" ~From "Roll on Columbia," by Woody Guthrie, American musician referring to the Columbia River
Iev
iewIP
c e ,%,i e w
Rol Introduction
Without electricity, modern life would be impossible. Almost every item on your person~from your shoes to your sunglasses~owes its manufacture to electrical power. Indeed, since this is also true of your clothing, without electricity you might well be completely naked. This chapter discusses electricity in the home. Most importantly, it tries to make physical and perceptible that difficulttovisualize stuff called electricity. The next chapter reports the struggles of early scientists~even as they were learning to ask the right questions~to grasp the elusive electricity. Together, both chapters provide a foundation of ideas and concepts, expressed mainly without equations.
Electric Charge. Once this law was understood, it became easier to manipulate electricity, and to study other electrical phenomena in a quantitative fashion. The amount of electric fluid is known as electric charge Q; its unit is the coulomb, or C. The electric fluid model serves as a conceptual guide through Chapter 8, which deal with static electricity and electric currents. The mathematical theory of electricity in electrical conductors, although not strictly analogous to the mathematical theory of ordinary fluids, nevertheless describes a type of fluid. As for air and water, the amount of the electric fluid is conserved. However, compared to air and water, the electric fluid has some special properties. Thus, two blobs with an excess (or a deficit) of electric fluid repel each other (a consequence of Dufay's discovery), whereas two drops of water are indifferent to each other. Our modern view of ordinary matter is that it has relatively light and mobile negatively charged electrons, and relatively heavy and immobile positively charged nuclei. This view can be made consistent with the electric fluid model and can explain Gray's two classes of materials, conductors and insulators.
Lightbulb
Neutral
Hot Metallic sides of bulb holder (to neutral) Ground (a) Contact on base (to hot) (b)
Figure R.1 (a) Grounded threeprong wall outlet. (b) Lightbulb with electrical contacts on its base and on sides.
You
"Hot"
Figure R.2 How grounded wiring protects you when there is a snort. feet, touching the ground, would provide a path for the current to flow, thus completing an electric circuit. The size difference in Figure R.1 (a) between the neutral and hot h o l e s ~ the neutral hole is visibly longer than the hot oneis to ensure that only one of the two possible types of connection takes place in devices like a lamp. Figure R. 1 (b) illustrates the connections for a lightbulb inserted in a lamp with a modern, asymmetrical ("polarized") twoprong plug, which in turn is plugged into a correctly wired wallsocket. The wallsocket's hot wire is connected to the (relatively inaccessible) base of the bulbholder. For an oldfashioned symmetrical ("unpolarized") twoprong plug, the hot wire could just as likely be connected to the more accidentally touched threaded end of the bulbholder; the first cartoon characters, of the prepolarized plug 1930s, regularly received shocks in this manner. To help ensure proper wiring, inside the lamp the screws for the two electrical connections typically have different colors, one like copper (the hot wire) and one that is silvergray (the neutral wire). The round prong, or ground wire, is employed for safety purposes. Figure R.2 depicts a "short" between the hot wire and the electrically conducting case of an electric drill. (A "short" is a connection that shouldn't be there; shorts are undesirable.) Without the ground wire, the drill operator would provide the only path from the hot wire to ground: hot wire to short to case to person to ground. With the ground wire, there is an alternate "path of least resistance" through which most of the electric current can pass: hot wire to short to case to ground wire to ground.
power in a house in the United States is provided at 120 V. The voltage oscillates from minimum to maximum and back again in 1/60 of a second. This corresponds to a frequency of 60 cps (cycles per second) or, more technically, 60 Hz (hertz). The power is provided by an electric company, which uses huge electrical generators to convert mechanical energy from turbines to electrical energy. The turbines are driven by water or by steam. The mechanical energy of the churning waters of the Columbia River (recall the quote at the beginning of the chapter) provides a large fraction of the power needs of the Pacific Northwest. On the other hand, the chemical energy released by burning coal or oil, or the nuclear energy released in a nuclear reactor, vaporizes water into steam and drives the steam that turns a turbine. The electric light had an extraordinary influence on human society. American children learn that, in the 1830s, the young presidenttobe Abraham Lincoln stayed up late reading by candlelight. However, by the 1890s, house lighting by electricity was becoming available in large cities. Nevertheless, not until the Rural Electrification Project of the 1930s did many parts of the United States finally become freed of the fire hazards of oil lamps and candles. In the year 2000, many people in the United States were still alive who could remember not having electrical lighting.
R~2.3
R.2~4
Hence the unit of charge, the coulomb (C), has the same units as the amperesecond, so C = As. If 0.2 C of charge is transferred in 5 s, by (R. 1) this corresponds to a current I = 0.2/5 = 0.04 A.
Resistance R
AV
I
I
Response ~ i
= .& V ~ R
Driving force
Figure R.3 A resistor, a voltage difference, and an electric current: Ohm's law. R~2o5
In (2), proportional means that R, called the electrical resistance, is independent of the value of A V. Ohm's law holds for copper, but not for silicon. Equation (R.2) can be made to apply to silicon if we let R depend on A V. Here's how to "read" (R.2). Knowing how to "read" an equation is an important skill. Equation (R.2) implies that if we measure both the "input" A V and the "output" l, and then we employ R = A V/I, then we can obtain the electrical resistance R. The unit of electrical resistance, the ohm, or f2 (the Greek letter Omega), is the same as a volt/amp = V/A. Thus S2 = V/A. Equation (R.2) does not apply to objects that store appreciable amounts of electrical energy (capacitors) or magnetic energy (inductors). Equation (R.2) also implies that if you increase the "input" A V, then you also increase the "output" l; and at fixed A V if you increase the resistance R, then you decrease "output" I. See Figure R.3. An equation like (R.2) holds for the water current through a pipe with a fluid resistance, driven by the pressure difference between one end of the pipe and the other. Of course, the units of voltage and pressure are different, as are the units of electric current and water current, and as are the units of electrical resistance and fluid resistance. Note that it is pressure difference that drives a water current; water will not flow through a pipe whose ends are connected to two reservoirs at the same pressure. Similarly, it is voltage difference that drives electric current through a wire; electric charge !2 will not flow through a wire whose ends are connected to two charge reservoirs at the same voltage. For water, we also can drive water current with water pumps. For electricity, we also can drive an electric current with voltaic cells, thermoelectric
devices, electromagnetic induction, and by a variety of other means. Any source of energy that drives an electric current (even voltage difference) is called an electromotive force, or emf. Such a source of energy does work on the electric charge, so it also provides a force that causes an electric current to flow.
(R.3)
first obtained by Joule, and for that reason sometimes called Joule's law. From (R.3), the greater the current I at fixed A V, the greater the power 72; and the greater the voltage difference A V at fixed current I, the greater the power ~P: 4 A at 120 V provides 480 W; 8 A at 120 V provides 960 W; and 8 A at 240 V provides 1920 W. We will now employ equations (R.1R.4) to answer some basic questions about power, voltage, current, electrical resistance, and electrical safety.
