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CHAPTER-I Q.1 : Why we need computer Graphics ? Ans.

Graphical Communication is an old and more popular method of exchanging information than verbal communication and is more convenient when computer are utilized for this purpose. As the volume of information increases problem arises. Also in 21st century people do have time to read huge number of page. This problem was solved bg computer graphics. This can be clearly understood with the help of the example where we want to present the performance of a facotry since 1980 for this we require a number of pages to render this large related with financial, number and statistical information. It will take a lot of time to analyze such a long report. We can easily represent this data in a pictorial from thus marketing it simple understand. Pictures can be represent a huge database in the form of bar chart piechart and so on. The other prominent application of graphics are in the field of (CAD) and (CAM). In CAM graphics techniques are used to produce the drawing of certain parts of a machine from any viewing angle. IJn CAM computer graphics techniques one may display the manufacturing layout for a given part and trace the path taken by machine tools for a given manufacturing. Q.2 Define Computer Graphic and Interactive Computer Graphic ? Computer Graphics can be defined as the use of computer to define, store, manipulate, interrogate and present output of the data. Interactive computer graphics refer to device and system that facilitate the man machine graphic communication. Q.3. Briefly narrate the history of graphic hardware technology? In early days the high coast of hardware for computer graphics remained the obstacle which prevented their wide spread use . Computer have been getting progressively more in expensive and it has become a household article these days. The micro electronic revolution and the subsequent reduction in the prue of the digital hardware have completely changed the situation.

Due to this price creduction it is now realistic to expect that able computers with graphic display hardware. Capability will making extensive use of computer graphics. The announcement of the IBM PC using 16 bit Intel 8088 micro processor on Aug. 12, 1981 can be regarded as historic event which had profound effect in the world of computer. The next major change in PC technology was announced by apple company in 1984 when introduced the macintosh PC (Mac PC) This was the first PC did not include a text based display but provided only a graphic display. The application program developed by macintosh advanced WYSIWYG style of interface. This concept has become a basic requirement in area of desktop publishing (DTP). The Power PC from IBM, Apple and other vendors created a new standard DTP computer with such development computer Graphic and multimedia has become a necessity for all types of user. Q.4. How to make graphic processing faster Video/Graphic processin can be made faster in two ways By using graphic co-processor. Graphic Accelerator The graphic co-processor boot video proformance by assuming task normally handled by the CPO. An accelerator takes control of graphics task which are other using performed by the CPU. However an accelerator is not programmable. It is a functioned processor which carries out specific task hard coded into the chips. Q.5 Which is graphic processor why we need it? Graphic processor help to manage the screen faster with an equivalent software algorithm executed on the CPU. Through the used of the processor certain amount of parallelism can be achieved for graphic command. Several manufactures of PC used a proprietary graphic processor.

Q.6. Name some Graphic Processor ? Some Graphic Processor are INTEL 82786 TEXAS Instrument 43010 Q.7. Justify the statement why window OS is so popular ? The window OS is popular because it support a graphical user interface in which user can performed operations with the help of graphics object such as window and buttons. A part from an intuitive GUI it support various other features such as support for integrated application environment, multi tasking and network. Q.8. What are the strength of Unix OS Unix OS has been known as popular as a simple, small, portable, powerful, time sharing operating system. However now it has also gained commercial strength. It is still the most portable and configurable and configurable of all operating system. Unix has adopted the new hardware architecture requirment by incorporating new functionalist such as distributed file system XII base GUI, Multithreading distributability and so on. Unix become quite popular with in bell labs. Q.9 Define Pixel ? Pixel may be defined as smallest size object on colour spot that can be displayed and addressed on monitor. Q.10 Give the different application of Computer Graphics? Application for computer graphics Building design and construction Electronic design

Mchanical design Entertainment and Animation Aerospace Industry Medical Technology Art and Commerce Cartography Q.11 Name some language that support computer Graphic Language support to Graphic computer Pascal Basic Fortran C language Q.12. Why C language is popular graphic programming ? C has become a choice for today professional developers for graphic programming. C is a structured languaged and is rich in expressive power and application to a wide variety of user. Because of rich set of graphics functions available. This language help in designing for graphical application. The C code is small fast portable and flexible.

