics of Motivation
1) Motivation is a Psychological Phenomenon: The person's activation depends upon the felt needs and expectations. The process of motivation, which is mainly concerned with needs, desires, expectations, confidence, satisfaction, is a psychological phenomenon. The psychology of every individual is different from others and hence it is really difficult to ascertain in practice what devices and incentives will motivate a person towards desired goals.
behavior and goals all are dynamic in nature. Motivation bridges the gap between the ability to work and willingness to work. will be motivated by themselves in the rest of the life time. structure. 5) Goals Lead to Motivation: Goals form a part of the motivational process. one may be highly motivated. 5) Motivation is Influenced by Social and Cultural Norms: Social and cultural values. Thus goal achievement ends the motivation process. 4) Frustrated Individual Fails to be Motivated: Some individuals are frustrated despite of the rewards due to the wide gap between his/her aspirations and rewards. Thus. Motivation is also situational. The nature of motivation is discussed as follows: 1) Motivation is a Continuous Process: As we have studied in economics. motivation is a psychological concept interacting with the total organs of an individual. attitudes. 'Even' God cannot satisfy all human wants. If people are not motivated. the entire individual is motivated. 3) Entire Individual is Motivated: As stated earlier. by using the same reward/incentive vary from person to person. Further. customs and attributes play important role in motivation. Wants are to be satisfied one after another continuously.77 2) Motivation is Dynamic and Situational: The motives. The levels of satisfaction. Thus. but any change in them may have an adverse effect on his motivation. another want preferably of the higher order is created. Nature of Motivation Motivation is mainly concerned with the directing of employees towards organizational objectives and mission. Goal fulfillment leads to reduction of drives and fulfils deficiencies. drives. each individual is an integrated and comprehensive system. those who formulated a positive view about themselves during the childhood. financial and human resources. value judgement remain changing and hence the process of motivation is highly dynamic. new wants emerge when the present wants are satisfied. What drive a person today may not drive him tomorrow. Hence. all the wants cannot be satisfied at the same time. It is said that. His needs. there can be a wide error of judgement. physical facilities and nature of work. reducing the cost of operations and securing overall efficiency. Motivation puts human resources into action. etc. Motivation builds the will to work among employees and enables the management to secure the best possible utilization of all resources. Goal achievement results in the satisfaction of want. 3) Ensures Achievement of Organizational Goals: Management can achieve the goals effectively by motivating subordinates to contribute their best efforts towards the fulfillment of the assigned tasks. motivation is reaction of the organs of the human body to the inducements/incentives offered. Therefore. In a set of organizational climate. 6) Self-Concept as a Unifying Force: Self concept is the life position of a person that he formulates about himself during his childhood. contentment. Further.Motivation (Chapter 2. The entire system of an individual reacts to the motivation. The utilization of physical and financial resources depends on the ability and willingness of people to work. 2) Motivation Improves the Efficiency of Work Performance: Motivation influences the level of performance of employees. recognition and acceptance to a job or organization. 4) Motivation is a Goal Oriented Process: The motives of a person drive him to achieve goal to relieve his tension. no purpose can be served by planning. the individual is motivated to that job or organization. . Thus. And the vice versa is true in case of negative self concept. By meeting individual needs through a satisfactory system or rewards. 2) Motivation is a Psychological Concept: Motivation is concerned with the psychological aspects of the human being. human wants are unlimited. Some of the frustrated persons become mentally ill and these persons cannot be motivated. If society attaches respect. organizing and staffing functions. motivation is also a continuous and an unending process. which depends not only on individual’s abilities but also on his willingness to achieve a high level of performance. the management can secure the cooperation of subordinates towards the accomplishment of organizational goals. Thus. feelings and perceptions of the individuals. it helps in increasing productivity. This is due to variations in aspirations. expectations. In this interpretation. He thinks himself in the same way during his life time until and unless a major change takes place in the rest of the life time. Importance of Motivation The importance of motivation arises from its effects on organizational functions: 1) Motivation Sets in Motion the Action of People: In every organization there are physical.1) B . 3) Motivation is Not Easily Observed Phenomenon: We can observe the actions of a person and then we try to interpret the actions which constitute his behavior in terms of his underlying motives and satisfaction. With the satisfaction of one want.
if they are properly motivated. fear of consequences of doing something or not doing something keeps the worker in the desired direction. One can get the desired work done by installing fear in the minds of people. Since these drives and motives are physically attached to people. weight. Such reward may be financial or non-financial. there is a tendency to resist these changes by the employees. Monetary motivation may include different incentives. 6) Acceptance of Organizational Changes: Organizations are created in the society. Secondary motives are always learned. Types of Motivation Motivation may be classified on various bases: 1) Positive Versus Negative Motivation People are said to be motivated positively when they are shown a reward and the way to achieve it. etc. They are competence motives. Organization has to incorporate those changes to cope up with the requirement of the time. Primary motivations are unlearned and natural. Primary motivation may be of general types which are naturally felt by the individual. they accept. The skill and experience of employees continue to be available to the advantage of the organization as well as the employees. The organization thereby builds a better image and is able to attract qualified and competent people. Usually such goals are selected purely on personal or subjective criteria such as desire for recognition of status. Fear creates frustration. pride. 3) Primary Motivation vs. etc. As human beings develop and learn many new ways of satisfaction and comfort. Secondary motives are learned and realized as a result of development. which prevail in a cultured and educated society? Secondary motives do not remain secondary in a developed organization. Satisfaction here means the fulfillment of basic human needs. secondary motives crop up. So the use of it should be kept to its minimum. Traditionally the term rationality is associated with persons who carefully weigh the pros & cons of all the alternatives and then choose the one that gives them the greatest utility. social recognition. This results in maintaining a stable work force. hunger. and the word primary does not mean that these motives take precedence over other motives. value system. 5) Motivation Leads to the Stability in the Work Force: Motivation creates confidence in the subordinates and secures their loyalty to the organization. introduce. They become prime movers of developed people. etc. Industrial disputes are reduced and there is high morale. Motivated employees support all changes that are in the organizational interest as they identify their own advancement with the prosperity of the enterprise. etc. etc. Many authors have emphasized the separation of secondary motivation from primary motivation to retain the identity of each.B . wage plans. Positive motivation can be referred as ‘Anjaneya type of motivation’ in Ramayana. Secondary motivation is learned whereas primary drives are unlearned and are as natural as feelings of thirst. Primary motivations are basically related to human needs for psychological satisfaction. In the marketing context we can say that consumers who are ‘rational’ will select the goals after ascertaining various objective criteria such as size. Positive motivation involves identifying employee potentialities and makes him realize the possible result by achieving his potentialities. curiosity and affection. productive bonus schemes. Hence.78 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) 4) Motivation Creates Friendly and Supportive Relationships: Motivation brings about employee satisfaction through monetary rewards. fear. participation in management. rather they become essential for moving the activities of educated people. Non-monetary motivation may include praise for the work. which are selected on the basis of emotion’s involvement. The rate of absenteeism and turnover is reduced. etc. although they exist in them and motivate them indirectly. 2) Rational Versus Emotional Motivation Consumer behaviorists have also made a distinction between ‘rational motives’ and ‘emotional (or non-rational) motives’. affiliation motivation and power motivation. Because of changes in the society – changes in technology. Secondary Motivation Many motivation drives and motives are unknown to the individual. a hostile state of mind and an unfavorable attitude towards the job which hinders efficiency and productivity. . love. price. Monetary incentives provide the worker a better standard of life while nonmonetary incentives satisfy the ego of a man. they are known as primary motivations. However. it leads to cordial and friendly relationship between the employer and the employees. recognition of efficient work and promotional opportunities. esteem. As against this emotional motive are those goals. and implement these changes keeping the organization on the right track of progress. because it is natural to feel these needs. relating to physiological needs. Positive motivation seeks to create an optimistic atmosphere in the enterprise. When these changes are introduced in the organization. In this method of motivation. They are biological. They are achievement motivation. Effective motivation helps management to overcome resistance to change. This method has got several limitations. These primary motivational drives use manipulation and activity to achieve satisfaction.