R~2,8
nearby object. For an air conditioner rated at 72  2 4 0 0 W, and A V = 120 V, (R.3) yields I = 20 A. Circuit breakers can safely carry such a current, but a 10 A or 12 A extension cord cannot. Note that, by (R.2), the air conditioner, when running, has an effective electrical resistance of R = 120/20 = 6 S2. Electrical motors, such as those employed in air conditioners, have different electrical properties when they are turning than when they have not yet started to turn. When turning, electrical motors produce a back emf that opposes the driving emf, and this causes the current to be less when it is running than when it is starting up. When an electrical motor is prevented from turning, no back emf is produced, so a larger current goes to the motor, which can cause it to burn out. Fuses are intended to burn out if excessively large currents flow through them, thus protecting electrical devices and electrical wiring from too large a current flow. Circuit breakers, on the other hand, do not burn out, and can be reset, and for that reason they have supplanted fuses in modern buildings. In the 1940s and earlier, when fuses were used instead of circuit breakers, many a house burned down because, on overloaded circuits, people "cleverly" replaced fuses by pennies, which permitted a much higher current flow than the fuses they replaced. (Those who knew that pennies would serve to pass current, like a fuse, but didn't know that they wouldn't protect the house wiring, unlike a fuse, illustrate the maxim that "a little knowledge is a dangerous thing.") Fuses (which typically are used in automobiles) must be replaced, once the cause of the electrical problem has been fixed.
to listen to radio stations. This is because it takes much more energy to turn a CD and to amplify the signal from the CD than to simply amplify the signal from the radio station. In terms of (R.3), the voltage difference A V is the same in both cases, but the current l is much greater when the CD, rather than the radio, is used. When you use a computer, the keyboard may actuate by detecting the effect of electric charge rushing back and forth when you exert pressure on a key. Inside the computer is a "hard disk" made of a magnetic recording material. This records information according to whether the magnetizations of some tiny magnetic particles are pointing along or opposite to a given direction in the plane of the disk. Most important of all to the computer are its integrated circuits, which contain miniaturized versions of circuit devices called resistors (Chapter 7), capacitors (Chapter 6), and transistors (Chapter 7). A monitor using a vacuum tube yields images from light produced by electrons that have been guided, either by electric forces (Chapters 2 and 3) or magnetic forces (Chapters 10 and 11), to the screen, on which special materials called phosphors (Chapter 5) have been deposited. (Phosphors absorb energy from the electrons and quickly release that energy as light.) Many portable computers use monitors with a liquid crystal screen; the images on the screen are determined by electric forces acting on the molecules of the liquid crystal material. Inkjet printers are not only powered and controlled by electricity, but even the ink is guided by electrical forces (Chapters 2 and 3) as it moves down toward the paper. Electrical forces hold the ink to the paper, just as they hold together the atoms and molecules of our own bodies.
4. How long does it take to discharge a car battery? A car battery with a charge of 50 Ahr will discharge after it has produced either 50 A for one hour, or 10 A for 5 hours, and so forth. We now find the time to discharge it if we leave the headlights on. Using the 35 W value for one low beam, we must use a power of 70 W for both. From (R.3), with 12 V, that means a current of 5.83 A. Hence, by (R. 1) it takes 50 Ahr/5.83 A = 8.6 hr to fully discharge a 50 Ahr battery. 5. What maximum current can a car battery provide? Ads for batteries tell us that: "600 coldcranking amps." Some batteries can produce as much as 1000 A. They are intended for use either at very high temperatures (where they very readily discharge due to nonelectricityproducing chemical reactions) or at very low temperatures (where all chemical reactions~even those producing electricity~are suppressed). 6. What is the electrical resistance r of a car battery? We can estimate it, using the maximum current and the concept of impedance matching (of the battery and the starting motor). In (R.2) we use 12 V for the battery, a current of 600 A, and a total resistance of the impedancematched battery and starting motor of R  r r = 2r. This leads to r  R / 2  A V / 2 I = 0.01 ~. A battery may be characterized by its emf, its "charge," and its internal resistance. 7. Which provides electrical energy more cheaply, the battery company or the electric company? The electric company~by about a factor of 1001. This is why we don't light our houses with giant flashlights. We use batteries primarily because they are portable sources of electrical energy. 8. Why do voltaic cells run down? They obtain their energy from chemical reactions at the terminals (called the electrodes). Material at the electrodes and in the interior of the voltaic cell (called the electrolyte) are consumed by the chemical reactions. 9. What is the difference between the way electric charge is carried in a wire and in a voltaic cell? In a wire, negatively charged electrons carry the electric charge. In a voltaic cell, ions (which are much more massive than electrons and can be either positive or negative) carry the electric charge. 10. If a battery is thought of as a "pump" for electricity, where in the battery is the pump located? Each of the two electrodeelectrolyte interfaces, at the positive and negative terminals, serves as a pump. Small AA cells and larger D cells have the same chemistry, and thus the same pump strength per unit surface area of their electrodes. But the much larger D cell has a much larger charge in its electrolytes and electrodes. D and AA cells have about the same internal resistance. 11. Does a 9 V battery work on a different principle than a 1.5 V AA cell? No. Open up a 9 V battery and you will find six 1.5 V cells connected in series (the positive terminal of one is connected to the negative terminal of the next). Note that not all 1.5 V cells employ the same chemical reactions. 12. How do jumper cables work? They connect two batteries in parallel (both of the positive terminals are connected, and both of the negative terminals are connected). Then both batteries can provide electric power to the starting motor.
10
R~
[The service of the electric fluid concept] to the science of electricity, by suggesting and coordinating experiments, can hardly be overestimated. [For, in the laboratory,] if we move a piece of brass or decrease the effect we are observing, we do not fly to the higher mathematics, but use the simple conception of the electric fluid which would tell us as much as we wanted to know in a few seconds.
In order to avoid having to "fly to the higher mathematics" (which even mathematically sophisticated scientists sometimes would like to avoid), we too will employ the "conception of the electric fluid." The reader will be warned when the analogy breaks down, at which time the model will be modified to produce a more precise physical picture of the phenomenon of electricity. Science constantly develops and refines its most important ideas.
11
iliiii iiii!iii!i!Jiiiiii!Jiiiiiiiii!iii!iiiiii!i iiiiiiiiiiii iii!iiiiiii !ii!iiiii!iiiiiiiiiiiiiiii!iiiiiiii!iNiiii!iiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii i iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii!iiiiiiiii!i ii! !iii!i i iiiiiii!!iiii!iiiiiiiiiiiiiiii !! iiii!iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii!!!iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii!iiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii!iiiiiiiii ii!iiiiiiiiii iii !iiiiiii!i!iiiiii;iiiiiiiil iili
Amount (electric charge) Electrical potential or voltage Capacitor Charge flow (electric current) Wires and resistance to charge flow Batteries or the electric company Electrical breakdown (e.g., sparking)
Amount (mass) Pressure Reservoir Mass flow (mass current) Pipes and resistance to mass flow Pumps Reservoir breakdown
current knowledge of the microscopic constitution of matter. Under the circumstances, Franklin's conception was remarkably good; moreover, in the scientific tradition, he modified his views, as new facts became available. Broadly speaking, we can set up the equivalences shown in Table R. 1. 1. Amount: Mass and Electric Charge Ordinary matter has a number of properties, the most important of which for our purposes are mass and electric charge. Mass M (measured in kilograms, kg) is a positive quantity, and mass density (mass per unit volume, kg/m 3) is also a positive quantity. Water has a background mass density that is always positive, and increases only slightly when the system is put under pressure. Moreover, the addition of matter can only increase the amount of mass. On the other hand, electric charge can be either positive or negative. The net electric charge Q is the algebraic sum of the positive and negative electric charges. Increases in the net electric charge can occur either by increasing the amount of positive charge or by decreasing the amount of negative charge. The addition of matter can increase, Franklin, on the other hand, considered decrease, or leave unchanged the amount of elecordinary matter to be immobile and untric charge. Ordinary atoms have zero net charge: charged, sort of a sponge for the posthey have positive charge in their relatively itively charged electric fluid. The most massive nuclei and an equal amount of negative important aspect of Franklin's concepcharge in the relatively light electrons surroundtion is that there is an electric fluid that ing the nucleus. The less massive electrons can can be neither created nor destroyed, be stripped off or added to an atom or collection and therefore it is conserved. of atoms (e.g., a solid).