CHAPTER 2 Compare the merits and demerits of raster and random system. In Raster scan display the electron beam is swept across the screen one row at a time from top to bottom Random scan monitor draw a picture one line at a time and so they are also referred to as vector display. Refreshing on roster scan display is carried out at the rate of 60-80 frames per second. Refreshing rate on a random scan system depends on the number of lines to be displayed. The picture definition is stored in a memory area called refresh buffer or frame buffer in case of roster scan display. Definition In case of random scan display picture defnition s stored as a set of line drawing commands in area of memory referred to as the refresh display file. Refresh display file is also called the display list display program, or the refresh buffer. Q.2. Define Pixel, resolution and aspect ratio Pixel can be defined as the smallest size object or colour spot that can be displayed and addressed on a monitor. Image resolution refers to pixel spacing that is the distance from one pixel to the next pixel. The aspect ratio of the image is the ratio of the number of X pixel to the number y pixel. The standard aspect of PC is 4 :3 and some use 5:4. Q.3. Explain the principal of drawing pictures on CRT In CRT an electron gun produced a stream of election. This electron bean can be switched on/off through a heating system. This election beam is focused towards the phosphor coasted screen.

The point where the beam hits the screen become phos. phorent and produced a speck of light. A pair of focusing grids focus the beam to a particular point on the screen. The Grid controls the focusing with the help of magnetic electric fields. In this way a whole picture can be drawn by illuminating the point on the screen. Q.4: Explain the working principal of shadow mask CRT? The shadow Mask CRT is based on the principal of combining the basic colour red, green and blue. The shadow mask CRT instead of usin one electrons gun used the three different guns placed adjacent to each other to form a triangle or a delta. Each pixel point on the screen is made up of three type of phosphors to produced red, blue, green colour. Just in front of the phosphor screen is a metal screen called a shadow mask. This plates has holes placed strategically so that beams from the three electron guns are focused on particular colour producing pixel only. Now unlike the beam penetration CRT the acceleration of the electron beam was monitored one can manipulate the intensity of the three beams simultaneously. If the red beam is made more intense we get more of red colour in the final combination. Since fine tuning of the beam intensities is comparatively simple we get much more combination of colour that the beam penetration case. Q.5 Explain the principal of dust system ? The direct view storage tube DVST behaves like a CRT with highly presistent phosphor. Picture drawn on this screen will be seen for several minutes (40-50) before fading. It is similar to a CRT as for as the electronic gun and phosphor coated mechanisms are concerned . However instead of the election because directly writing the picture on the phosphor coated screen, the writing is done with the help of fine mesh wire gred.

The grid made of very thin high quality wire is located with a dielectric and is mounted just before the screen on the path of electron beam from the gun. A pattern of position charges is deposited on the grid and this pattern is transferred to the phosphor coated CRT by a continuous flood of electron. This flood of electron is mounted by a floor gun which is separated from the electron gun produces the main electron beam. Q.6 What are the different input interactive techniques ? Various graphical input interactive positioning Constraints Grids Gravity Field Rubber band methods Dragging Q.7 Why refreshing is required in CRT? When a electron beam strikes a dot of phosphor material it glows for a fraction of a second and then fades. As brightness of the dots begins to reduce the screen image become unstable fades gradually out. In order to maintain a stable image the electron beam must sweep the entire surface of the screen and return to redraw it number of times per second . That is the screen must be refreshed multiple times in a second.