strength of aspirations and living trends. The examples of pecuniary benefits are wages. Needs are also influenced by the social environment. sex. but they exist in different intensity. bonus. sense of responsibility. i. self-assertion and so on. Actually. They do not add to the money income of those who receive them. and ii) Non-financial incentives. Need Arousal/Arousal of Motives Most of an individual’s specific needs are dormant much of the time. salaries. other may require rice for the same purpose. a large variety of incentives are used to motivate the people. In this category may fall all other motives. which cannot be classified as physiological or socio-psychological. sleep. the pecuniary incentives in the organization. sense of duty. ego. agreement between the employers of management. praise. opportunity for growth. These incentives may be broadly grouped into: i) Financial or pecuniary incentives. 1) Physiological Arousal: Bodily needs at any one specific moment in time are rooted in an individual’s physiological condition at that moment. clothing and shelter. They have a direct effect on the have an indirect influence on the organization and the members. Instances are belongingness. etc. fringe benefits offered by wages of employees and behavioral orientation competitors. Financial incentives are determined by reference Non-financial incentives based are on the to several factors such as job evaluation. which rouses or stimulates one to action in a desired direction. emotional or cognitive processes. The arousal of any particular set of needs at a specific point in time may be caused by internal stimuli found in the individual’s physiological condition. like competence. career advancement. On the other hand. self-esteem.79 4) Financial and Non-Financial Motivation/Incentives The term ‘incentive’ means an inducement. Secretion of sex hormones will awaken the sex need. these are the needs which complicate the efforts of managers because the secondary needs vary among people much more than the primary physiological or basic needs. Some of the physiological needs are food. non-pecuniary incentives do not involve much financial commitments on the part of the organization. A drop in blood sugar level or stomach contractions will trigger awareness of a hunger need. Difference between Financial and Non-Financial Incentives Financial Incentives Non-Financial Incentives Financial or monetary incentives are meant to Non-financial incentives are meant for the satisfy those needs which money can buy. . They are also used to supplement and support employees. clothing. allowances. manipulation. 2) Socio-Psychological or Secondary Needs: Secondary needs are related to mind and spirit rather than to the physiology of life. autonomy etc. Financial incentives are generally used to Non-financial incentives are used to motivate motivate workers and other non-managerial managerial and other higher-level personnel. which cannot be need for food. cost of nature of jobs.e. satisfied by money. They are virtually universal among people. fringe benefits. For example. They take the form of job enrichment.. The satisfaction of those needs. air to breathe. An incentive has a motivational power. visible and Non-financial incentives are intangible and they measurable. In modern organizations. Financial incentives are tangible.1) B . organization and the members. or by stimuli in the outside environment. The motives in this category are unlearned but not physiologically based. One man may require wheat to satisfy his hunger. 1) Basic Objective 2) Tangibility 3) Determination 4) Hierarchical Level Need/Motives Human needs may be classified as: 1) Basic Physiological or Primary Needs: These needs arise out of the basic physiology of life and are important for the survival of a man. etc. and the employees. Many of these needs develop as one matures. and shelter can be fully satisfied by money. etc. participative management. status. The financial or pecuniary incentives are monetary in natures as they involve flow of money from the organization to its staff. recognition. curiosity and love or affection. 3) General Needs: This is an intermediate category of motives between the physiological and the sociopsychological.Motivation (Chapter 2. it influences the decisions of individuals on putting in efforts towards tasks performance. water.
3) Personal Norms and Values: An individual’s own personal norms and values possibly religious or ethical can also affect the selection of the goal to achieve a particular need. 6) Self Image: A person’s own perception of himself or herself also affects the selection of specific goals. An advertisement that provides reminders of home might trigger instant desire to speak with one’s parents. physical capacity. For example. modification of the environment may be necessary to reduce the arousal of hunger. Interdependence of Needs and Goals Needs and goals are interdependent. That is. 5) Accessibility of Goal: At times selection of a goal is made on the basis of accessibility. fast-food commercials on television. 1) Personal Experience: If the individual’s past experience has been satisfactory when a particular goal was used to satisfy a need. it is more likely that it (goal) be selected again. Generic Any drink …. Any cold drink … Specific Any carbonated …. Goals may be generic or specific.Any ……… ‘Ganga’ Cold drink Carbonates of mineral mineral water water Goals on a Continuum of Generic . the 6 o’clock news. . neither exists without the other. 3) Cognitive Arousal: Sometimes. If you are thirsty you may opt for any liquid or you may want a specific brand of drink. random thoughts or personal achievement can lead to a cognitive awareness of needs. the end of the school day— all of these may arouse the “need” for food. This is the basis for many long distance telephone company campaigns that stress the low cost of international long-distance rates. Without these cues. People who are bored or frustrated in attempts to achieve their goals often engage in day-dreaming (autistic thinking). Free consumption of hard drinks (liqor) openly is against our cultural norms. people are often not as aware of their needs as they are of their goals. Thus consumers are not seen consuming liquor openly as it is not the ‘done thing’ in our culture. 4) Physical Capacity: At times some goals are unachievable due to personal limitations. prevailing cultural norms and values. the sight or smell of bakery goods. the needs might remain dormant.B .80 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) 2) Emotional Arousal: Sometimes day-dreaming results in the arousal or stimulation of latent needs. in which they imagine themselves in all sort of desirable situations. In such cases. 2) Social and Cultural Norms and Values: Social and cultural environment does affect behavior. which closely reflect or are similar with the person’s own self-image. Each person is likely to select or purchase products. 4) Environmental Arousal: The set of needs activated at a particular time are often determined by specific cues in the environment. they are the end points of motivation behavior. The goals selected by individuals depend upon their personal experiences. and the goal’s accessibility in the physical and social environment. Suppose a person is very found of consuming tea but has got an acidity problem then he or she will have to go for an alternative goal. there are many different and appropriate goals.Specific Selection of Goals For any given need. In the following table are presented few examples of all the four stimuli types: Type of Stimulus Physiological Cognitive Emotional Exterior or environmental Mechanism Fall in the blood sugar level Remembering daughter who is staying far away Seeing an ad which reminds you to wish a friend on her wedding anniversary Elderly couple staying alone have a fear of being burgled Finding a dream house to match your budget and convey your prestige and status Need Aroused Hunger (primary) Affection Social Security Success/Prestige Goals Goals are known as the sought after result of motivated behavior. However.
The type of behavior may not be uniform but some common forms of behavior may be presented in figure below. projection. However. However.81 For example. Most people know when they are hungry or thirsty or cold. subconsciously engage in behavior that satisfies these psychological (acquired) needs. putting more force for need satisfaction. for self-esteem. that is. for status. any of the actions mentioned in figure above. They may. This tension is released when this particular need is satisfied by certain behavior again in the environment.1) B . withdrawal. he will try to bring him back by alternative behavior. and fixation. a teenager may not consciously be aware of his social needs but may join a photography club to meet new friends. Thus this process is a continuing one. anxiety. A local politician may not consciously be aware of a power need but may regularly run for public office. However. and they take appropriate steps to satisfy these needs. Since frustration is not an ideal position for the person. the person will try to modify his behavior to eliminate factors responsible for non-fulfillment of his needs. The same people may not consciously be aware of their needs for acceptance. incentives exist to satisfy the needs. for example. Types of Defense Mechanism There can be three types of defense mechanisms – aggression. There are many forms of aggression. rationalization. so that the individual can protect his self-concept. Motivation and Behavior Motivation causes goal-directed behavior. repression and flight. There may be many forms of withdrawal – fantasy. however. regression. This can be expressed in the figure below : Motives (needs) Tension Wants Tension Behavior (release of tension) Environments Incentives Needs Cause Behavior A need. either physically or psychologically. creates tension in mind and transforms itself into want depending upon environment.Motivation (Chapter 2. Need (Deprivation) Drive (Deprivation with direction) Barriers Frustration Goal (Reduction of drive) Defence Mechanism 1) Aggression 2) Withdrawal 3) Compromise Model of Frustration Defense Mechanism Frustration may lead to any of the defense mechanism used by the human organism. more common being displacement. Feeling of a need by a person causes him to behave in such a way that he tries to satisfy himself so that he does not feel the lack of that particular thing. negativism. 2) Withdrawal: Another way of overcoming frustration is to withdraw from the scene causing frustration. the feeling that something is required. satisfaction of one need leads to feeling of another either of different need or the same need after lapse of certain time. and compromise. 3) Compromise: When the frustration cannot be reduced by aggression or withdrawal the individual tries to compromise with the situation – a relatively satisfactory adjustment. and reaction formation. there may be numerous such factors and many of them may be beyond his control. As such he is not able to remove the frustration through need satisfaction. An employee being denied a promotion may become aggressive and verbally berate his superior. that is. Individuals are usually somewhat more aware of their physiological needs than they are of their psychological needs. . Behavior ends the moment tension is released. if the need is not satisfied because of some reasons the person may feel frustration which can be defined here as the accumulation of tension because of non-fulfillment of needs. 1) Aggression: A more common reaction to frustration is aggression – an act against someone or something. Thus defense mechanism is the way of action for overcoming frustration because of non-fulfillment of needs. that is. or conflict. At this stage. Forms of compromise may be identification.