To Franklin we owe the concept of an excess or deficit of electrical fluid, the idea of connecting electrical storage devices in series and in parallel, a deep appreciation of the distinction between conductors and insulators, and the lightning rod. He is also responsible for bifocals, the rocking chair, the heatretaining Franklin stove, daylightsaving time, and a host of other inventive ideas. It was Franklin's fame as a scientistm many of his electrical experiments were performed in the court of the French King Louis XVmthat later gave him the credibility in France to plead the case of the American Colonies against the British.
12
Recall from (R.2) that the unit of charge, the coulomb (C), is based upon the unit of electric current, the ampere (A). If one amp of dc current flows for one second, it transfers one coulomb of charge, so C = As. Recall that a 50 Ahr battery has a "charge" Q of It, or (50 A)(3600 s)  180,000 C. This vastly exceeds the amount that can be held by the nonchemical charge storage devices called capacitors, to be discussed shortly. (Batteries can provide currents as large as their emf divided by their internal resistance, and for a considerable period of time. Capacitors can provide very large currents, but only for very short periods of time.) The charge on the electron is  e , where e ~ 1.6 x 10 19 C. This is very small; billions of electrons are transferred to your comb when you run it through your hair. (This sounds like a lot of electrons. However, your hair contains billions of billions of billions of electrons. Don't worry about rubbing too many electrons out of your hair.)
Dividing both the far lefthand and the far righthand sides of this equation by mass per unit volume yields pressure mass per unit volume energy mass
This quantity, an energy per unit mass, has the same units as gravitational potential and is analogous to electrical potential, which is an energy per unit charge. However, because a fluid like water is nearly incompressible, pressure and pressure divided by mass per unit volume are nearly proportional to each other. Hence pressure and voltage are nearly analogous. With an excess of positive or negative charge, we can produce either positive or negative voltage. On the other hand, it is not possible to produce stable negative pressures, although small negative pressures can be produced temporarily (e.g., when a motor blade turns quickly through the water). At negative pressures, bubbles spontaneously formthe technical term is cavitation. Pressure in water depends on the collisions of neutral atoms with a wall or with one another. Pressure changes are communicated similarly by collisions between water molecules. This leads to the generation of sound, which in water travels at a speed of about 1435 m/s. On the other hand, voltage changes are communicated by the longrange electrical force, which propagates at the velocity of light (about 3 x 10 s m/s). This implies that, along an ordinary electric circuit, voltage changes are nearly instantaneously transmitted, and that throughout a "charge reservoir" the voltage is nearly uniform. However, for a long communications cable, the signal is precisely a nonuniform voltage, which travels along the cable in a short but finite time. 3. Reservoirs and Capacitors Water is often stored in a reservoir or a water tower. For our purposes, we will think of a reservoir as being a tank of water
13
v'
Figure R.4 Schematic of how electric charge goes to the outside of a conductor. The invisible body associated with the ghostly hand is in electrical contact with the cage, which itself is both charged up and on an insulating platform.
that is under pressure. Electric charge, too, can be stored in electrical reservoirs, called capacitors. Although a water reservoir has all the water uniformly distributed throughout its volume, a charge reservoir, such as a metallic plate or bar, has any excess charge distributed (not necessarily uniformlyl.) over its surface. A person standing within a chargedup metal cage will not be charged up, but on passing his hand through the bars, charge will flow from the outside of the cage to the person's hand, which now serves as part of the outside surface of the cage. See Figure R.4. In Chapter 4, we will study why this occurs. It is related to the fact that there are two types of electric charge, that "opposites attract and likes repel", and to the specific way in which the electrical force between two charges falls off with distance. Before electrical reservoirs, experimenters worked directly with the electricity produced by an electrical source (such as a silkrubbed glass rod). The first type of electrical reservoir was a bar of metal, called a prime conductor, placed upon an insulating surface to keep it from losing its charge. (Because, in equilibrium, the net charge on a conductor resides on its surface, a cannonball and a metalized balloon of the same radius are equally effective at storing charge.) The second type of storage device was the Leyden jar (see Figure R.5). It has two surfaces~the outer tinfoil surrounding the glass and the inner water surface touching the glass~that hold equal and opposite charges + Q Later the Leyden jar was given the name condenser (this usage survives today in the language of automobile ignition systems) because it "condensed" the electricity. There is a voltage difference A V across the two plates, with + Q at the higher voltage. The modern name for the condenser, the capacitor, indicates that these devices have the capacity to store electric charge. This is expressed in terms of what is called the capacitance C = Q / A V, whose unit is the farad (F), which is the same as a coulomb/volt, so F = C/V.
14
Figure R.5 The Leyden jar. The glass prevents charges on the inner and outer surfaces from making contact. Modern capacitors consist of two pieces ("plates") of electrical conductor separated by an electrical insulator, in geometries that maximize the area of each plate and minimize the plate separation (subject to no plate contact, which would cause discharge). In this way, large amounts of electric charge, equal in quantity but opposite in sign, can be collected. Capacitors are crucial for the proper operation of nearly all types of electrical equipment. Just as the pressure in a pressurized water reservoir is uniform, so the voltage on a single capacitor plate is uniform. The two plates of a capacitor are like two distinct reservoirs of water. 4. Mass and Charge Flow A mass current to a region corresponds to an increase in the mass of that region. Mass current, or mass flow, is measured in units of kg/sec. Water current is sometimes expressed in terms of volume flow, in units of m3/sec. To repeat, electric current, or charge flow, is measured in units of the ampere A, or coulomb/sec = C/s, sometimes called the amp. An electric current to a region corresponds to an increase in the net charge of that region. A net increase can be due to a flow of positive charge into the region, a flow of negative charge out of the region, or a combination of the two. In a voltaic cell, or in salt water, the charge carriers are both positively and negatively charged ions (e.g., in salt water, the Na + is a positive ion, and the C1 is Newton's laws do not correctly describe a negative ion). Ions lead to ionic conduction. In the orbital motion of electrons within a metal, the charge carriers are electrons. Howatoms and molecules. However, modever, not all electrons in a metal are able to move ern physics (properly, what is called freely; the ones that move freely are called conquantum mechanics) permits electron duction electrons. Using the modern conception orbits to be described in terms of orof the orbital, we would say that the conduction bitals. These specify the probability of finding an electron at any given position electrons are in delocalized orbitals, which can exin space. tend throughout the metal. Other electrons in the metal are in localized states and cannot move freely. Electrons lead to electronic conduction. In insulators, all the orbitals are localized. This explains Gray's observation that some materials are conductors and some are insulators.
15
Electrical insulators, such as air or glass or wood, conduct electricity, but much less effectively than good electrical conductors, such as copper. For example, glass is about 20 orders of magnitude less effective than copper at carrying electricity. This extraordinary variation in material properties is why, as a first approximation, we can make a simple distinction between conductors and insulators. The electrical conductivity and its inverse, the electrical resistivity, provide a continuous scale for the conducting abilities of materials. Semiconductors, like silicon, are intermediate between conductors and insulators in their ability to conduct electricity.