Q8: Name the different positioning devices The various positioning devices are : Mouse

Table Jogstick Digitizer Light Pen Track Ball

Q9 : What are pointing devices? Give example The pointing devices is a hardware peripheral that allows user to point to object on the screen and perform operation on them such as selecting, clicking, moving and dragging. Mouse is an example of pounting devices. Q.10 Explain the principal of mouse ? A mouse is a small handed box used to position the screen cursor. It has two wheels at right angle to each other. Each of these wheels is connected to the shaft encode. For every incremental rotation of the wheel on electrical signal is produced by shoft encode. These value are hold in separate registers and the computer can sample them at a suitable rate. The devices can therefore be used for a moving cursor around the display screen. Q.11. Explain the working of light pen along with a diagram ? Ans. Light pen has a very simple working every pixel on the screen that is a part of the picture emits light. All that the ligth pen does is to make use of this light signal to indicate the position. A small aperture is held against the portion of the picture to be modified and the light from the pixel falls on a photo cell after passing through aperture. This photo cell converts the light signal received from the screen to an electronic pulse to be send to the computer.

Since the electrical signal is rather weak an amplifier amplifies it before being sent to a computer. A tracking software keep track of the position of the light pen always. Through the use of the tracking software a signal received by the light pen at any point indicates the portion of the picture that needs to be modified. Note that when the pen is being moved to it position where the modification is required it will encounter various other light sources of the way. These light should not trigger the computer to accept the signal. So the aperture of the light is normally kept closed till the final position is reached and then it can be opened by a switch. Q.12. If we use 3 bit for primary colour how many different colour are possible ? 8 colour are possible Q13 How many different choices are possibl if we used 24 bit per pixel ? 16.7 millions (224) colour.

CHAPTER -3 Q1 Compared the features of text mode and Graphic Mode ? Text Mode Graphic Mode You can only handle text You can display capture and animate figure You can display in 16 colours on a colour You can display various colour monitor Text mode display is in two forms 25 rows of The resolution of the graphic mode depends on 40 columns on 25 rows of 80 columns the adapter

Q.2 :With the help of an illustration explain how intigraph ( ) function works The intigraph ( ) function is used to intialize the graphics system to load appropriate graphics drive and video mode used by the graphic functions. The syntax of this function intigraph (int * driver, int * mode, char * path) As its parameter you must specify the graphics mode such EGA or VGA (depend on the graphics adapter being used), the graphics driver ( a program that interfaced between the hardware and your (program) and path of the graphics driver. For example to initialize graphic mode in CGA high resolution mode. int g driver =1, gmode = 4; intigraph (& gdriver, &gmode,"d:\\tc\\bgi"); For example to select the best driver mode possible on a computer int gdrive = DETECT, gmode intigraph (& gdriver, & gmode, "d:\\tc\\bgi"); Q.3 use of graphics function to draw concentric circle ? # include <conio.h> # include <graphics.h> # include <stdio.h> main ()

{ int gdriver = DETECT, gmode; /* initialize graphics mode*/ inti graph(&gdriver, &gmode," d:\\tc\\bgi"); circle (100,100,90); circle (100,100,50); circle (100,100,30); getch () ; restorecrtmode ( ); } inform the student that the path "d:\\tc\\bgi" should be changed according to the machine setting . The code given here has been tested on Turbo C3.0

Q.4 Develop C program to draw a structure of a fish and give animation # include <conio.h> # include <graphics.h> # include <stdlib.h> # include <dos.h> # include <graphic.h> Void main ( ) { int gdriver = DETECT, gmode int i; intgraph ( &gdriver, & gmode, " "c:\\tc\\bgi"); int max = g = get max g ( ) /2 i = 0; set colur (BLUE);

while (! kbhit ( ) ) { line ( 0+i, max_gt 30, 0+i, max_g-30); /* triangle */ line (0+i, max_g+30, 30+i, max_g); line (0+i, max_g-30, 30+i, max_g); ellipse (90+i, max_g,0,360, 60, 35); circle (120+i, max_g-5,5); i = i+3; if (i>=635) i = 0; delay (100); clear device ( ) ; } getch ( ); closegraph ( ); } inform the student that the path "c:\\tc\\bgi" should be changed according to the machine setting the code given here has been tested on turbo C 3.0

Q.5 Develop a C program draw a car shape and move the car using animation function # include <conio.h> # include <stdlib.h> # include <dos.h> # include <graphic.h>