strategies and tactics for motivating employees as a result. and 3) Needs have hierarchy of importance. The content theorists are concerned with identifying the needs/drives that people have and how these needs/drives are prioritized. the types of motivation required for different types of personnel. They are concerned with the types of incentives or goals that people strive to attain in order to be satisfied and perform well. Maslow’s Need Priority Model There are two types of needs—Basic and Secondary or acquired. Thus the management has to enlist such motivational tools with a view to make them available when needed. 4) Feedback: Having applied the motivators. We know various needs are felt by a man but do not know about their preferential order. The place. A. H. 2) Preparing a Set of Motivating Tools: There are so many tools of motivation. . the same way every individual needs a motivation tool that befits him. For discussion purposes. But they vary from individual to individual. it is useful to divide classify motivational theories into three general categories: Content theories. time and the purpose of selecting and providing motivation are of ultimate importance. Therefore. they do not necessarily predict work motivation or behavior. Every manager has to consider where and when motivation is to be provided.or present-time oriented.82 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) Steps in Motivation Motivation is a continuous process. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION There is no shortage of models. it is important to find out how effective had a particular motivation been. firms constantly experiment with new motivational programmes and practices. The content theories are referred to as “static” because they incorporate only one or a few points in time and are either past. Basic needs are important for survival whereas acquired needs are not so important. Theories of Motivation Content Theories Maslow’s Need. Process theories and Other theories. Maslow solved this problem and presented a theory on priority order of needs. This step involves ascertaining or determining the motivational needs of individuals. 3) Selection and Application of Appropriate Motivation: The manager has to select. Different nuts can be tightened by proper spanner. Priority Model Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory McClelland’s Need Theory Aldefer’s ERG Theory Process Theories Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Porter-Lawler Theory Goal Setting Theory Equity Theory Others Theories Theory X and Theory Y Theory Z Need/Content Theories of Work Motivation The content theories of work motivation attempt to determine what it is that motivates people at work. All employees need motivation but of various kinds and in varying degrees. 2) A satisfied need is no longer a motivator. Some important prepositions of Maslow’s need priority model are as under: 1) Man is wanting animal. He has to take decision to apply the same after selection. but they are still important to understanding what motivates people at work.B . according to Jucius the following steps are being adopted in motivation process: Sizing up Preparing a set of motivating tools Feedback Selection and application of appropriate motivation 1) Sizing up Situations Requiring Motivation: Every individual has motivational needs.
provision for old age.83 Need Hierarchy: Maslow has presented the hierarchy of needs in the following order: 1) Basic Physiological Needs: The needs that are taken as the starting point for motivation theory are the so-called physiological needs. companionship. as these needs are fulfilled. Maslow has further classified the needs as lower order needs and higher order needs. After his other needs are fulfilled. etc. status. needs lower on the hierarchy−physiological or safety needs−are likely to command the most attention. Non. competence. 2) Safety and Security Needs: After satisfying the physiological needs. water air. such as gaining the acceptance and respect of co-workers. vi) Maslow suggests that various levels are interdependent and overlapping. the next level of need will emerge as the depressed needs seeking to be satisfied. v) The physiological and security needs are finite but the needs of higher order are infinite and are likely to be dominant in persons at higher levels in the organization. clothing shelter. They want job security. social and political power. status and other marks of respect because of some position in the organization or control over economic. It involves realizing one’s potentialities for continued self-development and for being Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory creative in the broadest sense of the work. exchange of feelings and grievances. shelter) person considers to be his mission in life. 3) Social Needs: Man is social being. friendship. the employee's attention will turn to the fulfillment of higher-order needs. These needs include such things as food. 4) Esteem Needs or Ego Needs: Egoistic needs can take inward and outward orientations. it is beneficial to him in particular and to the society in general. ii) All these needs are arranged in a hierarchy. belonging) Safety and Security Needs (Protection. Evaluation of Maslow’s Need Priority Model Maslow’s theory represents a significant departure from economic theories of motivation. belongingness. stability) 5) Self-Actualization Needs: The final step under the need priority mode is the need for Basic Physiological Needs self-fulfillment or the need to fulfill what a (Food. a man has the desire for personal achievement. achievement. insurance against risks. people want the assurance of maintaining a given economic level. knowledge and success.Motivation (Chapter 2. As a result the theory has an important impact in the following ways: 1) The theory presents an entire array of non-economic worker needs.1) B . When a new employee first starts on the job. Self Actualization (Self Fulfillment) Esteem Needs or Ego Needs (Prestige. sex. etc. independence. These needs relate to the survival and maintenance of human life. recognition. Each higher level emerging before the lower level need has been completely satisfied.satisfaction of this level of needs may affect the mental health of the individual. iv) Once one level of need is satisfied. He wants to do something which is challenging and since this challenge gives him enough dash and initiative to work. Once a need or a certain order of need is satisfied it ceases to be a motivating factor. . self respect) Social Needs (Affection. They have to be earned by the individual himself through his intelligence and hardwork. interested in conversation. therefore. They lead to ‘earned recognition’ by the society. 2) Maslow’s hierarchy provides an important explanation for the changing motivations of workers overtime. Maslow suggested the following points: i) There are five levels of needs. managers have alternative sources of employee motivation to consider. Later. First two needs in the hierarchical order are lower needs and rests three are higher order needs. order. air water and other necessaries of life. The sense of achievement gives him psychological satisfaction. He is. sociability. Even though a need is satisfied it will influence behavior because of interdependent and overlapping characteristic of needs. Outwardly directed ego needs are concerned with prestige. iii) A satisfied need is no longer a need. security of source of income. If an employee does not respond to economic incentives. Inward directed ego needs embrace such things as self-confidence.
The absence of these factors leads to job dissatisfaction. 1) It is said that Maslow’s theory is not a theory of work motivation. it would not necessarily identify” “high pay” as a cause of satisfaction. if a person indicated “low pay as a cause of dissatisfaction. good and creative being. Responsibility. Man is never satisfied. One of the basic tenets of existential philosophy is that a man is a healthy. The philosophy prompted Maslow to conceptualize self-actualization needs. These factors have a positive influence on morale. The implication is that the desired behavior is most likely to occur if it results in the satisfaction of an employee's prepotent need. 6) Maslow’s approach to human behavior marks a total departure from earlier approaches. 5) The need hierarchy model is dynamic in that it presents motivation as a constantly changing force. because they are less well satisfied than self-actualization. 3) Assuming hierarchy does exist among needs. job Security. cannot afford to forget his food. however. These and other variations imply that Maslow’s hierarchy may be better reflection of the culture of its birth than a guide to motivation in other cultures. Japanese managers. Despite this lack of intent on Maslow’s part. himself did not intend that his need hierarchy be directly applied to work motivation. Status. would seem to have hierarchy that places social and security needs higher. capable of carving out his own destiny. They simply prevent dissatisfaction and maintain status quo. Maslow’s approach is based on existential philosophy. They produce no growth but prevent loss. Relationship with supervisor. The factors so identified where classified by him into two categories: 1) Motivational Factors: These factors are related to the nature of work (job content) and are intrinsic to the job itself. The need hierarchy theory has been criticized by many and the number of critics exceeds the number who supports the theory. The elimination of dissatisfaction does not mean satisfaction and these factors simply maintain a “zero level of motivation”. He did not delve into the motivating aspects of humans in organizations until about 20 years after he originally proposed his theory. Salary. Absence of job satisfaction does not mean in job dissatisfaction but it is no job satisfaction. for example. recognize that they may be different across employees. Some of these factors are Company Policies and administration. it may not be the same in all countries. efficiency and higher productivity. Researchers concluded that factors responsible for job satisfaction are different from factors that led to dissatisfaction. Relationship with subordinates. Work itself.84 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) 3) It is said that the theory offers some useful ideas for helping managers think about motivating their employees. Work conditions. For example. the individual will typically redirect his efforts and capacities towards the attainment of still higher level needs. Instead of resting on his laurels when one goal is reached or a need is satisfied. in his widely read book “The Human Side of Enterprise”. As a result of their widespread familiarity with the model. Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are not opposite to each others. Recognition. This has an important implication for the manager.B . In fact. popularized Maslow's theory in management literature. and Possibility of Growth. Maslow’s hierarchy applies to American and British managers. satisfaction. expressing itself through the constant striving for fulfillment of new and higher levels of needs. others. At all levels needs are present at given time. Maslow. For this purpose. . Some of these factors are Achievement. Rewards or incentives therefore will be effective when they are linked to the prepotent level. such as Douglas McGregor. Herzberg’s Motivation – Maintenance Model/Two Factor Theory Herzberg in the late fifties developed a motivation theory known as motivation hygiene theory or two-factor theory of motivation. he conducted a study and interviewed some 200 engineers and accountants and asked them to think of a time when they felt good at their jobs and a time when they felt bad at their job and then to describe condition which led to such feelings. the managers are more likely to identify employee needs. Called humanistic psychology. offer satisfaction for the particular needs and realize that giving more of the same reward may have a diminishing impact on motivation. An individual motivated by self-actualization needs. 2) The hierarchy of needs simply does not exist. Relationship with peers. Advancement. 4) It accounts for both interpersonal and intrapersonal variations in human behavior. Northern European managers would seem to have a hierarchy that reverses Maslow’s positioning of safety and love. Personal life. 2) Hygiene Factors / Maintenance Factors: Hygiene factors do not motivate people.
