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Lecture # 09

Introduction to Well Logging and Formation Evaluation

By: Dr. Mohammad Ebrahim Shafiee

Well Logging and Development of H d b Reservoirs R i Hydrocarbon


The geologist Th l i t and d engineers i goal li is t to understand d t d the processes of hydrocarbon accumulation and recovery y factor. Well-logging plays a particularly important role in geophysic. Well-logs Well logs provide an objective objective, continuous record of a number of properties of the rocks which have been drilled through. g

Well Logging and Development of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs


The link between geophysical measurements on the surface, and well logging subsurface data. data Well logging provide numerical data, introducing the possibility of fairly rigorous quantification in the description of sedimentological g processes. p Logs tell us about the fluids in the pores of the reservoir rocks.

What is Well Logging

9Well log is a continuous record of measurement made in
bore hole respond to variation in some physical properties of rocks through which the bore hole is drilled.

9Traditionally Logs are display

on girded papers shown in figure.

9Now a days the log may be

g taken as films, images, and in digital format.

Oilfield Glossary Definition


Log: The measurement versus depth or time, or both, of one or more physical quantities in or around a well. The term comes from the word "log" used in the sense of a record or a note.

Wireline logs are taken downhole, transmitted through a wireline to surface and recorded there. LWD "Logging While Drilling" and MWD Measurement While Drilling" logs are also taken downhole.

They are either transmitted to surface by mud pulses, or else recorded downhole and retrieved later when the instrument is brought to surface. Mud logs that describe samples of drilled cuttings are taken and recorded on surface.

LWD and MWD versus Wireline Tools


LWD and MWD are acronyms for "Logging While Drilling" and "Measurement While Drilling" and refer to the technique of placing the logging tool somewhere behind the drill bit so that it can record data during the actual drilling.

Depending on far the tool sits behind the bit, the data can be measured, more or less, in real time to create Realtime Logs at the surface. After the pulled from the hole, data can then be downloaded from the tool tool is p itself to create what are called Memory Logs, which are higher resolution and more reliable than the Realitme logs. logs

History of Well logging


1912 Conrad Schlumberger give the idea of using electrical measurements to map subsurface rock bodies.

In 1919 Conrad Schlumberger and his brother Marcel begin work on well logs.

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The first electrical resistivity well log was taken in France, in 1927. The instrument which was used for this purpose is called SONDE, the sonde d was stopped d at periodic i di intervals i l in i bore b h l and hole d the h resistivity i i i was plotted on graph paper.

History Cont.

In 1929 the electrical resistivity logs are introduce on commercial scale in Venezuela, USA and Russia and the dip meter log were developed in 1930 and he Gamma Ray and Neutron Log were begin in 1941

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For correlation and identification of Hydrocarbon bearing strata. The photographic film recorder was developed in 1936

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Logging Units

L i service Logging i companies utilize a variety of logging units, depending on the location (onshore or offshore) ) and requirements of the logging run run.
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Logging Work Flow Chart

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Logging Units Component

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Logging cable Winch to raise and lower the cable in the well Self-contained 120-volt AC generator Set of surface control panels Set of downhole tools (sondes and cartridges) Digital recording system

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Depth Of Investigation Of Logging Tools

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Log Interpretation Objectives


Learn the basic concepts and terminology associated with log interpretation

Learn basic tool theory so that this knowledge can be applied to actual log readings from qualitative analysis

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Do q quantitative log g analysis y through g in class examples p Learn how to correct log reading for environmental effects ff t for f example l invasion, i i b h l conditions, borehole diti shaliness and gas effect

Be able to locate potential hydrocarbon-bearing zones

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Results from Log g Interpretation p

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Depth p to lithological g Lithological boundaries Lithology identification Minerals grade/quality Inter-borehole correlation

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Rock strength g In-situ stress orientation F Fracture f frequency Porosity Permeable zones Fluid salinity Water-bearing zones Hydrocarbon -bearing bearing zones
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Structure mapping Dip determination

Well Log and Formation Evaluation


Auxiliary y Tools
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Porosity Tools
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Callipers Gamma Ray

Acoustic Formation Density y Neutron

Spontaneous Potential


Resistivity Tools
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Induction Laterlog Micro Resistivity y

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Resistivity Log
Resistivity logs measure the ability of rocks to conduct electrical current and are scaled in units of ohm meters. ohm-meters

The Usage: Resistivity logs are electric logs which are used to:

Determine Hydrocarbon versus Water-bearing zones,

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Indicate Permeable zones, Determine Porosity.

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Spontaneous Potential Log (SP)


The spontaneous potential (SP) curve records the naturally t ll occurring i electrical l ti l potential (voltage) produced by the interaction connate of formation shale water,

conductive drilling g fluid, , and

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Gamma Ray Log

9 Gamma Rays are 9 Gamma
high-energy electromagnetic waves which are emitted by y atomic nuclei as a form of radiation ray log is measurement of natural radioactivity in

f formation ti verses depth. d th

9 It measures the radiation emitting from naturally occurring

U,Th, and K.
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Thorium is a natural radioactive chemical element with the symbol Th and atomic number 90 Uranium is a silvery-white metallic chemical element in the actinide series of the periodic table, table with atomic number 92. 92 It is assigned the chemical symbol U Potassium-40 (40K) is a radioactive isotope of potassium which has a very long half-life of 1.248109 years, or about 39.381015 seconds.
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Gamma Ray Log


It is also known as shale log g and reflects shale or clay content.

A advantage An d of f the h gamma log l over some other h types of well logs is that it works through the steel and cement walls of cased boreholes. Although g concrete and steel absorb some of the gamma radiation, enough travels through the steel and cement to allow qualitative determinations. determinations
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Neutron Log
9 The Neutron Log is primarily
used to evaluate formation porosity, but the fact that it is really just a hydrogen detector should always be kept in mind

9 It is used to detect gas in

certain situations, exploiting the lower hydrogen density, or hydrogen index
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Density Log
9 The formation density log is a
porosity log that measures electron density of a formation

9 It determine porosity by measuring

the density of the rocks. Because these logs overestimate the porosity of rocks that contain gas they result in "crossover" of the log curves when paired with Neutron logs p g ( (described under CNL logs below).
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Acoustic Log
9 Acoustic
speed of tools measure the sound waves in

subsurface formations. While the acoustic log can be used to determine also valuable porosity in in other , it is consolidated formations, applications such as: applications,

Indicating lithology (using the ratio of compressional

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velocity over shear velocity),

Acoustic Log contd


D t i i integrated i t t d travel t l Determining time (an important tool for seismic/wellbore correlation),




evaluating secondary porosity,


Evaluating g between formation, formation

cement casing,

bonds and

Determining with the density log).


impedance (in combination

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Major Logging Companies

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Schlumberger Baker Hughes Halliburton G Geoservices i Recon Petrotechnologies Ltd.

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Datalog Logdigi T k E Tucker Energy S Services i Weatherford

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