Var car_wheel (int x, int y) { setcolour (WHITE); setfill style (SOLID_FILL, WHITE); circle (X,g,10); floodfill (x,g, WHITE); circle (x,y,25); } void car_body ( ) { car_wheel (50,200); car_wheel (200,200); setcolour (RED); line (25,200,0,210); line (40,160,70,130); bar (105,110,125,130); line (0,160,40,160); line (70,130,170,130); line (170,130,200,160); line (175,200,75,200); line (200,160,260,160); line (260,160,260,200); line (260,200,225,200); arc (50,200,0,180,25); arc (200,200,0,180,25); setfillstyle (SOLID_FILL, RED);

flood fill (150,170,RED); } Void main ( ) { int gdriver = DETECT, gmode; int i; void* buff initgraph (&gdriver &gmode, "c:\\tc\\bgi"); car_body ( ); buff = malloc (imagesize (0,100,270,230); getimage (0,100,270,buff); putimage (0,100,buff,XOR_PUT); i = 0; while (!kbhit ( ) ){ if (i>500) i =0; putimage (i, 100, buff, OR_PUT); delay (75); putimage (i, 100, buff, XOR_PUT); put image ( it5, 100, buff or PUT); delay (75); putimage (i+5, 100, buff, XOR_PUT); i = i + 10; } close graph ( ); restore ctrmode ( );

getch ( ); } inform the student that the path "d:\\tc\\bgi" should be changed according to machine setting. The code given here has been tested on Turbo C 3.0 Q6 List the different graphic function along with example ? (support various graphic function such as line (int x1, int y1, int x2, int y2) This draws a line from position (x1, g1) to (x2 , y2) example line (10,50,10, 100)

bar (int x1, int y1, int x2, int y2) this draws a filled rectangle with diagonal from (x1, y1) (x2,y2) bar (10,25, 100, 75) circle (int x, int y, int r); This draws a circle with at (X,Y) and radius of r example circle (50, 50, 10) arc (int x, int y) int start, int end, intr) This draws an arc of circle with the anter at (x,y) radius r and start and end specified in degress to maintain the portion of the circle that forms the arc. Example arc (100,100,0,90,20) draw the first quater of the circle arc, with circle (100,100) radius 20 Q.7 What is the use of malloc ( ) function in C ? The malloc ( ) function allocates memory foran object. The number of byte of memory to be allocated is specified as its parameter

Q.8 Explain the use of getimage ( ) and put image ( ) with example ? The getimage ( ) function captures the iamge inside the rectangle whose diagonal is defined by (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) where x1, y1, x2 and y2 are the first four parameters of get image ( ). The captured image is stored in an array which is specified as the last parameter of get image ( ). For example - to capture a rectangle whose diagonal is defined by (10,50) and (50,125) you can use the getimage ( ) function as int area = imagesize (10,50,50,125); unsigned char* buf = malloc (area) get image (10,50,50,125,buf); The putimage ( ) function copies the image captured using getimage ( ) starting at location (x,y) where X and Y are the first two parameter of this function. The image to be captured is specified as the third parameter. The fourth parameter of this function specified how the image has to be copied and takes any of the following value. COPY_PUT or 0 which copies the image XOR_PUT or 1 which perform an exclusive or between the background pixel and the image pixels. OR_PUT or 2 which perform an inclusive or between the back ground pixel and the iamge pixel. AND_PUT or 3 which perform an and between the background pixel and image pixel. NOT_PUT or 4 which inverts the pixel of the image Example - animate a rectangle as it is you can use the COPY_PUT option in putimage put image(10,50,buf, COPY_PUT)

CHAPTER-4 Q.1 What is multimedia ? Ans. Multimedia can be defined as presentation of information with integration of multiple media eleemnt that can be used on and manipulated by computer. This media include graphic software video, animation software and computer hardware such as CD player, scanner and cameras. Q.2 What are the component of Multimedia ? The components of Multimedia are : Text Graphic Sound Animation Video Q.3 : With illustration briefly narrate the origin and development of multimedia technology ? Multimedia is an effective medium to express information in a more attrative way. It makes use of text picture audio, animation and video. It was started more than 25 years ago. However it only become population with the advent of desktop computer. Audio was the first multimedia data in corporated into desktop computing built around the tone synthesis chips. In adding video could also be captured displayed and stored on a computer disk with the help of digital overlay and capture boards instaleld on any ordinary computer. However the use of abidio and video on desktop. Computer was limited due to their large size and height computing power requirement. These limitation were overcome through the introduction of compression/decompression engines for reducing the sizes of these files.