they still must satisfy the lower level needs for the maintenance of their current state. we can say that money might still be a motivator for operative employees and for some managerial employees. If hygiene factors are present. such needs of the employees are fulfilled and hence cease to be motivators. A close examination of Herzberg’s model indicates that what it actually says is that some employees may have achieved a level of social and economic progress in the society and for them higher level needs of Maslow (esteem and self-actualization) are the primary motivators. they act as dissatisfiers. They can be used interchangeably in different situation.85 Herzberg’s Classification of Maintenance and Motivational Factors Maintenance Factors or Dissatisfiers or Hygiene Factors 1) Job context 2) Extrinsic factor 3) Company policy and administration 4) Quality of supervision 5) Relations with supervisors 6) Work conditions 7) Salary 8) Peer relations 9) Personal life 10) Relations with subordinates 11) Status 12) Job security Motivational Factors or Satisfiers 1) Job content 2) Intrinsic factors 3) Achievement 4) Recognition 5) Work Itself 6) Responsibility 7) Advancement 8) Possibility of growth Hygiene Factors Dissatisfaction No Dissatisfaction (if absent) (if present) Motivating Factors Satisfaction or Motivation No Satisfaction or No Motivation (if present) (if absent) Role of Hygiene and Motivational Factors Herzberg noted that the two sets of factors are one-dimensional as their effect can be seen in one direction only. which are important motivators. and points out that the motivational factors are often derived from the job itself.1) B . Thus. Comparison of Herzberg and Maslow Models In fact. status. And if motivators are absent. 4) The difference between motivational and maintenance factors is not clear.Motivation (Chapter 2. the individual will get no satisfaction. 5) The theory is based on small sample. etc. there is a great similarity between Herzberg’s and Maslow’s models. 3) The model does not give sufficient emphasis to the motivating qualities of pay. namely. satisfaction and dissatisfaction are independent rather than opposite ends of the same continuum as was traditionally believed. they act as maintenance factors and if they are absent. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. Motivational Factors Self-fulfillment Esteem Social Safety Physiological Maintenance Factors Relationship between Maslow’s and Herzberg’s Models . motivational and maintenance. 2) The procedure used by Herzberg is limited by its methodology. But if motivators are present. Thus. Most of the maintenance factors come under comparatively lower order needs. Criticism of Herzberg Theory 1) Job satisfiers and dissatisfies where recognize at two different qualitative factors where as these two are opposite factors. they provide satisfaction or motivation to the individual. However. In economically advanced countries. Herzberg’s model adds to the Maslow’s need hierarchy model because it draws a distinction between the two groups of factors.
Lower order needs only act as maintenance or hygienic factors Takes a micro-view and deals with work-oriented motivational problems of higher-level professional employees Motivations-hygiene theory is based on the study of empirical data collected from professional accountants and engineers 5) Applicability 6) Empirical Data Mc Clelland’s Needs Theory of Motivation Another well-known content theory is the learned needs theory developed by McClelland. The needs that people may learn are the need for achievement (n Ach) the need for power (n Pow) and the need for affiliation (n Aff). 4) The various needs do not motivate workers. 1) Need of Achievement (n Ach): McClelland defined (n Ach) as “behavior toward competition with a standard of excellence”. safety and social needs as a hygiene factor while recognition is classified with esteem as a motivator. it can motivate the people by imparting training improving its selection and placement procedure. This position may be gained through family ties or social pressures and so this may not be a reflection of personal achievement or earned recognition. the esteem needs are divided because there are some distinct differences between status per se and recognition.B . Recognition is gained through competence and achievement. and iii) A sincere interest in the feelings of others. ii) A concern for maintaining leader follower relations. and to be responsible for them. these needs may be regarded as personal predispositions that affect the way people perceive work (and other) situations and that influence their pursuit of certain goals. 3) Achievement motivation training is time consuming. Once learned. The model had the following limitations: 1) High achievement seekers expect similar results from others and cannot be effective managers. particularly in early life. ii) A tendency to set moderately difficult achievement goals and to take calculated risks. iii) A strong desire for concrete performance feedback on tasks and iv) A single-minded preoccupation with task accomplishment. 3) Need for Affiliation (n Aff): The need for affiliation is defined as an “attraction to another organism in order to feel reassured from the other that the self is acceptable”. That is why. to influence the behavior of others. It may further be noted that a part of esteem need comes under maintenance factors and another. 2) Need for Power (n Pow): The (n Pow) is defined as the need to control the environment. If the management can identify the need.86 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) As shown in figure above. Status tends to be a function of the position one occupies. Maslow Model vs. McClelland contends that individuals with a high (n Pow) may be characterized by: i) A desire to direct and control someone else. It is earned and granted by others. Maslow’s Physiological. ii) A tendency to conform to the wishes and norms of others when pressured by people whose leadership they value. McClelland identified three characteristics of individuals with a high need for affiliation: i) A strong desire for approval and reassurance from others. security and social needs come under Herzberg’s maintenance factors whereas self-fulfillment under motivating factors. Criticism of Mc Clelland’s Needs Theory This theory has significant implication for managers. status is classified with physiological. Herzberg Model Basis 1) Hierarchy of Needs 2) Nature 3) Central Theme 4) Motivational Factor Maslow Sequential arrangement of needs Descriptive Unsatisfied needs energize behavior and cause performance Any need can be a motivator if it is relatively unsatisfied Takes a general view of the motivational problems of all workers Need hierarchy theory is based on intuition and not on any empirical study Herzberg No hierarchical arrangement of needs Prescriptive Gratified needs cause performance Only higher order needs serve as motivators. 2) The use of protective techniques is objectionable. He contends that individuals acquire certain needs from the culture of a society by learning from the events that they experience. He and his associates defined four characteristics of individuals with a high need for achievement: i) A strong desire to assume personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems or performing a task. Under motivational factors. Individuals with a high (n Aff) desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relationships with others. .
In extending Maslow's theory. the ERG model proposed that more than one need may be operative in a given individual at any point in time. Process Theories of Work Motivation The content models attempt to identify what motivates people at work (for example. The process theories. Satisfied through using capabilities in engaging problems. creates a greater sense of wholeness and fullness as human being. Involve relationships with significant others. Variables such as education. and influence are the elements. and especially important.87 Alderfers ERG Theory The most popular extension and refinement of Maslow's theory of needs is the one proposed by Alderfer (1972). 3) Growth: These are needs associated with the development of the human potential. a frustration-regression sequence also exists. The individuals would then be predicted to engage in behavior which would lead to the attainment of outcomes. Alderfer’s model agrees with Maslow’s in positing that individuals tend to move from existence. Alderfer argued that the need categories could be grouped into three more general classes: 1) Existence: These are needs related to human existence and are comparable to Maslow's physiological needs and certain of his safety needs. with the way they relate to one another. the ERG model predicts that if an individual is continually frustrated in his or her attempts to satisfy growth needs. Relatedness needs are similar to Maslow's belongingness needs and certain of his safety and esteem/ego needs. Properties When divided among people one person’s gain is another’s loss if resources are limited. 2) Relatedness: These are needs that involve interpersonal relationships in the work place. The theory does not offer clear cut guidelines. natives of Spain and Japan place social needs before their psychological requirements. In order to predict what behavior any given person will be motivated to engage in would require an assessment of that person to determine which of the three needs were most salient and most important to that person. for instance. 2) Although there is some evidence to counter the theory's predictive value. most contemporary analysis of work motivation tends to support Alderfer's theory over Maslow's and Herzberg's.1) B . While Maslow's model was not developed specifically for work organizations. with the capacity of fulfilling these salient needs. represents a more valid version of the need hierarchy. However. The evidence demonstrates that people in other cultures rank the need categories differently. therefore. Alderfer’s Hierarchy of Motivational Needs (ERG) Level of Need 1) Existence 2) Relatedness Definition Includes all of the various forms of material and psychological desires. the ERG theory seems to take some of the strong points of the earlier content theories. 3) Growth Evaluation of ERG Theory ERG theory has an important impact in two ways: 1) The ERG theory is more consistent with our knowledge of individual differences among people. but is less restrictive and limiting. Included in this category are needs corresponding to Maslow's self-esteem and self-actualization needs. Alderfer's theory attempted to establish a conceptualization of human needs that are relevant to organizational settings. Satisfied by mutually sharing thoughts and feelings. ERG theory differs from the needs hierarchy model in two important respects. allowing for more flexibility in describing human behavior. This would be consistent with the ERG theory. Impel a person to make creative or productive effects on himself and his environment. and growth). responsibility. family background and cultural environment can alter the importance or driving force that a group of needs holds for a particular individual. in contrast to the needs hierarchy theory. they try to specify correlates of motivated behavior. The ERG theory implies that individuals will be motivated to engage in behavior which will satisfy one of the three sets of needs postulated by the theory. on the other hand. the ERG model does not hold that one level of needs must be satisfied before needs in the next level can emerge to motivate behavior. Instead. Overall. Second. For example. more important. understanding. . through relatedness. to growth needs as needs in each category are satisfied. are more concerned with the cognitive antecedents that go into motivation or effort and. The ERG model appears to be less rigid than the needs hierarchy theory. confirmation. The ERG theory. in addition to the satisfaction-progression process described by Maslow. then relatedness needs will be reactivated and become the primary drivers of behavior. self-actualization.Motivation (Chapter 2. acceptance. First. Alderfer contends that.