5. Pipes and Wires
Just as pipes have a certain resistance to the flow of water, so do wires have a certain resistance to the flow of electricity. To make the analogy more precise, the water pipes should be filled with fine sand or, better yet, with powder. Then the friction on the water occurs throughout the volume of the pipe, by collisions of the water against the sand. This is like the friction on the electrons that occurs throughout the volume of the wire, by collisions of the electrons against the atomic nuclei. The sand also serves to prevent turbulent flow of the water. Turbulent flow of electricity takes place only in ionized plasma, such as the atmosphere of a star or inside some vacuum tubes. Here is an important difference between water in pipes and electrons in wires: the electrons are always in the wires, ready to produce an electric current, whereas sometimes the pipes have to fill with water before they can produce a water current. A quantity of water, in motion becoming a water current, is driven through a pipe from higher pressure to lower pressure. Similarly, a quantity of electricity, in motion becoming an electric current, is driven through a wire from higher voltage to lower voltage, as described by (R.2). The amount of mass current or electric current is proportional to the amount of the pressure difference or voltage difference, the amount of current being inversely proportional to the resistance of the pipe or tube. Monitoring the pressure difference (or voltage difference) along the length of a currentcarrying pipe (or wire) of uniform constitution and crosssection shows that it varies linearly from the higher pressure (or voltage) to the lower one. Just as, at a given instant of time, different water molecules enter one end of the pipe and exit the other end, so different electrons enter one end of a wire and exit the other end.
Just as water pumps generate pressure differences between the ends of a pipe, so do voltaic cells generate voltage differences across the ends of a wire. A water pump can drive water current around a water circuit that includes a fountain. For example, the water circuit could be: pumptopipe#1tofountaintopipe#2topumptopipe#1 .... Similarly, a voltaic cell can drive electric current around an electric circuit that includes, for example, a lightbulb. The electric circuit would be: voltaic cell to wire#1tolightbulbtowire#2tovoltaic celltowire#1 .... Further, a capacitor can drive current through a lightbulb, but such current typically lasts only a short time because capacitors usually discharge relatively quickly. Just as the water company provides water at high pressure, the electric company provides electricity at high voltage. However, whereas the water company provides dc power (at a certain pressure, corresponding to the
16
In describing water, we do not say that "a high pressure passed across the pipe"; we say that "a high current passed through the pipe, driven by the high pressure difference across its ends." However, in describing electricity, the popular press often employs incorrect usage, such as "he received a shock when a high voltage passed through him." Sometimes surged = passed might be employed. By Ohm's law, (R.2), much better usage would be "on touching the wire, there was a high voltage difference between his hand and the ground, causing a large electric current to pass through him."
height of the water tower), the electric company provides an oscillating, or ac, power. Recall that dc stands for direct current, and ac stands for alternating current. Voltage is standardized throughout each nation (otherwise electrical equipment would not operate properly), whereas water pressure can vary considerably from town to town. However, ac power varies from nation to nation: in Europe, it typically has a frequency of 50 Hz and a voltage of 220 V. The idea of a battery of voltaic cells is due to Volta. Chemical energies limit voltaic cells to emfs on the order of a few volts, so to get higher voltages with voltaic cells, we follow Volta and put them in series. Before Volta, Franklin had employed batteries of Leyden jars, both in series and in parallel.
m
Breakdown Phenomena Just as the walls of a reservoir or a pipe normally are impermeable to the flow of water, so electrical insulators, such as air or glass or wood, normally are impermeable to the flow of electricity. In some cases, there is temporary electrical breakdown in an insulator~for example, sparking in aircorresponding to the temporary opening of a relief valve in a high pressure tank. Sometimes, however, there is catastrophic electrical breakdown~such as sparking, or even lightning~corresponding to the bursting of a water tank under too high a pressure. Sparking and lightning are very variable. A lightning bolt might carry a peak current of 10,000 A and transfer a net negative charge of a few C from a cloud to the earth. (However, lightning sometimes transfers charge the other way; when it does the bolts are exceptionally powerful!) Under ordinary conditions, negative charge flows upward within the atmosphere from the earth, partly due to negative ions flowing upward and partly from positive ions flowing downward. Lightning is a complex and still poorly understood phenomenon.
17
To ground (b)
Figure R.6 Depictions of electric current flow. (a) Electric shock. (b) Electrical discharge.
wateralso will charge up. Because the band members are conductors, this excess charge goes to their surface, which includes their hair. Strands of hair, being relatively light, and charged with the same sign, will repel one another (they will also be repelled by the charge all over the platform); thus their hair stands on end. (Some people think that, somehow, the hair stands up on end because it is discharging into the air. Not so. Hair can stand up on end even when the voltage is too small to cause noticeable discharge into the air.)
2. Should the band members jump off or step off?
Assume that the band members are wearing shoes with soles of leather (a much better electrical conductor than rubber). When they step down from the platform, they will provide a relatively good path for electricity to flow from the platform to ground, and vice versa. The electricity will be supplied constantly by the power source, and thus will flow through them as long as they are in contact with both platform and ground. The electrical path from one foot to the other passes the midriff and will include the region of the heart, so the chance of electrocution will be significant. See Figure R.6(a). On the other hand, if the band members jump to the ground, they will be much safer. At the instant they jump, they have a small excess of electric charge, which they retain until they hit the ground and receive a small, momentary shock as they discharge. See Figure R.6(b). They then will be at the same voltage as ground, and there will be no more current flow, unlike what would happen if they were touching the platform with one foot, and the ground with the other. In a sense, while in the air they are like a charged capacitor, and when they discharge, they are like a discharging capacitor.
18
equipment for hours, with their equipment accidentally shorted ("short" for "short wire connection," which means "directly connected") to high voltage (e.g., 440 V) ac power lines without noticing anything unusual~like their hair standing on end. The hairstandingonend effect certainly occurs for people standing on insulated platforms who touch a Van de Graaf generator as it charges up to thousands of dc volts. Although 440 V dc probably would be sufficient to cause hair to stand on end, for the 440 V of an ac power line, the effect probably does not occur because the time it takes hair to respond to charge and discharge exceeds 1/60 of a second. In Chapter 8, we consider the charge and discharge of a capacitor of capacitance C through a path, such as a wire, with electrical resistance R. (Do not confuse the italicfont capacitance, C, with the Romanfont coulomb, C.) Technically, this is called R C charge and discharge, and we will show that it takes place in the characteristic time RC. (R has the unit of f2 = V / A , and C has the unit of F = C/V, so RC has the unit of ( V / A ) ( C / V ) = C / A = second.) Since it takes on the order of a few seconds for someone's hair to stand up when connected to a Van de Graaf generator, for this situation, RC may be as large as a few seconds. This long charging time is an indication that, although Van de Graaf generators can develop a high dc voltage, they cannot provide a large continuous current. For that reason the spark, however uncomfortable, discharges the generator, which then takes a few seconds to recharge. (Batteries produce lower voltages, but more sustained currents.) A fluid analogy to R C discharge would be the discharge of a water tank (of finite fluid capacity) through a water pipe of finite fluid resistance. The larger the tank or the narrower~and thus more resistive~the pipe, the longer the time to charge or discharge.
R.7.2
19
0.001 A) may be enough to cause this to occur. In such cases, it is often easier to stop the heart completely by giving it an even larger shock, and then to restart it properly by yet another shock.