As the demand increasing for multi standard compression on the same system several manufactures introduced a new generation of compression chips that support software programming. These chips contained hardware engineer for operation requiring high computer power and also integrated processors that can be programmed to control data flow with the chip. Such technology made audio and video boards capable of transferring data to computer system efficiently in some cases in real time. The advent of RISC technology parallel processing architecture high speed hard disk, optical disk driver and variety of interfacing devices made it possible to design computer system that have multimedia features as standard. The latest break through in the field of multimedia was the advent of the internet and other high speed networking technology. These have presented new opportunities such as video conferencing, medical imaging and scientific vasualization. Q.4 Give different application for multimedia Ans. Multimedia finds application in the field of entertainment, marketing broadcasting, advertising, publication, telecommunications, training, collaborative engineering and design manufacturing process become of its user friendly operation. Q.5 What are Sound Card ? Sound cards is the hardware for sound input and output. It is used with speaker headphone and microphones to record and play sound. Some sound card also include MIDI, Wav and mp3. Q.6 How do graphic help in digital image ? In digital imaging film less camera may capture an image electronically or an image may be traditionally created and scanned on it may be created directly on the computer using graphic packages. The last option is where graphics help digital imaging. Direct graphic can be created on a

computer in sophisticated features rich packages such Photoshop. These graphic editing packages allow creation of realistic digital image for use in multimedia application. In addition graphics packages also help to edit digital images which have been scanned on captured in digital cameras. Q.7 What are the different choices for digital imaging ? There are three different choices of digital imaging A film less camera may captured an image electronically. The image may be created with in the computer using various paints and illustration programs. The image may be created traditionally and than scanned into digital forms.

Q.8 What are the different kinds of films less cameras available in market? There are five different types of film lenses camera available in market. Video floppy disk cameras Digital Cameras PCMCIA Cameras Filmless Cameras Still Video cameras Q.9 Explain how an artist can make use of multimedia software for use work ? An artist can create illustration using illustration software such as Adobe Illustrator. He can also apply special effect to existing and new images through filters such as those in Photo Illustrator Q.10 Explain how moving image are recorded on the hard disk ? Moving image can be Captured or copied on the hard disk with the help of a Captured board. Digital Cameras RF or audio and video ports vailable in the capture board. with the help of any

Video Studio software lives image can be captured and stored on the hard disk. Q.11 Explain how Sound help in multimedia ? What are the major types of Sound files. Sound in multimediacan inlcude speech, special effect sound and msic. Sound is an essential components of a multimedia product such as video or animation and presentation. It helps to make a multimedia application, entertaining easy to understand and more presentable. Ex. - A presentation used for lompetion basis training can be more effective for student. If the text is also read out as it is displyed. The major types of sound file formt include wave files and MIDI files. Q.12 What is sampling ? The process of transfer of information from analog to digital is sampling. Q.13 What is animation ? Explain different types of animation techniques ? Animation is the process in which each fraem of a film or movies is producd individually and viewed in rapid sucession to give an illusion of continuous movement. On PC the two main types of animation techniques are Object animation It is the movement of unchanged text and object around the screen. Cell animation It made of different frames on screen centre they are rapidly displayed to simulate motion Q.14 Explain Morphing, Rendering and Wrapping. Morphing - It is the rpocess of transformation of one image to another by transformation and distortion of corresponding poid in both the image. Ex. - Kawasaki where the motor cycle change into chetah. Rendering - The process of converting your designed object with texturing and animation into an image or a series of image is called rendring. Wrapping - It is the process where certain parts of the image could be marked for a change and made to different one.