He may not be willing to work hard to improve performance if the reward for such improved performance is not what he desires. Hence motivation is related to all these three factors as: Motivational Force (M) = Expectancy (E) × Instrumentality (I) × Valence (V) or M = (E x I x V) As the relationship suggests. For example. if a student works hard during the semester. The expectancy model is based upon the belief that motivation is determined by the nature of the reward people expect to get as a result of their job performance. If a person believes that his high performance will not be recognized or lead to expected and desired rewards. Accordingly. a worker works hard and is absolutely certain (expectancy = 1.88 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of Motivation Vroom has proposed a new theory of motivation according to which people are motivated to achieve certain goals. According to this model of motivation.6) that he can produce a high of 20 units per day. It is not the actual value of the reward but the perceptual value of the reward in the mind of the worker that is important. There is some probability attached to this outcome. Similarly. 2) Instrumentality: This factor relates to a person's belief and expectation that his performance will lead to a particular desired reward. which they expect from their actions. a person's level of effort (motivation) depends upon: Expectancy: A worker must be confident that his efforts will result in better productivity and that he has the ability to perform the task well. instrumentality is the performance-reward relationship.0) that he can produce an average of 15 units a day and 60% certain (expectancy = 0. instrumentality or valence approaches the value of zero. a professor may work hard to improve upon his techniques of teaching and communication (first level outcome) in order to get promotion and tenure (second level outcome).B . Another person may be more interested in job security than status. It is not 100% definite that he will indeed do well in the examination. He will choose an alternative that would give him the most benefit. he will expect to do well in the final examination. instrumentality and valence are all high and the motivational value is greatly reduced when any one or more of expectancy. This likelihood is probabilistic in nature and describes the relationship between an act and its outcome. and it may result in a reward such as salary increase or promotion or both—which is the second level outcome. The underlying assumption is that a man is a rational being and will try to maximize his perceived value of such rewards. These are: 1) Expectancy: This is a person's perception of the likelihood that a particular outcome will result from a particular behavior or action. 3) Valence: Valence is the value a person assigns to his desired reward. he may expect to perform better and increase productivity. For example. The Vroom model can be graphically depicted as follows: Expectancy Second level outcome Instrumentality First level Reward 1 outcome Outcome 1 Reward 2 Motivational force Reward 3 Reward 1 Outcome 2 Reward 2 Reward 3 . Elements of Expectancy Theory There are three important elements in the model. For example. People are highly motivated if they believe that a certain type of behavior will lead to a certain type of outcome and their extent of personal preference for that type of outcome. he will not be motivated to work hard for better output. This expectation of outcome is known as “first level” outcome. Valence: The worker must value these rewards as desired and satisfactory. if a person works hard. A person may be motivated to work hard not to get a pay raise but to get recognition and status. working hard may lead to better performance—which is the first level outcome. It is the degree of association of first level outcome of a particular effort to the second level outcome—that is the ultimate reward. Similarly. Instrumentality: The worker must be confident that such high performance will be instrumental in getting desired rewards. the motivational force will be the highest when expectancy.
the need to be formally appreciated may be a more valuable reward for others for similar task oriented activities. the management must investigate the desirability of the rewards that are given on the basis of performance.e. goes a step ahead and postulates that effort does not necessarily lead to performance and satisfaction. 2) Individuals are assumed to be rational human beings who make conscious decisions about their behavior in the organizations. While monetary benefits may be more desirable for some workers. if a worker exhibits a poorly motivated behavior.Motivation (Chapter 2. fair and equitable manner. Porter-Lawler Model Vroom has suggested what leads to effort. individuals decide between alternate behaviors and such decided behavior will lead to a desired outcome. desires and goals. Accordingly. Assumption of Porter and Lawler Model This model is based on four basic assumptions about human behavior: 1) It is a multi-variate model. The Porter Lawler model however. 2) The theory is difficult to apply. According to this model. 4) On the basis of their expectations. 2) Low Performance-Reward Instrumentality Relationship: The worker may believe that similar performance does not lead to similar rewards. Vroom's model tries to explain as to what factors affect a person’s choice of a particular course of action among all available alternatives and why a person would be better motivated towards achievement of certain goals as compared to some other goals. Elements of Porter and Lawler Expectancy Model The model can be diagrammatically explained as under: Perceived equitable rewards Intrinsic rewards Satisfaction Extrinsic rewards Perceived effort-reward probability Role perceptions Value of reward Ability and traits Performance Accomplishment Effort . which is an amalgam of effort leading to performance interacting with rewards.89 The management must recognize and determine the situation as it exists and take steps to improve upon these three factors of expectancy. Criticism of Expectancy Theory 1) The theory is not empirically tested. i. instrumentality and valence for the purpose of behavioral modification so that these three elements achieve the highest value individually. accomplishment is influenced by an individual’s abilities and role perceptions.1) B . the performance appraisal methods and the associated performance rewards may not be equitable. 3) Low Reward-Valence Relationship: Since the mangers may look at the value of a reward differently than the worker. individual behavior is determined by a combination of factors in the individual and in the environment. a professor may do research and have professional articles published in order to get a promotion and may find out later that more weight was given to community service rather than research at the time of promotion. For example. In the ultimate analysis an employee derives satisfaction. managers must understand and analyze the preferences of particular subordinates in order to design "individualized motivational packages" to meet their needs. For example. The reward policy may be inconsistent and may depend upon factors other than simply the performance that the worker may be aware of or may not consider fair. Management must re-evaluate the appraisal techniques and formulate policies that strengthen performance reward relationship in a consistent.. While efforts are determined by the value of reward and the perceived reward probability. performance. 3) It is overly rational. keeping in mind that all such packages should be perceived as generally fair by all concerned parties. Accordingly. it could be due to: 1) Low Effort-Performance Expectancy: The worker may lack the necessary skills and training in order to improve the relationship between effort and performance. 3) Individuals have different needs. 4) The predictive accuracy is doubtful.