R~8,2
20
1 doorplate
1 handle
Chargedup s ~
~'++
T~ (a)
++ +
,,
Charges on rug
(b)
Figure R.7 An example of spark discharge. (a) Electrostatic induction with charge conservation. (b) The sparking process.
of positive charge near the finger. (4) When the person's hand approaches close enough to the doorknob, a spark occurs, and the finger rids itself of excess negative charge, as in Figure R. 7 (b). In Figure R. 7 there are too many charges to depict (some 1023, with nearly equal amounts of positive and negative !), so we draw only uncompensated charge. The sparking process itself is surprisingly complex; it is initiated not by electrons on the finger or the door handle, but rather by electrons in the air.
R~8o3
21
Figure R.8 Different interpretations of positive and negative charges. An excess of electrons is represented by a negative; a deficit, by a positive. (a) For conductors, the charges represent the collective effect of some 1023 delocalized electron orbitals. (b) For insulators, the charges represent the effect of individual electrons. R,~8o4
R~8o5
22
electron. Again, by a collective effect involving all the charge carriers, rather than any individual chargecarrier, the electric charge gets redistributed over the electrical conductor. Electrons in surface orbitals are responsible for the behavior of many semiconducting devices.
R.8,6
23
Figure R.9 Fieldline and charge representation of a sequence of charging operations. (a) Charging process. (b) Charge separation. (c) Electrostatic induction on conducting sphere. (d) Just before discharge of sphere. (e) After discharge of sphere. (f) Isolated, charged, spherical conductor.
R~8~7
24
electrostatic induction, so the field lines from the sphere lead to the tabletop. This discussion implicitly assumes that electric charge does not spontaneously appear or disappear~what is called the principle of charge conservation.
R~8~8
R.8.9
Figure R.IO Distinction between matter flow and energy flow. (a) Water flows within a pipe (associated with energy flow). (b) Electrons flow within a wire, but energy associated with the electric field flows even outside the wire (e.g., radio and TV waves).
25
Ro8,10
Conclusion
Despite the greater sophistication of modern conceptions of the atomic and electronic nature of matter, the electric fluid model~suitably modified~continues to be a valuable way to represent the electric charge and electric current for an electrical conductor. In reading the next eight chapters, keep in mind that the electric fluid is characterized by three important properties: electric charge (which is conserved), electric field (a vector that is produced by electric charge), and electric voltage (a scalar that also is produced by electric charge). In Chapter 1, we consider charge conservation. Next, we consider electric force (Chapter 2), electric field (Chapter 3), the relation between charge and field (Chapter 4), and the relations between field and voltage and between charge and voltage (Chapter 5). With the concept of voltage finally defined precisely, we turn our attention to capacitance C in Chapter 6 (where every part of a piece of metal in equilibrium has the same voltage), to resistance R in Chapter 7 (where the voltage varies along a piece of metal that is not in equilibrium), and both in Chapter 8. At the end of Chapter 8, before we begin the study of magnetism, we discuss the limitations of the lumped circuit approach (R's and C's) to the response of electric circuits.
Ro9oi
W h a t Is a V e c t o r ? The first definition you probably had of a vector is that it is a quantity with magnitude anddirection. A position vector ~ in three dimensions can be represented by its components along the ~, ~, ~axes, which gives the triplet of numbers (x, y, z) or (x, y, zl. Under rotation, the components of a position vector transform according to a specific rule. That rule (which we're not going to specify because in general it is very complex) must preserve (1) the magnitude of any vector and (2) the angle between any two vectors. Vectors more general than position vectors can be defined. A vector can be a velocity or an acceleration or a force; by taking higher time derivatives of the acceleration, we can form an infinite number of vectors. A vector can be an electric or magnetic field. Such vectors transform under rotations in the same way that position vectors transform. As a consequence, the magnitude of any
26
vector, and the angle between any two vectors~even vectors of different types, like position and velocity~do not change under rotations. If a triplet of numbers doesn't transform properly under rotations, then it isn't a vector. For example, a triplet of numbers that doesn't change at all when the coordinate system is rotated is not a vector. Thus the triplet (P1, P2, P3), where P1, P2, and P3 are the phone bills for your first three months in college, is a triplet of numbers, but it's not a vector under rotations. Neither is the triplet (Ixl, ly], Izl); it transforms under rotations, but not in the right way. Our definition of a vector in terms of its behavior under rotation is very restrictive. Note that each of the entries in a vector ~ = (ax, ay, a~) must have the same dimension; we can't have ax a distance and ay a velocity. Get in the habit of writing arrows over vectors. Something like F  mF~, with a vector on the righthand side and a scalar on the lefthand side, is mathematical nonsense. F = m8 ~ G O O D ; F  rn~ , BAD.
Note:/~1 is a vector whose name is the subscript 1. Hence/~x is a vector whose name is the subscript x, not the xcomponent of/~. Also, the xcomponent of/~ is written as Fx or (F)x, not as ]Fx].
R~9~2
What Is a Scalar?
By scalar, we mean a number (perhaps one with dimensions, such as a mass) that doesn't change under rotations. The single number, or singlet, ~ ' ~ ax is not a scalar under rotations, because ax of the vector ~ changes under rotations; however, the magnitude ]~] is a scalar under rotations.
That is, vector addition satisfies a commutative rule. (So does addition of the real numbers.) You should verify (R.5) by (1) in the xyplane, drawing two vectors (call them ~ and 1)), their tails both on the origin; and (2) adding them with the tail of ~ on the origin and the tail of l) on the tip of ~ (this is ~ + C)), and adding them in the reverse order. For three vectors with the same dimension, we have the right and left associativity rules that
(e.6)
That is, the order in which we add vectors, no matter how many of them, doesn't matter (similarly, for addition of the real numbers). Suppose we are to sum 100
27
vectors, the second 50 of which are the negatives of the first 50. This rule allows us to rearrange them to get zero for each pair of opposites, and then sum to get zero, rather than moronically (e.g., like a computer) adding them all up and then subtracting them all back down to zero. Subtraction of g from ~ is defined as the vector addition of ~ and ~),  ~ has the same magnitude as g, but points in the opposite direction. (If we think of the real numbers as having a direction with respect to the origin, then for a real number d, the real number  d has the same magnitude Idl but points in the opposite direction.) Thus we write  ~  ~ + (~)). Note that
 b (g  a ) . (e.8)
(R.7)
That is, vector subtraction satisfies an anticommutative rule (so does subtraction of real numbers).
x~ ~
(R.9)
holds, so it doesn't matter which way we multiply vectors by scalars. Note that if k has dimensions (e.g., mass), then k~ has different dimensions than ~ (e.g., F  m~ of Newton's second law). Under multiplication by the scalar ~, vector addition satisfies the right and leftdistributive laws"
R,9~
a
+ zk,
f)  bxl + by ~ + bzk.
(R.11)
28
~=ixi
J
r a
(a)
(b)
Figure R.11 (a) A unit triad and a curled right hand. (lo) Two vectors in their common plane, and the angle between them.
By t h e P y t h a g o r e a n t h e o r e m , t h e m a g n i t u d e
a
*
. a
~
a x + a~ + a z 
lal 2 .
(R.12)
U n d e r multiplication of a vector ~ by a scalar k, each c o m p o n e n t of ~ is m u l t i p l i e d by k. This is relevant to unit vectors. We can convert any ~ to a unit vector ci via
a

(R.13)
Magnitude of a vector
Let ~  ( 1 2 , 1 5 ,  16) in units of cm. Find lal. Solution: Equation
(R.12) gives
Rotating a vector
We now put together the different parts of this section. Let ~ = (3, 4, 0), corresponding to a vector that is 5 units long, at an angle oftan 1 (4/3) = 53.1 degrees counterclockwise to the xaxis. (a) Find the vector 8' that corresponds to a clockwise rotation by 25 degrees. (b) Show that the magnitudes la'l = lal. Solution: At the outset, note that the rotation should yield a vector that is 5 units long, at an angle of 53.1  25 = 28.1 degrees counterclockwise to the xaxis.