Q.15 What is meaning of file format ? The method by which software organizes the data in the saed file format. The finename extension or suffixes indicate the format or usage of the file. Several different types of file format are used by various Kinds of software. Ex. - GIF format used for web page image is a standard format that can be open by any program that support standard format. Q.16 Why do we use scanner ? Nme the different types of scanner. Scanner is a peripheral devices which captures real object or image and saved it in a digital file graphic. Different types of scanner are Flat bed Film Scanner Hand Held Scanner 3 D Scanner Q.17 What are the component of a multimedia system ? The component of multimedia system are as follows Monitor CPU Mouse Key board Micro phone CD drive and disk Speaker Digital Camera Joy stics

Scanner Printer Web Cambera

Q.18 Explain the significance of the file extension and file format. File format or ganize and store data in a specific format. The quality and characteristics of the format decide the quality and usage of the data stored in the file and the application which the file will be compatible. For exampel a graphic can be saved as a bit map file or a GIF file. In the first case the quality of graphic is good because bit map format does not compress data where as GIF does. However the size of the file in the first case will be much more than the size of the file in the first case will be much more than the size of the second case. Therefore bitmap graphics camera be used on web pages because they take a lot of time to load where GIF graphics can be used. File extensions help oa user as used as an application to ientify the file format. For Ex. You can identify a graphic fiel by its extension such as GIF or jpg. Similarly when you double click on a fig file. Window would read the extension and select the appropriate programes for opening the file.

CHAPTER 5 Q.1 How many colour are there in RGB colour mode ? Red, Green, and Blue. These colour are known as primary colour. Q.2 What is gamat in Phot shop ? The service of Colour that a colour system can demonstrate or print is called gamut in photshop.

A colour that can be displayed in RGB may be out of gamut and therefore uprintable for your CMYK setting. Q.3 What is layer ? Layer can be visualized as transparent sheet placed over one another in an image. Geating a layered image refer to putting different object on different value in a sequence. You can create empty layers and add content to them or you can create new layers from existing content. When you create a new layer it appears either above the selection layer or with the selection layer set in the layers palette. Layers setup help you organize and manage layers. You can use set to move layers as a group to apply attributes and masks to groups of layers and to reduce clutter in the layers palette. You can not create a new layer set within an existing layer set. Q.4 Name the different selection Tools ? The selection tools in Photoshop include the lasso tools, Pen, tools Marquee tool and path selection tool. Q.5 What are editing Tools. Editing tool are used to fine tane or modify graphic element. Photoshop delivers high powered image editing, photo retouching and composition tool. It also support features such as making colour Adjustment. Auto colour Command, Adjustment layers and fill layers and masking layers to help you get professional quality result. Q.6 Give the step to use Rubber stamp tool. Steps are top. Open the image that you wan to done. Select rubber stamp tools. Select an appropriate brush size and style from Brush drop down in the options bar at he

point.

Also set value for other options such as blendign mode capacity and flow. Determine how you want to align the sampled pixel. If you are aligned you can release the mouse button without losing the current sampling As a result the sampled pixel are applied continously so do matter how many times you

stop and resume painting. If you deselect aligned the sample pixel are applied from the initial sampling point each Select all layers to sample data from the visible layes deselect use. All layers are simple only from the active layer. Press alt and click the image that you want to clone to select the source point for cloning. Use brush to cloent he eimage by dragging the mouse on other area.

time you stop and resume painting.

The image will be cloned in that area. Q.7 What is File format ? Name different image file format ? The method by which the software or ganizes the data in the saved fiels is called the file format. The file name extension or suffixes indicate the format an usage of a file and brief description of that format. Several different types of files format are used by various kinds of software to save file. Example - GIF file format used for Web page image are standard fomat that can be opened by any program that support it. The various Image format are Tagged Image File format (GIF) (JEPG) (EPS) (PNF) (PNG)

TGA - Targa