who have set challenging goals for themselves. Proper feedback can motivate them further. They reflect the fair level of rewards that the individual feels should be given for a particular level of performance. the individual will feel dissatisfied. attainment of goals is rewarding as it helps to satisfy the needs of the employees and stimulates them to set higher goals for the future. Meeting a goal provides the worker with a sense of achievement. Performance feedback tends to encourage better job performance and self-generated feedback is an especially powerful motivational tool. effort put by an individual). 6) Satisfaction: The extent to which actual rewards fall short. they see how their efforts will lead to performance. it is desired that the managers should follow a participative approach in setting the goals for the subordinates. need feedback about how well they are doing and how successful they are. If actual rewards meet or exceed perceived equitable rewards. Thus.. 5) Rewards: Performance may lead to two kinds of rewards. his performance is bound to be unsatisfactory in spite of his putting great efforts. they may not feel attached to the goals. Elements of Goal-Setting Theory Edwin Locke studied the processes by which employees set goals for themselves and then put in efforts to achieve them. That is why. If difficult goals are assigned to individuals. if an individual is lacking in ability and/or has wrong role perception.e. Thus. is determined not to lower . In addition to feedback. The intrinsic rewards are much more likely to produce attitudes about satisfaction that are related to performance. 3) Perceived Effort-Reward Probability: It refers to the individual's perception of the probability that different rewards depend upon different degrees of efforts. Moreover. This is particularly true for high need achievers. the individual will feel satisfied and if these are less than equitable rewards. meet or exceed the individual's perceived level of equitable rewards determines the degree of satisfaction. This results in improved performance. 2) Value of Reward or Valence: The outcome of a particular behavior (i. has a specific valence (or motivating power or value) for each individual. That means. When the employees participate in goal setting. Goal setting theory proposed that challenging and specific goals are more likely to lead towards better performance. the perceived equitable rewards vitally affect the performance-satisfaction relationship. In fact. Goal-Setting Theory Goals lay down targets to be achieved in future. Proper feedback can sustain motivation further. However. given the capability and experience of the individual and the resources available. even the challenging goals must be achievable. 4) Performance: Effort leads to performance. This would enable the worker to evaluate his performance and judge as to how he is doing in relation to the goal. But both may not be equal. Specific goals reduce ambiguity and each employee gets a very clear idea as to what is expected of him. These are goal commitment and self-efficacy.B . valence is determined by the concerned individual and is not an objective quality of the outcome itself. namely. Goal-setting theory presupposes that an individual is committed to the goal. They influence the behavior of employees and also their motivation. Value of reward for a person and his perception of effortreward probability will determine the amount of efforts he will put. the possibility of promotion may have a high valence for individuals who like higher responsibilities and may have a low value for individuals who don't want to accept higher responsibilities. performance is determined by the amount of effort and ability and role perception of the individual.90 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) The various elements of Porter and Lawler’s model as depicted in figure are discussed below: 1) Effort: It refers to the amount of energy exerted by a person on a job. pride and personal satisfaction. Moreover. Reaching an easy target is not competitive and hence hardly exciting. rewards and personal satisfaction. intrinsic rewards such as a sense of self-actualization and extrinsic rewards such as working conditions and status. two other factors have been found to influence the goals-performance relationship. There are four elements of goal-setting model explained below: 1) Goal Acceptance: The employees should understand the implications of goals for them and also accept them. 4) Performance Feedback: The employees. For instance. that is. 3) Goal Challenge: Difficult but feasible goals provide more challenge than easy goals. goals provide a sense of direction to the employees. 2) Goal Specificity: A specific goal identifies the target in quantitative or measurable terms.
Comparison other is also called relevant other. Adams. Further the greater the felt inequity. 4) Outcomes: Pay.1) B . Outcomes are the rewards which the member receives from the organization and his job. 2) Comparison Other: Any group or individual used by a person as a referent regarding inputs and outcomes. Inputs and outcomes are important elements in the exchange relationship between the organization and its members. If a person has higher self-efficacy. balance and fairness in treatment by the organization. 3) Distorting his or her inputs and outcomes cognitively. 4) Leaving the field.e. 6) Changing the comparison other. The equity theory of motivation helps in understanding both the causes and the likely consequences of feelings of inequitable treatment among organization members. Inputs are the efforts and skills which a member of an organization perceives that he puts into his job.91 or abandon the goal. Inequity is defined as the perception that person’s job inputs/outcomes ratio is not equal to the inputs/outcomes ratio of the comparison other. the person may try a number of alternatives. promotion and fringe benefits received from a job. some of which are: 1) Altering his or her inputs. This is most likely to occur when goals are made public. he is satisfied with the arrangement.S. the person is motivated to reduce it. When a person feels that he is being treated unfairly by the organization. These are also subjectively perceived by a person. he would have greater confidence to succeed in accomplishing the goal. 5) Trying to alter or cognitively distort input and outcomes of the comparison other. and is normally committed to the organization and its goals. experience and the like. These are subjectively perceived by a person. So. According to equity theory. equity as motivation force will act as follows: Individual perceives inequity Individual experiences tension Individual wants to reduce tension Individual takes action When attempting to reduce inequity. and when the goals are self-set rather than assigned. these feelings can have a variety of adverse effects on the person's motivation and performance on the job. It is based on the assumption that members of an organization experience strong expectations of justice. 2) Altering his or her outcomes. When the individual finds equity in the situation or feels that what he receives from the organization in terms of treatment and compensation is fair in terms of the effort and skills he contributes to the organization. the greater the motivation to reduce it. Equity Theory of Work Motivation Equity theory of motivation was formulated by J. . we find that people with low self-efficacy are more likely to lessen their effort or give up altogether.. when the individual has an internal locus of control. while those with high self-efficacy are likely to try harder to master the challenge.Motivation (Chapter 2. Self-efficacy refers to an individual's belief that he is capable of performing a task. or force him or her to leave the field. upon feeling inequity. inputs and outcomes. Thus. skills. two variables are important. Four terms are important in the theory: 1) Person: The individual for whom equity or inequity exists. The basic equity proposal assumes that. i. 3) Inputs: Characteristics which individuals bring with them to the job: education. in difficult situations. Examples of Inputs and Outcomes Inputs Time Effort Education Experience Training Ideas Ability Outcomes Pay Promotion Recognition Security Personal development Benefits Friendship opportunity The theory proposes that the motivation to act develops after the person compares inputs/outcomes with the identical ratio of the relevant other.
2) How does a person choose (or change) the comparison other? 3) Under what circumstances will each method of inequality resolution are used? The feeling of inequality may force one to quit the job. the equity theory continues to offer us some important insights into employee motivation. Evaluation of the Theory Like any other theory of motivation. Advantages of the Equity Theory 1) The theory has generated extensive research.10 = Rs. It is not that the person feeling inequity alone gets motivated to restore equity.g.10 per hour Rs. Only their hourly pay rates differ. but also with the relationship between their inputs and outcomes and the inputs and outcomes of others. The person with a feeling of equity also gets motivated but to maintain the current situation.10 = Rs.15 per hour hr Rs.15 per hour hr Outcomes Input Rs. . the prediction of employee behavior is more difficult.10 per hour 1 hr 2 hr 3) Positive equity Other Self Outcomes Input Outcomes Input Outcomes Input Rs. with many of the results being supportive. Regardless of these problems. but may force a change of comparison other in another.15 = Rs. Individuals are concerned not only with the absolute amounts of rewards they receive for their efforts.10 = Rs. If the comparison other enjoys greater outcomes for similar inputs. negative inequity will be perceived (See part 2 in figure above). negative inequity and positive inequity. Assume the two people of the equity relationships in figure above have equivalent backgrounds and perform identical tasks.10 per hour 1 hr Rs. a person will experience positive inequity when his or her outcome to input ratio is greater than that of the comparison other (See part 3 in figure above). Disadvantages of the Equity Theory The theory is not clear about the areas mentioned below: 1) Is a given factor an input or an outcome? For example.20 = Rs.15 = Rs. the equity theory has advantages and disadvantages. 3) The equity theory posits that a major share of motivated behavior is based on the perceived situation rather than on the actual set of circumstances. 2) The theory recognizes the influence of social comparison processes on motivation.10 per hour 1 hr Negative and Positive Inequity Figure above contains three different equity relationships: equity. 5) Will the findings generated in laboratory experiments hold in actual organizations? One analyst of the equity theory has noted that most studies supporting it have been laboratory experiments with student subjects. "responsibility" is viewed by some as input and as output by others. Individual differences obviously influence this activity. more outcomes cannot be attained without additional inputs).B . 4) What is the relationship between inputs and outcomes? If (as seems likely) they are perceived by employees to be interrelated (e. On the other hand.. Equity exists for an individual when his or her ratio of perceived outcomes to inputs is equal to that of the comparison other (See part 1 in figure above).92 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) 2) Negative inequity 1) An equitable suitable Self Other Outcomes Input Self Other Outcomes Input Rs.