R. 10 Multiplication of Vectors
29
(a) Because a vector is the sum of its components, we can consider how the x and ycomponents transform separately. The xcomponent of a, or 3, transforms into a part 3 cos(25) along x, and a part  3 sin(25) along y. The ycomponent of a, or 4, transforms into a part 4 cos(25) along y, and a part 4 sin(25) along x. The sum has xcomponent 3 cos(25) + 4 sin(25) = 4.41, and ycomponent  3 sin(25) + 4 cos(25) = 2.36. Thus a' _= (4.41, 2.36, 0). This makes an angle of tan 1 (2.36/4.41) = 28.1 degrees counterclockwise to the xaxis, as expected. (lo) By (R.12), l a ' l  ~/4.412 + 2.362 + 02  5.00 = lal, as expected. Thus lal transforms as a scalar.
R, IO Multiplication of Vectors
R~
(R.14)
constructed from the true vector gt  (a~, ay, az). For a = (5, 0, 0), (R. 14) gives = [0, 0, 0]. Under a rotation about z by tan 1 4/3 ~ 53 ~ a goes from (5, 0, 0) to (3, 4, 0). Then, by (R.14) ~ goes from [0, 0, 0] to [0, 0, 12~/2]. This creature certainly does not behave like a vector under rotations, for it goes from the origin to a point on the zaxis when we rotate about the zaxis, and its magnitude has changed! The moral is that we can't just make up an arbitrary triplet and expect it to behave like a vector under rotations. For that reason, before considering how to construct a third vector from the vectors a and ~, let's first consider the simpler problem of how to construct a scalar from d and ~.
30
The scalar product arises naturally in many physical contexts, such as the definition of work W. If a constant force/~ moves an object by the vector distance ~, the work done is W  IFIl~ll cos Or,,;l, (R.15)
where 0F ~ is the angle between /~, and F. This quantity is a scalar under rotation because IF I, 171, and ~)p ~ don t change under rotation. More generally, to obtain the'scalar product of two vectors ~ and ~, we multiply the magnitude ]al of the first vector by the projection [l)l cos ~)a~ of the second vector along the first. Thus the scalar product is a measure of th'e projection of one vector on another. In equation form, ~. b  I~11blcos ~)~,6(R.16)
Because lal, ]bl, and ~)a,~ are scalars under rotations, the dot product of (R.16) also is a scalar under rotations. Clearly, the scalar product is bilinear in 8 and b. In scalar multiplication, 8 and b need not have the same dimensions. The corresponding angle 0~,a from b to 8 equals 0a,6. Thus the dot product in the reverse order is
E,. aI~,llal
(R.17)
Hence, comparing (R. 16) and (R. 17), we see that the order of the vectors doesn't matter: ~ b  b. ~. (commutative law) (R. 18)
The dot product is said to be commutative; the projection of ~ on ~ is the same as the projection of ~ on b. The dot product is also said to be right distributive, meaning that the projection of l) + 6 on ~ in ~. (i) + 6) is the sum of the projections of b on ~ and of 6 on ~. See Figure R.12(a). We use the n o t a t i o n Cpar to indicate the component in the ~bplane of the vector ~. This takes advantage of the fact that we can choose a coordinate system such that ~ is along the xaxis, and [9 is in the xy plane. Although 6 must be given all three components, its component along z doesn't matter for the purposes of projection along x. Thus
a. (F)+Oa. F)+a.6.
(R.19)
The dot product is also left distributive, meaning that the projection of l) + on ~ in (~)+ 6). ~ is the sum of the projections of ~) on ~ and of ~ on ~. We can also obtain this left distributive law by applying (R. 18) (twice) and (R. 19) (once)"
(a +
(a+F))6. a+6. b  a .
b.
R. 10 Multiplication of Vectors
31
+
b
(b+c)~~
..~
Plane of a and b
(a)
..+ + a x b
(\
Co)
Figure R.12 (a) The distributive law of the scalar product. (b) The vector product righthand rule.
R+10~
,:?.++ 1. j  k . k  t,
i.jj.lj.kk.jk.ll.ko.
(R.21)
We can now apply the two commutative laws and (R.21) to d and ~) written out in component form. This yields
(R.22)
where the distributive laws permitted us to rearrange (not shown) the nine dot products of unit vectors, and (R.21) permitted us to reduce those nine dot products to only three nonzero terms. Note that, if 0  ~, then 0a, ~ = 0, and its cosine is one. Thus, by (R. 12) the dot product should yield the magnitude squared of the vector ~. Indeed, for this case (R.22) reduces to (R. 12). Comparing (R. 16) and (R.22) we find that ~. i )  Idl Ii)l cos 0a, ~  axbx + ayby + azbz. (R.23)
32
Equation (R.23) permits us to quickly, accurately, and easily compute the magnitude of any vector (set f)  ~ to get I~i, and the angle between any two vectors). Our scalar product is bilinear, commutative, and distributive.
~
Let
Scalarproduct
b  (175,168, 576).
(R.24)
R.10.4
where O~ ~ is the ang!e between F and/~. ]s is a scalar under rotation because ]/~ ], ]F], and O~~ don t change under rotation. Because the torque s causes the object to spin ~bout an axis given by the vector product righthand rule (applied to F and F), we identify the direction of s with this axis. More generally, to obtain the vector product ~ x ~) of two vectors ~ and 1), we obtain its magnitude as the area of the parallelogram formed by ~ and ~), so I~ x b l J~llbll sinOa, bl. (R.26)
This magnitude is a scalar under rotation because lal, ]bl, and Oa,g don't change under rotation. The vector product typically has different dimensions than either of the original vectors. Clearly, (R.26) is bilinear in lal and Ibl In general, to obtain the direction of ~ x ~, we employ tl~e vector product righthand rule that is used to go from the unit vectors ~ and j to the perpendicular unit vector/e. More generally, for two vectors ~ and b, swing your right
R. 10 Multiplication of Vectors
33
hand in the plane of 8 and i) from 8 to ~9through the angle of less than 180~ your thumb will then point along the direction of d x ~. See Figure R.12(b). (We assume that d and ~) are not collinear.) A "stupidity check" that you're not doing something totally wrong (the sort of "zeroth rule" you'd like to have about anything) is (1) identify the plane of 8 and ~); (2) take 8 x ~ normal to this plane; (3) ifyour application ofthe vector product righthand rule is not normal to that plane, you know you've done something wrong, and you should start over. With this rule, the effect of the operation x on the unit vectors is
~ j  k   j x ~ ,
j215 k
j,
]~"
k,
(R.27)
where 0  (0, O, O) has all three components set to zero. In general, the crossproduct rule is not commutative: it gives x ~) ~) x ~. (R.28)
Because of the sign change, the crossproduct is said to be anticommutative. We can prove the right distributive law
a f f + 0  a 2 1 5
(R.29)
by a geometrical construction. First, we project ~) and E onto the plane perpendicular to 8. This is done in Figure R. 13(a), where we take 8 to be normal to the page, and we employ the subscript perp to indicate only the parts of ~, E, and r) + j that are perpendicular to 8. Clearly, (~)perp nt Cperp) = ~)perpJr Cperp. Next, we consider the crossproducts, obtained from the projections on multiplying by lal and rotating counterclockwise by 90 ~ This is done in Figure R.13(b), which shows that (R.29) indeed is satisfied. Using anticommutivity (twice) and right distributivity (once), we have
(a + g) x e   e x (a + g)   e x a  e x ~  a x e + g x
(b+c)perp .~ aN
ax b
a
Plane perpendicular to a
f
Co)
(a)
Figure R.13 (a) The distributive law for the addition of the components of two vectors normal to a third. (b) The distributive law of the vector product.
34
(a + f)) x ~ 
(a x 0 + (f) x O.
(R.30)
In summary, our vector product is bilinear, anticommutative, and distributive. With (R.29) and (R.30), we can now evaluate the vector product in component form. We have
bzk)
(R.31)
where the two distributive laws permitted us to rearrange (not shown) the nine crossproducts of unit vectors, and (R.27) permitted us to reduce those nine crossproducts to only six nonzero terms. The three apparently complex terms in (R.31) are related. Define the vector = ~i x [). On making the cyclic permutation (x, y, z) ~ (y, z, x), the dx (aybz  a~by) term multiplying i = ~ becomes the dy  (azbx  axbz) term multiplying } = 39; the dy  (azbx a~bz)^ term multiplying } = 39 becomes the d z  (axby.aybx) term multiplying k ~ ~; and the d z  ( a x b y  .aybx) term multiplying k = ~ becomes the dx  (aybz  azby) term multiplying i ~ ~. Equation (R.31) may be rewritten as a determinant; see Problem R10.15.
R.10o5
(R.32)
Here ax(aybz) is canceled by a y (  a x b z ) , and there are analogous cancellations for the other terms. In a similar way, we can show that i). (~ x 1))  0. Thus, as expected, 8 b is perpendicular to both ~ and [), even if ~, [), and ~ x l) are all rotated. Therefore the direction of 8 x f) rotates like a vector. We still must verify that the magnitude 18 x [)] satisfies (R.26), and thus doesn't change under rotations. With (R.31), (R. 12), and (R.23) we obtain (leaving out some algebra) 18 x i)l 2  (aybz  azby) 2 + (azbx  axbz) 2 + (a~by  aybx) 2 = (a 2 + ay 2 + a2z)(b2x + b 2 + b2z) _ (a~b~ + ayby + azbz) 2 = it~12]~)12_ 1a121~)12COS20it,[)
_ _
l~12l~)12sin 2 0a,[,.
(R.33)
Problems
35
This is in agreement with (R.26). Note that I~ x ~l doesn't change under rotations, because lal, I~1, and sin Oa,b don't change under rotations.
Vectorproduct
For 8 and ~) of (R.24), find 8 x ~) and 0.
Solution: Equation (R.33) applied to 8 and C) of (R.24) gives a x f ) ( 5 9 5 2 ,  9 7 1 2 ,  4 6 4 1 ) , so 18 x i)l 2 = 1.51288129 x 108 exactly, and 18 x/~l = 12,299.924 (to ridiculous accuracy). With lSI 25 and Ir)l 625, (R.26) yields I s i n 0 l  0.787, corresponding to 0 = +51.924 ~ or 0 = + 1 2 8 ~ This 0 is consistent with Example R.4, which used the scalar product.
Problems
R2.1 Describe how the ground wire serves to protect the drill operator in Figure R.2. R3.2 Sixyearold Charlie is playing in the living room with a batterypowered toy that uses six D cells. The power in the house goes out, and you want to borrow two cells for a flashlight. He complains that you will use up all the power and there won't be any left for his toy. What do you tell him?
R2.2 Electricpowered trains obtain their electricity from the socalled third rail, which is at a high ac voltage. Discuss the possibilities for what might happen if we step on the third rail, according to the material of our shoes, what we are touching with our hands or other foot, and so on.
R2.3 A 5 S2 resistor has end A at 5 V (VA = 5 V) and end B at 5 V (VB = 5 V). (a) Determine the current, the direction of the current flow, and the rate of heating. Repeat for (b) VA = 5 V, VB =  5 V; (c) VA= 5 V, VB = 0 V; (d) V A = 0 V, VB = 5 V; and (e) VA =  5 V, VB = 5 V.
R4.1 A voltaic cell is rated at 2 V. A slow discharge through a resistor involves a nearly constant current of 0.1 A, which suddenly stops after 80 minutes. Find: (a) the resistance of the resistor; (b) the rate of power dissipation; (c) the total power dissipated; and (d) the "charge" on the voltaic cell.
R4.2 A typical car battery is discharged through a resistor equal to its internal resistance. (a) Find the rate of heating of the car battery and the resistor. (b) Find how long it will take to produce 12 J in the resistor. (One joule equals a wattsecond, or J = Ws).
R2.4 Determine the electrical resistance and the current passing through a lightbulb rated at 60 W when it is connected to a 120 V power source. R2.5 Explain why, for purposes of electrical safety, if we are working with a circuit or equipment that could involve dangerously large voltages, it is prudent to wear insulated shoes, and to place one hand behind our back, and limit to the other hand our poking around at the connections.
R2.6 If the average current in a bolt of lightning is 120,000 A, and it lasts for 2 x 10 4 s, how much charge does the lightning bolt transfer?
R5.1 Frankie, a computer newbie, is using his computer at work. Suddenly the lights go out. He looks at his monitor, and it has gone dark. He calls the computer company's help desk. (a) Is this the appropriate response? (b) What would you tell him? (There is a story on the World Wide Web that something like this actually happened. The agent at the help desk was unable to provide assistance, until finally told that the lights also had gone out.)
R5.2 Give three examples of how electricity is used within a computer.
R3.1 Give some examples (beyond those mentioned in the text) of the uses of electrical power.
36
R6.1 Joan stands on an insulating platform and touches a disconnected and discharged electrostatic generator. The electrostatic generator is then connected and turned on. Her hair stands on end. Explain. R  6 . 2 Laura stands on ground and touches a connected and charged electrostatic generator. (a) Explain what happens next. (b) W h a t difference might it make if she were standing on an insulating platform? R  6 . 3 Discuss the following statement: a more accurate terminology than ac and dc would be dv and av (direct voltage and alternating voltage). R  6 . 4 W h e n two identical faucets are wide open, the m a x i m u m flow of water is double that for one faucet. Give an electrical analog. R  6 . 5 Sometimes we receive an electric shock when leaving a car, especially in dry weather. This can be avoided by getting up from one's seat while touching the outside surface of the car. Explain why.
R8.5 Describe the response of the other charge carriers to the insertion of a single charge carrier within (a) a glass beaker containing a salt solution, and (b) a piece of copper wire sitting on an insulating surface.
R  8 . 6 Describe where you think tl~e charges come from in each part of Figure R.9. R  8 . 7 For pure water, the individual water molecules undergo rapid random motion, due to thermal effects. (a) Is there random motion of the Na + and C1 ions (and the water molecules) in a solution of salt water? For a metal wire, the individual electrons are in large overlapping orbitals that permit electron motion more rapid than due to thermal effects. (b) For pure water, salt water, and a metal wire, discuss how a net fluid flow or net electric current (as appropriate) can come about by superimposing an average velocity on the random motions. R  8 . 8 In a lowhumidity room, we rub a comb through a piece of fur, and then separate them. Assume that, during the rubbing, the comb gains electrons and the fur loses electrons. Compare the rate at which the comb and the fur seem to lose charge if first we introduce water vapor near the comb, and then if we introduce water vapor near the fur. Think in terms of charge transfer of electrons, and the time it takes for water molecules to get from one place to another.