Assumptions of Theory Y In contrast to these negative views about the nature of human beings. Creativity is not the monopoly of a few and in a right environment people can be made to display this trait on a wide scale. Close. which also occurs at social. The redundant expression Theory Z was adopted not for analytical or descriptive purposes but. Theory X emphasizes scalar chain system and centralization of authority in the organization. iv) Most workers place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition. The difference between two sets of assumptions can be visualized as follows: Distinction between X and Y Theories i) ii) Basis Attitude towards work Acceptance of responsibility iii) Creativity X Theory Most people have an inherent dislike for work. these assumptions seem to be mutually exclusive. Satisfaction of physiological and safety needs is not the only source of motivation. labeled Theory Y. labeled Theory X. Most people are not ambitious. they are reverse sides of a coin. Theory Z is not a theory. iii) Employees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible. it is a label interchangeable with the type Z. Ouchi. often coercive. With proper motivation. will attempt to avoid it.93 Other Theories of Motivation Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct views of human beings: one basically negative. who has given Theory Z. Y Theory Given proper environment. after viewing the way in which managers dealt with employees. most people will take to work as naturally as play.Motivation (Chapter 2. averse to accepting responsibility and prefer to be directed by others. people may be self-directed and creative. Most people lack creativity in resolving organizational problems. has made a comparative study of American and Japanese management practices and has recommended that many Japanese management practices can be adopted in American context. they must be coerced. Theory Y emphasizes democratic and supportive leadership iv) Motivation v) Control vi) Centralization and Decentralization vii) Leadership Theory Z Theory Z describes the major postulates of Japanese management practices and how these practices can be adopted to the environment of United States and other countries. ii) People will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives. for promotional purposes. controlled. iii) The average person can learn to accept. even seek. McGregor listed the four positive assumptions that he called Theory Y: i) Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play. iv) The ability to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province of those in management positions. and the other basically positive. Theory X emphasizes autocratic leadership. esteem and self-actualization levels. most people would willingly accept responsibility and go in for self-direction. ii) Since employees dislike work. Theory Y emphasizes decentralization and greater participation in the decision-making process. It can be made clear that the letter Z does not stand for anything. Further. Assumptions of Theory X Under Theory X. the four assumptions held by managers are: i) Employees inherently dislike work and. Infact. Comparison of Theories X and Y Both theories have certain assumptions about human nature. control is the only means to achieve organizational objectives. perhaps. Only satisfaction of physiological and safety needs will motivate workers. one representing head and the other representing tail. whenever possible. McGregor concluded that a manager’s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and that he or she tends to mold his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. it is merely the last letter of the alphabet. . or threatened with punishment to achieve goals. With proper motivation.1) B . It is just to denote the state of affairs in organization and human behavior as has been done in the case of theories X and Y. Thus. responsibility.
OB specialists emphasize job itself as a source of motivation. Thus. sooner or later. including interdependency of those tasks with other jobs. A thoughtful job design. and the extent to which innovative risk-taking efforts are encouraged and rewarded. each requiring limited skill or effort. 2) There is little by way of research findings to indicate that the firms following this theory of motivation have achieved greater productivity than others. 5) Informal Control System: Organizational control system should be as informal as possible. Some jobs have very few tasks. managers should take into consideration how an individual reacts to his work which is a function of fit among: 1) Individual’s personality characteristics. During adverse business conditions. the emphasis should be on horizontal mobility. For an employee. 2) Characteristics of job such as nature of challenge it offers. As such. qualifications and rewards) and personal needs. candor and co-operation will induce employees to develop a sense of commitment to the organization. From the organization's perspective. resources and plans rather than on formal authority-responsibility relationships. empowering employees. If final decisions are based on the alternative suggested by the lower-level workers after analysis of the problems on hand. and 3) Characteristics of facilitating factors at the workplace such as quality of work life. in applying motivation theories at workplace. so that employees do not suffer from a sense of stagnation arising from working at the same post for a long time.B . therefore.94 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) Features of Theory Z 1) Life-time Employment: There should be lifetime employment granted to all employees so as to promote a strong bond between them and the organization. 3) It does not provide guidelines as to at what point of time it may be applied in any organization. they will feel a sense of responsibility because of such involvement. 1) Job Design Besides rewards. both intrinsic and extrinsic aspects of the job must be considered. Criticism of Z Theory The Z theory has been criticized on several counts: 1) It is based on the Japanese management practices which have evolved from that country's unique cultural setting. training and development facilities. and the use of skills in performing the job. On the other hand. A job is a set of tasks assigned to and performed by one person. the autonomy in performing the job. motivation and job satisfaction are affected by the match between job factor (content. shareholders/owners should forgo dividend/profits. The process of assigning tasks to a job. values. Instead. Job design has a critical impact on organization and employee objectives. and work design. There should be greater emphasis on co-operation and sharing of information. 6) Stable and Cohesive Work Environment: The work environment should be appropriately stable and cohesive to provide for increasing satisfaction of multiple employee needs. 4) Participative Decision-Making: Employees should be allowed increasing participation in the decision-making process. Application of Motivation Concept Various theories of motivation. Jobs that are not satisfying or are too demanding are difficult to fill. Other jobs include a very complex set of tasks and can be accomplished by only a few highly trained professionals. motivation theories help in designing reward system. rather than resort to retrenchment of workers. Intrinsic factors are directly related to the contents of a job while extrinsic factors are related to the context or environment in which the job is performed. and ability. can help both the organization and its employees achieve their objectives. 2) Restricted Promotions: Upward mobility of workers through promotions should be restricted as it only leads to saturation in advancement prospects. need patterns. Employees should be frequently shifted from one job to another so that they get to have an integrated view of the organizational functions and how each function affects the others. particularly in regard to matters which significantly affect them. the way tasks and responsibilities are grouped can affect productivity and costs. reward system. In applying motivation theories. . if employees are involved in working with their superiors or on specific projects. improving quality of work life. it may not be relevant in organizations based in different cultural settings. they will be motivated more intensely due to prospects of greater income in future. 3) Greater Workers Involvement: Promotions or financial incentives are only a short-term motivational device. and will be enthusiastic in implementation of such decisions. Thus. Boring jobs may experience higher turnover. is called Job design. openness. Mutual relationship marketed by trust. discussed previously have various applications in management practices.
it leads to a vertically enhanced job by adding functions from other organizational levels. This measure relieves the employee from boredom and monotony. ii) Job Rotation Job rotation refers to the movement of an employee from one job to another. The SWOT.. i. Jobs themselves are not actually changed. 5) All those who prefer job enrichment may not have the requisite capability to meet the new challenges. Herzberg gave emphasis on job enrichment to motivate the employees. However. analysis is used to formulate objectives. They seem to like job security and pay above all. He found: a) Jobs that were enriched were more satisfying to the employees. b) It decreases the rates of absenteeism and labor turnover. opportunities and threats. scope and challenge in work. Limitations of Job Enrichment: The limitations of job enrichment are as follows: 1) Technology may not permit the enrichment of all jobs. strength. Objectives are determined after thorough analysis of the internal and external environment relating to the organization.e. 2) Job enrichment has proved to be a costly process in certain cases as the expenditure involved is higher than the gains in productivity. actuating and controlling organizational activities. frequent job rotations are not advisable in view of their negative impact on the organization and the employee. thus resulting in lower absenteeism and turnover. quality of production and overall efficiency of the organization. verifiable and tangible. job design has been used extensively all over the World. 4) It is difficult to say that all workers really want challenging jobs. This process is called horizontal job loading or horizontal job enlargement.1) B . but they are not necessarily that much satisfied. weakness. c) Individuals holding enriched jobs developed a broader range of skills and talents.Motivation (Chapter 2. It was Herzberg who conceived job design as an important instrument to motivate employees. In its best applications. only the employees are rotated among various jobs. MBO was coined by . absenteeism. With specialized machinery. An employee who works on a routing/respective job moves to and works on another job for some hours/days/months and backs up to the first job. though leads to higher wages. he gains a feeling of higher status. These measures also improve worker’s self image and provides personal growth. complaints. This technique. Job Design Options i) Job Enrichment Job enrichment implies increasing the contents of a job or the deliberate upgrading of responsibility. 3) Jobs of highly skilled professionals already contain many challenging elements. unionization. resignations and other problems. Since then. influence and power. f) The enterprise gains through improvement of output both quantitatively and qualitatively and higher satisfaction of the workers. Job enrichment is a motivational technique which emphasizes the need for challenging and interesting work.95 Poorly designed job. It tackles dissatisfaction and reduces monotony by increasing the variety and scope of tasks. b) Individuals on enriched jobs were more productive. employee turnover. Management by objectives (MBO) is used for planning. In this sense. 2) Management By Objective Management by objectives refers to the set of goals that are measurable. making it contain more variety and challenge and offer autonomy and pride to the employee. Advantages of Job Enrichment: The advantages of job enrichment are as follows: a) It makes the work interesting and challenging. In his two-factor theory. it may not be possible to make jobs very meaningful. iii) Job Enlargement Job enlargement means adding more and different tasks to a specialized job to provide greater variety. c) It helps in motivation through opportunities for growth and advancement. may lead to lower productivity. It suggests that jobs be redesigned so that intrinsic satisfaction is derived from doing the job. d) It makes easy task reinforcement and increases the skills of workers. improves employee’s skills regarding various jobs and prepares the competent employees to meet the contingencies. e) Workers get higher job satisfaction. Many of them even like to avoid responsibility. organizing. The job-holder is given a measure of discretion in making operational decisions concerning his job. improves worker satisfaction. on the other hand.
Moreover. Employees are made to realize that they are the owners of the company. Involving employees at decision-making levels. The impact of solutions on quality control is reviewed from time to time. these committees are only informed about management decisions. who suggested that the setting of objectives and appraising the results based there on. diagnose problems. These groups of employees are given some specific names such as works council. Objectives are developed in quantitative terms so that they can be easily achieved and used for measurement. They are prepared and motivated to achieve the objectives. A small group of employees who represent all the employees is given the power of participating in the management. work committees and so on. They are given due regard in other organizations while the decision-making processes are in progress. Participative management may take different forms in different organizations. The confidence and credibility of such employees will increase. giving them more autonomy and encouraging them for better performances help utilize the entire capacities of employees. quality. In some organizations. The employees suggest whether the productivity can increase at the given quality and standard. employees' satisfactions and performance will increase on account of employees' ownership programmes. employees' development and other activities. but is flexible as per the requirements. Representative Participation: Representative participation is practiced when all the employees cannot participate in the decision-making process. It makes employees committed to the organization and helps them to be more productive. . They feel proud of being associated with the company. the relationship of the immediate superior with his subordinates is strengthened at the decision-making platform. It is spreading to new firms also. Responsibilities. The motivation theories such as hygiene theory. Some selected employees who are specially qualified participate in management practices. cost control and problem solution propositions. The participative functions are also helpful to management because a manager cannot be fully aware of the technicalities of each and every function. they are rewarded for the achievement of the objective if the achievements are outstanding. i) Participative Management: Participative management refers to the sharing of decision-making power by employees with the immediate superior. 3) Employee-Involvement Programmes An employee-involvement programme relates to the participation of employees in management functions.96 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) Peter Drucker 45 years ago. analyze and interpret. branches and so on. Individual objectives are decided on the basis of the departmental objectives. Many business houses in India have started issuing bonus shares to their employees who are given the authority and power of a shareholder. Their involvement is encouraged to develop work culture...B . participative performance relationship. The main theme of participative management is the employeesmanagement decision-making body. ERG theory. MBO is not fixed. The employees get ownership and the right to appoint their directors. A quality circle is formed in big organizations in India wherein expert engineers are assigned the job of deciding on a particular level of quality. Since the management has a different ladder. ii) iii) Quality Circle: A quality circle is a group of employees who discuss the quality problems. The organization’s image. The elected or nominated members of the work council are fully aware of their problems. The objective relation to the organization’s total performance is determined through identification of various subobjectives of marketing.g. and so on. A sense of belonging is developed. It is used to motivate people by providing satisfaction of achievement and rewards. The superior-subordinate relationship is strengthened. They know all the problems of the employees as well as the technical problems of the organization. service. Each employee's performance is compared with their respective objectives. It is a research-like technique to understand problems. representative participation. Employees seek feedback from the persons concerned about the quality and its acceptability. The solutions are studied and analyzed to make them more effective. e. They are necessarily consulted by the management. It includes employees as well as the supervisor. The organizational objectives are translated into specific objectives of succeeding offices. If employees achieve the goals they are satisfied. Quality management has become a specialized job these days in India. Employees are made aware of MBO. The employees' ownership plan is the company's benefit plan. The employee-involvement programme has programmes other than participative management. equity theory and reinforcement theory are applicable under employee involvement programmes. viz. Employees and the management jointly perform the activities. collect information and data. production. leads to improvement of performance. iv) Employees' Ownership: Employees are allotted shares in lieu of a cash bonus in many industrial houses. Employee involvement aims to utilize the maximum capacity of employees by mutually encouraging them. They are developed accordingly to implement the objective plans. They have job satisfaction and work motivation. division. find solutions and review solutions before implementation. power and duties are defined accordingly to achieve objectives. Individual objects are used for motivation. The essence of participative management is that employees' interests are served.
The cash bonus is an immediate reward motivating employees for hard work. while bonus share is a deferred benefit. There are several techniques of appraisal of performance.1) B . Wage incentives provide safety and security to the job. Similarly the average performance-standards of all the employees for the last five years is considered to be the performance standard of the company which is used for motivating employees who perform better than the performance standard. It has become a common practice to consider the factors of performance of employees. It is not an automatic yearly increment which is given for working a certain period of time. The results of appraisal are informed to the employees for their improvements. incentives to perform better cease to exist. Employees also develop a high commitment for technological breakthrough and efforts for outstanding performance. ii) 5) Performance Appraisal Performance appraisal is an important tool for rewarding employees. Wage incentives reinforce desirable behavior. The reward is not fixed under variable pay programme (VPP). Employees are motivated to achieve mutually set goals. save and spend it conspicuously. Being a status symbol. as it is contingent upon the performance. Mutual goal setting is feasible with performance appraisal. This standard can be used to compare other organizational . although they may not be given incentive wages. because once it is made permanent and regular. Employees accept appraisal results. but they exert themselves more when some incentives are given for higher productions. It is totally different from profit sharing and wage incentives. Employees in factories too are given an initial starting pay which increases along with knowledge. workers devote routine time and energy towards performing their jobs. Their productivity. develop employees and accept feedback from employees. because the former has achieved more skill. possessing luxurious cars. a university professor gets a higher salary. capacities. Money contributes greatly to social status. Bonus shares entitle employees to become owners of the company. i) Variable Pay Programme and Complete Pay Programme: Variable pay programme (VPP) refers to a system of payment of some portion of the total remuneration. People earn. method and management. knowledge and experience of teaching. attitude and mutual interest are developed if employees also become owners of the company. An organization declares bonus on additional profitability at an agreed rate of sharing. bungalows and other amenities is happier as he sees other employees possessing lesser money and wealth.97 4) Economic Consideration Economic considerations have accepted social value. growth. although he takes less class than a lecturer. Employees are paid for their skills. range of capabilities and experience based skills. attitudes and behavior are assessed by the supervisor. An economic incentive is used to induce individual. depth of knowledge. attendance and initiatives. The pay fluctuates with the performance to make people receive awards for additional contributions and punishment for poor performances. The accumulated performance appraisal of each employee decides his performance standard. Persons having money and wealth enjoy a good social status and recognition. A complete pay programme is also essential to retain experienced and skilled employees. which they do in special cases for getting extra benefits. For example. Responsibility. If the organization is successful. machines. It helps understand employees’ merits and deficiencies as well as the present performance and formulation of future objectives. maintain a fair relationship. Workers have the potential to work hard. Wage Incentives: More pay for more production is an incentive to employees for higher production. It provides an opportunity to perform a worthwhile task. groups and organization to achieve better performance.Motivation (Chapter 2. because the increase in profitability is not only the outcome of employees but is also due to organizational structure. spent and increased. power and prestige are associated with money. Skill-based pay is given only on acquiring a specified skill. Employees take interest in the development of the organization and institutional spirits are developed. as they are aware of the goals and performance. one's status is relatively judged by the money possessed. employees are further motivated to exert more and achieve better performance. Normally. Variable pay programme is considered effective. Employees become partners in all the functions of the company. The comparative status is linked to the amount of money the person possesses. rewards and motivation. besides giving additional wages to high performers. on the basis of an individual's performance. iii) Profit Sharing: Profit sharing is a practical type of motivation to monitor employees for better performance. An employee having a higher salary. Position. iv) Skill-Based Plan: A skill-based plan refers to payment for knowledge and skills possessed by employees. The additional profit so shared between employees and organization is paid either in cash or bonus shares. Payment is recognition of contribution rather than a form of entitlement. Payment of salary on a time basis will be a complete pay programme when other incentive wage systems are included to get total wage payment. It provides an objective basis for rewards.
Self appraisal techniques are encouraged for employees’ motivation and the avoidance of distrust between the appraiser and the appraisee. complex and inaccurate in some situations. Greater participation is feasible if the employees are educated and knowledgeable. judgment-based rating techniques. The success of performance appraisal depends on the employees’ abilities.98 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) standards. The strengths and weaknesses of employees are made known to them. judgmental. It has the deficiencies of being confrontational. It creates confusion and conflict between them. interests and motivations. so that they can improve themselves and promote organization development. Emotional attitudes are attached to the performance appraisal. procedure based job behaviors and assessment centers to the employees for the effective use of performance appraisal. as managers are generally critical and employees are face savers. Performance appraisal is not free from defects. because people attribute their deficiencies to situational factors. A manager should exercise his power of appraisal with great care. Employee’s actions and reactions to the appraisal system s and appraisal outcomes are invited to provide them with adequate opportunities for motivation and development. The management has to disclose the purpose of performance appraisal. Self-appraisal results in poor outcomes. .B . so that mutual trust and confidence is not distorted. Employees generally do not agree with the performance appraisal of their supervisor. emotional.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.