R6.6 When two identical hoses are connected to one another, the m a x i m u m flow of water is less than for one hose. Explain why, and give an electrical analog.
R9.1 Professor X believes in giving no partial credit because that way he gives students an incentive to get ideas completely correct. W h a t credit (full or none) would Professor X give if, on an exam, he asked students to write down Newton's second law of motion, and he saw the equation: (a) F = ma? (b) Fx = ma? (c) Fx = max? (d) The set of equations Fx = max, Fy = may, Fz = maz? (e) If a student didn't define F or a, but simply wrote F = ma, would Professor X give credit? (f) If a student explicitly defines F = IFI and a = lal, would Professor X give credit for F = ma? Hint: W h a t about directional information?
R  9 . 2 If right distributivity holds for an imaginary operation  and if a  l) = cl)  ~, where c is a number, find the possible values of c that make left distributivity hold. R  9 . 3 Show that (R.9) implies that the two equations in (R. 10) are equal so that if right distributivity is true, then left distributivity is true, and vice versa.
Problems
37
R9.4 Give a specific example of a vector 8 (ax, ay, az), and a specific rotation, to show that ~'  a~ is not a scalar under rotation. R9.5 Give a specific example of a vector 8 (ax, ay, az), and a specific rotation, to show that ~* (lax], [ay[, [a~l) is not a vector under rotation. R9.6 (a) Prove or disprove the statement la(b + c)l  labl + lacl for all real numbers. To disprove this statement, you need to find only a single counterexample; a million examples won't prove it. (b) Is it true for positive numbers only?
R10.5 (a) From the vector product applied to the unit vectors al,? at angles 01,2 to the xaxis, show that sin(02  01) = sin 02 cos 01  cos 02 sin 01. (b) Derive the sine addition law by letting 01 01. (c) Derive the cosine addition law by letting 01 ~ 0r/2  01) and using sin(zr/2  0) = cos0. R10.6 Derive the sine addition law by drawing two right triangles of angles c~ and g, with ~ measured counterclockwise from the xaxis and 15added counterclockwise to ~. See Figure R.14, where OP, of unit length, defines the spacial scale. Hint: First show that the vertical projections (AB and BC) are sin ~ cos g and cos c~sin ft.
P
R10.1 Define the  operator to produce a vec: tor a  ~) whose direction is given by the righthand rule, and whose magnitude is given by If  f)l = lallf)ll sin 20a,bl. (a) Show that its direction transforms under rotation like a vector. (b) Give an example showing that it is not distributive.
1t10.2 The zcomponent of ~i x i) is axby  aybx. This mathematical combination is antisymmetric. In 3d, the number of true vector components is 3 and the number of such antisymmetric combinations is 3. This equality was necessary to construct the vector product. (a) How many antisymmetric combinations are there in 2d? (b) In 4d? (c) Is it possible to use these antisymmetric combinations to produce a vector product in 2d? (d) In 4d? [Answers: (a) One. (b) Six. (c) No. (d) No.] R  1 0 . 3 Mr.(9man wants to sell us a scalar product that he claims is bilinear, commutative, and distributive. He tells us that the rule is ~ (9 ~)]~11~)1cos(20a, b). (a) Show that it is bilinear and commutative, and a scalar under rotations. However, it is not clear that this rule satisfies the right or left distributive law. (b) Using the set of vectors ~ = ~, ~) = ~+ ], and ~ =  ~ + ], test whether or not ~ (9 (~ + Q  ~ (9 ~) + 8 (9 ~. [Answer: ~ (9 (~) + ~_) =  2 , 8 (9 ~ = 0, and 8 (9 ~ = 0. Clearly, 8 (9 (b + ~) r (~ (9 ~)) + (d (9 ~). Sorry, Mr.(9man, your scalar product is not distributive! We're buying our scalar product from Mr.dotman.]
. . . . . . .
.~C
'A
R10.4 (a) From the scalar product in two dimensions, and with the unit vectors &,2 making angles 01,2 to the xaxis, show that cos(02  0 1 ) = cos 02 cos 01 + sin 02 sin 01. (b) Derive the cosine addition law by letting 01 + 01. (c) Derive the sine addition law by letting 01 ~ ( ~ r / 2  01) and using cos(rr/2  0) = sin 0.
R10.9 Rotate the vectors in the previous example about the zaxis so that 8 ~ 8' = (5, 0, 2). (a) Find the angle of rotation. (Note: Using 8. a' gives the angle of rotation about the direction of 8 x a', not the angle of rotation about z.) (b) Find the new vector ~)' by applying this angle of rotation to ~). (c) Find the new vector (~ x ~))' by applying this angle of rotation to ~ ~_x'~)"(d) Find a' x ~)'. (e) Compare (8 x ~))' and 8' x (f) Find la'l, If)'l, ta' x ~'1. (g) Find the angle between a' and i)'. (h) Do the
38
R10.17 A plane is a set of points ~ normal to some direction h and passing through a specific point F0. Show that (F  F0) 9h = 0. R10.18 Find the distance s from a point ~'  (x', y', z') to the plane of points ~ satisfying (r  r0)" h = 0, where ro  (xo, yo, zo) is a specific point in the plane, and h  (nx, ny, nz) is a unit vector normal to the plane. Hint: ~  ~o has a component along h whose value is s.
R  1 0 . 1 9 Given the plane ax + by + cz + d = O, find an F0 (it is not unique) and a direction h (unique up to a sign) that makes points in this plane satisfy ( r  r 0 ) " fi = 0 . Hint: Set x0 = y0 = O, and show that h is proportional to (a, b, c). ~  ( 3 ,  2 , 4) and ~' (3.2, 2.1, 3.8). (a) Determine d~ = ~ '  F. (b) With di  ids, where ds = IdOl, determine ds and $. (c) At ~, let the voltage be V = 4.2 volts, and let the electric field be E  ( 3 4 ,  1 5 , 56) volt/m. If d V =  E . . d  i gives the voltage change on moving by d~ to ~', estimate dV. (d) Estimate Vat~'.
1t10.11 The torque f on a magnetic dipole/~ in a magnetic field B is given by ~  / ~ x B. If/~ (  1 , 2, 0) Am 2, and B  (2,  1 , 5) N/Am, find ~. R  1 0 . 1 2 The veloci~ ~ in a q~ x B. If q = and B _= ( 2 ,  1 , force F on a charge q moving at magnetic field B is given by F 4.5 x 10 17 C, v = (6, 3, 1) m/s, 5) N/Am, find F.
R  1 0 . 1 3 The force on a length ds of a currentcarrying wire in a magnetic field B is given by d F = l d~ x/3, where I is the current and the directed length d~ points along I. If I = 2.4 A, d~ = (0, O, 0.002) m, and /3  ( 2 ,  1, 5) N / a  m , find d F.
R10.20 Let
R10.14 The magnetic field dB produced by a length ds (at source position F') of a currentcarrying wire at the observer position ~ is given by dB = k~ Ida" x / ~ / R 2 = k~ Id~ x R~ R 3, where km = 1.0 x I O7N/A 2, I is the current, the directed length d~"points along I, and R  ~" ~' points from the source Ida" at ~' to the observer at 7. If I = 2.4 A, d~  (0, 0, 0.002) m, ~  ( 0 . 5 ,  1.2, 1.4) m, and ~ '  (0.6, 0 . 8 ,  1 . 3 ) m, find dB. R10.15 Show that (R.31) is obtained by finding the determinant of a "matrix" where the first row is the set of unit vectors ~, ], and/~; the second row is the components a~, ay, and a~; and the third row is the components bx, by, and bz.